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The International Journal
of Not-for-Profit Law

Volume 6, Issue 1, September 2003

A publication of the International Center for Not-for-Profit Law

Table of Contents

Letter from the Editor

Religion and NGOs

Introductory Letter from the Guest Editors
W. Cole Durham, Jr. and Elizabeth A. Sewell

A Bend in the Road to Civil Society: The Effect of Russian Anti-Extremism Legislation on Not-for-Profit Organizations
Brian Gross

A Practical Comparison of the Laws of Religion of Colombia and Chile
Scott E. Isaacson

Faith-Based NGOs in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Mojca Leban

Refah Partisi (The Welfare Party) and Others v. Turkey
Christian Moe

The Impact of the New Czech Law on Churches
Petr Pajas

Comments on the 2002 Belarusian Law "On the Introduction of Changes and Amendments to the Law of the Republic of Belarus 'On Religious Freedom and Religious Organizations'"
Melinda R. Porter

Russian Federation Constitutional Court Decisions on Russia's 1997 Law "On Freedom of Conscience and Religious Associations"
Marina Thomas

God and Caesar: Personal Reflections on Politics and Religion
Shirley Williams


Should Foundations Exist in Perpetuity?
Robert O. Bothwell

The Prohibition of Nigerian Civil Servants From Political Activities: A Necessary Derogation from Freedom of Association
Emeka Iheme

The Charity/Business Duet: Harmony or Discord?
Andrew Phillips (Lord Phillips of Sudbury)

From Benin to Baltimore: Civil Society and Its Limits
Sally J. Scott, Ph.D.


Global Civil Society: An Overview
By Lester M. Salamon, S. Wojciech Sokolowski, and Regina List
Reviewed by Jonathan Nelms

The Changing and Unchanging Face of U.S. Civil Society
By Marcella Ridlen Ray

Civil Society: The American Model and Third World Development
By Howard J. Wiarda

Freedom in the World 2003: The Annual Survey of Political Rights and Civil Liberties
By Freedom House

Religion Returns to the Public Square: Faith and Policy in America
Edited by Hugh Heclo and Wilfred M. McClay

The State of Nonprofit America
Edited by Lester M. Salamon

Terrorism and Development: Using Social and Economic Development to Inhibit a Resurgence of Terrorism
By Kim Cragin and Peter Chalk

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Editorial Board

Global Civil Society: An Overview

By Lester M. Salamon, S. Wojciech Sokolowski, and Regina List
Baltimore, Maryland, USA: Johns Hopkins Center for Civil Society Studies, 2003. $12
Reviewed by Jonathan Nelms*

A publication of the Johns Hopkins Comparative Nonprofit Sector Project, Global Civil Society: An Overview seeks to introduce the reader to the worldwide civil society sector, that gray area between the market and the state that combines cultural centers, healthcare providers, universities, environmental groups, human rights organizations, soccer clubs, soup kitchens, and much more. The book's ambitious mission is made difficult not only by the enormousness of the sector, but by the seemingly contradictory impulses that the sector aims to serve: the desire of participants to act independently in order to better their own lives, and the knowledge that improving the greater community is often the only way that they can improve their individual situations.  

The authors begin with a broad definition. Under their "structural-operational definition," a civil-sector organization is an entity that is private, not-for-profit in orientation, self-governing, and voluntary in nature (employees of civil-sector organizations may be paid, of course, but participation or membership must not be mandatory). 

Next, the authors examine civil society efforts in developing, developed, and transitional countries. They find that the worldwide civil sector amounts to a $1.3 trillion industry that employs nearly 40 million people; if it were a country, it would have the seventh-largest GDP in the world. Further breakdowns note differences in how civil-sector organizations are funded, how extensively they rely on professional staffs as opposed to volunteers, and how NGOs in a given region are split between those that provide services and those that perform purely expressive functions. The book examines the sector in a variety of sociopolitical clusters, regional groupings, and developmental levels, and thereby illustrates how much civil society organizations differ even as they pursue the common goal of getting more people involved in their communities.

The Overview does an excellent job of introducing the sector and its diversity, especially to the newcomer. For the expert, the Overview is just that--an overview of a far broader and deeper study, which is ongoing at Johns Hopkins. Readers who know what they are looking for may do well to skim the Overview and proceed to the project's online resources. The planned second volume of Global Civil Society: Dimensions of the Nonprofit Sector, with this Overview as an introductory chapter, will cover the civil society sector in each of the thirty-five countries in greater depth. The full work will be released in December 2003. 

* Jonathan Nelms is a second-year student at the Georgetown University Law Center.  He is currently serving as an intern at the International Center for Not-for-Profit Law.


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