The International Journal
of Not-for-Profit Law

Volume 1, Issue 2, December 1998

A quarterly publication of the International Center for Not-for-Profit Law

Table of Contents

Letter from the Editor


Registration of Associations in Central and Eastern Europe and the Newly Indpendent States: A Survey
Rachel L. Holmes

The Case for Intermediate Sanctions
Milton Cerny

Voluntary Organizations in Europe: The European Convention on Human Rights
Erik Denters and Wino J.M. van Veen

Improving Civil Society in Hungary
Daniel Csanády

El Proyecto de Ley N. 4690/98 (Developing State - NGO Relations in Brazil)
Anna Cynthia Oliveira

NGO Legislation in Georgia
Vasha Salamadze


The Non-Profit Handbook (1997-1998 National Edition)
Reviewed by Karla Simon

Handbuch Stiftungen
Edited by Bertelsmann Stiftung

Case Notes

Trustees of Sahebzadi Oalia Kulsum Trust v Controller of Estate Duty [1998] 233 ITR 434

Revenue Commissioners v Sisters of Charity of the Incarnate Word

Gaudiya Mission v. Kamalaksha DAS Brahmachary

Country Reports

Asia Pacific:
Regional | Australia | China | India | Japan | Mongolia | Nepal | New Zealand | the Philippines | Thailand | Vietnam

Central and Eastern Europe:
Regional | Albania | Bosnia-Herzogovina | Bulgaria | Croatia | Czech Republic | Hungary | Latvia | Lithuania | Macedonia | Poland | Slovakia | Slovenia | Yugoslavia

Latin America and the Caribbean:
Argentina | Brazil | Ecuador | Puerto Rico | Venezuela

Middle East and North Africa:
Regional | Egypt | Jordan | Morocco

Newly Independent States:
Regional | Armenia | Azerbaijan | Belarus | Georgia | Kazakhstan | Kyrgyzstan | Moldova | Russia | Tajikistan | Turkmenistan | Ukraine | Uzbekistan

North America:
Canada | Mexico | the United States

Sub-Saharan Africa:
Regional | Ethiopia | Mauritius | South Africa

Western Europe:
Regional | England and United Kingdom | Finland | France | Germany | Republic of Ireland | Netherlands | Northern Ireland | Sweden | Turkey

International Developments:
UNESCO | Loccum Conference | Birmingham Conference

Self-Regulation Initiatives

United States - Overview of the Bishop Estate Controversy

United States - Maryland Association of Nonprofits Adopts "The Standards of Excellence"

International Grantmaking

Options for Increasing U.S. Support for Chinese Nonprofit Organizations
Robert A. Boisture

Grantmaking by Private Foundations in the International Arena
Thomas Chomicz

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Editorial Board

Subscription Information

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Country Reports: International Developments


The Intergovernmental Conference on Cultural Policies for Development was held in Stockholm, Sweden from 30 March to 2 April 1998. A draft plan for the rehabilitation of cultural rights and development was submitted to the conference by UNESCO.

The conference concluded with an action plan, which the conference requested UNESCO to bring to the attention of the United Nations General Assembly. The action plan comprises a series of policy recommendations to member states to adopt as part of 5 policy objectives:

The final objective includes a recommendation to devise and develop fiscal frameworks for cultural activities in order to promote business support for cultural development and to develop mechanisms such as public endowments and revenue-earning projects by cultural institutions, and the tourism and sport sectors.

Loccum Conference

In early December 1998 an international conference was held at the Evangleische Akademie in Loccum, Germany. Nestled in a rural area of Niedersachsen, close to the Steinhuder Meer, the quiet setting for the conference proved to be an ideal place to discuss the provocative topic: "Foundations and NGOs as Agents of Social Change." The conference was sponsored by CIVICUS, the Bertelsmann Foundation, the Foundation MITARBEIT, and the Akademie itself. Panels focused on the following topics:

In addition, 4 workshops were held, and the workshop leaders gave reports in the Plenary.

The Akademie will be publishing the proceedings of the conference as part of its regular program of publishing conference proceedings. For further information about the conference and the planned publication, please contact the Akademie at

Birmingham Conference

On 10-13 January, 1999, a conference was held at the University of Birmingham, England, which was co-organized by Dr. Michael Edwards, currently of the NGO Unit at the World Bank, Prof. David Hulme of the Institute for Development Policy Management of the University of Manchester, and Dr. Tina Wallace of the International Development Department of the University of Birmingham. The conference was entitled "NGOs in a Global Future," and it was attended by over 300 development professionals from around the world.

The principal focus of the conference was on papers presented on thirteen different tracks:

NGOs in a Future Without Aid, Capacity-Building, The Role of NGOs in Complex Political Emergencies, NGOs and Community Economic Development, Towards a Global Civil Society, Creating Social Capital, Engendering Organizations, Mobilizing Public Support for Development, Can Corporations be Civil?, Micro-Finance, Challenging Unequal Power Relationships, The Process Panel, and New Directions for Global Advocacy.

There were also poster sessions and plenary sessions on related topics.

It is expected that one or more books will be produced from the conference proceedings as well as a shorter document summarizing key conclusions. For further information about the conference and its outcomes, please contact Michael Edwards (, David Hulme (, or Tina Wallace (


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