COVID-19 Civic Freedom Tracker

Keep Civic Space Healthy

This tracker monitors government responses to the pandemic that affect civic freedoms and human rights, focusing on emergency laws. For information about our methodology, click here.

For more information and analysis by region, click here.

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The COVID-19 Civic Freedom Tracker is a collaborative effort by the ICNL, ECNL, and our global network of partners, with generous research support from the UN Special Rapporteur on the promotion and protection of human rights and fundamental freedoms while countering terrorism, Fionnuala D. Ní Aoláin. This is an ongoing effort, and we welcome you to email us at epage@icnl.org and simona@ecnl.org to share additional resources.


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Albania

Normative Act

The normative act, issued by the government without parliamentary approval per Article 101 of Albania's Constitution, provides for fines to be levied on anyone who violates measures to contain the coronavirus. Among other provisions, participating in or organizing a political, social, or cultural gathering is subject to a fine of 5 million lek (40,000 Euros). (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 15 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly
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Albania

Military Enforcement of Curfew

Albania’s government deployed the army to enforce a strict 40-hour curfew aimed at stopping the spread of coronavirus. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: practice
Date Introduced: 21 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Militarization
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Algeria

Law 20-06 Amending the Penal Code

The amendments increase prison sentences for defamation, and introduce new penalties including prison sentences for the dissemination of false information. Under the amendments, new offenders face prison sentences of between one and three years. In addition, penalties are heightened if the offence takes place “at a time of a public health lockdown or a natural, biological or technological catastrophe or any other form of catastrophe,” with first time offenders facing up to five years in prison. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: law
Date Introduced: 29 Apr 2020
Issue(s): Disinformation, Expression
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Algeria

Ban on Public Gatherings

President Abdelmadjid Tebboune bans all protests, marches, demonstrations, and other mass gatherings, due to the coronavirus epidemic. His order also closes all public spaces suspected of being a hub for the virus. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 17 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly
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Angola

Decree No. 82/20 on a State of Exception to Prevent and Control the Covid-19 Pandemic

The presidential decree declares a nationwide "state of exception." The decree grants the government power to limit individuals' freedom of movement and assembly, requisition private property, and forcibly confine people deemed likely to transmit COVID-19. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 27 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency, Movement
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Argentina

No. 297 of 2020 on Preventative and Mandatory Social Isolation

The decree mandates that all individuals self-isolate at their homes with minimal exceptions, in order to combat the spread of the coronavirus. The decree also prohibits gatherings of persons for any reason. According to the decree, the Ministry of Security will place permanent controls on public roads and routes as it deems necessary to limit movement and enforce compliance. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 19 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Movement
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Argentina

Decree No. 298 on the Suspension of Administrative Deadlines

The decree suspends the usual deadlines for administrative processes regulated by the National Administrative Procedures Act No. 19.549, including the processing of requests for public information. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 19 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Access to Information
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Argentina

Decree No. 260 Declaring a Public Health Emergency

Declares a one-year "public health emergency" under Law No. 27,541, due to the pandemic. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 12 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Emergency
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Argentina

"Cyber Patrols" of Social Media by the Ministry of Security

The Security Minister, Sabina Frederic, stated in a video conference that security forces are carrying out "cyber patrols" on social networks. In an effort to monitor "social humor" and curb misinformation about the coronavirus, the cyber patrols have resulted in at least 12 criminal cases against individuals accused of "public intimidation," a crime punishable by up to six years in prison. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: practice
Date Introduced: 8 Apr 2020
Issue(s): Disinformation, Surveillance, Expression, Privacy
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Armenia

Amendments to Law on the Legal Regime of the State of Emergency, and the Law on Electronics Communication

The amendments give authorities broad powers to use cellphone data for tracking coronavirus cases. Under the amended laws, telecommunications companies are required to provide the government with customers' phone records, including the location, time, and date of their calls and text messages. The authorities would use that data to identify, isolate, and surveil anyone infected with COVID-19 or those who had been in close contact with infected people. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: law
Date Introduced: 31 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Surveillance, Privacy
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Armenia

No. 298-N Declaring a State of Emergency

The decree declares a "state of emergency" to respond to the novel coronavirus, and provides for the suspension of certain constitutional rights and freedoms, including freedom of movement and freedom of peaceful assembly. The decree prohibits public gatherings of more than 20 persons. The decree also provides that any dissemination of information, including online, that refers to the coronavirus or activities carried out by health authorities, may only refer to information provided by a special emergency office under the Prime Minister of Armenia. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 16 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency, Expression, Access to Information, Movement
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Aruba

General Regulations on Combating COVID19

The regulations impose a nightly curfew from 9pm to 6am. All non-essential groups are under a shelter-in-place order, and gatherings of 4 or more people are prohibited. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: regulation
Date Introduced: 31 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Movement
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Australia

Emergency Management Amendment (COVID-19 Response) Act

The act amends Western Australia's Emergency Management Act of 2005, allowing the government to install surveillance devices in homes and direct people to wear monitoring devices, in order to ensure that those required to isolate during the coronavirus crisis do not interact with the community. Persons who fail to comply are subject to a $12,000 fine or up to a year of imprisonment. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: law
Date Introduced: 3 Apr 2020
Issue(s): Surveillance, Privacy
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Australia

Public Health (COVID-19 Restrictions on Gathering and Movement) Order 2020

The order by New South Wales requires individuals to stay in their place of residence absence a reasonable excuse, and prohibits public gatherings of more than two people. Exceptions include gatherings of members of the same household, and gatherings essential for work or education. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 30 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Movement
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Australia

Direction under Section 16 of the Public Health Act 1997

The order declares a "state of emergency" in Tasmania and among other things prohibits all gatherings of three or more people, with limited exceptions, in order to combat the spread of Covid-19. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 30 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency
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Australia

Biosecurity (Human Biosecurity Emergency) (Human Coronavirus with Pandemic Potential) Declaration 2020

The Governor-General declares a "human biosecurity emergency," on account of the coronavirus. The declaration gives the Minister for Health expansive powers to issue directions and set requirements in order to combat the outbreak. The declaration was issued under Article 475 of the Biosecurity Act 2015, the first time these powers under the Act have been used. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 18 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Emergency
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Australia

State of Emergency

The Premier and Minister of Health declare a 4-week "state of emergency" in the state of Victoria, to combat Covid-19. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 16 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Emergency
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Australia

State of Emergency

The Minister of Emergency Services declares a "state of emergency" in Western Australia, on account of Covid-19. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 15 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Emergency
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Australia

Emergency Management (Gatherings) (COVID-19) Direction 2020

The order by South Australia's government prohibits gatherings of more than 10 persons, or fewer than 10 if social distance is not maintained. The prohibition applies to public and private, indoor and outdoor spaces, and includes limited exceptions for essential businesses and health care facilities, among others. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 2 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly
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Australia

State of Public Health Emergency

The Premier of Queensland declares a "public health emergency." (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 29 Jan 2020
Issue(s): Emergency
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Austria

COVID-19 Measures Act

The the law enables the Government to prohibit access to public places places insofar as this is necessary to prevent the spread of COVID-19. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: law
Date Introduced: 16 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Movement
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Austria

Order of the Federal Minister for Social Affairs, Health, Nursing and Consumer Protection i

The order, issued under Section 2 of the COVID-19 Measures Act, prohibits people from entering public spaces. Exceptions include activities with the purpose of averting immediate danger to life, limb, or property; caring for or supporting vulnerable people; meeting necessary basic needs of daily life or fulfilling work responsibilities; and walking pets. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 16 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Movement
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Austria

Measures Against the Convergence of Large Crowds

The decree, issued under Section 15 of the Epidemics Act of 1950, instructs local health authorities to issue regulations that prohibit all large gatherings of 500 people or more outside or 100 people or more inside. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 10 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly
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Azerbaijan

Amendments to the Law on Information

The amendments prohibit the publication online of "false information threatening to cause damage to human life and health… or other socially dangerous consequences." (See primary source or citation here)

Type: law
Date Introduced: 17 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Disinformation, Expression
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Azerbaijan

Amendments to the Criminal Code

The amendments increase the penalties for violations of sanitary, hygiene, and quarantine regimes. Under the amended criminal code, violations of the epidemic-related rules that threaten to spread disease may be punished by 3 years’ imprisonment or a fine of 2,500-5,000 Manat (US$1,500-3,000). (See primary source or citation here)

Type: law
Date Introduced: 17 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Movement
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Azerbaijan

Decision of the Cabinet of Ministers No. 124 of 2020

The decision introduces an SMS notification system to control individuals' movement. In order to leave their place of residence, persons must send an SMS with their identity information and reason for leaving. A person may leave only after receiving a positive response from the e-Government information system. The response will also indicate the amount of time a person is permitted to be outside of their residence.

Type: order
Date Introduced: 2 Apr 2020
Issue(s): Surveillance, Privacy, Movement
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Azerbaijan

Operational Headquarters under the Cabinet of Ministers on Additional Measures Related to Coronavirus

The order restricts inter-district and inter-city traffic except for the movement of special purpose vehicles. The order also restricts access to all boulevards, parks and recreation areas, and suspends the in-person services of all commercial establishments, except supermarkets, grocery stores and pharmacies. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 29 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Movement
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Azerbaijan

Declaration of Special Quarantine Regime

The order prohibits the assembly of more than 10 persons in public places. Persons over the age of 65 are also prohibited from leaving their homes.

(See primary source or citation here)
Type: order
Date Introduced: 24 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Movement
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Bahamas, The

Emergency Powers (COVID 19) Order No. 1 of 2020

The Prime Minister's order imposes a nightly curfew from 9pm to 5am, and prohibits most public and private gatherings. Violations are punishable by up to $10,000 and 18 months in prison. The order is in place for an initial 11 days. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 20 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Movement
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Bahrain

COVID-19 Contact Tracing App Raises Privacy Concerns

Bahrain's BeAware app captures users' movements in real time and uploads those movements to a centralized government database. The app requires that users register with their national ID. It pairs with a Bluetooth bracelet that is mandatory for all individuals under quarantine and that will notify a monitoring station when those individuals are 15 metres away from their phone. Location data and additional diagnostic information from the Bluetooth bracelet are frequently sent to a central server. Additionally, the Ministry of Health may randomly request pictures from self-isolating individuals, who must send back a photo proving they are wearing the bracelet. Violators will face legal penalties as per the 2018 Public Health Law No. 34, potentially being sentenced to imprisonment for a period not less than 3 months and/or a fine between BD1,000 and BD10,000 ($2,600-$26,000). (See primary source or citation here)

Type: practice
Date Introduced: 4 Apr 2020
Issue(s): Surveillance, Privacy
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Bangladesh

Under the pretense of preventing the spread of COVID-19 in the city of Cox's Bazar, the government of Bangladesh has intercepted and detained boats carrying hundreds of Rohingya refugees fleeing an ethnically targeted military crackdown in Myanmar. The refugees have been relocated to an uninhabited island off of Bangladesh's southern coast. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: practice
Date Introduced: 7 May 2020
Issue(s): Discrimination, Movement
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Belarus

Resolution of the Council of Ministers No. 208

The resolution restricts individuals in self-isolation from leaving their home, with the exception of visiting the nearest grocery store or pharmacy. If leaving the home for those purposes, individuals in self-isolation are required to wear a mask and prevent contact with others. Violations of the self-isolation requirements are punishable by law. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 9 Apr 2020
Issue(s): Movement
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Belgium

State of Emergency

The federal government declares a "state of emergency" on account of the coronavirus, and bans gatherings of more than two people. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 12 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency
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Belize

State of Emergency

The prime minister declares a national "state of emergency" on account of the coronavirus pandemic. The state of emergency will be in place from April 1 through April 30. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 30 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Emergency
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Belize

Belize Constitution (Emergency Powers) Regulation 2020

The regulation imposes a curfew from 8pm to 5am. Only essential travel is permitted outside of curfew hours, and persons may not loiter, wander, assemble, or otherwise move in any public place and on any public road. Violations are punishable by a fine of $5,000.00 or imprisonment for 2 years. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: regulation
Date Introduced: 1 Apr 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Movement
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Benin

Temporary Quarantine

The decree imposes a temporary quarantine, until April 12, around most cities affected by the virus. People within these cities will only be allowed to move for essential reasons (health, food supply). People are advised to minimize their movements within the country. Gatherings of 10 or more people are prohibited. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 30 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Movement
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Benin

COVID-19 Health Cordon

The Government of Benin establishes a health cordon around 15 municipalities in order to isolate them and contain the spread of COVID-19. Travel in and out of the health cordon zone is prohibited except for emergencies. Within the cordon zone, public transportation is suspended and taxis and motorcycle taxis must abide by strict passenger limits. Bars and nightclubs are closed, gatherings of more than 10 people are banned, and people are required to practice social distancing and wear face masks at all times in public.  (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 30 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Movement
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Benin

Prohibiting Non-Essential Gatherings

The decree prohibits non-essential gatherings indefinitely, and imposes a mandatory quarantine for 14 days of those arriving into the country. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 17 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly
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Bolivia

Supreme Decree No. 4200

The decree extends the nationwide lockdown and stipulates additional measures. The Decree prohibits gatherings, and allows one person per residence at a time to leave to acquire essential items. Persons are allowed to leave their residence only during prescribed days and times, as determined by the last digit of their ID number. The Decree also establishes penalities for persons who incite non-compliance, misinform, or cause uncertainty among the population. Violators will be subject to criminal charges for crimes against public health, and can face one to ten years in prison if convicted. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 26 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Disinformation, Expression, Movement
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Bolivia

Decree No. 4196 Declaring a State of Emergency

The decree declares a "national health emergency" and quarantine throughout Bolivia, due to the presence of the coronavirus. The decree imposes a curfew from 5pm to 5am, with limited exceptions for law enforcement, health workers, and other essential service providers. The decree prohibits all gatherings of people, with no exceptions, and closes Bolivia's borders.

Type: order
Date Introduced: 17 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Emergency, Movement
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Bolivia

Decree No. 4192 on Prevention and Containment Measures

Among other things, the decree prohibits gatherings of more than 100 persons and imposes a curfew from 5pm to 5am, to combat the spread of coronavirus. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 16 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Movement
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Bosnia and Herzegovina

Order of the Federal Headquarters for Civic Protection No. 12-40-6-148-36/1

The order establishes a curfew from 8pm to 5am. Citizens in public spaces are required to abide by protective measures and keep more than 1.5 meters apart from others. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 29 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Movement
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Bosnia and Herzegovina

Order No.12-40-6-148-40/20 of Federal Headquarters for Civic Protection

The order prohibits two or more individuals from moving and standing together in outdoor spaces, and requires 1.5 meters of distance between individuals, on account of Covid-19. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 22 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly
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Bosnia and Herzegovina

Conclusion of the Emergency Headquarters to Limit and Ban Movement of Persons on the Territory of Republika Srpska No. 05-1/20

The order establishes a curfew from 8pm to 5am in the Republic of Srpska, and places a ban on the movement of people older than 65. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 21 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Movement
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Bosnia and Herzegovina

Order of the Federal Headquarters for Civic Protection No. 12-40-6-148-34/20

The order bans the movement of citizens younger than 18 and older than 65. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 20 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Movement
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Bosnia and Herzegovina

Decree on False News

The government of the Republika Srpska issued a decree that forbids causing “panic and disorder” by publishing or transmitting false news during a state of emergency. Individuals found in violation of the decree will be fined between 1,000 and 3,000 Bosnian marks (approximately 500-1,500 Euros). Organizations face a fine of between 3,000 and 9,000 marks (1,500-4,500 Euros). (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 19 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Disinformation, Expression
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Bosnia and Herzegovina

State of Disaster

The Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina declared a "state of natural disaster" over the new coronavirus, to enable coordination of emergency activities between its two autonomous regions. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 17 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Emergency
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Bosnia and Herzegovina

State of Emergency

The order declares a "state of emergency" in Republic of Srpska. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 4 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Emergency
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Botswana

State of Emergency

President Masisi announces a "state of emergency" under Section 17 of the Constitution of Botswana. The state of emergency is effective from midnight on April 2 until further notice. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 31 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Emergency
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Botswana

No. 30 of 2020 on Public Health (Declaration of Public Health Emergency)

The order declares a "public health emergency," and among other things suspends gatherings of more than 100 people. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 20 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency
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Botswana

General Notice No. 128 on Directions for the Prevention of the Spread of COVID-19

Issued under the terms of the Public Health Act, the directions from the Director of Public Health Services restrict movement in and out of the country. The Directions also prohibit gatherings of more than 10 people indefinitely. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 20 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Movement
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Botswana

Emergency (COVID-19) (Amendment) No. 2 Regulations

The regulations empower the Chief Justice to suspend any operations of procedures and timelines in the judiciary's rules. The Chief Justice may also issue directions relating to detention, bail, remand and "take any measures" aimed at addressing or preventing the spread of Covid-19. The regulations further suspend the right to strike and lockout. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: regulation
Date Introduced: 9 Apr 2020
Issue(s): Assembly
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Botswana

SI 61 of 2020, Emergency Powers (Covid 19) Regulations

The regulations declare a nationwide lockdown and curfew from 8pm to 8am. Violations are punishable by a fine and up to six months' imprisonment. The regulations prohibit gatherings of more than 2 persons, and close all schools and churches. Persons are prohibited from relaying any information to the public about COVID-19 from a source other than the Director of Health Services and the WHO. Persons are also prohibited from publishing any statement with the intention to deceive any other person about COVID-19. Violators face a fine of up to 100,000 Pula ($8,100), imprisonment for up to five years, or both. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: regulation
Date Introduced: 2 Apr 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Disinformation, Expression, Movement
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Brazil

Provisional Measure No. 928

The measure amends Law No. 13,979 of February 6, 2020, which provides measures to address the public health emergency caused by coronavirus. Government officials are not required to answer any freedom of information requests during the state of calamity if the server hosting the information is quarantined or inaccessible while working remotely. The measure also gives priority to information requests related to the public health emergency. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 23 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Access to Information
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Brazil

State of Emergency

Declares a national "state of emergency" on account of the coronavirus pandemic. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 20 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Emergency
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Brazil

Withholding C19 Data

The Brazilian government stopped releasing its total numbers of COVID-19 cases and deaths, and removed large amounts of COVID-19 data from an official site, allegedly under an order by President Bolsonaro. On June 5, Brazil’s government stopped releasing the cumulative numbers of confirmed COVID-19 cases and obituaries in its daily bulletin and only supplied daily numbers. A health ministry site was taken offline and returned on June 6 without the total number of deaths and confirmed cases, as well as numbers of cases under investigation and those that recovered. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: practice
Date Introduced: 23 Jun 2020
Issue(s): Access to Information
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Brazil

Employing Geolocation to Enforce COVID-19 Restrictions

The Brazilian city of Recife has partnered with a geolocation company to create a platform that tracks the locations of 800,000 people, based on their smartphones. City authorities use the information to track and identify individuals who violate quarantine and lockdown measures. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: practice
Date Introduced: 28 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Surveillance, Privacy
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Brunei

Prohibition on Mass Gatherings

In order to prevent spread of the virus, Brunei's Ministry of Health

banned "mass gatherings," whether organized or spontaneous, including sporting events, weddings, and get-togethers involving large crowds. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 13 May 2020
Issue(s): Assembly
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Bulgaria

Law on Measures and Actions in the State of Emergency

The law among other things prohibits non-essential travel within and outside the country, in order to combat the spread of coronavirus. The law also provides that if individuals violate their quarantine, their mobile phone data may be subject to surveillance. As originally proposed, the law included criminal sanctions for spreading false information about contagious diseases, however this provision was removed before the law's adoption. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: law
Date Introduced: 23 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Emergency, Surveillance, Privacy, Movement
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Bulgaria

Penal Code Amendments

The law amends Article 255 of Bulgaria's Penal Code to significantly increase the penalty for violating quarantine regulations or other orders related to preventing the spread of contagious disease - from a 300 BGN fine (150 EUR) to three years in prison. If the violation is committed during an epidemic, the amendments increase the penalty from one year to up to five years in prison and a 50,000 BGN fine (25,000 EUR). (See primary source or citation here)

Type: law
Date Introduced: 14 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Movement
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Bulgaria

State of Emergency

The parliamentary decision declares a "state of emergency" for one month, on account of the coronavirus. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: law
Date Introduced: 13 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Emergency
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Bulgaria

Order of the Minister of Healthcare

The order prohibits persons under 60 from visiting shops or pharmacies between 8:30am and 10:30am. Visits to parks and playgrounds are prohibited, except for walking dogs. The order also limits travel, and allows the government to check the purposes of individuals' travel at established check points. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 20 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Movement
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Burkina Faso

State of Sanitary Emergency

The Burkinabe ministerial board declares a "state of sanitary emergency," per Article 66 of Law No. 23/94 on the Public Health Code, and imposes a quarantine in numerous cities where cases of coronavirus have been confirmed as of March 27. It is unclear how long the quarantine will remain in effect. These new measures have been implemented amid a nationwide overnight curfew, ongoing between 7pm to 5am local time since March 21, until further notice. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: law
Date Introduced: 27 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Emergency, Movement
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Burkina Faso

State of Health Alert

The Council of Ministers orders a quarantine of the capital Ouagadougou and its surrounding areas. The order prohibits all gatherings in these areas, and travel in and out of these areas is restricted. These new measures have been implemented amid a nationwide curfew from 7pm to 5am. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 27 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Movement
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Burkina Faso

Ban on Public Gatherings

Authorities prohibit all demonstrations and public gatherings until at least April 30. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 12 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly
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Cambodia

Law on National Management in the State of Emergency

The law provides the government with broad new powers during a state of emergency. These include: banning meetings and gatherings; restricting people from leaving their homes; mobilizing military forces; surveilling telecommunications "by any means"; banning or restricting news media that may harm "national security" or create confusion about the state of emergency; and other measures that are "suitable and necessary" to respond to the emergency. "Obstructing" the state's response to the emergency, or noncompliance with the response in a way that creates "public chaos," is punishable by up to 5 years in jail and a fine of up to 5 million riels ($1,200). Organizations found culpable of these offenses may be fined up to 1 billion riels ($247,000). (See primary source or citation here)

Type: law
Date Introduced: 10 Apr 2020
Issue(s): Association, Assembly, Emergency, Surveillance, Press Freedom, Expression, Privacy, Access to Information, Movement, Militarization
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Cambodia

Arrests and Criminal Penalties for "Fake News"

According to police spokespeople, more than 40 people have been arrested for spreading coronavirus-related "fake news." A number of those arrested are affiliated with the dissolved opposition party, the Cambodia National Rescue Party. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: practice
Date Introduced: 16 Apr 2020
Issue(s): Disinformation, Expression
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Cameroon

Government Response Strategy to the Coronavirus Pandemic (Covid-19)

The order among other things indefinitely closes all land, air, and sea borders and suspends entry visas to Cameroon; closes private and public schools; prohibits gatherings of more than 50 people; and provides that private health facilities, hotels, other lodging facilities, vehicles, and specific equipment may be requisitioned as necessary for implementation of the response plan. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 18 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Movement
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Canada

Declaration of an Emergency to Protect the Public

The executive order by the government of Ontario declares an emergency under Section 7.0.1(1) the Emergency Management and Civil Protection Act. Among other things, the order prohibits gatherings of 50 or more people. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 27 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency
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Cape Verde

State of Emergency and Curfew

The government declares a nationwide "state of emergency" until April 17, on account of the coronavirus. Measures to be taken include instructing all individuals to remain at home with limited exceptions for essential activities and health care. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 1 Apr 2020
Issue(s): Emergency, Movement
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Chad

Decree No. 379/PR/2020

The decree announces a state of emergency in select provinces of Chad. The decree empowers local civil and military authorities to prohibit the movement of people and vehicles; to establish protection zones where people are "regulated"; to temporarily close performance halls, bars and meeting areas; to ban meetings "likely to provoke disturbances of public order"; to order nightly home searches; to collect all weapons; to take all measures to ensure control of the press and publications of all types of radio and television broadcasts; and to make arrests. Per the order, this expansion of local authorities' powers ends with the end of the state of emergency. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 26 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency, Press Freedom, Expression, Privacy, Access to Information, Movement, Militarization
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Chile

State of Catastrophe

The decree provides for the "constitutional exception" of a "state of catastrophe" for three months, due to the coronavirus. The decree allows the President to take further measures including imposing restrictions on gatherings in public spaces, establishing quarantines or curfews, and limiting individuals' movement. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 18 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency, Movement
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China

Opinions on Strictly Punishing Violations and Crimes that Obstruct the Control of the Coronavirus Epidemic

The Supreme People’s Court, the Supreme People’s Procuratorate, the Ministry of Public Security, and the Ministry of Justice jointly issued COVID-19 judicial opinions to clarify standards in the application provisions of PRC's criminal law. According to the opinions, the commission of certain crimes during the period of epidemic prevention and control may be subject to heavier punishment. Notably, the opinions call to "strictly punish crimes of fabricating or spreading rumors in accordance with law," and criminalize a variety of types of dissemination of "false" information on information networks. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 10 Feb 2020
Issue(s): Disinformation, Expression
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China

Lockdowns in Hubei Province

On January 23, the central government imposed travel lockdowns on Wuhan and nearby cities in Hubei province, effectively confining an estimated 56 million people. Wuhan authorities also suspended all vehicle traffic, with limited exceptions, in the city center. Many residents in Wuhan expressed difficulties about access to medical care and other life necessities. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: policy
Date Introduced: 23 Jan 2020
Issue(s): Movement
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China

Mandatory Phone App Shares Data with Police

Citizens in hundreds of Chinese cities are required to install software on their smartphones that determines whether they should be quarantined or allowed into public places, based on their personal information and details of recent travel. The software tracks users' location and appears to shares data with the police. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: practice
Date Introduced: 1 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Surveillance, Privacy
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Colombia

Decree No. 491 Instructions Given Under the Health Emergency Generated by the Covid-19 Pandemic

Presidential decree No. 491 increases the permissible time for the government to respond to freedom of information requests, to 30 days. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 28 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Access to Information
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Colombia

No. 457 Instructions Given Under the Health Emergency Generated by the COVID-19 Pandemic

The presidential decree establishes mandatory, preventive isolation measures for 21 days, unless extended. The decree strictly limits individuals' freedom of movement. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 22 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Movement
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Colombia

Resolution No. 385 Declaring a Health Emergency

The resolution declares a "health emergency" throughout the country until May 30, on account of the coronavirus. Among other things, prohibits large public gatherings, and orders television and radio stations and all other mass media to disseminate information provided by the Health Ministry. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 12 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Press Freedom, Expression, Access to Information
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Colombia

State of Health Emergency

The government decrees a "health emergency" to contain the spread of coronavirus. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 12 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Emergency
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Comoros

Prohibiting Public Gatherings

Authorities prohibit all demonstrations and public gatherings for at least one month. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 18 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly
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Costa Rica

Executive Decree No. 42227 Declaring a State of Emergency

The executive decree declares a "state of emergency" in response to the coronavirus pandemic. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 16 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Emergency
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Cote d'Ivoire

State of Emergency

The president declares a "state of emergency," and imposes curfews and internal travel restrictions on account of the coronavirus. Authorities imposed a nationwide curfew with immediate effect between 11pm and 5am local time and banned all non-essential travel between Abidjan, where most COVID-19 cases are reported, and the rest of the country. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 23 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency, Movement
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Croatia

Decision to Prohibit Leaving the Place of One's Residence

The decision prohibits individuals from leaving their place of residence without a special permit, to be issued for very limited cases. The decision is in effect for 30 days. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 23 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Movement
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Croatia

Decision to Restrict Gathering on the Streets and Other Public Places

The decision implements a broad, month-long prohibition on gathering in public places where a large number of people can move, due to the risk of coronavirus transmission. The decision does not define "large number." (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 21 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly
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Croatia

Decision on Measures to Limit social Gatherings, Work in Commerce, Services and the Holding of Sports and Cultural Events

The measures place a 30-day ban on all public events, prohibit the gathering of more than 5 persons in one place, and order the closure of all non-essential businesses. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 19 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly
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Cyprus

Decree No. 12 on Measures for Prevention of COVID-19 Spread

The decree prohibits individuals' movement between 9pm and 6am, with exception of people who have a document certifying that their movement is required by their employment. Non-work travel is allowed only once per day, and individuals are required either to have a form that indicates a permissible purpose, or to have sent an SMS to request official permission. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 30 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Movement
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Czech Republic

Government Decision to Prohibit the Free Movement of Persons 

The order prohibits the free movement of persons throughout the Czech Republic, with the exception of necessary journeys and activities.

Type: order
Date Introduced: 15 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Movement
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Czech Republic

No. 215 on the Adoption of an Emergency Measure

The decree declares a "state of emergency" for one month under Constitutional Act No. 110/1998, on account of the coronavirus. It prohibits non-essential or work-related travel and orders individuals to remain home and limit contact with others to the extent possible. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 12 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Emergency, Movement
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Democratic Republic of Congo

State of Health Emergency

The presidential decree institutes a one-month "state of health emergency," and a 30-day lockdown and curfew from 8 p.m. to 5 a.m. local time. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 31 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Emergency, Movement
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Denmark

No. 158 on Amendment of the Law on Measures Countering Infectious and Other Communicable Diseases

The law further enables the government to ban gatherings of 3 or more people, with certain exemptions including gatherings at private homes and orderinary gatherings at places of work. The law also explicitly exempts opinion-shaping assemblies, including demonstrations and political meetings. The law expires on March 1, 2021. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: law
Date Introduced: 31 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly
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Denmark

No. 133 on Amendment of the Law on Measures Countering Infectious and Other Communicable Diseases

The law enables the government to ban gatherings of 10 or more people, with certain exemptions including gatherings at private homes and ordinary gatherings at places of work. The law also explicitly exempts opinion-shaping assemblies, including demonstrations and political meetings. The law expires on March 1, 2021. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: law
Date Introduced: 12 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly
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Denmark

Executive Order on Prohibition of Major Assemblies and Prohibition of Access to and Restrictions on Certain Premises for Coronavirus Disease Management 2019 (COVID-19)

The order, issued under Law No. 133, prohibits gatherings and events of 10 or more people throughout Denmark starting on March 18, with exemptions including "opinion-shaping assemblies." The order is in effect until April 14. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 18 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly
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Dominican Republic

Decree 137-20

The decree suspends all administrative procedures, including processing of requests for information, for the duration of the state of emergency. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 23 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Access to Information
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Dominican Republic

Decree 135-20 Establishing a Curfew

Under Decree 134-20 declaring a State of Emergency, Decree 135-20 establishes a curfew, prohibiting transit and the movement of people from 8pm to 6am. The Decree charges the Ministry of Defense and the Ministry of Interior and Police with execution of the curfew.

Type: order
Date Introduced: 20 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Movement
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Dominican Republic

Decree 134-20 Declaing a State of Emergency

The decree declares a "state of emergency" for the entire national territory on account of the Covid-19 pandemic, and provides for the government to impose restrictions on individuals' freedom of movement, assembly, and association. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 19 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Emergency
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Ecuador

No. 1017 Declaring a State of Exception

The decree declares a "state of exception" to respond to the covid-19 pandemic. The decree suspends certain individual rights under the constitution, including the right to association and assembly. The decree also provides for governmental authority to use digital tools to surveil individuals under mandatory isolation or quarantine. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 16 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Association, Assembly, Emergency, Surveillance, Privacy
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Egypt

Amendments to Emergency Law 162/1958

The amendments expand the powers of the president and military prosecution during a declared state of emergency. Under the amended Emergency Law, powers available to the president now include the power to: ban private and public gatherings in addition to protests; shut down schools and universities; suspend operations in the private and public sector; and subject anyone returning from outside the country to quarantine. The amendments also allow the president to give military prosecutors preliminary investigation authority over any crimes. Egypt has been in a continuous state of emergency since April 2017, and most recently extended the state of emergency for another three months beginning January 27. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: law
Date Introduced: 8 May 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency, Militarization
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Egypt

State of Emergency

The presidential decree declares a "state of emergency" for three months, under Article 154 of Egypt's Constitution. Egypt has been in a near-continuous state of emergency since April 2017, however the most recent declaration cites the "critical security and health situation" as grounds for extension. The declaration reinforces the authority of the armed forces and police to maintain security and save the lives of citizens, and provides that the state may impose restrictions on individuals' movement. The decree also states that violations of emergency orders will be punished with imprisonment.

(See primary source or citation here)
Type: order
Date Introduced: 28 Apr 2020
Issue(s): Emergency, Movement, Militarization
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Egypt

Ban on Public Religious Gatherings

The government bans all gatherings, public iftars, fast-breaking meals, and collective social activities for the holy month of Ramadan. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 7 Apr 2020
Issue(s): Assembly
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Egypt

Nationwide Curfew and Ban of Public Gatherings

The government's measures impose a curfew from 8pm to 6am, and bans public religious gatherings during Ramadan. Those who do not abide by the measures face fines of up to 4,000 Egyptian pounds ($255) or prison. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 24 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Movement
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Egypt

Intimidation and Arrest of Healthcare Workers Discussing COVID-19 Crisis

Between the February outbreak of COVID-19 in Egypt and early July, Egypt arrested at least ten doctors and six journalists. Authorities have also instructed health workers not to discuss the health crisis with the press. The Supreme Council for Media Regulation issued a series of announcements, including on March 10, April 21, and June 16, each of which threatens legal action against journalists or media outlets who might depict negative aspects of the government's response to the COVID-19 crisis.

(See primary source or citation here)

Type: practice
Date Introduced: 6 Jul 2020
Issue(s): Disinformation, Press Freedom, Expression, Access to Information
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Egypt

Supreme Council for Media Regulation Limits Access to Online News

The Supreme Council for Media Regulation has blocked or limited access to dozens of news websites and social media accounts for allegedly spreading false information about the coronavirus. The SCMR has not made public the targets of the blocking nor the allegedly false information. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: practice
Date Introduced: 3 Apr 2020
Issue(s): Disinformation, Expression
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El Salvador

Decree-Law No. 594 on Temporal Restrictions on Constitutional Rights to address COVID-19

The decree-law institutes 15-day restrictions on the right to free movement and peaceful assembly. Only meetings for religious, cultural, economic, or sports purposes will be allowed, and only after obtaining prior authorization by public health authorities. These restrictions were extended by subsequent Decree-Law No. 611. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: law
Date Introduced: 15 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Movement
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El Salvador

Decree No. 593 Declaring a State of Emergency

Declares a one-month "state of emergency" due to the Covid-19 pandemic. The measures include allowing for restrictions on individuals' travel and movement within the country, as well as bans on public gatherings. The decree also suspends all administrative and judicial functions deemed non-essential, such as operations for access to public information. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 14 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency, Access to Information, Movement
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Eritrea

Ministry of Health Public Guidelines No.3

Among other limitations, the order prohibits gatherings of ten or more people for any purpose, indefinitely. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 23 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly
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Eritrea

Guidelines from the High Level Task Force on COVID-19

The guidelines among other things require all citizens to stay at home, except those engaged in essential services, for 21 days. Members of a household, not exceeding two at a time, are allowed out to buy essential food items and emergency medical treatment. Rigorous implementation of the measures will be secured by the police and security authorities as well as by neighborhood committees, and punitive legal measures will be taken on any individual in violation. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: regulation
Date Introduced: 1 Apr 2020
Issue(s): Movement
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Estonia

Declaration of an Emergency Situation on the Administrative Territory of the Republic of Estonia

Declares an "emergency situation" under Article 87(8) of the Constitution, on account of the pandemic spread of coronavirus. The declaration is in effect until May 1 unless extended or revoked. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 13 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Emergency
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Eswatini

State of Emergency

The King proclaims a "national emergency" on March 17 and a ban on all public and private gatherings of over 50 people. The Ministry of Home Affairs will also create a "control management system" for refugees and asylum seekers. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 17 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency
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Eswatini

The Coronavirus (COVID 19) Regulations, Legal Notice No. 72 of 2020

The Prime Minister, on behalf of the King, imposes additional measures to contain the coronavirus, including a prohibition on gatherings of more than 20 people. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: regulation
Date Introduced: 27 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly
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Ethiopia

State of Emergency

The Regional Council in Tigray declares a State of Emergency on account of the coronavirus. The order prohibits travel within the state, and bans large gatherings. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: law
Date Introduced: 26 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency, Movement
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Ethiopia

State of Emergency

The Government of Ethiopia declares a nationwide "state of emergency" under Article 93 of the Constitution. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 8 Apr 2020
Issue(s): Emergency
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Ethiopia

Ban on Public Gatherings

The Prime Minister issues a ban on all public gatherings on account of the coronavirus. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 20 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly
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Ethiopia

Regulation No. 3 of 2020 on the Implementation of the State of Emergency Declaration

The Attorney General issued regulations to further define and implement the state of emergency. The regulations prohibit gatherings of more than four people. Under the regulations, spreading information that can cause public confusion or alarm is prohibited. The regulations also require all media professionals to report Covid-related news in a way that is neither exaggerated nor understated, and is not likely to create confusion or alarm. The regulations create a legal duty to report anyone suspected of contracting the virus to the police or Ministry of Health. Violations of these provisions are subject to penalty of up to three years in prison a fine of up to 200,000 Ethiopian Birr ($6,000). (See primary source or citation here)

Type: regulation
Date Introduced: 11 Apr 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Disinformation, Press Freedom, Expression, Privacy, Access to Information
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Fiji

Nationwide Curfew

The order establishes a nationwide curfew beginning March 30, from 10pm to 5am, in order to contain the coronavirus pandemic. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 28 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Movement
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Fiji

Ban on Public Gatherings

The Prime Minister states that gatherings of 20 or more individuals are prohibited nationwide, on account of the coronavirus. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 21 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly
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Finland

Declaration of Exceptional Circumstances

The government declares "exceptional circumstances" to address the coronavirus. "Exceptional circumstances" are defined in Finland's Emergency Powers Act and the State of Defence Act, and allow for the government to activate extraordinary powers. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 16 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Emergency
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France

Emergency Law No. 2020-290 to Address the Covid-19 Epidemic

The law establishes a "state of health emergency" for two months, under Article 38 of the Constitution, in order to address the Covid-19 epidemic. The state of health emergency allows the Prime Minister to issue decrees restricting individuals' freedom of movement and assembly, and to take "any other regulatory measure" necessary to address the health crisis. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: law
Date Introduced: 22 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency, Movement
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Gabon

Ban on Public Gatherings

The government prohibits gatherings of more than 30 people on account of the coronavirus. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 16 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly
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Gambia

State of Emergency

The President declares a 21-day state of "public emergency" on account of the coronavirus pandemic. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 18 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Emergency
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Georgia

No. 1 on the Declaration of Emergency

The decree declares a one-month "state of emergency" throughout Georgia to counter the global coronavirus pandemic. Among other things, the decree allows Georgian authorities to restrict any kind of assembly of persons; restrict movement and travel; and establish rules of isolation and quarantine for which individuals and legal entities shall be held liable. Per the decree, failure to comply with the state of emergency will result in a fine; repeat offences will result in imprisonment for up to three years. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 21 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency, Movement
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Georgia

Measures to be Implemented in Connection with the Prevention of the Spread of COVID-19 in Georgia

The ordinance, which implements Presidential Decree N1, further articulates governmental powers in place for the duration of the emergency. Among other things, the ordinance suspends the timeframe for issuing public information and responding to information requests, which means that during the state of emergency public institutions are not obliged to comply with the deadlines set by access to information laws. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: regulation
Date Introduced: 23 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Access to Information
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Germany

Decision by the Chancellor and the Heads of the Federal States of April 15

The decision extends the joint resolutions of March 12 and 22, which ban gatherings and restrict individuals from spending time in public spaces. These provisions will remain in effect until May 3, 2020. In addition, the decision prohibits large events through at least August 31, 2020. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 15 Apr 2020
Issue(s): Assembly
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Germany

Decision by the Chancellor and the Heads of the Federal States of March 22

The decision prohibits individuals from spending time in public spaces with more than one other person from outside that individual's household, and also prohibits celebrations involving groups of people gathering in in public places, apartments, and private facilities. The measures are in place for at least two weeks. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 22 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly
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Germany

Decision by the Chancellor and the Heads of the Federal States of March 12

The decision prohibits events with more than 1,000 participants, to combat the spread of the coronavirus. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 12 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly
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Ghana

Imposition of Restrictions Act of 2020

The Act allows the President to take measures that restrict individuals' fundamental freedoms, per Article 21(4) of the Constitution, to respond to the coronavirus pandemic. The Act allows for a three-month period during which restrictions may be imposed in case of an emergency, in the interest of public health and safety, after which the restrictions may be renewed for one month at a time.

(See primary source or citation here)
Type: law
Date Introduced: 21 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Emergency
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Ghana

Additional Measures Taken Under the Imposition of Restrictions Act of 2020

Per presidential order, all individuals in the two major metropolitan regions are required to stay at home, and will only be permitted to leave their homes for essential items such as food, medicine, and water, or to visit the bank and public toilets. The order is in place for at least two weeks. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 31 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Movement
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Ghana

Measures Taken to Combat the Coronavirus Pandemic

The president orders a 30-day ban on all public gatherings, and directs the Attorney General to submit to Parliament emergency legislation under Article 21 of the Constitution. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 15 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency
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Greece

No. D1a Imposing Temporary Measures to Restrict the Movement of Citizens

The governmental decision prohibits individuals from leaving their homes for non-essential purposes, with limited exceptions, to combat the spread of coronavirus. Individuals who leave their homes must either complete a special form on the government website, send a text to a government hotline, or carry a signed personal declaration with their justification for doing so. Violators are subject to fines of up to 150 euros. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 22 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Movement
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Greenland

Law No. 1 of 2020 on Changes to the Parliamentary Regulation Regarding Civilian Measures Against Infectious Diseases

The law enables the government to ban gatherings and events (whether indoor or outdoor, public or private) of 10 or more people. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: law
Date Introduced: 1 Apr 2020
Issue(s): Assembly
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Greenland

Home Rule's Order No. 6 of 2020 on Temporary Restrictions and Prohibition of Assemblies in Nuuk, Sermersooq Municipality

The order, issued under Law No. 1 of 2020, prohibits gatherings and events of 10 or more people in the wider capital area (Nuuk) for 10 days starting on April 3, with exemptions including gatherings of family members in private residences and assemblies with a "political or opinion-shaping purpose." (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 3 Apr 2020
Issue(s): Assembly
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Grenada

Emergency Powers (COVID 19) Regulations No. 3

The regulations impose a two-week curfew, confining all persons to their homes except for essential purposes during limited hours. All individuals in isolation must download a mobile surveillance application. Persons shall report their own or any observed flu-like symptoms affecting others to local police. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: regulation
Date Introduced: 6 Apr 2020
Issue(s): Emergency, Surveillance, Privacy, Movement
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Guatemala

No. 5 on the Declaration of Public Calamity

The decree declares a "state of public calamity" under Article 183 of Guatemala's Constitution, on account of the coronavirus. Under the decree, constitutional freedoms including freedom of movement and the right to peaceful assembly are suspended. The decree prohibits events of any size, as well any social, cultural, and sports activities. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 21 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency, Movement
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Guinea

State of Emergency

The president announces a 30-day nationwide "state of emergency" due to the spread of the coronavirus. A nationwide curfew will be in place from 9pm to 5am beginning March 30, and gatherings of over 20 people are prohibited for 14 days (renewable). (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 27 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency, Movement
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Guinea-Bissau

State of Emergency

The government has declared a nationwide "state of emergency" and introduced restrictive measures to prevent further spread of the virus, including the closure of all land and sea borders and commercial air links. Public transport has also been suspended, while only essential shops remain open, including food and medical stores. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 2 Apr 2020
Issue(s): Emergency
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Haiti

State of Emergency

The government declares a state of emergency over the coronavirus outbreak, closing Haiti's borders and imposing a nationwide curfew. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 19 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Emergency, Movement
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Honduras

PCM 021-2020 on Emergency Measures

The emergency decree suspends numerous constitutional guarantees, including freedom of expression, association, assembly, and movement, and provides for emergency measures to address the spread of the coronavirus. These include a prohibition on public or private gatherings of any size, and limitations on individuals' movement. The decree provides that any individual who violates the restrictions on movement shall be arrested. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 15 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Association, Assembly, Emergency, Movement
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Honduras

PCM 005-2020 Declaring a State of Health Emergency

The decree declares a "state of health emergency," due to the coronavirus. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 10 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Emergency
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Hong Kong

Prevention and Control of Disease (Prohibition on Group Gathering) Regulation

The regulation prohibits gatherings of four or more people in order to combat the Covid-19 epidemic. The prohibition, which provides limited exemptions including for funerals and gatherings of government employees, is in place for 14 days. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: regulation
Date Introduced: 29 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly
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Hong Kong

Electronic Wristbands for Monitoring Quarantined Individuals

The government is using electronic wristbands to enforce quarantines. The wristbands are connected to a smartphone app and are used to ensure that individuals remain at home. Violations are subject to a $5,000 HKD fine ($644) and six months in prison. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: practice
Date Introduced: 18 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Surveillance, Privacy
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Hungary

Law Terminating the "State of Danger"

The law calls on the government to terminate the "state of danger" instituted under Decree 40/2020 of March 11, in accordance with Article 54(3) of Hungary's Fundamental Law, and withdrawal of the Law on Protection Against The Coronavirus. Article 54(3) of the Fundamental Law requires the termination of a "special legal order" if the conditions for it no longer exist. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: law
Date Introduced: 18 Jun 2020
Issue(s): Emergency
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Hungary

Law on Transitional Rules and Health Preparedness related to the Cessation of the State of Danger

The law introduces measures related to the revocation of the "state of danger" in Hungary. However, the law expands the powers of the government during another exceptional state, by authorizing the government to issue wide-ranging decrees without parliamentary approval during a “state of medical crisis.” During such a state, the law authorizes the government to suspend existing laws and restrict fundamental rights such as freedom of movement and assembly. The government may declare a “state of medical crisis” unilaterally, based on the recommendation of a government-appointed medical officer; the “state of medical crisis” can last up to six months and may be renewed by government decree. According to critics, the law gives the government expansive leeway to rule with minimal judicial and parliamentary scrutiny for an indefinite period.

(See primary source or citation here)

Type: law
Date Introduced: 17 Jun 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency, Movement
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Hungary

Law on Protection Against the Coronavirus

The law extends the government's emergency powers, and suspends elections during that time. Under the law, the government may effectively rule by decree, for an indefinite period of time, without being bound by current laws. The law also punishes anyone who “distorts” or publishes “false” information on the pandemic with five years in jail.

The law was withdrawn as of 18 June 2020, along with the termination of the "state of danger." (See primary source or citation here)

Type: law
Date Introduced: 30 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Disinformation, Emergency, Press Freedom, Elections, Expression
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Hungary

State of Danger

The government declares a national "state of danger" to counter the consequences of the Covid-19 epidemic. The "state of danger" is a special state of emergency regulated by Hungary's constitution.

The declaration was withdrawn as of 18 June 2020. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 11 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Emergency
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Iceland

Expanding a Ban on Assemblies in Iceland

The government's order, issued under the Act on Health Security and Communicable Diseases No. 19/1997, prohibits gatherings of 20 or more people throughout Iceland (including both public and private spaces) starting on March 23. A previous 100-person limit had been in place since 16 March. The ban will remain in force until May 4, 2020 and may be extended. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 23 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly
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India

Mobile Phone Tracking and Mandatory Selfies to Confirm Home Quarantine

The Karnataka state government directs all persons in quarantine to send a “selfie” of themselves every hour from their home, failing which they may be housed in government-created mass quarantine centers. The directive mentions that the selfie image shall include location coordinates to inform the government of the sender's location, and that every selfie sent by a home-quarantined person will be verified by the government. The state government has also released a mobile application which reveals the addresses of COVID-19 patients. The mobile app for tracking of quarantined patients has also been adopted by the Delhi, Gujarat, Tamil Nadu, and Maharashtra governments. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: law
Date Introduced: 31 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Surveillance, Privacy
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India

Prior Approval Required for Publishing Information about Coronavirus

The Maharashtra government prohibits organizations or individuals from publicizing information about the coronavirus without ascertaining prior clearance from relevant government health authorities, in order to avoid spread of misinformation. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 24 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Disinformation, Press Freedom, Expression, Access to Information
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India

Order No. 40-3/2020-D on Measures to be Taken by States and Union Territories to Contain Covid-19

The order among other things provides for a 21-day ban on all social, political, sports, entertainment, academic, cultural, and religious gatherings. Violations of these and other provisions in the order are subject to penalty under Section 51-60 of the Disaster Management Act, and Section 188 of the Penal Code. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 24 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly
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India

Maharashtra Public Trust (Amendment) Ordinance

The government of Maharashtra state amends the Maharashtra Public Trust Act 1950 with Section 57A, establishing a separate “Epidemic Disease Relief Fund & Disaster Relief Fund,” on account of the coronavirus. The amendments require all public trusts to contribute a percentage of their gross annual income to the fund.

(See primary source or citation here)
Type: regulation
Date Introduced: 10 Apr 2020
Issue(s): Association
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India

Mobile Phone Tracking App

The government has made it mandatory for all central government officials to use the government-built Aarogya Setu app on their mobile phones. The app alerts users if a person in their vicinity has tested positive for Covid-19. The government has also made the app mandatory in virus "containment zones" throughout the country. The app lacks privacy protections, with the use of both Bluetooth and GPS, and with little transparency about how the data will be handled.

Type: practice
Date Introduced: 1 May 2020
Issue(s): Surveillance, Privacy
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India

Dispersal of Sit-in and Destruction of Protest Site

Citing a ban on public gatherings because of the Covid-19 pandemic, police in Delhi broke up a months-long sit-in protest against India's controversial new citizenship law. Police bulldozers destroyed tents and billboards at the protest site. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: practice
Date Introduced: 24 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly
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India

Hand Stamps to Enforce Quarantines

The government of Maharashtra state announces a policy to stamp the hands of individuals required to self-quarantine. The stamps indicate that the stamped person must stay at home for two weeks, and indicate the dates of the person's required isolation. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: practice
Date Introduced: 17 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Surveillance, Privacy
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Indonesia

Presidential Decree No. 11 of 2020 Declaring a Public Health Emergency

The decree declares the COVID-19 pandemic to be a "public health emergency," in accordance with the provisions of the law and regulations of Indonesia. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 31 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Emergency
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Iran

Arrests for Spreading Coronavirus-Related Rumors

A spokesman for the armed forces stated on April 28 that 3,600 people in Iran have been arrested for spreading rumors regarding the coronavirus pandemic. Civil society groups and government agencies outside Iran, including the U.S. State Department, have criticized Tehran for persecuting journalists who reported on the epidemic without obtaining prior approval from the government, or who attempted to report on the real extent of the outbreak in Iran by contacting foreign officials for information. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: practice
Date Introduced: 29 Apr 2020
Issue(s): Disinformation, Press Freedom, Expression, Access to Information
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Iran

Government App Tracks Location and Movement

The government released a mobile app, A19, that claims to be able to detect whether or not the user is infected with COVID-19. The app collects personal details including the user's name, address, and date of birth, and uses software similar to that used by fitness apps to precisely track and share the user's location and movements. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: practice
Date Introduced: 3 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Surveillance, Privacy
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Iran

Restricting Internet Access

For 24 hours after announcing that a top adviser to Iran’s Supreme Leader had died as a result of the coronavirus, the government blocked access in Iran to the Farsi version of Wikipedia. A digital rights advocacy group has also reported widespread internet disruptions at night in certain parts of the country, including Qom, where the outbreak is believed to have originated. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: practice
Date Introduced: 2 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Press Freedom, Expression, Access to Information
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Iraq

Order No. 55 of 2020

The order by Iraq's Ministry of Health imposes a 14-day ban on all public gatherings, to combat the spread of coronavirus.

(See primary source or citation here)
Type: order
Date Introduced: 26 Feb 2020
Issue(s): Assembly
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Iraq

Arrest of Journalists and Protesters

At least 8 journalists were arrested in Iraqi Kurdistan while covering a protest by public school teachers and government employees who were demanding their salaries. Kurdish officials said that the journalists and 11 protesters were detained for violating the ban on mass gatherings, imposed due to COVID-19. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: practice
Date Introduced: 21 May 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Press Freedom, Expression
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Iraq

Suspension of News Outlet License

Iraq has revoked Reuters news agency's reporting license for three months, after the agency reported that the number of new coronavirus cases in the country was in the thousands--much higher than official figures. In addition to temporarily revoking Reuters's licence, Iraq said it would impose a fine of about $21,000, and asked Reuters to issue an apology for a report that "put social security at risk." (See primary source or citation here)

Type: practice
Date Introduced: 3 Apr 2020
Issue(s): Press Freedom, Expression
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Ireland

Health (Preservation and Protection and other Emergency Measures in the Public Interest) Act 2020

The law authorizes the government to take certain measures in response to the coronavirus, including banning mass gatherings; allowing health officials to detain individuals suspected of carrying COVID19 who are unlikely or unwilling to self-isolate; and allowing the government to restrict movement of people to certain areas. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: law
Date Introduced: 21 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency, Movement
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Israel

Law on Shin Bet (Security Agency) Contact-Tracing Program

The law authorizes the Israeli Security Agency, Shin Bet, to track actual and suspected COVID-19 cases in coordination with the Ministry of Health. Under the law, Shin Bet is able to track individuals' locations and share cell phone traffic and location data with the Ministry of Health, so long as an authorizing declaration--issued by the government or the Knesset--is in place. The data are used to identify individuals with whom COVID-19 patients have had close contact; the Health Ministry sends a text message to those individuals, and they are required by law to enter quarantine. Shin Bet can retain individuals' data for up to 14 days after providing it to the Ministry of Health. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: law
Date Introduced: 1 Jul 2020
Issue(s): Surveillance, Privacy
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Israel

Tracking Cellphone Data

New regulations allow the police to track the cellphones of coronavirus patients or those suspected of being infected, without seeking a court order. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: regulation
Date Introduced: 21 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Surveillance, Privacy
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Italy

Decree No. 33 of 16 May 2020

The decree restricts individuals' freedom of movement to within the same region until May 18, and between different regions until June 3. The assembly of people in spaces open to the public is prohibited. Public events and shows, including cultural, recreational, sporting, and religious events, may only take place when deemed possible by the competent national or local authorities. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 16 May 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Movement
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Italy

Decree of 26 April 2020

The decree stipulates that persons may only make journeys proven to be necessary for work, health, or basic needs. Persons may not travel beyond the region in which they are currently located, except for reasons relating to work, health, or emergency. The decree also prohibits any form of gathering in public or private places. Organized events, activities, or shows, in public or private, are also suspended, including cultural, recreational, sporting, religious events and fairs. The opening of places of worship is conditional on the adoption of distancing measures.

(See primary source or citation here)
Type: order
Date Introduced: 26 Apr 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Movement
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Italy

Decree No. 9 of 2020 Further Urgent Measures to Contain and Manage the Epidemiological Emergency from COVID-19

The decree imposes strict restrictions on individuals' travel and movement nationwide, prohibiting all public and private meetings or other gatherings, and instituting surveillance of individuals who have had contact with confirmed coronavirus cases. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 9 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Surveillance, Privacy, Movement
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Italy

Decree No. 8 Urgent Measures to Contain and Manage the Epidemiological Emergency from Covid-19

The decree empowers the President of the Council of Ministers to take measures to contain the spread of Covid-19 in certain areas of Italy designated as "red zones," including by limiting individuals' travel and movement; prohibiting all public and private meetings or other gatherings; and instituting surveillance of individuals who have had contact with confirmed coronavirus cases. Sanctions for noncompliance include detention for up to 3 months and fines of up to 200 Euros. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 8 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Surveillance, Privacy, Movement
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Italy

State of Emergency

Declaring a "state of emergency" on account of the coronavirus. The state of emergency is in effect for 180 days. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 31 Jan 2020
Issue(s): Emergency
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Jamaica

No. 8 Disaster Risk Management (Enforcement Measures)

All individuals arriving on the island are tested for coronavirus, and must at a minimum self-quarantine for 14 days or until released from quarantine after testing negative. Health officials may order individuals they deem to be high risk--even if they test negative--to quarantine at a residence, hotel, or government designated facility. All persons in quarantine must wear an electronic monitoring device. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 15 Jun 2020
Issue(s): Surveillance, Privacy, Movement
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Jamaica

State of Emergency

The government has activated the Emergency Powers Act, the Disaster Risk Management Act, and the Public Health Act, and declared that the entire country is a disaster area. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 13 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Emergency
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Japan

State of Emergency

The Prime Minister declares a "state of emergency" in Tokyo and six other major metropolitan areas, under Article 32 of the Act on Special Measures. The declaration does not impose restrictions on movement, but allows governors to request that individuals remain home and recommend to organizers that they cancel events. Violators are not subject to penalty unless they fail to comply with orders related to storing and shipping medical supplies. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 7 Apr 2020
Issue(s): Emergency
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Jordan

Defence Order No. 8 on Reporting of Infections

The order requires all Jordanians and residents to immediately report to the authorities if they are infected with the coronavirus, if they have come into contact with an infected person, or if they become aware of any infected persons. Violators of this order will face imprisonment of up to three years and a fine of JOD 3,000 ($4,200). These penalties do not preclude steeper penalties in other laws. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 15 Apr 2020
Issue(s): Privacy
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Jordan

Order No. 2 Financial Penalties and Imprisonment for Violators of the Curfew

The order, issued by the Prime Minister under the Defense Act of 1992, provides that violators of the curfew may be punished by a fine of up to 500 Jordanian Dinars on the first offense, and one year in prison for a repeat offense. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 26 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Movement
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Jordan

Order No. 1 Prohibiting Movement of People Within the Country

The order, issued by the Prime Minister and Minister of Defense under the Defense Act of 1992, imposes a ban on internal travel or movement within Jordan until further notice. Specific times will be designated for individuals to fulfill essential activities. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 21 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Movement
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Jordan

State of Emergency

The decree declares a "state of emergency" under Art. 124 of Jordan's Constitution, on account of the coronavirus pandemic, and activates emergency provisions of Defense Law 13 of 1992. According to the decree and the Defense Law, the Prime Minister is charged with enacting measures to respond to the emergency. He has authority to suspend certain individual rights, including freedom of movement and expression. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 17 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Emergency, Expression, Movement
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Jordan

Suspension of Newspapers

Within the framework of the National Defense Law, the Jordanian Council of Ministers suspends the printing and sale of paper newspapers, on grounds that they contribute to the spread of Covid-19. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 17 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Press Freedom, Expression, Access to Information
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Jordan

Prior Approval Required Before Speaking to Press About COVID-19

The Jordanian Health Minister institutes a policy requiring that all hospital directors and Health Ministry officials obtain permission from the Ministry before speaking with members of the press. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: policy
Date Introduced: 13 May 2020
Issue(s): Press Freedom, Expression, Access to Information
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Kazakhstan

Decision of the State Commission on Ensuring the State of Emergency under President of Kazakhstan

The State Commission approved the decision to strengthen the quarantine regime in the cities of of Nur-Sultan and Almaty. Citizens are restricted from leaving home, with the exception of leaving for food, medicine and employment. The order closes crowded places, including parks, squares, pedestrian streets, promenade, and playgrounds. Restriction of public transport will be phased. Meetings on the streets and in other public places by groups of more than three people (with the exception of family members) are prohibited. The order also bans the movement of minors unaccompanied by adults. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 28 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Movement
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Kazakhstan

State of Emergency

The decree declares a "state of emergency" for thirty days, on account of the coronavirus pandemic. Among other things, the decree suspends public events, closes the border, and introduces quarantine measures with the participation of relevant military departments. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 16 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency, Movement, Militarization
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Kenya

Public (State Curfew) Order, 2020

The order imposes a daily curfew and restrictions on individuals' movement, on account of the coronavirus. Public gatherings are prohibited during curfew period. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 27 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Movement
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Kenya

Ministry of Health Measures

The order suspends all public gatherings and meetings for 30 days. The order also states that Kenyans must not "abuse" social media platforms or spread misinformation that "can cause fear and panic." (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 13 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Disinformation, Expression
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Kenya

Public Health (COVID19 Restriction of Movement of Persons and Related Measures) Rules, 2020

The Public Health Rules prohibit public gatherings except for funerals (which are limited to 15 people). Movement is prohibited in and out of places that the Minister has declared infected areas. Public transport services are required to operate at a limited capacity. 

(See primary source or citation here)
Type: regulation
Date Introduced: 17 Apr 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Movement
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Kuwait

Ministerial Decision No. 64 of 2020 on Gatherings

The decision bans any type of gathering, whether held in public or private areas. The order penalizes anyone who violates the decision with imprisonment of up to 3 months, in accordance with Decree No. 8 of 1969.

(See primary source or citation here)
Type: order
Date Introduced: 18 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly
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Kuwait

Surveillance Bracelets

The government of Kuwait will require all returning nationals to wear electronic bracelets to ensure their compliance with measures to control the spread of COVID-19, including restrictions on movement. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: practice
Date Introduced: 19 Apr 2020
Issue(s): Surveillance, Privacy
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Kuwait

Shlonik Contact Tracing App Raises Privacy Concerns

Kuwait's Health Ministry launched an official contact-tracing application, Shlonik, which captures individuals' real-time location through GPS and uploads the location data to a centralized government database. The database links individuals' locations with their national ID numbers, which users must submit to use the app. The app can pair with a Bluetooth bracelet, to help ensure that the user remains close to their phone, in order to enforce quarantine measures. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: practice
Date Introduced: 18 Apr 2020
Issue(s): Surveillance, Privacy
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Kyrgyzstan

State of Emergency

The order establishes a "state of emergency" for thirty days throughout the Kyrgyz Republic, due to the coronavirus. All public gatherings including rallies, demonstrations, and strikes, are prohibited. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: law
Date Introduced: 22 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency
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Kyrgyzstan

Decree Suspending Local Elections

The presidential decree suspends the holding of local elections throughout the country in April due to the national state of emergency related to the spread of COVID-19. According to the decree, the elections will be rescheduled following the end of the state of emergency. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 23 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Elections
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Latvia

No. 103 on the Declaration of Emergency Situation

The order establishes an "emergency situation" throughout Latvia for one month, on account of the coronavirus. All public gatherings for meetings, marches, and rallies, as well as for religious or cultural purposes are prohibited, regardless of the number of participants. The order prohibits border crossings by air, rail, and road with limited exceptions. The order provides for administrative and criminal penalties to be applied in case of violations. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 13 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Emergency, Movement
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Lebanon

Decision No. 54/2020 Imposing a Curfew

The decision, issued under the "state of general mobilization" declared on March 15, prohibits individuals from moving or driving from 7pm to 5am. The Law on National Defense authorizes the military and security forces to control transportation during a state of general mobilization.

Type: order
Date Introduced: 26 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Movement, Militarization
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Lebanon

State of General Mobilization

The government announces a "state of general mobilization" under by Article 2 of Legislative Decree No. 102/1983 (Law on National Defense), on account of the health emergency caused by Covid-19. The decision stipulates that people should stay at home until March 29 (later extended until April 26), and refrain from leaving except for essential reasons. The decree also prohibits all gatherings in all private and public places. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 15 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency, Movement
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Lesotho

Declaration of COVID-19 State of Emergency Order 26 of 2020

The Prime Minister declares a national "state of emergency" and orders a nationwide lockdown, beginning March 30. All social gatherings are prohibited except for funerals where not more than 50 people are expected to attend. The decree also provides that members of the press must "refrain from publishing fake news." (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 18 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Disinformation, Emergency, Press Freedom, Expression, Access to Information, Movement
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Liberia

State of Emergency

President Weah declares a "state of emergency" for three weeks, renewable until the threat posed by COVID-19 subsides. During this period, residents may only leave home for essential journeys, which should be restricted to local communities and be limited to a single person per household for a maximum of one hour. The order tasks the Chief of Staff of the Armed Forces of Liberia and the Chairman of the National Joint Security with enforcing this stay-home policy. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 10 Apr 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency, Movement, Militarization
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Liberia

Declaration of National Health Emergency

The Minister of Health declares a "national health emergency" on account of the coronavirus, and among other things bans all gatherings of more than 10 people. Individuals are required to report those who show signs of COVID-19 to the health and security authorities. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 21 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency, Privacy
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Libya

Government of National Accord (GNA) Presidential Council Resolution of No. 277 of 2020

Libya's UN-backed government imposes a lockdown and a ban on individual movement for 10 days starting from April 17, 2020, with limited exceptions for the transport and sale of food. Moving on foot is allowed between 7am and 12pm only. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 17 Apr 2020
Issue(s): Movement
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Liechtenstein

Biometric Bracelet Testing Scheme

Under a pilot coronavirus tracking program, some citizens will wear biometric bracelets that track metrics like skin temperature, breathing and pulse. The bracelets send the data directly to a lab in Switzerland for analysis. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: practice
Date Introduced: 15 Apr 2020
Issue(s): Surveillance, Privacy
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Lithuania

State of Emergency

The government declares a "state of emergency" to coordinate its response to the coronavirus. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 26 Feb 2020
Issue(s): Emergency
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Luxembourg

State of Crisis

The order from the Grand Duke declares a "state of crisis" in accordance with Article 32(4) of the Constitution, among other things imposes strict limitations on individuals' movement, and provides for a fine of 145 Euroes in case of violation. The state of crisis is in place for 10 days, unless extended by the Chamber of Deputies, by a two-thirds majority. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 18 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Emergency, Movement
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Malawi

State of Disaster

The order establishes a one-month "state of disaster" due to the coronavirus. Among other things, the order prohibits gatherings of more than 100 individuals. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 20 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency
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Malawi

Public Health (Corona Virus Prevention, Containment and Management) Rules

The Minister of Health imposes a nationwide lockdown that prohibits all individual movement, with limited exceptions. Individuals in need of an essential service outside of their locality are required to obtain a permit from their local council. All gatherings of more than ten people are suspended. The Malawi Defence Force, the Malawi Police Service and the Department of Immigration and Citizenship Services will be deployed to ensure strict compliance with these measures. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: regulation
Date Introduced: 8 Apr 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Movement, Militarization
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Malaysia

Restriction of Movement Order 

The order mandates a "complete restriction" of movement and assembly nationwide. The order closes all houses of worship, non-essential businesses, and all government and private premises, except for those providing essential services. The order also bars Malaysians from travelling overseas, and prevents visitors from entering the country. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 18 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Movement
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Malaysia

Arrests and Criminal Penalties for "Fake News"

Malaysian authorities are arresting individuals for spreading "fake news" related to COVID-19. Individuals are charged with provisions of the Penal Code and the Communications and Multimedia Act that carry penalties of up to one year in prison and 50,000 Malaysian Ringgit ($11,400). (See primary source or citation here)

Type: practice
Date Introduced: 29 Jan 2020
Issue(s): Disinformation, Expression
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Mali

Ban on Public Gatherings

The decree indefinitely suspends all meetings, seminars and colloquiums, and bans social, political, cultural gatherings of more than 50 people.

(See primary source or citation here)
Type: order
Date Introduced: 19 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly
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Mauritania

Ban on Gatherings

The Prime Minister and an Interministerial Committee announce their decision to suspend all events and demonstrations, and restrict border crossings. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 14 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly
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Mauritius

Quarantine (Quarantinable Diseases) Regulations, 2020

The order, issued by the Minister of Health and Wellness under Section 4 of the Public Health Act, imposes a complete lockdown for 14 days, including on supermarkets. Police have authority to enter any premises without a warrant to enforce compliance with the regulations. Criminal sanctions can be imposed for violations, including imprisonment of up to 6 months. Essential service workers must apply for an access permit to attend work on-site. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 20 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Privacy, Movement
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Mexico

Preventive Measures to Mitigate and Control Health Risks Caused by COVID-19

The regulation issued by the Ministry of Health suspends "until further notice" mass events and meetings and congregations of more than 100 people. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: regulation
Date Introduced: 24 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly
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Mexico

Cellphone Monitoring

Telephone companies are obliged to provide access to cellphone antennas to enable the Digital Agency for Public Innovation (ADIP) to monitor movement of and contact between people in Mexico City, with the objective of identifying whether people comply with isolation instructions. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: practice
Date Introduced: 21 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Surveillance, Privacy
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Moldova

Parliamentary Decision on the Declaration of State of Emergency

The parliamentary decision declares a "state of emergency," under Article 66 of the Constitution, on account of the coronavirus. Among other things, the declaration provides for a prohibition on meetings, public demonstrations, and other mass events; coordination of mass media related to the crisis; and introduction of "special rules" for telecommunications during the crisis. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: law
Date Introduced: 17 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency, Press Freedom, Expression, Access to Information
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Moldova

Parliament Decision No. 55 Declaring a State of Emergency

The parliamentary decision declares a "state of emergency" for 60 days. The state of emergency allows the Commission for Exceptional Situations of the Republic of Moldova to issue provisions relating to movement within country, the prohibition of public events and assemblies, and the coordination of media activities, among other things. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: law
Date Introduced: 17 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Emergency
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Moldova

The Audiovisual Council of the Republic of Moldova Provision No. 2

During the state of emergency, all audiovisual media providers under the jurisdiction of the Republic of Moldova are required to present the official position of the competent public authorities (World Health Organization, Exceptional Situation Commission of the Republic of Moldova, the Government of the Republic of Moldova, and the Ministry of Health, Labour and Social Protection). All presenters, moderators, and editors must not express their own opinion on topics concerning the COVID-19 pandemic, to ensure "maximum accuracy and correctness." (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 24 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Press Freedom, Expression, Access to Information
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Moldova

Decree No. 7 on the National Emergency Public Health Commission

The decree suspends religious meetings and services, conducted by all congregations, throughout the entire territory of Moldova. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 13 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly
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Moldova

Decree No. 6 of the National Emergency Public Health Commission

The decree prohibits mass demonstrations, events, and rallies of more than 50 persons. The decree also bans persons under self-isolation from leaving the territory of the Republic of Moldova. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 10 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly
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Montenegro

Temporary Measures to Combat the Spread of Coronavirus

Ministry of Health adopts new temporary measures to combat the spread of coronavirus. Among other things the measures ban gatherings in outdoor or indoor public places, and provide that non-compliance is subject to criminal penalty. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 18 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly
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Montenegro

Disclosure of Identity of Persons in Self-Isolation

According to the policy, Montenegro's National Infectious Diseases Coordination Body will publish the names of individuals who have been required to self-isolate, along with the municipality and street where they live. The list will be updated daily. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: policy
Date Introduced: 21 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Surveillance, Privacy
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Morocco

Decree No. 2-20-293 Declaring a Health Emergency

The government declares a nationwide "state of health emergency" from March 20 until April 20, unless renewed. The order prohibits the movement of any person outside his home, except in cases of extreme necessity, and prohibits any meeting or gathering of groups of people for any reason. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 24 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency, Movement
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Morocco

Decree No. 2-20-292 on Special Provisions for a State of Health Emergency

The decree enables the government to declare a "state of health emergency" and take exceptional measures to stop the spread of disease. Anyone who contravenes the decree that declares a health emergency, or incites others to contravene the decree through speech or threat uttered in a public place or meeting, written or printed materials, photos, posters, audiovisual or electronic communications, or any other means can be imprisoned one to three months or be fined 300 to 1,300 dirhams ($30-$130). (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 23 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Disinformation, Emergency, Expression
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Morocco

Suspension of Newspapers

The Minister of Culture, Youth and Sports announces the suspension of the publication and distribution of print newspapers until further notice. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 22 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Press Freedom, Expression, Access to Information
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Mozambique

State of Emergency

The presidential decree declares a 30-day "state of emergency," along with a Stage 3 level of emergency to contain the spread of the coronavirus outbreak. Public and private gatherings are prohibited, while entertainment establishments and schools are been closed until further notice.

(See primary source or citation here)
Type: order
Date Introduced: 30 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency
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Myanmar

Health Ministry Order on Movement

The Health Ministry ordered restrictions on the movement of residents in seven Yangon townships (Bahan, Insein, Hlaing Tharyar, Mayangone, Pabedan, Shwe Pyi Thar and South Okkalapa). Failure to comply could lead to up to 6 months in jail. Residents may only travel to and from work and must wear face masks at all times when outside. Only one member from each household is allowed to leave their home to buy groceries; two can travel together only for medical emergencies. Anyone needing to travel in larger groups must get permission from ward administrators. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 18 Apr 2020
Issue(s): Movement
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Myanmar

Ministry of Health and Sports Order No. 37/2020

The order, issued under Article 21(b) of the Prevention and Control of Communicable Diseases Law, bans groups of 5 or more people from assembling, including for religious gatherings. The order provides limited exceptions for individuals gathering to carry out essential functions, such as government and factory workers. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: regulation
Date Introduced: 16 Apr 2020
Issue(s): Assembly
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Namibia

Proclamation No. 7 Declaring a State of Emergency

The proclamation institutes a national "state of emergency" under Article 26(5) of the Namibian Constitution, on account of the coronavirus pandemic. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 18 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Emergency
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Namibia

State of Emergency COVID 19 Regulations, 2020

The regulations among other provisions impose a two-week nationwide "lockdown" from March 27, with restrictions on individual movement. The regulations also prohibit gatherings of 10 or more people, and provide that anyone who violates the prohibition is subject to a penalty of six months in prison and a N$2,000 fine. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: regulation
Date Introduced: 28 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Movement
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Nepal

Closure of Online News Portals

The Press Council, an independent statutory authority, shut down 17 online news portals for allegedly publishing disinformation related to Covid-19. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: practice
Date Introduced: 16 Apr 2020
Issue(s): Disinformation, Press Freedom, Expression
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Netherlands

Decision 1666478-203555-PG on Regional Emergencies

The central government’s decision orders all regions of the Netherlands to adopt emergency decrees, under the law on public health. The regional decrees must limit public gatherings, defined as groups of three or more people who are not maintaining 1.5 meters of distance between them. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 23 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency
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Netherlands

Emergency COVID-19 Safety Ordinance for Amsterdam-Amstelland Region

The emergency ordinance prohibits organizing or participating in meetings, through June 1, to combat the spread of Covid-19. The ordinance provides exceptions including for governmental meetings, funerals and weddings, and religious meetings, as long as participants maintain 1.5 meters of distance among one another. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: regulation
Date Introduced: 2 Apr 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency
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New Zealand

Section 70(1)(m) Health Act Order on Mandatory Self-Isolation

The order closes all premises other than government offices and essential businesses, and prohibits outdoor congregations of people, whether in public or private spaces. The order remains in effect "until further notice." (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 25 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly
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New Zealand

State of Emergency

The government declares a "state of national emergency" under the Civil Defence Emergency Management Act 2002, due to COVID-19. The state of national emergency applies to all of New Zealand, including all offshore islands, and must be renewed every 7 days. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 25 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Emergency
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Niger

Ministerial Communique No. 12/CM/2020 Declaring a State of Emergency

The decree by the Council of Ministers declares a nationwide "state of emergency," that among other provisions includes an overnight curfew in the city of Niamey, effective March 28. The curfew will be in effect for a two-week period between the hours of 7pm and 6am local time. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 27 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Emergency, Movement
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Nigeria

Ban on Gatherings

The government of Niger State issued an order banning gatherings of more than 50 people, indefinitely, to combat the spread of COVID-19. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: law
Date Introduced: 18 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly
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Nigeria

Lockdown on Bauchi State

Nigerian authorities announce a 14-day lockdown on Bauchi state to prevent further spread of coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Citizens are ordered to stay at home, with permission to leave to buy food and seek medical care between 10am and 4pm on Wednesdays and Saturdays only.

Type: order
Date Introduced: 1 Apr 2020
Issue(s): Movement
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Nigeria

Lockdown on Major Cities and States

The presidential order institutes a 14-day lockdown on individuals' movement in Abuja, Lagos, Ogun State and the Federal Capital Territory. The lockdown does not apply to hospital and medical institutions and certain commercial establishments including food, petroleum, electricity, and private security companies. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 30 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Movement
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Nigeria

Prohibition on Mass Gatherings

The Presidential Task Force on countering the coronavirus threat reiterates a ban on gatherings of 50 or more people. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 23 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly
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Nigeria

Data Use to Combat COVID-19

The Nigeria Governors' Forum has formed a partnership with MTN Nigeria, a telecommunication and internet service provider, to use subscriber data to combat COVID-19. The partnership has raised concerns over information sharing, privacy, and the protection of human rights. The data that will be used to develop services relating to COVID-19 will be personal information that was not originally shared or intended for this purpose. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: practice
Date Introduced: 5 Apr 2020
Issue(s): Surveillance, Privacy
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North Macedonia

Decision on Measures to Prevent the Introduction and Spread of Coronavirus

Among other things, the new measures include a prohibition on indoor or outdoor gatherings of any size, and provide for criminal penalties in case of violation. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: law
Date Introduced: 13 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly
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North Macedonia

Measures and Recommendations from the 23rd Session of the Government

The Ministry of Interior has the mandate to undertake "appropriate measures" against people that spread disinformation on social media in relation to COVID, and against media outlets that further disseminate that information. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 3 May 2020
Issue(s): Disinformation, Expression
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North Macedonia

Measures and Recommendations from the 25th, 26th, and 28th Session of the Government

The measures impose a ban on movement from 9pm-5am during the week, and from 4pm-5am during the weekend, with exceptions for emergencies. The measures also ban the movement of persons older than 67 from 11am-5am. Gatherings of groups larger than 5 people in public places and spaces are also prohibited. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 21 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Movement
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North Macedonia

State of Emergency

The presidential order establishes a one-month "state of emergency" due to the coronavirus. The order is issued under Article 125 of the Constitution, as the parliament was unable to convene. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 18 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Emergency
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Norway

Corona Act

The temporary law is an enabling act that gives the Government the authority to supplement or depart from existing law as needed to respond to the coronavirus pandemic. The Parliament must be notified and retains some power to block such moves. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: law
Date Introduced: 21 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Emergency
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Oman

Supreme Covid-19 Control Committee Decision

The Committee decision prohibits all Ramadan gatherings, such as iftar meals and barbecues, at mosques or in any other public place. The Committee also bans social, sports, cultural and recreational activities, and extends the lockdown of Muscat Governorate through May 8. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 20 Apr 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Movement
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Oman

Suspension of Newspapers and Ban on Gatherings

The Supreme Committee for Dealing with COVID-19 orders all newspapers, magazines, and other publications to cease printing, and prohibits the circulation and sale of imported newspapers, magazines, and publications as well. The order also bans gatherings of any kind in public places, and provides that violators will be sanctioned. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 22 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Press Freedom, Expression, Access to Information
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Oman

Drones to Limit Social Gatherings

Oman authorities are using drones to patrol areas and limit social gatherings. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: practice
Date Introduced: 6 Apr 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Surveillance, Privacy
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Pakistan

Ministry Order Deploying Military Forces

The Ministry of Interior order authorizes the deployment of Pakistan Army troops "in connection with the prevailing situation related to the spread of COVID-19 and matters ancillary thereto."

Type: order
Date Introduced: 23 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Militarization
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Pakistan

Lockdown of Sindh Province

The government of Sindh province issues a complete ban on movement and gatherings of any kind for any purpose at any place, with limited exceptions for gatherings of essential workers.

Type: order
Date Introduced: 22 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Movement
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Palestine

Emergency Order No. 1 of 2020

The decision, issued by the Prime Minister pursuant to his emergency powers, among other things restricts individuals' movement among governorates; prohibits gatherings of people including meetings, workshops, conferences, and demonstrations; and closes educational facilities and houses of worship. The decision also prohibits officials from making "any statement" to the press without permission from the Prime Minister. The decision generally prohibits all individuals from "dealing with any rumors or untrustworthy information, and the transferring and broadcasting thereof," and indicates that individuals should obtain information "from official sources only." The Prime Minister's decision orders all national security forces to ensure the decision's implementation, while protecting individuals' rights and freedoms.

(See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 6 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Disinformation, Press Freedom, Expression, Access to Information, Movement, Militarization
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Palestine

Announcement of State of Emergency and Initial Imposition of Restrictions

President Mahmoud Abbas declares a state of emergency in all of the Palestinian territories for thirty days on account of the coronavirus. The declaration affords the Prime Minster all necessary powers and indicates that competent authorities should take "all necessary measures" to combat the virus. 

(See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 5 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Emergency
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Panama

Executive Order No. 490 Declaring a Curfew in the Republic of Panama

The Decree imposes a curfew from 9pm until 5am with limited exceptions, in order to combat the spread of coronavirus. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 17 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Movement
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Panama

Resolution No. 11 Declaring a National State of Emergency and Other Provisions

Declaring a "state of emergency" on account of the coronavirus. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 13 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Emergency
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Paraguay

Law No. 6524 Declaring a State of Emergency

The law declares a nationwide "state of emergency" and establishes administrative, labor, corporate, and financial measures to deal with the covid-19 pandemic. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: law
Date Introduced: 26 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Emergency
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Paraguay

Resolution No. 90 of the Ministry of Public Health and Social Wellbeing

The regulation suspends large public and private gatherings, all events in enclosed spaces, and all educational activities. Noncompliance is subject to sanctions established by Law No. 836/1980, the Sanitary Code. The regulation is in place for 15 days but may be extended. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: regulation
Date Introduced: 10 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly
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Peru

No. 044-2020-PCM Declaring a State of Emergency

The decree declares a "state of emergency" on account of the coronavirus pandemic. The decree suspends individual rights under the Constitution of Peru, including the right to peacefully assemble, the right to freedom of movement, and the requirement that the government must have a warrant before it may arrest someone. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 15 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency, Movement
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Philippines

Act No. 11469 for the Nation to Heal As One

The law grants the president numerous broad and exceptional powers to deal with the pandemic. The law also provides in Section 6(6) that “spreading false information regarding the COVID-19 crisis on social media and other platforms” is punishable by up to two months in jail and fines of up to one million pesos ($19,500). (See primary source or citation here)

Type: law
Date Introduced: 24 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Disinformation, Expression
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Philippines

Proclamation No. 929 Declaring a State of Calamity

The executive proclamation declares a nationwide "state of calamity" under Section 15(2) of the Constiution, due to the coronavirus, for six months unless lifted or extended “as the circumstances may warrant." The proclamation imposes an enhanced community quarantine throughout the island of Luzon, which includes the capital Manila, from March 17 to April 13. It also directs all law enforcement agencies, "with support from the Armed Forces," to take "all necessary measures" to ensure order in affected areas. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 16 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Emergency, Movement, Militarization
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Philippines

Proclamation No. 922 Declaring a State of Public Health Emergency

The proclamation declares a "state of public health emergency" under section 15(2) of the Constitution, and authorizes deployment of the Philippine National Police and other law enforcement agencies to provide assistance in addressing Covid-19. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 8 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Emergency
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Poland

Cellphone App to Monitor Quarantine Compliance

The government launched a cellphone app that allows police to monitor individuals' compliance with quarantine; those who do not are subject to a fine of up to PLN 5,000. The app includes facial recognition technology. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: practice
Date Introduced: 19 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Surveillance, Privacy
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Portugal

Decree No. 2-A of 2020 Declaring a State of Emergency

The presidential decree declares a state of emergency to limit the spread of the coronavirus. The measures include significant restrictions on movement throughout the country, and a prohibition on public gatherings. The decree is in place for an initial two weeks, and can be extended. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 18 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency, Movement
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Qatar

Law No. 9 Amending Law No. 17 of 1990 Regarding the Protection from Infectious Diseases to Assess with Combating COVID-19

Emir Sheikh Tamim Bin Hamad Al-Thani issued Amendments to Law No. 17. The amendments require certain individuals, including heads of households and office managers, to report to authorities if they suspect that a person has an infectious disease. The amendments also provide for up to three years in prison and a 200,000 Qatari Riyal fine in the case of noncompliance with this requirement or failure to comply with quarantine rules. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 26 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Privacy
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Qatar

Mandatory Contact-Tracing Application

Participation in Qatar's contact-tracing application was mandated "until further notice" starting May 22. The app, Ehtiraz, uses real-time GPS and Bluetooth location tracking, and uploads collected data to a centralized government database for health officials' use in tracing possible COVID-19 infections. Citizens and residents are required to have the app installed on their mobile devices when leaving their homes. Failure to have the app installed could lead to a fine of $55,000 or three years in prison. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: practice
Date Introduced: 26 May 2020
Issue(s): Surveillance, Privacy
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Romania

No. 195 on the Establishment of a State of Emergency in the Territory of Romania

The decree declares a one-month "state of emergency" on account of the coronavirus pandemic. According to the decree, the following rights may be restricted during a state of emergency: freedom of movement, freedom of assembly, privacy, education, private property, and the right to strike. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 16 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency, Privacy, Movement
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Russia

Law No. 98-ФЗ Amending Certain Legislative Acts of the Russian Federation on the Prevention and Response of Emergencies

The law gives the prime minister the power to declare a nationwide state of emergency on account of "the spread of a disease that poses danger to others" and to establish mandatory rules of conduct. The law also provides that elections and referenda may be postponed when a state of emergency is in effect. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: law
Date Introduced: 1 Apr 2020
Issue(s): Elections
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Russia

Law No. 100-FZ Introducing Changes to the Criminal Code and Criminal Procedure Code

The amendments to Russia's Criminal Code establish new penalties for violations of quarantine orders, according to which an individual who violates the orders may be punished with fines or prison time--ranging from 40,000 rubles ($640) to up to 7 years in prison if the quarantine violation causes two or more deaths. The amendments also establish that public dissemination of false information that threatens the public health during an emergency is punishable by 3 years in prison, or up to 5 years if it leads to "grave consequences." (See primary source or citation here)

Type: law
Date Introduced: 1 Apr 2020
Issue(s): Disinformation, Press Freedom, Expression, Access to Information, Movement
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Russia

Decree of the Mayor of Moscow No. 26-УМ

The Mayoral decree among other things prohibits gatherings of more than 50 individuals. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 23 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly
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Rwanda

Nationwide Prohibition on Non-Essential Movement

The notice institutes a complete ban on individuals' movement from their homes, except for essential services, for an initial 14-day period. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 21 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Movement
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Saint Lucia

Week-Long, 24-Hour Curfew

The government ordered a 24-hour curfew from April 1 to April 7. During the curfew, individuals are allowed to leave their homes only for medical emergencies, and only with written authorization from the National Emergency Management Organization (NEMO). (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 31 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Movement
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Samoa

Amended State of Emergency Orders for COVID-19

The order extends Samoa's state of emergency, newly prohibits all international travel, prescribes the operating hours of essential businesses, and prohibits gatherings of 5 or more. The order also sets forth penalties for violations: Failure to comply is subject to a $200 fine and detention for up to 3 months; violators who are convicted of an offense are liable to a fine of up to $10,000 and up to one year in prison. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 18 Apr 2020
Issue(s): Assembly
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Samoa

State of Emergency

The decree establishes a "state of emergency" and closes Samoa's borders. Public gatherings are restricted to no more than five people. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 21 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency
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San Marino

Law-Decree No. 51 Introducing Urgent Measures to Contain and Manage the COVID19-related Emergency (Coronavirus)

The decree shuts down all commercial activities except for pharmacies, food shops, petrol stations and newsagents. All schools are suspended, but farming is allowed to continue. The decree also bans movement out of the state without proper justification and gatherings of any nature. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 14 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Movement
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Senegal

No. 2020-830 Proclaiming a State of Emergency

The presidential decree proclaims a national "state of emergency." Among other things the proclamation imposes curfews and empowers administrative officials to ban public gatherings, close public spaces, and limit travel between different regions. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 23 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency, Movement
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Senegal

Order No. 007782 Relating to the Provisional Ban on Demonstrations or Rallies

The order prohibits all demonstrations or gatherings of people in outdoor or indoor places, for one month. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 14 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly
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Serbia

Decree Centralizing the Distribution of Information on the Coronavirus

The decree provided that the Crisis Headquarters led by the Prime Minister is the sole source of information about the pandemic, and that information from unauthorized sources must not be considered accurate or verified. The order also provided for legal consequences for spreading disinformation during the state of emergency. Following criticism of the decree and the arrest of at least one journalist for her reporting on the pandemic, the Prime Minister announced on April 2--less than one week after the decree's introduction--that it would be revoked. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 28 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Disinformation, Press Freedom, Expression, Access to Information
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Serbia

No. 39 of 2020 Banning Public Indoor Gatherings

The order prohibits public indoor gatherings of more than five people, throughout Serbia, in order to combat the spread of Covid-19. The order provides for limited exceptions, including employees of public institutions. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 21 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly
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Serbia

Restrictions and Prohibitions on Movement of Persons

The order imposes a curfew from 5pm to 5am on weekdays, during which individuals may not leave their homes, and prohibits elderly persons from leaving their homes except for Saturdays from 4pm to 7pm. The order also prohibits groups of two or more people from standing or moving together in a public place. The order exempts essential workers and citizens seeking medical care. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 18 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Movement
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Serbia

State of Emergency

The decree, issued under Article 200(5) of the Constitution, declares a "state of emergency" throughout Serbia on account of the coronavirus. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 15 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Emergency
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Sierra Leone

Nationwide Lockdown

The Defence Minister and National Covid Response Coordinator announce a three-day nationwide lockdown as a containment measure against the spread of the virus. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 5 Apr 2020
Issue(s): Movement
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Sierra Leone

State of Emergency

The president declares a "state of emergency" for one year. The state of emergency includes deployement of the armed forces and police across the country to enforce compliance with all public health directives. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 25 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Emergency, Militarization
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Singapore

Amendment to the Employment of Foreign Manpower (Work Passes) Regulations 2012

The amended regulations impose a new requirement on most migrant workers living in Singapore, such that they must obtain permission from their employer before they may leave their living facilities. The amended regulations refer to Singapore's COVID-19 (Temporary Measures) (Control Order) Regulations of 2020, but they are not pegged to those regulations or otherwise time-limited. As of late June, an estimated 94% of COVID-19 cases in Singapore were migrant workers living in crowded dormitories. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: law
Date Introduced: 2 Jun 2020
Issue(s): Discrimination, Movement
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Singapore

The COVID-19 (Temporary Measures) Act 2020

Among other things, the law allows the Health Minister to enact "Control Orders" for the purpose of preventing or controlling COVID-19 transmission, including orders to restrict the movement of or contact between people; limiting access to certain places; and prohibiting or restricting participation in any event or gathering in any premises. Failure to comply with the orders may be punished with a fine of up to $10,000, and jail for up to six months. Multiple violations of the rules will result in a doubled penalty. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: law
Date Introduced: 7 Apr 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Movement
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Singapore

The COVID-19 (Temporary Measures) (Control Order) Regulation 2020

The regulations ban gatherings among any individuals who do not live together. Gatherings in public spaces are also prohibited. The regulations further limit the reasons for which people are allowed to leave their homes. Failure to comply with these rules may be punished with a fine of up to $10,000, and jail for up to six months. Multiple violations of the rules will result in a doubled penalty. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: regulation
Date Introduced: 7 Apr 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Movement
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Singapore

Foreign Workers Required to Use Tracing App

The Minister of Health has ordered that all migrant workers living in dormitories must download the national contact tracing app, TraceTogether, by June 19. The app, which is not mandatory for other residents, requires that users register with their foreign identification number or passport number. A separate app, the SGWorkPass, indicates which migrant workers are allowed to leave their dormitories and resume work. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: policy
Date Introduced: 16 Jun 2020
Issue(s): Discrimination, Surveillance, Privacy, Movement
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Singapore

SafeEntry Tracing App

Businesses and certain other venues are required to use the SafeEntry system, which allows visitors to check into and out of their premises by scanning their smartphones or identification card. The system is linked directly to the Minister of Health. The website for the system indicates that "data collected by SafeEntry is only used by authorised personnel, and stringent measures are in place to safeguard the data in accordance with the Government’s data security standards." (See primary source or citation here)

Type: practice
Date Introduced: 9 May 2020
Issue(s): Surveillance, Privacy
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Slovakia

State of Emergency

The government declares a state of emergency in relation to the coronavirus pandemic. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 12 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Emergency
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Slovenia

Ordinance on the Temporary Prohibition on Public Gathering

The ordinance temporarily prohibits individuals from gathering at public meetings and other events in public places, in order to contain the spread of the Covid-19 epidemic. The prohibition remains in place until revoked. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: regulation
Date Introduced: 19 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly
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Solomon Islands

Emergency Powers (Covid-19) Regulations 2020

The regulations, issued under the Emergency Powers Act in response to the COVID-19 pandemic, grant the Prime Minister a range of powers, including the power to: (1) temporarily close public spaces or declare public spaces to be emergency zones and restrict the freedoms of movement and assembly in these emergency zones; (2) suspend access to media outlets and online media outlets if these are found to publish and/or disseminate false information that is likely to create public alarm or that constitutes a threat to public peace and safety; (3) suspend any trade union for any duration during the emergency period and deregister any trade union that contravenes an official government Order; and (4) terminate any public servant that publicly criticizes or contradicts the government or its policies. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: regulation
Date Introduced: 26 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Association, Assembly, Disinformation, Press Freedom, Expression, Access to Information, Movement
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South Africa

Disaster Management Regulations of 2020

Among other things, the regulations criminalize making statements intended to deceive another person about any measure taken by the government to address COVID-19. The regulations also prohibit gatherings of more than 100 people. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 18 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Disinformation, Press Freedom, Expression, Access to Information
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South Africa

State of Disaster

The declaration establishes a "state of disaster" under section 27(2) of the Disaster Management Act No. 57 of 2002, due to the coronavirus. The declaration includes a ban on public gatherings of more than 100 people, as well as border and internal travel restrictions. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 15 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency
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South Africa

Repeal and Replacement of Regulations Issued under Sections 27(2) of the Disaster Management Act

The regulations repeals a number of prior orders and regulations issued under the Disaster Management Act, but retain a ban on all public gatherings except at funerals (which are limited to 50 people), workplaces, and gatherings for purchase of commodities. The regulation also provides for a system of contact tracing, and establishes a national COVID-19 Tracing Database. The Database will include the identification and contact information for all persons tested for COVID-19, and the details of known or suspected contacts of any person who tested positive for COVID-19. Within six weeks of the end of the State of Disaster, the Database information must be anonymized; anonymous information may be retained for research and any other information must be destroyed. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: regulation
Date Introduced: 29 Apr 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Surveillance, Privacy, Movement
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South Africa

Electronic Communications, Postal and Telecommunications Directions

The regulations create numerous obligations for private actors: radio services are required to stream public announcements on COVID; internet providers are obliged to remove "fake news" from their platforms immediately after identifying it; and national address systems and databases must be made available to assist government in tracking and tracing indivudals infected or exposed. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: regulation
Date Introduced: 26 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Disinformation, Press Freedom, Expression, Access to Information
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South Korea

Amendments to Infectious Disease Control and Prevention Act No. 14286

Allows the government to criminally prosecute suspected patients who refuse to get tested for the virus with a fine of up to 3,000,000 KRW (~$3,000). The amendment also significantly increases the potential penalty for breaking quarantine to up to one year of imprisonment or a fine of 10,000,000 KRW (~$10,000) for the offense. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: law
Date Introduced: 4 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Movement
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South Korea

Infectious Disease Control and Prevention Act No. 14286

The Act, amended following the MERS epidemic in 2016 and again in 2020, gives the minister of health extensive legal authority to collect private data, without a warrant, from individuals already confirmed or suspected of having an infectious disease. The Act also allows authorities to send the whereabouts of certain patients to all smartphones in the patients' vicinity via an emergency text. The Act also allows authorities to “restrict or prohibit performances, assemblies, religious ceremonies, or any other large gathering of people.” (See primary source or citation here)

Type: law
Date Introduced: 2 Dec 2016
Issue(s): Assembly, Surveillance, Privacy
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South Sudan

Ministerial Order No. 1 Imposing Curfew

The Minister of Interior's order institutes a daily curfew between 8pm and 6am. Persons providing essential services are exempt from the curfew but are required to carry special permits.

Type: order
Date Introduced: 25 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Movement
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Spain

Decree No. 463/2020, Declaring a State of Alarm to Manage the Health Crisis Caused by Covid-19

The royal decree institutes a 15-day nationwide "state of alarm," due to the coronavirus pandemic. Among other measures, the decree limits individual movement to certain essential activities (procuring food or medical care), suspends operation of non-essential businesses, and centralizes control of health services and other critical government functions. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 19 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Emergency, Movement
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Sri Lanka

President of Sri Lanka Announcement on Curfew

The order imposes a curfew from 4pm-6am every day. Traveling to and from other districts is completely prohibited (except for individuals who are providing essential services). The order further designates some villages as isolated areas, in which no one is allowed to enter or leave. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 20 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Movement
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Sri Lanka

Arrests for False Information

Sri Lanka’s police announced that it would arrest those who disseminate false or disparaging statements about government officials combating the spread of the Covid-19 virus. The next day, five persons were arrested on charges of posting false and misleading content about COVID-19 on social media.

(See primary source or citation here)
Type: practice
Date Introduced: 1 Apr 2020
Issue(s): Disinformation, Expression
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Sudan

Lockdown in Major Cities

Authorities announced a three-week lockdown in Khartoum and Omdurman. Essential services such as supermarkets and pharmacies will remain open, but only for limited periods. Individuals will be allowed limited movement within their neighborhoods to purchase necessities. A nighttime curfew is in effect nationwide from 8pm to 6am, and a ban on domestic travel remains in place. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 18 Apr 2020
Issue(s): Movement
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Sudan

Curfew and Ban on Public Gatherings

The government imposes a nighttime curfew nationwide from 10pm to 6am. The curfew followed a nationwide ban on mass gatherings, instituted on March 20. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 24 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Movement
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Suriname

Countrywide Lockdown

Suriname imposed a shelter-in-place policy, announcing a total lockdown from June 4 until June 12, prohibiting nonessential movement, installing curfews for essential businesses like bakeries, and prohibiting travel by car or taxi with more than two people at a time. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 3 Jun 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Movement
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Suriname

State of Emergency

The government act declares an exceptional emergency status in connection with the COVID-19 pandemic, under Article 72(c) of the Constitution. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 9 Apr 2020
Issue(s): Emergency
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Sweden

Ordinance No. 114 Banning the Holding of Public Gatherings and Events

The ordinance prohibits events and assemblies larger than 50 people "for the time being," on account of the epidemic, and allows local officials to restrict smaller gatherings as well. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: regulation
Date Introduced: 12 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly
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Switzerland

Regulation No. 2 on Measures to Combat the Corona Virus

As amended, the regulation, issued under the Epidemics Act, prohibits any gatherings of 5 or more people in public areas. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: regulation
Date Introduced: 13 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly
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Switzerland

Regulation on Measures to Combat the Corona Virus

The regulation, issued under the Epidemics Act, prohibits public and private events of 1,000 or more people. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: regulation
Date Introduced: 28 Feb 2020
Issue(s): Assembly
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Syria

Election Postponement

Syria postponed parliamentary elections due to COVID-19. The elections, originally scheduled for 13 April 2020, were postponed for the second time, to 19 July 2020. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 7 May 2020
Issue(s): Elections
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Syria

Ban on Domestic Travel

The government has barred individuals' travel between cities and governorates starting March 29, 2020, until further notice, to combat the spread of coronavirus. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 29 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Movement
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Taiwan

Electronic Security Monitoring System

The monitoring system tracks individuals using the GPS on their mobile devices. The system sends warning text messages to quarantined individuals who attempt to leave their homes, as well as to local government officials and the Central Epidemic Command Center. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: practice
Date Introduced: 18 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Surveillance, Privacy
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Tanzania

Ban on Public Gatherings

The government institutes a 30-day prohibition on public gatherings, including rallies and other political gatherings. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 17 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly
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Thailand

Order Issued under Thailand’s 2005 Decree on Administration in Emergency Situations

The ministerial decree among other things bars “reporting or spreading of information regarding COVID-19 which is untrue and may cause public fear, as well as deliberate distortion of information which causes misunderstanding and hence affects peace and order or public morals.” The decree empowers authorities to order journalists and media groups to “correct” reports deemed incorrect, and allows authorities to pursue charges against journalists under the Computer Crimes Act, which allows for five-year prison penalties for violations. The decree also bans all gatherings. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 25 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Disinformation, Press Freedom, Expression, Access to Information
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Togo

Declaration of National Health Emergency and Curfew

In his address, the president declares a three-month nationwide "health emergency," and a six-month period of exceptional lawmaking authority under Article 86 of the Constitution. A nationwide curfew will also be in place between 7pm and 6am, beginning April 2. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 1 Apr 2020
Issue(s): Emergency, Movement
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Togo

Prohibition on Mass Gatherings

The Council of Ministers issued a series of decisions to address the pandemic, including the cancellation of all international events in Togo for three weeks, and a one-month prohibition on gatherings of 100 or more persons. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 16 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly
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Tonga

State of Emergency

The government declares a "state of emergency," to prevent the spread of COVID-19. During the state of emergency, foreign nationals are banned from entering Tonga, and Tongan nationals must be quarantined for 14-days upon arrival. Public gatherings are restricted to a maximum of 20 people, and all concerts, sports events, funerals, weddings, and birthdays are banned. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 20 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency
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Tunisia

Law No. 30 of 2020 Granting Prime Minister Power to Issue Decrees to Combat the Spread of Covid-19

Under Article 70 of Tunisia's Constitution, the Parliament adopted a law allowing the Prime Minister to issue decrees for two months without referring to the legislature. After the two-month period, any decrees issued by the prime minister will be submitted to parliament for ratification. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: law
Date Introduced: 4 Apr 2020
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Tunisia

Governmental Decree No. 2020-152 of 13 March 2020

The decree declares COVID-19 a communicable disease, governed by Law No. 92-71 of 1992 on communicable diseases, which allows authorities to apply quarantine, prevention, and control measures. The declaration also allows the government to impose criminal sanctions provided for in other legislation, such as Article 312 of the Penal Code, which provides that anyone who contravenes prohibitions and prophylactic or control measures ordered in times of epidemic can be punished with six months' imprisonment and a fine. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 13 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Movement
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Tunisia

Contact-Tracing App Raises Privacy Concerns

Tunisia's contact-tracing application tracks individuals' whereabouts in real time, using Bluetooth signals and GPS location data, to detect users who may have had contact with individuals infected with COVID-19. The app uploads location data and personal information including phone numbers to a centralized database that is accessible to the National Observatory of Emerging Diseases. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: practice
Date Introduced: 19 May 2020
Issue(s): Surveillance, Privacy
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Tunisia

Arrests for Criticism of Government's COVID Response

Authorities have arrested journalists, bloggers, activists, and others after they criticized the government's response to the pandemic. Individuals who have criticized officials' failure to abide by COVID-19 safety measures, or officials' distribution of pandemic aid, have faced various charges under Tunisia's Penal Code, including “causing noises and disturbances to the public” (Article 316); “insulting a civil servant” (Article 125); and “accusing public officials of crimes related to their jobs without furnishing proof of guilt” (Article 128), among others. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: practice
Date Introduced: 28 Apr 2020
Issue(s): Disinformation, Press Freedom, Expression
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Tunisia

Deployment of Surveillance Robots

The Interior Ministry has deployed surveillance robots in parts of the capital, Tunis, to ensure that individuals are observing the government's lockdown orders. Individuals approached by the robot must present their ID and papers for the police to verify remotely. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: practice
Date Introduced: 3 Apr 2020
Issue(s): Surveillance, Privacy
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Turkey

Coronavirus Measures of the Ministry of Tourism and Culture Letter No. E.48575

The order prohibits CSOs from conducting general assembly meetings online. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 9 Apr 2020
Issue(s): Association, Assembly
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Turkey

Curfew Circular on Those 65 and Over and with Chronic Diseases

Turkey's Ministry of Interior restricted citizens over the age of 65, as well as the chronically ill, from leaving their residence. These citizens are prohibited from walking in public areas such as parks and roads, and may not travel by public transport. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 21 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Movement
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Turkey

Additional Circular on Coronavirus Measures to Provincial Governorships

The circular postpones all meetings and activities of civil society organizations that bring people physically together, including trainings, workshops, and general assembly meetings. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 16 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Association, Assembly
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Turkey

Pandemic Isolation Tracking Project

The Turkish Health Ministry launches the “Pandemic Isolation Tracking Project” to ensure COVID-19 patients are following quarantine measures. Downloading the app is mandatory for all confirmed coronavirus patients, and those found to be leaving their homes will receive automated text messages and calls. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: practice
Date Introduced: 9 Apr 2020
Issue(s): Surveillance, Privacy
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Turkey

Arrests for Covid-Related Social Media

According to the Interior Minister, the government has arrested more than 400 people for "provocative" posts about the coronavirus outbreak on social media. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: practice
Date Introduced: 25 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Disinformation, Expression
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Uganda

Nationwide Lockdown

The presidential order declares a 14-day nationwide lockdown beginning April 1, to prevent further spread of the coronavirus. The order prohibits movement by private vehicles and imposes a curfew from 7pm until 6:30am as of March 31. All members of the public, except for individuals transporting cargo, are instructed to stay indoors. The order also prohibits gatherings of more than five people.

Type: order
Date Introduced: 1 Apr 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Movement
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Uganda

The Public Health (Control of COVID-19) Rules 2020

The presidential directive among other things prohibits educational, religious, and political gatherings including "rallies, conferences, elections" for 32 days.

(See primary source or citation here)
Type: order
Date Introduced: 18 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly
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Ukraine

On Amendments to the Law of Ukraine "On Protection of the Population from Infectious Diseases" on Prevention of the Spread of Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19)

As amended, the law allows for the processing of personal data (health status, place of hospitalization or self-isolation, name, date of birth, place of residence) without consent. The data must be used solely for the purpose of implementing anti-epidemic measures. These provisions are adopted only for the period of quarantine and 30 days after its termination, at which point all such data shall be impersonalized. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: law
Date Introduced: 13 Apr 2020
Issue(s): Privacy
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Ukraine

Resolution No. 211 on Prevention of the Spread of COVID-19

The government's resolution among other things prohibits individuals from remaining in public places without a facemask or a respirator; congregating in groups of more than two persons (except for exigencies of work and accompanying children); visiting parks, public gardens, and other outdoor areas (except for pets walking with one person and in case of emergency); and being on the streets without ID cards. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 3 Apr 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Movement
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Ukraine

Declaring an Emergency Situation

The Cabinet of Ministers introduces a 30-day "emergency situation regime" throughout Ukraine. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 25 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Emergency
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United Arab Emirates

Council of Ministers Decision Regarding the Publication and Exchange of Health Information Related to Communicable Diseases and Epidemics

The decision prohibits any person from publishing or circulating false or misleading health information that is not officially announced or approved by the Ministry of Health. Violations are subject to a fine of up to $5,500. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 18 Apr 2020
Issue(s): Disinformation, Expression
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United Arab Emirates

Cabinet Resolution No. 17 of 2020

The Resolution establishes that no person shall violate the preventative and precautionary measures, instructions, and duties issued by the Ministry of Health & Prevention, Ministry of Interior, or the National Emergency, Crisis, and Disaster Management Authority. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 24 Mar 2020
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United Arab Emirates

Resolution No. 38 on Penalties to Contain Coronavirus

The Attorney General's resolution stipulates fines for various violations of Cabinet Resolution No. 17 to contain the spread of Covid-19. The penalties include a fine of AED 10,000 ($2,700) for "organizing gatherings or meetings" or "being present in groups at public places or private farms," and a fine of AED 50,000 ($13,600) for failure to comply with quarantine instructions. The resolution provides that repeat violators will be referred to the public prosecutor. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: regulation
Date Introduced: 28 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Movement
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United Arab Emirates

Action Under the Federal Criminal Law and the Federal Law to Combat Cybercrime

The Attorney General states that UAE security authorities will impose harsh penalties ranging from one to several years in prison for spreading false information about the coronavirus on social media. Individuals will be held accountable according to the articles of the Federal Criminal Law and the Federal Law to Combat Cybercrime.  (See primary source or citation here)

Type: practice
Date Introduced: 16 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Disinformation, Expression
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United Kingdom

Coronavirus Act 2020

The Act gives UK authorities emergency powers to address the coronavirus pandemic, including the power to detain individuals deemed “potentially infectious" and put them in isolation facilities. Individuals who fail to comply may be subject to a £1,000 fine. The Act also enables the government to restrict public events and other gatherings to prevent or otherwise control the spread of coronavirus. Under the Act, surveillance warrants may be in place for up to twelve days before they must be reviewed by judicial authorities, up from the current three days. The Act must be renewed by parliament every six months. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: law
Date Introduced: 26 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency, Surveillance, Privacy, Movement
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United States

Executive Order 2020-67 (COVID-19)

The Governor of Michigan declared a state of emergency under the Emergency Management Act on March 10, 2020. Under the Act, both houses of the legislature must approve a request to extend the state of emergency, otherwise it expires after 28 days. While both houses agreed to extend the emergency until April 30, they did not agree to extend it further. In response, on April 29, the Governor declared the emergency over, but she then declared a new emergency under the Emergency Management Act one minute later on the same day, thus triggering a new, 28-day period in which the emergency is in effect, but does not require legislative approval. 

(See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 29 Apr 2020
Issue(s): Emergency
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United States

States of Emergency in All 50 States

As of April 7, 2020, all 50 U.S. states have declared a "state of emergency" in response to COVID-19. 42 states have issued orders urging residents to stay at home. Several of the remaining states have stay at home orders in parts of the state. Washington State was the first to declare a state of emergency on March 2, 2020. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 7 Apr 2020
Issue(s): Emergency, Movement
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United States

Banning Spread of False Information in Puerto Rico

The order by Puerto Rico's governor makes it illegal for media outlets or social media accounts “to transmit or allow the transmission” of “false information with the intention of creating confusion, panic, or public hysteria, with regards to any proclamation or executive order declaring an emergency, disaster or curfew.” (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 6 Apr 2020
Issue(s): Disinformation, Press Freedom, Expression, Access to Information
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United States

Measures to Contain the Spread of Coronavirus in Puerto Rico

The governor's executive order establishes a lockdown, requiring residents to stay in their homes 24 hours a day, seven days a week between March 31 and April 12, 2020. The order provides limited circumstances for leaving between 5am and 7pm. Under the order, "breaching, disrespecting, or disobeying" the curfew may be punished with up to 6 months in jail and a $5000 fine. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 30 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Movement
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United States

Proclamation on Declaring a National Emergency Concerning the Novel Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Outbreak

Declares that the Covid-19 outbreak constitutes a "national emergency." (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 13 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Emergency
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United States

Measures Affecting Public Record Requests and Public Meeting Requirements

Federal agencies and state and local governments have issued a mix of policy directives, orders, and laws regarding the impact of COVID-19 on public record requests and public meeting requirements. Some states, such as New Jersey or Washington DC, have suspended deadlines for responding to public record requests for the duration of the emergency. With regard to public meeting requirements, most states have changed their rules to allow for virtual meetings that the public can observe, but some, such as Illinois and Nebraska, have not explicitly provided for public participation in virtual meetings. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: policy
Date Introduced: 1 Apr 2020
Issue(s): Access to Information
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Uzbekistan

Amendments to the Criminal Code, Criminal Procedural Code, and Code on Administrative Offenses

The amendments substantially increase liability for violation of medical and quarantine procedures, including criminal liability for distributing "false" information related to quarantine or infectious diseases, with more severe penalties for sharing such information in the media or internet -- up to a $10,000 fine and three years imprisonment. The amendments also introduce administrative fines for failure to use medical masks in public places while in a quarantine regime, amongst other provisions. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: law
Date Introduced: 26 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Disinformation, Press Freedom, Expression, Access to Information
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Uzbekistan

Decision of the Special Republican Commission

The Decision establishes a strict self-isolation regime for Tashkent, Nukus, and regional centers. Persons older than 65 are prohibited from leaving their homes except to visit pharmacies or grocery stores. The decision also temporarily suspends the organization of private charitable events. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 1 Apr 2020
Issue(s): Movement
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Venezuela

Decree No. 4.161 Declaring a State of Alarm

The presidential decree declares a nationwide "state of alarm" for thirty days, renewable for one month at a time. Among other things, the decree prohibits public gatherings and authorizes the competent authorities to take "all necessary measures" to enforce orders related to quarantine and isolation. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 13 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency
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Vietnam

Directive 16/TT-TTg on Implementation of Urgent Measures for Prevention and Control of COVID-19

The directive requires people to self-isolate at home. Exceptions include buying food or medicine, working at factories or production facilities trading in essential services and goods, and other emergency cases. The directive also requires that people maintain an interpersonal distance of at least two meters, and not gather in groups of more than two people outside of the workplace, schools, hospitals, and businesses that are allowed to remain open. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 1 Apr 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Movement
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Vietnam

Fines Issued Under Decree 15/2020/ND-CP regarding Law on Cyber Security

The Government's Department of Information and Communications has fined hundreds of individuals for posting incorrect information about the coronavirus outbreak. The fines are based on the Law on Cyber Security, which prohibits the spread of "fake news," broadly defined to include not only incorrect or misrepresented information, but also slander, insulting a person's "honor and dignity," and "causing confusion." Decree 15/2020/ND-CP, which came into effect on April 15, imposes fines of VND10m to VND20m ($425-$850) for posting or sharing fake news online. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: practice
Date Introduced: 15 Apr 2020
Issue(s): Disinformation, Expression
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Yemen

Decree 6 of 2020

The decree temporarily suspends production and distribution of paper copies of government and private newspapers, to combat the spread of the coronavirus. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 25 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Press Freedom, Expression, Access to Information
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Zambia

Public Health (Infected Areas) (Coronavirus Disease 2019) Regulations, No. 22 of 2020

The regulations among other things ban public gatherings of more than 5 people. They also provide that health officials may enter private premises without a warrant to "search for a case of Covid-19," and mandate that any individual suspected of having Covid-19 must be reported to health officials. The regulations provide that failure to comply with the regulations or a directive under the regulations shall be punished by a six-month prison sentence and a fine of 2,500 "penalty units." (See primary source or citation here)

Type: regulation
Date Introduced: 13 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Privacy
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Zimbabwe

SI No. 83 of 2020 on Public Health (COVID-19 Prevention, Containment and Treatment) (National Lockdown) Order

The order imposes a national lockdown for 21 days and prohibits all public gatherings of more than 2 people, with very limited exceptions, on account of the coronavirus pandemic. Anyone who violates the lockdown can be punished with a Level 12 fine and one year's imprisonment. A person found further than 5km from his home may be arrested without a warrant and put in detention, isolation, or quarantine. Any person who publishes or communicates “false news” about any official involved with enforcing the national lockdown, or about any private individual with the effect of harming the state’s enforcement of the lockdown, shall be liable to a penalty of up to a Level 14 fine or 20 years in prison or both. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 30 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Disinformation, Press Freedom, Expression, Access to Information, Movement
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Zimbabwe

SI No. 76 of 2020 Declaration of State of Disaster (COVID-19) Notice

The presidential directive declares a "state of disaster" per Section 27(2) of the Civil Protection Act, on account of the coronavirus pandemic. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 17 Mar 2020
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Zimbabwe

SI No. 77 of 2020 Public Health (COVID-19 Prevention, Containment and Treatment) Regulations

Promulgated under the Public Health Act, the regulations among other things prohibit all gatherings of over 100 people for any purpose. Enforcement officers can arrest and detain those who refuse to comply. Enforcement officers can also order anyone reasonably suspected of infection to submit to a medical exam, which may include but not be limited to the taking of a bodily sample. The regulations provide for criminal sanctions in case of violation, up to one year's imprisonment and Level 12 fine. The regulations are in place until May 20 and can be extended for one month at a time. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: regulation
Date Introduced: 23 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Privacy
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Zimbabwe

Regulation No. 1 of 2020 on Public Health (COVID-19 Prevention, Containment and Treatment) (Amendment)

Under the amended regulations, the prohibition on gatherings is extended to any gathering of two or more people. The amendments also alter the regulations issued in relation to COVID to include as "enforcement officers" (previously police and municipal police) members of the military. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: regulation
Date Introduced: 23 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Militarization
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