The International Journal
of Not-for-Profit Law

Volume 2, Issue 3, March 2000

A quarterly publication of the International Center for Not-for-Profit Law

Table of Contents

Letter from the Editor


Introduction: "Codes of Conduct for Partnership in Governance: Texts and Commentaries"
By Tatsuro Kunugi and Martha Schweitz

On the Establishment of Social Organizations Under Chinese Law
By Ge Yunsong

Australia's Nonprofit Taxation Reforms
By Myles McGregor-Lowndes


Codes of Conduct for Partnerships in Governance: Text and Comments
Edited by Tatsuro Kunugi and Martha Schweitz
Reviewed by Catherine Shea

Case Notes

Central and Eastern Europe: Croatia | Poland | Serbia

Middle East and North Africa: Egypt

Newly Independent States: Azerbaijan

North America:
the United States

South Asia:

Country Reports

Asia Pacific:
| East Timor |
New Zealand
| the Philippines | Vietnam

Central and Eastern Europe: Regional | Kosovo | Romania

Latin America:
Regional | Belize | Brazil | Venezuela

Newly Independent States:
Russia | Ukraine

Middles East and North Africa: Sudan

North America:
| Mexico |
the United States

South Asia:

Sub-Saharan Africa:
Cameroon | Kenya |
Sierra Leone
| South Africa | Tanzania | Zimbabwe

Western Europe:
France | Germany |
the United Kingdom

Self Governance

Law and Governance-- A Lesson in Limits
By Leon Irish and Karla Simon

Trends in Self-Regulation and Transparency of Nonprofits in the U.S.
By Robert O. Bothwell

The Role of Governing Boards in Fostering Accountability
By Crispin Gregoire

Financial Implications Affecting Nonprofit Nongovernmental Organizations Today
By Michael A. Freedman

International Grantmaking

Grantmaking by U.S. Foundations in Canada: A Canadian Lawyer Provides a Plain Language Primer
By Blake Bromley

Community Philanthropy

Community Philanthropy Initiative of the European Foundation Centre

Transatlantic Community Foundation Network

New Website


General | Brazil | Kenya | Russia

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Editorial Board

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Codes of Conduct for Partnerships in Governance: Text and Comments (Provisional Version Presented to the World Civil Society Conference: Building Global Governance Partnerships)

Edited By Tatsuro Kunugi and Martha Schweitz
Published by The United Nations University, 1999  

Reviewed by Catherine Shea, Consultant to ICNL

Codes of Conduct for Partnerships in Governance, first presented to the World Civil Society Conference in December, 1999 in Montreal, is a significant contribution to the literature regarding self-regulation by various actors in international governance. The book for the first time compiles codes of conduct that have been produced as a result of partnerships between organizations that play key roles in governance in civil society (e.g., government and non-governmental organizations.) This work will undoubtedly prove to be an important resource for drafters, regulators, and students of self-regulation.

The editors present thematically, based on, among other things, the sources of the partnerships, excerpts from codes of conduct. The book is organized into seven parts, as follows:

  1. NGO Self-regulation
  2. National Law: Perspectives on Legal Regulation of NGOs
  3. Business: Codes and Principles by and for the Business Sector
  4. United Nations and Civil Society
  5. United Nations Conferences
  6. Codes for Specialized Activities (e.g., arms transfer, infant nutrition)
  7. Global Framework Documents

Each section contains codes dealing with that subject matter. Most of the codes in addition are preceded by a commentary prepared by someone knowledgeable about the drafting of the particular code. These commentaries are exceedingly helpful, in that they provide insight into the factors that motivate various actors in civil society to self-regulate, the processes for drafting the codes and gaining support for them, and in some cases, how they have been implemented.

For those interested in efforts by nongovernmental organizations to provide for governance of their sector, the first chapter, on NGO self-regulation, and the second, on legal regulation, are particularly good resources. The first chapter aims to provide a comprehensive collection of codes adopted by NGO sectors in various countries on a national level. It in addition includes regional and transregional codes from, e.g., Africa, Eastern Europe, and various Commonwealth countries, as well as specialized codes for fundraising, humanitarian relief, and other organizations. In addition, the book offers several documents providing guidelines for drafting codes. Chapter II contains several perspectives on the role of law in promoting civil society organizations.

In these sections, and throughout the book, one theme that emerges is the increasingly important role played by NGOs as actors influencing governance not only in their own sector but also in others – government, business, and multilateral organizations. The book’s goal of exploring the nature of the partnerships among these sectors in promoting principles of governance for the various sectors is a salutary one, and further analysis of these relationships will hopefully emerge in the final publication.

As noted, this work is in provisional form; the final publication will apparently reflect comments by participants in the Civil Society Conference, and according to the editors’ introduction analytical chapters addressing some of the major themes presented by the source documents.


Copyright 2008 The International Center for Not-for-Profit Law (ICNL)
ISSN: 1556-5157