COVID-19 Civic Freedom Tracker

Keep Civic Space Healthy

This tracker monitors government responses to the pandemic that affect civic freedoms and human rights, focusing on emergency laws. For information about our methodology, click here.

For more information and analysis by region, click here.

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The COVID-19 Civic Freedom Tracker is a collaborative effort by the ICNL, ECNL, and our global network of partners, with generous research support from the UN Special Rapporteur on the promotion and protection of human rights and fundamental freedoms while countering terrorism, Fionnuala D. Ní Aoláin. This is an ongoing effort, and we welcome you to email us at adeblock@icnl.org and simona@ecnl.org to share additional resources.


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Afghanistan

Movement Restrictions

The Ministry of the Interior announced a ban on recreational activities and indicated that police officers are ordered to "deal seriously" with those in violation. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 17 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Movement

Type: order

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Albania

Amendments to the Law No. 7895, Criminal Code

Amendments introduce criminal penalties for non-compliance with measures against COVID-19 and during a state of emergency or during a state of epidemic, previously punishable as administrative offenses. For example, violation of quarantine or isolation rules imposed by the relevant state authorities, regardless of whether the person carries the virus or not, is punishable by 2-3 years imprisonment.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 16 Apr 2020

Issue(s): Emergency

Type: law

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Albania

Order No. 633

The Ministry of Health and Social Protection issued a ban on gatherings of more than 10 people in open and closed spaces, including political gatherings, holiday parties, wedding ceremonies, or funerals.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 17 Nov 2020

Issue(s): Assembly

Type: order

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Albania

Normative Act

The normative act, issued by the government without parliamentary approval per Article 101 of Albania's Constitution, provides for fines to be levied on anyone who violates measures to contain the coronavirus. Among other provisions, participating in or organizing a political, social, or cultural gathering is subject to a fine of 5 million lek (40,000 Euros).

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 15 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly

Type: order

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Albania

Military Enforcement of Curfew

Albania’s government deployed the army to enforce a strict 40-hour curfew aimed at stopping the spread of coronavirus.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 21 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Militarization

Type: practice

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Algeria

Law 20-06 Amending the Penal Code

The amendments increase prison sentences for defamation, and introduce new penalties including prison sentences for the dissemination of false information. Under the amendments, new offenders face prison sentences of between one and three years. In addition, penalties are heightened if the offence takes place “at a time of a public health lockdown or a natural, biological or technological catastrophe or any other form of catastrophe,” with first time offenders facing up to five years in prison.

قانون رقم 20-06 بشأن تعديل قانون العقوبات

تشدد التعديلات عقوبة السجن بتهمة التشهير، وتستحدث عقوبات جديدة تشمل السجن لنشر معلومات كاذبة. بموجب التعديلات، يواجه مرتكب الأفعال المجرمة عقوبة السجن لمدة تتراوح بين سنة وثلاث سنوات. بالإضافة إلى ذلك، تشدد العقوبات إذا وقعت الجريمة "في وقت يخضع لقيود تتعلق بالصحة العامة أو عند حدوث كارثة طبيعية أو بيولوجية أو تكنولوجية أو أي شكل آخر من الكوارث"، ويُعاقب الذين يرتكبون هذه الجرائم للمرة الأولى بالسجن لمدة تصل إلى خمس سنوات.

النوع: قانون

تاريخ النفاذ: 29 أبريل 2020

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 29 Apr 2020

Issue(s): Disinformation, Expression

Type: law

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Algeria

Ban on Public Gatherings

President Abdelmadjid Tebboune banned all protests, marches, demonstrations, and other mass gatherings, due to the coronavirus epidemic. His order also closes all public spaces suspected of being a hub for the virus.

 

حظر التجمعات العامة

أصدر الرئيس الجزائري أمرا بحظر جميع الاحتجاجات والمسيرات والمظاهرات والتجمعات العامة الأخرى بسبب وباء فيروس كورونا المستجد. أيضاً، يقضي القرار الذي أصدره بإغلاق جميع الأماكن العامة المشتبه في أن تكون بؤرة لانتشار الفيروس.

النوع: قرار

تاريخ النفاذ: 17 مارس 2020

التصنيف: حرية التجمع

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 17 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly

Type: order

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Algeria

Crackdown on Opposition Activism during Pandemic

Since the beginning of the pandemic, the Algerian government has arrested at least one prominent journalist, has lengthened the sentence of another on charges of "affronting national unity" and "affronting the morale of the army," and has issued summons for dozens of activists. Many of the summons and arrests are related to activists' posts on social media. According to critics, the government's actions amount to a crackdown on dissent, at a time when protests and marches remain prohibited on account of the virus. Although courts suspended some proceedings, they continued to process cases against anti-government activists. Additionally, while authorities granted amnesty to a number of prisoners to reduce prison population density and combat the spread of COVID-19, opposition activists were excluded from the amnesty. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 23 Apr 2020

Issue(s): Discrimination, Press Freedom, Expression, Access to Information

Type: practice

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Angola

State of Public Calamity

The state of calamity replaced the previous state of emergency on 26 May. Existing quarantine measures remain in Luanda province and around the Cazengo municipality (Cuanza Norte province). Travel in and out of Luanda and Cazengo remains prohibited and religious activities in these areas are also suspended. Gatherings of more than ten people are prohibited in public spaces, and no more than 15 people may gather in private spaces. Under the quarantine measures, a sanitary cordon can be established preventing the entry and exit of residents whenever the epidemiological situation requires it. In December 2020, all gatherings, including political rallies and protests were prohibited. A special recommendation is needed to move around during curfew hours between 10pm and 5am.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 26 May 2020 Continuously extended since introduction. Currently extended through 6/8/21.

Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency, Movement

Type: order

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Angola

Decree No. 82/20 on a State of Exception to Prevent and Control the Covid-19 Pandemic

The presidential decree declares a nationwide "state of exception." The decree grants the government power to limit individuals' freedom of movement and assembly, requisition private property, and forcibly confine people deemed likely to transmit COVID-19.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 27 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency, Movement

Type: order

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Angola

Police Brutality in Enforcing Lockdown

Angolan police have shot and killed a number of people in the course of enforcing lockdown measures. At least one video has circulated showing police violently assaulting a group of individuals for not complying with quarantine orders. In September 2020, hundreds marched in Angola’s capital to protest against police brutality after a doctor arrested for breaking anti-coronavirus rules died in custody.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 6 Aug 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement

Type: practice

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Argentina

General Prevention Measures Decree 235/2021

The Decree suspends social gatherings of more than 10 people in private homes, and limits general capacity for activities in closed spaces to 50%. In areas of "high epidemiological risk" the Decree suspends activities and social gatherings in closed spaces regardless of the number of people, and limits gatherings in open-air public spaces to no more than 20 individuals. The Decree also restricts movement between midnight and 6 a.m.

The Decree empowers governors to establish additional measures on a "temporary, proportional and reasonable basis."

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 8 Apr 2021

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement

Type: order

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Argentina

No. 297 of 2020 on Preventative and Mandatory Social Isolation

The decree mandates that all individuals self-isolate at their homes with minimal exceptions, in order to combat the spread of the coronavirus. The decree also prohibits gatherings of persons for any reason. According to the decree, the Ministry of Security will place permanent controls on public roads and routes as it deems necessary to limit movement and enforce compliance.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 19 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement

Type: order

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Argentina

Decree No. 298 on the Suspension of Administrative Deadlines

The decree suspends the usual deadlines for administrative processes regulated by the National Administrative Procedures Act No. 19.549, including the processing of requests for public information.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 19 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Access to Information

Type: order

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Argentina

Decree No. 260 Declaring a Public Health Emergency

Declares a one-year "public health emergency" under Law No. 27,541, due to the pandemic. 

Argentina extended the public health emergency when it expired in March 2020, until December 31, 2021. The emergency decree recommends travel restrictions to/from affected and higher risk areas, and leaves implementation in the hands of the "competent authorities".

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 12 Mar 2020 Extended through 31 December 2021

Issue(s): Emergency, Movement

Type: order

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Argentina

Restrictive Practices against Journalists, Protest, and Movement

Provincial authorities limited journalists’ ability to cover the situation in Formosa, used excessive force against those protesting COVID-19 measures, and severely restricted the ability of people from Clorinda to leave their city and get health care.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 26 Mar 2021

Issue(s): Assembly, Expression, Movement

Type: practice

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Argentina

"Cyber Patrols" of Social Media by the Ministry of Security

The Security Minister, Sabina Frederic, stated in a video conference that security forces are carrying out "cyber patrols" on social networks. In an effort to monitor "social humor" and curb misinformation about the coronavirus, the cyber patrols have resulted in at least 12 criminal cases against individuals accused of "public intimidation," a crime punishable by up to six years in prison.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 8 Apr 2020

Issue(s): Disinformation, Surveillance, Expression, Privacy

Type: practice

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Armenia

Amendments to Law on the Legal Regime of the State of Emergency, and the Law on Electronics Communication

The amendments give authorities broad powers to use cellphone data for tracking coronavirus cases. Under the amended laws, telecommunications companies are required to provide the government with customers' phone records, including the location, time, and date of their calls and text messages. The authorities would use that data to identify, isolate, and surveil anyone infected with COVID-19 or those who had been in close contact with infected people.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 31 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Surveillance, Privacy

Type: law

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Armenia

No. 298-N Declaring a State of Emergency

The decree declares a "state of emergency" to respond to the novel coronavirus, and provides for the suspension of certain constitutional rights and freedoms, including freedom of movement and freedom of peaceful assembly. The decree prohibits public gatherings of more than 20 persons. The decree also provides that any dissemination of information, including online, that refers to the coronavirus or activities carried out by health authorities, may only refer to information provided by a special emergency office under the Prime Minister of Armenia.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 16 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency, Expression, Access to Information, Movement

Type: order

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Aruba

General Regulations on Combating COVID19

The regulations impose a nightly curfew from 9pm to 6am. All non-essential groups are under a shelter-in-place order, and gatherings of 4 or more people are prohibited.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 31 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement

Type: regulation

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Australia

Emergency Management Amendment (COVID-19 Response) Act

The act amends Western Australia's Emergency Management Act of 2005, allowing the government to install surveillance devices in homes and direct people to wear monitoring devices, in order to ensure that those required to isolate during the coronavirus crisis do not interact with the community. Persons who fail to comply are subject to a $12,000 fine or up to a year of imprisonment.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 3 Apr 2020

Issue(s): Surveillance, Privacy

Type: law

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Australia

"Snap" Lockdowns

Authorities of New South Wales, Northern Territory, Queensland, South Australia, Victoria and Western Australia have imposed multiple "snap" lockdowns ranging from three days to a week to contain the outbreak.


Introduced 8 Jan 2021 Ongoing

Issue(s): Movement

Type: order

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Australia

State of Disaster Lockdown Order

On August 2, the Premier of Victoria announced a State of Disaster in regional Victoria. Movement restrictions were imposed on the region, prohibiting residents from leaving their homes for any reason other than shopping for food and essential items, care and caregiving, daily exercise, work and study that could not be done from home, or personal safety. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 2 Aug 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency, Movement

Type: order

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Australia

Public Health (COVID-19 Restrictions on Gathering and Movement) Order 2020

The order by New South Wales requires individuals to stay in their place of residence absence a reasonable excuse, and prohibits public gatherings of more than two people. Exceptions include gatherings of members of the same household, and gatherings essential for work or education.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 30 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement

Type: order

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Australia

Direction under Section 16 of the Public Health Act 1997

The order declares a "state of emergency" in Tasmania and among other things prohibits all gatherings of three or more people, with limited exceptions, in order to combat the spread of Covid-19.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 30 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency

Type: order

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Australia

Biosecurity (Human Biosecurity Emergency) (Human Coronavirus with Pandemic Potential) Declaration 2020

The Governor-General declares a "human biosecurity emergency," on account of the coronavirus. The declaration gives the Minister for Health expansive powers to issue directions and set requirements in order to combat the outbreak. The declaration was issued under Article 475 of the Biosecurity Act 2015, the first time these powers under the Act have been used.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 18 Mar 2020 Extended until 9/17/2021

Issue(s): Emergency

Type: order

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Australia

State of Emergency

The Premier and Minister of Health declare a 4-week "state of emergency" in the state of Victoria, to combat Covid-19.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 16 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Emergency

Type: order

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Australia

State of Emergency

The Minister of Emergency Services declares a "state of emergency" in Western Australia, on account of Covid-19.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 15 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Emergency

Type: order

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Australia

Emergency Management (Gatherings) (COVID-19) Direction 2020

The order by South Australia's government prohibits gatherings of more than 10 persons, or fewer than 10 if social distance is not maintained. The prohibition applies to public and private, indoor and outdoor spaces, and includes limited exceptions for essential businesses and health care facilities, among others.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 2 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly

Type: order

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Australia

State of Public Health Emergency

The Premier of Queensland declares a "public health emergency."

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 29 Jan 2020

Issue(s): Emergency

Type: order

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Australia

Military Enforcement of State of Disaster

The premier announced that military personnel would be deployed to enforce the curfew and that breaches of curfew could be punished with fines of up to 20,000 Australian dollars (US $14,250). 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 4 Aug 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement, Militarization

Type: practice

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Austria

COVID-19 Measures Act

The law enables the Government to prohibit access to public places places insofar as this is necessary to prevent the spread of COVID-19.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 16 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Movement

Type: law

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Austria

Order of the Federal Minister for Social Affairs, Health, Nursing and Consumer Protection i

The order, issued under Section 2 of the COVID-19 Measures Act, prohibits people from entering public spaces. Exceptions include activities with the purpose of averting immediate danger to life, limb, or property; caring for or supporting vulnerable people; meeting necessary basic needs of daily life or fulfilling work responsibilities; and walking pets.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 16 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Movement

Type: order

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Austria

Measures Against the Convergence of Large Crowds

The decree, issued under Section 15 of the Epidemics Act of 1950, instructs local health authorities to issue regulations that prohibit all large gatherings of 500 people or more outside or 100 people or more inside.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 10 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly

Type: order

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Azerbaijan

Amendments to the Law on Information

The amendments prohibit the publication online of "false information threatening to cause damage to human life and health… or other socially dangerous consequences."

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 17 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Disinformation, Expression

Type: law

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Azerbaijan

Amendments to the Criminal Code

The amendments increase the penalties for violations of sanitary, hygiene, and quarantine regimes. Under the amended criminal code, violations of the epidemic-related rules that threaten to spread disease may be punished by 3 years’ imprisonment or a fine of 2,500-5,000 Manat (US$1,500-3,000).

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 17 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Movement

Type: law

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Azerbaijan

Decision of the Cabinet of Ministers No. 124 of 2020

The decision introduces an SMS notification system to control individuals' movement. In order to leave their place of residence, persons must send an SMS with their identity information and reason for leaving. A person may leave only after receiving a positive response from the e-Government information system. The response will also indicate the amount of time a person is permitted to be outside of their residence.


Introduced 2 Apr 2020

Issue(s): Surveillance, Privacy, Movement

Type: order

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Azerbaijan

Operational Headquarters under the Cabinet of Ministers on Additional Measures Related to Coronavirus

The order restricts inter-district and inter-city traffic except for the movement of special purpose vehicles. The order also restricts access to all boulevards, parks and recreation areas, and suspends the in-person services of all commercial establishments, except supermarkets, grocery stores and pharmacies.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 29 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Movement

Type: order

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Azerbaijan

Declaration of Special Quarantine Regime

The order prohibits the assembly of more than 10 persons in public places. Persons over the age of 65 are also prohibited from leaving their homes.

(

See primary source or citation here

)

Introduced 24 Mar 2020 Extended through 28 December 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement

Type: order

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Azerbaijan

Crackdown on Critics and Use of Excessive Force by the Police

Azerbaijani authorities are reportedly misusing coronavirus restrictions to arrest opposition activists and government critics, including at least one journalist. Those arrested have been charged with violating the lockdown or disobeying police orders.  Some of the persons detained claimed they were beaten by police officers while in custody.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 16 Apr 2020

Issue(s): Expression

Type: practice

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Bahamas, The

Emergency Powers (COVID 19) Order No. 1 of 2020

The Prime Minister's order imposes a nightly curfew from 9pm to 5am, and prohibits most public and private gatherings. Violations are punishable by up to $10,000 and 18 months in prison. The order is in place for an initial 11 days.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 20 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement

Type: order

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Bahrain

COVID-19 Contact Tracing App Raises Privacy Concerns

Bahrain's BeAware app captures users' movements in real time and uploads those movements to a centralized government database. The app requires that users register with their national ID. It pairs with a Bluetooth bracelet that is mandatory for all individuals under quarantine and that will notify a monitoring station when those individuals are 15 metres away from their phone. Location data and additional diagnostic information from the Bluetooth bracelet are frequently sent to a central server. Additionally, the Ministry of Health may randomly request pictures from self-isolating individuals, who must send back a photo proving they are wearing the bracelet. Violators will face legal penalties as per the 2018 Public Health Law No. 34, potentially being sentenced to imprisonment for a period not less than 3 months and/or a fine between BD1,000 and BD10,000 ($2,600-$26,000).

 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 4 Apr 2020

Issue(s): Surveillance, Privacy

Type: practice

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Bangladesh

Nationwide Lockdown and Army Deployment

The government imposed a strict lockdown including stay at home orders for citizens and the closure of offices and public transportation. The Army was deployed to enforce compliance with the order.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 30 May 2021

Issue(s): Movement, Militarization

Type: order

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Bangladesh

Refugee Camp Lockdown Order

Local administration imposed a lockdown order in five Rohingya refugee camps in southeastern Bangladesh. Movement into or out of the camps was strictly controlled and residents were ordered to stay indoors.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 21 May 2021

Issue(s): Movement

Type: order

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Bangladesh

Restrictions on Public Health Officials' Interactions with Media

The Directorate General of Nursing and Midwifery has ordered all of its officials and employees at government hospitals to not to hold public discussions, issue statements, or provide opinions to newspapers or other mass media without prior permission. The Ministry of Health and Family Welfare has also ordered all health directorate officials to refrain from speaking in public or to the media without prior permission.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 17 Apr 2020

Issue(s): Press Freedom, Expression, Access to Information

Type: order

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Bangladesh

Under the pretense of preventing the spread of COVID-19 in the city of Cox's Bazar, the government of Bangladesh has intercepted and detained boats carrying hundreds of Rohingya refugees fleeing an ethnically targeted military crackdown in Myanmar. The refugees have been relocated to an uninhabited island off of Bangladesh's southern coast.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 7 May 2020

Issue(s): Discrimination, Movement

Type: practice

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Bangladesh

Arrests for Criticizing Government Response to Pandemic

According to rights groups, in two weeks since mid-March, Bangladeshi authorities have arrested doctors, activists, and students for "spreading rumors" and "misinformation" on Facebook, after they published posts that were criticizal of the government’s response to COVID-19. Most of the arrests were based on the 2018 Digital Security Act. The Information Ministry announced that it had formed a unit under the Rapid Action Battalion, the country’s primary counterterrorism unit, to monitor social media and various television outlets for “rumors” about COVID-19 cases.  

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 31 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Disinformation, Press Freedom, Expression, Militarization

Type: practice

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Belarus

Ban on Border Crossing for Citizens of Belarus

Following the adoption of the Resolution of the Council of Ministers No. 624, which  temporarily suspends border crossings to Belarus by land to foreigners, Alexander Lukashenko also ordered border guards to deny citizens of Belarus entry to the country. The ban does not apply to citizens of Belarus travelling back from Russia, due to the two countries' border arrangements.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 5 Nov 2020

Issue(s): Movement

Type: order

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Belarus

Resolution of the Council of Ministers No. 624

The Republic of Belarus temporarily suspended the border crossing for foreign citizens and stateless persons at road, railway and river border crossings. The airports are not affected by this restriction. The restriction to enter the country by land does not apply to foreigners traveling with diplomatic and service passports, foreigners with work permits, citizens of Russian Federation transiting the country and others.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 1 Nov 2020

Issue(s): Movement

Type: order

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Belarus

Decision of the National Public Health Emergency Commission No. 33

The National Public Health Emergency Commission designated "high risk districts". The Decision also introduces nationwide measures, including a ban on gatherings in public places of groups larger than 3 people, prohibition for persons over 63 years of age to leave their homes (unless an exception applies), and a prohibition of organizing activities and events with spectators.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 1 Oct 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement

Type: order

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Belarus

Resolution of the Council of Ministers No. 208

The resolution restricts individuals in self-isolation from leaving their home, with the exception of visiting the nearest grocery store or pharmacy. If leaving the home for those purposes, individuals in self-isolation are required to wear a mask and prevent contact with others. Violations of the self-isolation requirements are punishable by law.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 9 Apr 2020

Issue(s): Movement

Type: order

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Belarus

Crackdown on Journalists

Several cases of crackdowns on journalists covering COVID-19 pandemic have been reported in Belarus, including the detention of Belarusian journalist Sergei Satsuk. Several foreign journalists were also stripped of their accreditation. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 1 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Press Freedom, Expression

Type: practice

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Belgium

State of Emergency

The federal government declares a "state of emergency" on account of the coronavirus, and bans gatherings of more than two people.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 12 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency

Type: order

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Belize

Public Health (Prevention of the Spread of Infectious Disease)(COVID-19) Regulations 2021

The COVID-19 public health order includes a provision which makes it illegal to host or attend a meeting of an association or organization.  This appears to be a total ban with no apparent exceptions and a fine of $1,000 following summary conviction.  The provision is broadly written and seems to preclude any gathering at all, even if masked, socially distanced, and outdoors.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 2 Jul 2021

Issue(s): Association, Assembly

Type: order

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Belize

State of Emergency

The prime minister declares a national "state of emergency" on account of the coronavirus pandemic. The state of emergency will be in place from April 1 through April 30.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 30 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Emergency

Type: order

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Belize

Belize Constitution (Emergency Powers) Regulation 2020

The regulation imposes a curfew from 8pm to 5am. Only essential travel is permitted outside of curfew hours, and persons may not loiter, wander, assemble, or otherwise move in any public place and on any public road. Violations are punishable by a fine of $5,000.00 or imprisonment for 2 years.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 1 Apr 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement

Type: regulation

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Belize

Belize Travel Health App

All persons arriving in Belize, regardless of nationality, must download and register with the Belize Travel Health App upon arrival. The app requires personal identifying information, travel plans including place of residence in Belize, as well as exposure to or prior diagnoses of COVID-19. The app shares real-time geolocation data and personal information with a third party, which may in turn share the information with government entities in Belize including the Ministry of Health, Statistical Institute of Belize, and Belize Department of Immigration and Nationality. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 2 Oct 2020

Issue(s): Surveillance, Privacy

Type: practice

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Benin

Ban on Gatherings

Gatherings of more than 50 people are banned indefinitely. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 10 Dec 2020

Issue(s): Assembly

Type: order

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Benin

Temporary Quarantine

The decree imposes a temporary quarantine, until April 12, around most cities affected by the virus. People within these cities will only be allowed to move for essential reasons (health, food supply). People are advised to minimize their movements within the country. Gatherings of 10 or more people are prohibited.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 30 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement

Type: order

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Benin

COVID-19 Health Cordon

The Government of Benin establishes a health cordon around 15 municipalities in order to isolate them and contain the spread of COVID-19. Travel in and out of the health cordon zone is prohibited except for emergencies. Within the cordon zone, public transportation is suspended and taxis and motorcycle taxis must abide by strict passenger limits. Bars and nightclubs are closed, gatherings of more than 10 people are banned, and people are required to practice social distancing and wear face masks at all times in public. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 30 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Movement

Type: order

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Benin

Prohibiting Non-Essential Gatherings

The decree prohibits non-essential gatherings indefinitely, and imposes a mandatory quarantine for 14 days of those arriving into the country.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 17 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly

Type: order

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Bhutan

Nationwide Lockdown

The Government declared a nationwide lockdown, requiring people to stay at home. Violators face a maximum term of imprisonment of three years and a minimum term of one year. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 11 Aug 2020

Issue(s): Movement

Type: order

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Bolivia

Supreme Decree No. 4200

The decree extends the nationwide lockdown and stipulates additional measures. The Decree prohibits gatherings, and allows one person per residence at a time to leave to acquire essential items. Persons are allowed to leave their residence only during prescribed days and times, as determined by the last digit of their ID number. The Decree also establishes penalities for persons who incite non-compliance, misinform, or cause uncertainty among the population. Violators will be subject to criminal charges for crimes against public health, and can face one to ten years in prison if convicted.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 26 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Disinformation, Expression, Movement

Type: order

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Bolivia

Supreme Decree 4200 (Criminalization of COVID-19-related Misinformation)

On March 25, Bolivian interim President Jeanine Añez signed a decree that, among other steps, criminalized the action of "misinform[ing] or caus[ing] uncertainty to the population" about the pandemic. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 25 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Disinformation, Press Freedom, Expression, Access to Information

Type: order

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Bolivia

Decree No. 4196 Declaring a State of Emergency

The decree declares a "national health emergency" and quarantine throughout Bolivia, due to the presence of the coronavirus. The decree imposes a curfew from 5pm to 5am, with limited exceptions for law enforcement, health workers, and other essential service providers. The decree prohibits all gatherings of people, with no exceptions, and closes Bolivia's borders.


Introduced 17 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Emergency, Movement

Type: order

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Bolivia

Decree No. 4192 on Prevention and Containment Measures

Among other things, the decree prohibits gatherings of more than 100 persons and imposes a curfew from 5pm to 5am, to combat the spread of coronavirus.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 16 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement

Type: order

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Bosnia and Herzegovina

Order No. 01-33-6615/20

The Order limits gatherings (both indoors and outdoors) to maximum 30 people and requires a 2-meter distance between participants. The Order also restricts the movement of people in the entire territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina between the hours of 11:00 p.m. and 5:00 a.m.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 23 Nov 2020 In force for 14 days. This Order repeals Order No. 01-33-6301/20 from 9 November 2020.

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement

Type: order

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Bosnia and Herzegovina

Order of the Federal Headquarters for Civic Protection No. 12-40-6-148-36/1

The order establishes a curfew from 8pm to 5am. Citizens in public spaces are required to abide by protective measures and keep more than 1.5 meters apart from others.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 29 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Movement

Type: order

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Bosnia and Herzegovina

Order No.12-40-6-148-40/20 of Federal Headquarters for Civic Protection

The order prohibits two or more individuals from moving and standing together in outdoor spaces, and requires 1.5 meters of distance between individuals, on account of Covid-19.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 22 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly

Type: order

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Bosnia and Herzegovina

Conclusion of the Emergency Headquarters to Limit and Ban Movement of Persons on the Territory of Republika Srpska No. 05-1/20

The order establishes a curfew from 8pm to 5am in the Republic of Srpska, and places a ban on the movement of people older than 65.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 21 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Movement

Type: order

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Bosnia and Herzegovina

Order of the Federal Headquarters for Civic Protection No. 12-40-6-148-34/20

The order bans the movement of citizens younger than 18 and older than 65.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 20 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Movement

Type: order

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Bosnia and Herzegovina

Decree on False News

The government of the Republika Srpska issued a decree that forbids causing “panic and disorder” by publishing or transmitting false news during a state of emergency. Individuals found in violation of the decree will be fined between 1,000 and 3,000 Bosnian marks (approximately 500-1,500 Euros). Organizations face a fine of between 3,000 and 9,000 marks (1,500-4,500 Euros).

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 19 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Disinformation, Expression

Type: order

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Bosnia and Herzegovina

State of Disaster

The Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina declared a "state of natural disaster" over the new coronavirus, to enable coordination of emergency activities between its two autonomous regions.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 17 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Emergency

Type: order

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Bosnia and Herzegovina

State of Emergency

The order declares a "state of emergency" in Republic of Srpska.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 4 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Emergency

Type: order

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Botswana

State of Emergency

President Masisi announces a "state of emergency" under Section 17 of the Constitution of Botswana. The state of emergency is effective from midnight on April 2 until further notice.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 31 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Emergency

Type: order

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Botswana

No. 30 of 2020 on Public Health (Declaration of Public Health Emergency)

The order declares a "public health emergency," and among other things suspends gatherings of more than 100 people.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 20 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency

Type: order

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Botswana

General Notice No. 128 on Directions for the Prevention of the Spread of COVID-19

Issued under the terms of the Public Health Act, the directions from the Director of Public Health Services restrict movement in and out of the country. The Directions also prohibit gatherings of more than 10 people indefinitely.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 20 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement

Type: order

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Botswana

Restriction on Movement Extension – G.N. No. 1 of 2021

The President, in accordance with regulation 5 (1) and (4) of the Emergency Powers (COVID-19) Regulations, 2020, extended the restriction on movement. The restrictions on movement apply from 20:00 hours to 04:00 hours daily. A person is required to carry a movement permit (essential services) issued under regulation 7 (1) to travel during periods where movement is restricted.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 4 Jan 2021 Extended to 3/31/2021

Issue(s): Movement

Type: regulation

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Botswana

Directions for the Prevention of the Spread of COVID-19 – G.N. No. 301 of 2020

Issued under the Emergency Powers Act and Emergency Powers (Covid-19) Regulations, the Directions restrict travel, including a ban on international travel and non-essential travel between domestic "COVID Zones". The Directions also impose a lockdown and prohibit gatherings or meetings of more than 50 people. A convenor must obtain a special permit for a meeting across COVID zones. There is also a provision that states, "Information from any other source other than the Director of Health Services and the World Health Organization should not be relied on by the public as credible and correct information."

(

See primary source or citation here

)

Introduced 29 Jul 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Access to Information, Movement

Type: regulation

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Botswana

Restrictions for the Holding of Meetings, Workshops and Conferences – G.N. No. 303 of 2020

The Notice permits the resumption of meetings, workshops and conferences for not more than 50 people. Such events must first be authorized by the Director of Health Services. Participants cannot travel from across "COVID Zones," except for facilitators and convenors with a special permit. For purposes of contact tracing, the host must maintain a register containing the personal details and contact details of all persons accessing the premises. This information shall be open for inspection by the Director of Health Services for the purposes of contact tracing, and by law enforcement in the case of investigation of an offence under the Emergency Powers (COVID-19) Regulations (2020). 

(

See primary source or citation here

)

Introduced 29 Jul 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Privacy, Movement

Type: regulation

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Botswana

Restrictions for Meetings of Societies – G.N. No. 304 of 2020

The Notice permits the resumption of meetings by societies, including (a) faith based organizations, which shall have a maximum of two religious services per week; (b) any club, company, partnership or association registered by the Registrar of Societies; and (c) all central committees of political parties. Such events must first be authorized by the Director of Health Services, and are capped at 50 persons. For purposes of contact tracing, the host must maintain a register containing the personal details and contact details of all persons accessing the premises. This information shall be open for inspection by the Director of Health Services for the purposes of contact tracing, and by law enforcement in the case of investigation of an offence under the Emergency Powers (COVID-19) Regulations (2020). 

(

See primary source or citation here

)

Introduced 29 Jul 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Privacy

Type: regulation

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Botswana

Emergency (COVID-19) (Amendment) No. 2 Regulations

The regulations empower the Chief Justice to suspend any operations of procedures and timelines in the judiciary's rules. The Chief Justice may also issue directions relating to detention, bail, remand and "take any measures" aimed at addressing or preventing the spread of Covid-19. The regulations further suspend the right to strike and lockout.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 9 Apr 2020

Issue(s): Assembly

Type: regulation

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Botswana

SI 61 of 2020, Emergency Powers (Covid 19) Regulations

The regulations declare a nationwide lockdown and curfew from 8pm to 8am. Violations are punishable by a fine and up to six months' imprisonment. The regulations prohibit gatherings of more than 2 persons, and close all schools and churches. Persons are prohibited from relaying any information to the public about COVID-19 from a source other than the Director of Health Services and the WHO. Persons are also prohibited from publishing any statement with the intention to deceive any other person about COVID-19. Violators face a fine of up to 100,000 Pula ($8,100), imprisonment for up to five years, or both.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 2 Apr 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Disinformation, Expression, Movement

Type: regulation

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Brazil

Curfew Order

The city of Rio de Janeiro decreed a nightly curfew and the closure of any type of commercial activity on its beaches for a week due to the advance of the pandemic. New restrictions come into effect between March 4 and March 11, according to the Rio Mayor's Office Official Gazette.

"The permanence of people in the streets, areas and public squares of the municipality between 23:00 and 05:00 hours is prohibited," the text indicated. The Mayor's Office also suspended commerce and the provision of services on beaches, including street vendors, beach bars and handicraft markets.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 4 Mar 2021

Issue(s): Movement

Type: order

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Brazil

Decree No. 12.485

Araraquara, a city in the interior of the state of Sao Paulo, imposed a rigorous 15-day curfew after 12 cases of local transmission of the so-called COVID-19 Brazilian variant.

The measure was announced on 15 February 2021 by the Araraquara Mayor's Office. A fine of up to 6,000 reais (about 1,110 dollars) for those who violate the  decree was set. The circulation of people, bicycles or vehicles is only allowed  for essential services. Only essential shops are allowed to open, but with restricted hours.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 15 Feb 2021

Issue(s): Movement

Type: order

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Brazil

Provisional Measure No. 928

The measure amends Law No. 13,979 of February 6, 2020, which provides measures to address the public health emergency caused by coronavirus. Government officials are not required to answer any freedom of information requests during the state of calamity if the server hosting the information is quarantined or inaccessible while working remotely. The measure also gives priority to information requests related to the public health emergency.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 23 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Access to Information

Type: order

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Brazil

State of Emergency

Declares a national "state of emergency" on account of the coronavirus pandemic.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 20 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Emergency

Type: order

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Brazil

Crackdown on Protests

In Recife, protests against the mishandling of the COVID-19 pandemic and discontent with the government were violently suppressed by military police using rubber bullets and tear gas. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 30 May 2021

Issue(s): Assembly

Type: practice

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Brazil

Withholding C19 Data

The Brazilian government stopped releasing its total numbers of COVID-19 cases and deaths, and removed large amounts of COVID-19 data from an official site, allegedly under an order by President Bolsonaro. On June 5, Brazil’s government stopped releasing the cumulative numbers of confirmed COVID-19 cases and obituaries in its daily bulletin and only supplied daily numbers. A health ministry site was taken offline and returned on June 6 without the total number of deaths and confirmed cases, as well as numbers of cases under investigation and those that recovered.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 23 Jun 2020

Issue(s): Access to Information

Type: practice

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Brazil

Employing Geolocation to Enforce COVID-19 Restrictions

The Brazilian city of Recife has partnered with a geolocation company to create a platform that tracks the locations of 800,000 people, based on their smartphones. City authorities use the information to track and identify individuals who violate quarantine and lockdown measures.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 28 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Surveillance, Privacy

Type: practice

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Brunei

Prohibition on Mass Gatherings

In order to prevent spread of the virus, Brunei's Ministry of Health banned "mass gatherings," whether organized or spontaneous, including sporting events, weddings, and get-togethers involving large crowds.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 13 May 2020

Issue(s): Assembly

Type: order

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Bulgaria

Law on Measures and Actions in the State of Emergency

The law among other things prohibits non-essential travel within and outside the country, in order to combat the spread of coronavirus. The law also provides that if individuals violate their quarantine, their mobile phone data may be subject to surveillance. As originally proposed, the law included criminal sanctions for spreading false information about contagious diseases, however this provision was removed before the law's adoption.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 23 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Emergency, Surveillance, Privacy, Movement

Type: law

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Bulgaria

Penal Code Amendments

The law amends Article 255 of Bulgaria's Penal Code to significantly increase the penalty for violating quarantine regulations or other orders related to preventing the spread of contagious disease - from a 300 BGN fine (150 EUR) to three years in prison. If the violation is committed during an epidemic, the amendments increase the penalty from one year to up to five years in prison and a 50,000 BGN fine (25,000 EUR).

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 14 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Movement

Type: law

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Bulgaria

State of Emergency

The parliamentary decision declares a "state of emergency" for one month, on account of the coronavirus.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 13 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Emergency

Type: law

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Bulgaria

Order â„– RD-01-611 of 22.10.2020 for Introduction of Anti-Epidemic Measures on the Territory of the Republic of Bulgaria

The order introduces various restrictions related to gatherings, events and recreational activities. According to the order, public events should generally be held remotely. For events that cannot be held online, the total number of participants should not exceed 50% of the venue's total capacity and participants shall exercise physical distancing. The same applies to cultural and entertainment events, regardless of whether they are organized indoors or outdoors. Sports trainings must be held without an audience, and competitions are subject to the similar restrictions as other types of events.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 22 Oct 2020

Issue(s): Assembly

Type: order

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Bulgaria

Order of the Minister of Healthcare

The order prohibits persons under 60 from visiting shops or pharmacies between 8:30am and 10:30am. Visits to parks and playgrounds are prohibited, except for walking dogs. The order also limits travel, and allows the government to check the purposes of individuals' travel at established check points.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 20 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Movement

Type: order

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Burkina Faso

State of Sanitary Emergency

The Burkinabe ministerial board declares a "state of sanitary emergency," per Article 66 of Law No. 23/94 on the Public Health Code, and imposes a quarantine in numerous cities where cases of coronavirus have been confirmed as of March 27. It is unclear how long the quarantine will remain in effect. These new measures have been implemented amid a nationwide overnight curfew, ongoing between 7pm to 5am local time since March 21, until further notice.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 27 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Emergency, Movement

Type: law

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Burkina Faso

State of Health Alert

The Council of Ministers orders a quarantine of the capital Ouagadougou and its surrounding areas. The order prohibits all gatherings in these areas, and travel in and out of these areas is restricted. These new measures have been implemented amid a nationwide curfew from 7pm to 5am.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 27 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement

Type: order

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Burkina Faso

Ban on Public Gatherings

Authorities prohibit all demonstrations and public gatherings until at least April 30.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 12 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly

Type: order

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Cambodia

Law on National Management in the State of Emergency

The law provides the government with broad new powers during a state of emergency. These include: banning meetings and gatherings; restricting people from leaving their homes; mobilizing military forces; surveilling telecommunications "by any means"; banning or restricting news media that may harm "national security" or create confusion about the state of emergency; and other measures that are "suitable and necessary" to respond to the emergency. "Obstructing" the state's response to the emergency, or noncompliance with the response in a way that creates "public chaos," is punishable by up to 5 years in jail and a fine of up to 5 million riels ($1,200). Organizations found culpable of these offenses may be fined up to 1 billion riels ($247,000).

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 10 Apr 2020

Issue(s): Association, Assembly, Emergency, Surveillance, Press Freedom, Expression, Privacy, Access to Information, Movement, Militarization

Type: law

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Cambodia

Curfew and Restrictions on Public Gatherings

The Siem Reap Provincial Administration imposed a curfew from 10PM to 4AM and banned public gatherings.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 13 Jun 2021 Extended through 7 August 2021

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement

Type: order

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Cambodia

Arrests and Criminal Penalties for "Fake News"

According to police spokespeople, more than 40 people have been arrested for spreading coronavirus-related "fake news." A number of those arrested are affiliated with the dissolved opposition party, the Cambodia National Rescue Party. On October 5, 2020, a journalist who reported on public comments on COVID-19 made by Cambodian Prime Minister Hun Sen was sentenced to 18 months in prison for incitement. Another journalist has been sentenced for incitement for criticizing the government’s response to COVID-19 on social media. Kouv Piseth, an online news journalist in Battambang province, was arrested and charged with incitement to commit a felony after criticizing the government’s use of China’s Sinopharm and Sinovac vaccines on Facebook.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 16 Apr 2020

Issue(s): Disinformation, Expression

Type: practice

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Cameroon

Government Response Strategy to the Coronavirus Pandemic (Covid-19)

The order among other things indefinitely closes all land, air, and sea borders and suspends entry visas to Cameroon; closes private and public schools; prohibits gatherings of more than 50 people; and provides that private health facilities, hotels, other lodging facilities, vehicles, and specific equipment may be requisitioned as necessary for implementation of the response plan.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 18 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement

Type: order

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Canada

Declaration of an Emergency to Protect the Public

The executive order by the government of Ontario declares an emergency under Section 7.0.1(1) the Emergency Management and Civil Protection Act. Among other things, the order prohibits gatherings of 50 or more people.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 27 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency

Type: order

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Cape Verde

State of Emergency and Curfew

The government declares a nationwide "state of emergency" until April 17, on account of the coronavirus. Measures to be taken include instructing all individuals to remain at home with limited exceptions for essential activities and health care.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 1 Apr 2020

Issue(s): Emergency, Movement

Type: order

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Chad

State of Health Emergency

The President announced an initial 21-day State of Health Emergency which grants the government the power to restrict or prohibit the movement of people and vehicles, quarantine infected individuals, ban public gatherings, and close nonessential businesses. Those who violate COVID-19 measures may face up to three months in prison.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 25 Apr 2020 Extended 5/15/20; 7/17/20; 10/17/20; and 3/11/21 through 9/11/21

Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency, Movement

Type: order

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Chad

Decree No. 379/PR/2020

The decree announces a state of emergency in select provinces of Chad. The decree empowers local civil and military authorities to prohibit the movement of people and vehicles; to establish protection zones where people are "regulated"; to temporarily close performance halls, bars and meeting areas; to ban meetings "likely to provoke disturbances of public order"; to order nightly home searches; to collect all weapons; to take all measures to ensure control of the press and publications of all types of radio and television broadcasts; and to make arrests. Per the order, this expansion of local authorities' powers ends with the end of the state of emergency.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 26 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency, Press Freedom, Expression, Privacy, Access to Information, Movement, Militarization

Type: order

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Chile

Ministerial Border Closure Order

The Ministry of Health confirmed that borders will continue to be closed throughout June 2021. Under the order, only Chilean citizens and legal resident foreigners may enter the country. Nationals and residents in Chile may not travel abroad except in very extraordinary situations, for which they must request a permit from the Carabineros de Chile.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 7 Jun 2021

Issue(s): Movement

Type: order

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Chile

State of Catastrophe

The decree provides for the "constitutional exception" of a "state of catastrophe" for three months, due to the coronavirus. The decree allows the President to take further measures including imposing restrictions on gatherings in public spaces, establishing quarantines or curfews, and limiting individuals' movement.

The Chilean Chamber of Deputies approved the extension of the State of Constitutional Exception of Catastrophe until 30 June 2021.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 18 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency, Movement

Type: order

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Chile

Repression of protests during the pandemic

A number of people in Chile have been arrested and detained for violating public health measures that prohibit gatherings of over 50 people, while engaging in peaceful, masked, and socially distanced protests. Police have also used tear gas and water cannons to respond to a number of masked and socialy distanced protests. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 29 Jun 2020

Issue(s): Assembly

Type: practice

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China

Lockdown in Nanjing

Authorities in Nanjing imposed a lockdown on account of COVID-19. Residents living in medium-risk areas are required to stay at home.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 21 Jul 2021 Expires 8/4/21

Issue(s): Movement

Type: order

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China

Lockdown in Yunnan Province

Authorities imposed lockdowns in areas of the city of Ruilin and Longchuan County on account of COVID-19. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 7 Jul 2021 Expires 7/16/2021 (Ruilin) and 7/22/2021 (Longchuan County)

Issue(s): Movement

Type: order

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China

Declaration of "Wartime Mode" and Lockdown

Authorities declared a "wartime" mode in Urumqi, the capital of Xinjiang. Authorities ordered lockdown measures, including banning all public gatherings, forbidding residents to leave their housing compounds, and requiring those who needed to leave the city to present a negative COVID-19 test.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 18 Jul 2020 Lifted on 9/1/20

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement

Type: order

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China

Declaration of a "Wartime Emergency Mode" in Beijing District

Beijing officials have placed 29 residential communities under a "wartime emergency mode" after a surge of positive cases in the district. Officials have ordered a lockdown of the district (all neighborhoods of the district will be closed immediately and all residents must stay home).

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 13 Jun 2020 Lifted on 7/3/20

Issue(s): Movement

Type: order

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China

Opinions on Strictly Punishing Violations and Crimes that Obstruct the Control of the Coronavirus Epidemic

The Supreme Peoples Court, the Supreme Peoples Procuratorate, the Ministry of Public Security, and the Ministry of Justice jointly issued COVID-19 judicial opinions to clarify standards in the application provisions of PRC's criminal law. According to the opinions, the commission of certain crimes during the period of epidemic prevention and control may be subject to heavier punishment. Notably, the opinions call to "strictly punish crimes of fabricating or spreading rumors in accordance with law," and criminalize a variety of types of dissemination of "false" information on information networks.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 10 Feb 2020

Issue(s): Disinformation, Expression

Type: order

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China

Lockdowns in Hubei Province

On January 23, the central government imposed travel lockdowns on Wuhan and nearby cities in Hubei province, effectively confining an estimated 56 million people. Wuhan authorities also suspended all vehicle traffic, with limited exceptions, in the city center. Many residents in Wuhan expressed difficulties about access to medical care and other life necessities. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 23 Jan 2020

Issue(s): Movement

Type: policy

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China

Secret Detention of Opposition Figures under Pretext of Quarantine

According to rights activists, the Chinese government has detained opposition figures upon being released from prison, under the pretext of quarantining them. "Quarantines" in this context involve detention without families' knowledge, and deprivation of individuals' ability to communicate with the outside world while they are held in secret locations. On one occasion, a woman was held in "quarantine" in a windowless room for more than a month, even though she had been tested and quarantined before her release from prison. On another occasion, a human rights defender was detained in the midst of standard day-to-day activities, interrogated, and "quarantined" in a hotel 500 miles away. Local officials have suggested these types of detentions go even beyond emergency powers granted to the Chinese government under the national emergency law. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 30 Jul 2020

Issue(s): Expression, Movement

Type: practice

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China

Use of Surveillance Cameras to Enforce Quarantine

Local governments in China have been installing surveillance cameras outside the homes of persons under quarantine in several cities. Some people reported that cameras have even been placed inside their homes.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 28 Apr 2020

Issue(s): Surveillance, Privacy, Movement

Type: practice

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China

Mandatory Phone App Shares Data with Police

Citizens in hundreds of Chinese cities are required to install software on their smartphones that determines whether they should be quarantined or allowed into public places, based on their personal information and details of recent travel. The software tracks users' location and appears to shares data with the police. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 1 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Surveillance, Privacy

Type: practice

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Colombia

Decree No. 580

The President of Colombia issued an executive decree mandating individual social distancing, authorizing municipalities with high ICU occupancy rates due to COVID-19 to restrict certain activities and areas, and closing land and river borders with Venezuela through September 1, 2021. The decree extends and modifies earlier decrees issued during the COVID-19 pandemic which contained varying border closure rules. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 31 May 2021 Extends and modifies Decree No. 206 (26 Feb 2021)

Issue(s): Movement

Type: order

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Colombia

Decree No. 491 Instructions Given Under the Health Emergency Generated by the Covid-19 Pandemic

Presidential decree No. 491 increases the permissible time for the government to respond to freedom of information requests, to 30 days. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 28 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Access to Information

Type: order

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Colombia

No. 457 Instructions Given Under the Health Emergency Generated by the COVID-19 Pandemic

The presidential decree establishes mandatory, preventive isolation measures for 21 days, unless extended. The decree strictly limits individuals' freedom of movement. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 22 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Movement

Type: order

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Colombia

Resolution No. 385 Declaring a Health Emergency

The resolution declares a "health emergency" throughout the country until May 30, on account of the coronavirus. Among other things, prohibits large public gatherings, and orders television and radio stations and all other mass media to disseminate information provided by the Health Ministry. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 12 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Press Freedom, Expression, Access to Information

Type: order

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Colombia

State of Health Emergency

The government decrees a "health emergency" to contain the spread of coronavirus. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 12 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Emergency

Type: order

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Comoros

Prohibiting Public Gatherings

Authorities prohibit all demonstrations and public gatherings for at least one month. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 18 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly

Type: order

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Costa Rica

Executive Decree No. 42227 Declaring a State of Emergency

The executive decree declares a "state of emergency" in response to the coronavirus pandemic. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 16 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Emergency

Type: order

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Cote d'Ivoire

State of Emergency

The president declares a "state of emergency," and imposes curfews and internal travel restrictions on account of the coronavirus. Authorities imposed a nationwide curfew with immediate effect between 11pm and 5am local time and banned all non-essential travel between Abidjan, where most COVID-19 cases are reported, and the rest of the country. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 23 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency, Movement

Type: order

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Croatia

Decision to Prohibit Leaving the Place of One's Residence

The decision prohibits individuals from leaving their place of residence without a special permit, to be issued for very limited cases. The decision is in effect for 30 days. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 23 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Movement

Type: order

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Croatia

Decision to Restrict Gathering on the Streets and Other Public Places

The decision implements a broad, month-long prohibition on gathering in public places where a large number of people can move, due to the risk of coronavirus transmission. The decision does not define "large number." (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 21 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly

Type: order

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Croatia

Decision on Measures to Limit social Gatherings, Work in Commerce, Services and the Holding of Sports and Cultural Events

The measures place a 30-day ban on all public events, prohibit the gathering of more than 5 persons in one place, and order the closure of all non-essential businesses. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 19 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly

Type: order

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Cuba

Curfew

The government decreed a curfew in Havana and mandatory quarantine for travelers in state centers and hotels. The curfew is in effect between the hours of 9:00 p.m. and 5:00 a.m., and will be maintained "indefinitely". 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 4 Feb 2021

Issue(s): Movement

Type: order

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Cyprus

Decree No. 12 on Measures for Prevention of COVID-19 Spread

The decree prohibits individuals' movement between 9pm and 6am, with exception of people who have a document certifying that their movement is required by their employment. Non-work travel is allowed only once per day, and individuals are required either to have a form that indicates a permissible purpose, or to have sent an SMS to request official permission. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 30 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Movement

Type: order

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Czech Republic

Curfew measures and assembly restrictions

The resolution introduces a daytime curfew with limited exceptions for grocery shopping and outdoor exercise, and a nighttime curfew with exceptions only for essential workers and urgent medical needs. The resolution also limits the freedom of assembly to outdoor areas only and gatherings of up to 100 participants total, in groups of no more than 20 persons.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 30 Oct 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement

Type: order

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Czech Republic

Restrictions on Movement of those Living in Social Service Facilities

The order prohibits individuals living in social service facilities (e.g. senior homes and special care facilities) from leaving the premises of those facilities.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 12 Oct 2020

Issue(s): Discrimination, Movement

Type: order

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Czech Republic

Government Decision to Prohibit the Free Movement of Persons 

The order prohibits the free movement of persons throughout the Czech Republic, with the exception of necessary journeys and activities.


Introduced 15 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Movement

Type: order

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Czech Republic

No. 215 on the Adoption of an Emergency Measure

The decree declares a "state of emergency" for one month under Constitutional Act No. 110/1998, on account of the coronavirus. It prohibits non-essential or work-related travel and orders individuals to remain home and limit contact with others to the extent possible. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 12 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Emergency, Movement

Type: order

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Democratic Republic of Congo

Ministeral Decree No. 25/2020 on Practical Modalities for the Execution of Measures against the Second Wave of the COVID-19 Pandemic

The Ministerial Order introduces a curfew from 21:00 to 05:00, and restricts public gatherings of more than 20 persons. The order states that the new measures will remain in place “until further notice.”

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 17 Dec 2020 Extended until at least 25 March 2021

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement

Type: order

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Democratic Republic of Congo

Mask Mandate

Mayor Gentiny Ngobila declared a mask mandate in the DRC capital city of Kinshasa. The city’s Police Chief, Slyvano Kasongo, said police would be deployed in large numbers to track down those who do not follow the new mandate. Persons found in violation of the mandate have been asked to pay FC 5000 (USD2.50). People gathering at funerals will also be arrested for contravening the city’s COVID-19 regulations.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 26 Nov 2020

Issue(s): Militarization

Type: order

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Democratic Republic of Congo

State of Health Emergency

The presidential decree institutes a one-month "state of health emergency," and a 30-day lockdown and curfew from 8 p.m. to 5 a.m. local time. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 31 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Emergency, Movement

Type: order

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Democratic Republic of Congo

Order No. 20/014 Proclaiming a State of Health Emergency to Face the Covid-19 Pandemic

The initial presidential order declares a "state of health emergency" for a period of thirty days. The order bans travel from Kinshasa to provinces, and vice versa. The order also bans gatherings of more than twenty people. Residents are asked to stay home and only to travel as strictly necessary. Religious and sporting services are suspended, and certain public places are closed. The unilateral nature of the order prompted political pushback, and subsequent extensions of the order were subjected to parliamentary approval. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 24 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency, Movement

Type: order

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Denmark

No. 158 on Amendment of the Law on Measures Countering Infectious and Other Communicable Diseases

The law further enables the government to ban gatherings of 3 or more people, with certain exemptions including gatherings at private homes and orderinary gatherings at places of work. The law also explicitly exempts opinion-shaping assemblies, including demonstrations and political meetings. The law expires on March 1, 2021. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 31 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly

Type: law

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Denmark

No. 133 on Amendment of the Law on Measures Countering Infectious and Other Communicable Diseases

The law enables the government to ban gatherings of 10 or more people, with certain exemptions including gatherings at private homes and ordinary gatherings at places of work. The law also explicitly exempts opinion-shaping assemblies, including demonstrations and political meetings. The law expires on March 1, 2021. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 12 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly

Type: law

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Denmark

Executive Order on Prohibition of Major Assemblies and Prohibition of Access to and Restrictions on Certain Premises for Coronavirus Disease Management 2019 (COVID-19)

The order, issued under Law No. 133, prohibits gatherings and events of 10 or more people throughout Denmark starting on March 18, with exemptions including "opinion-shaping assemblies." The order is in effect until April 14. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 18 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly

Type: order

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Dominican Republic

Decree 137-20

The decree suspends all administrative procedures, including processing of requests for information, for the duration of the state of emergency. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 23 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Access to Information

Type: order

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Dominican Republic

Decree 135-20 Establishing a Curfew

Under Decree 134-20 declaring a State of Emergency, Decree 135-20 establishes a curfew, prohibiting transit and the movement of people from 8pm to 6am. The Decree charges the Ministry of Defense and the Ministry of Interior and Police with execution of the curfew.


Introduced 20 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Movement

Type: order

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Dominican Republic

Decree 134-20 Declaing a State of Emergency

The decree declares a "state of emergency" for the entire national territory on account of the Covid-19 pandemic, and provides for the government to impose restrictions on individuals' freedom of movement, assembly, and association. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 19 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Emergency

Type: order

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Dominican Republic

Restriction of Peaceful Assembly

A group of activists set up a protest camp in front of the National Congress to advocate for the incorporation of measures to decriminalize abortion into the Penal Code. Dominican Police dismantled the camp, and reported in a press release that they did so to enforce compliance with the coronavirus pandemic protocol. The police alleged that the activists set up the camp during curfew hours and without permission from the authorities.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 20 Apr 2021

Issue(s): Assembly

Type: practice

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Ecuador

Order No. 1291

The President of Ecuador, Lenín Moreno, declared a state of exception due to public calamity. The Order temporarily suspends the right to exercise the freedom of movement, association, and assembly. The Order includes a lockdown on weekends and a nightly curfew in most of the country. The mobility restrictions will begin on Friday evenings and will end at 5:00 AM on Mondays. From Monday to Thursday there will be a night-time curfew, with exceptions for healthcare, food distribution and strategic sectors. The measures are in force for 28 days from 23 April to 20 May 2021.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 22 Apr 2021

Issue(s): Association, Assembly, Emergency, Movement

Type: order

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Ecuador

Executive Decree 1282

The President of Ecuador, Lenín Moreno, declared State of Exception due to public calamity responding to increasing COVID-19 infections in eight provinces. Executive Decree number 1282 declares a State of Exception in the provinces of Azuay, El Oro, Esmeraldas, Guayas, Loja, Manabí, Pichincha, and Santo Domingo de los Tsáchilas for 30 days. This State of Exception includes a curfew from 2 -9 of April 2021, from 8:00 p.m. to 5:00 a.m. The curfew prohibits circulating on roads and gathering in public spaces. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 2 Apr 2021

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement

Type: order

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Ecuador

No. 1017 Declaring a State of Exception

The decree declares a "state of exception" to respond to the covid-19 pandemic. The decree suspends certain individual rights under the constitution, including the right to association and assembly. The decree also provides for governmental authority to use digital tools to surveil individuals under mandatory isolation or quarantine.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 16 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Association, Assembly, Emergency, Surveillance, Privacy

Type: order

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Egypt

Amendments to Emergency Law 162/1958

The amendments expand the powers of the president and military prosecution during a declared state of emergency. Under the amended Emergency Law, powers available to the president now include the power to: ban private and public gatherings in addition to protests; shut down schools and universities; suspend operations in the private and public sector; and subject anyone returning from outside the country to quarantine. The amendments also allow the president to give military prosecutors preliminary investigation authority over any crimes. Egypt has been in a continuous state of emergency since April 2017, and has repeatedly extended the state of emergency for three-month periods, most recently in January, April, July, and October 2020.

تعديلات على قانون الطوارئ رقم 162 لسنة 1958

 ØªÙˆØ³Ø¹ التعديلات من سلطات الرئيس ونطاق المحاكمات العسكرية خلال إعلان حالة الطوارئ. بموجب قانون الطوارئ المعدل، فإن السلطات المتاحة للرئيس الآن تشمل حظر التجمعات الخاصة والعامة بالإضافة إلى الاحتجاجات، إغلاق المدارس والجامعات، ووقف العمل في القطاعين الخاص والعام، وإخضاع أي شخص يعود من خارج البلاد للحجر الصحي. أيضاً، تتيح التعديلات للرئيس منح أعضاء النيابة العامة العسكرية سلطة التحقيق الأولية في أي جرائم. تشهد مصر حالة طوارئ مستمرة منذ أبريل 2017ØŒ ومؤخراً تم تمديد حالة الطوارئ لمدة ثلاثة أشهر أخرى بدأت في 26 اكتوبر.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 8 May 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency, Militarization

Type: law

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Egypt

State of Emergency

The presidential decree declares a "state of emergency" for three months, under Article 154 of Egypt's Constitution. Egypt has been in a near-continuous state of emergency since April 2017, however the most recent declaration cites the "critical security and health situation" as grounds for extension. The declaration reinforces the authority of the armed forces and police to maintain security and save the lives of citizens, and provides that the state may impose restrictions on individuals' movement. The decree also states that violations of emergency orders will be punished with imprisonment.

حالة الطوارئ

 ÙŠÙ†Øµ المرسوم الرئاسي على إعلان "حالة الطوارئ" لمدة ثلاثة أشهر، بموجب المادة 154 من الدستور المصري. تشهد مصر حالة طوارئ شبه مستمرة منذ أبريل 2017ØŒ لكن الإعلان الأخير يشير إلى "الوضع الأمني والصحي الحرج" كأسباب للتمديد. يعزز الإعلان سلطة القوات المسلحة والشرطة في الحفاظ على الأمن وإنقاذ حياة المواطنين، وينص على أنه يجوز للدولة فرض قيود على تنقل الأفراد. ينص المرسوم أيضاً على عقوبة السجن على أي انتهاكات لقرارات الطوارئ.


Introduced 28 Apr 2020

Issue(s): Emergency, Movement, Militarization

Type: order

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Egypt

Ban on Public Religious Gatherings

The government bans all gatherings, public iftars, fast-breaking meals, and collective social activities for the holy month of Ramadan.

حظر التجمعات الدينية العامة

 Ø§Ù„حكومة تحظر كل التجمعات وموائد الإفطار العامة والوجبات السريعة والأنشطة الاجتماعية الجماعية خلال شهر رمضان المبارك.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 7 Apr 2020

Issue(s): Assembly

Type: order

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Egypt

Nationwide Curfew and Ban of Public Gatherings

The government's measures impose a curfew from 8pm to 6am, and bans public religious gatherings during Ramadan. Those who do not abide by the measures face fines of up to 4,000 Egyptian pounds ($255) or prison.

حظر تجول في جميع أنحاء البلاد وحظر التجمعات العامة

 ØªÙØ±Ø¶ التدابير الحكومية حظر التجول من الساعة الثامنة مساءاً حتى الساعة السادسة صباحاً، وتحظر التجمعات الدينية العامة خلال شهر رمضان. يُعاقب كل من لا يلتزم بهذه التدابير بغرامات تصل إلى 4,000 جنيه مصري (255 دولار أمريكي) أو بالسجن.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 24 Mar 2020 On 14 September 2020 the Supreme Council for Corona Crisis Management announced relaxation of some of the restrictions on public gatherings, including permission for tourism gatherings, funerals, cultural exhibitions, meetings and conferences, certain sport and recreational activities, and childcare centers, all under certain specified conditions.

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement

Type: order

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Egypt

Intimidation and Arrest of Healthcare Workers Discussing COVID-19 Crisis

Between the February outbreak of COVID-19 in Egypt and early July, Egypt arrested at least ten doctors and six journalists. Authorities have also instructed health workers not to discuss the health crisis with the press. The Supreme Council for Media Regulation issued a series of announcements, including on March 10, April 21, and June 16, each of which threatens legal action against journalists or media outlets who might depict negative aspects of the government's response to the COVID-19 crisis.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 6 Jul 2020

Issue(s): Disinformation, Press Freedom, Expression, Access to Information

Type: practice

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Egypt

Supreme Council for Media Regulation Limits Access to Online News

The Supreme Council for Media Regulation has blocked or limited access to dozens of news websites and social media accounts for allegedly spreading false information about the coronavirus. The SCMR has not made public the targets of the blocking nor the allegedly false information.

المجلس الأعلى لتنظيم الإعلام يقيد الوصول إلى الأخبار على شبكة الإنترنت

 Ù‚ام المجلس الأعلى لتنظيم الإعلام بحظر أو تقييد الوصول إلى عشرات المواقع الإخبارية وحسابات وسائل التواصل الاجتماعي بحجة ضلوعها في نشر معلومات كاذبة حول فيروس كورونا المستجد. لم يقم المجلس الأعلى لتنظيم الإعلام بنشر أهداف الحظر ولا المعلومات الكاذبة المزعومة.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 3 Apr 2020

Issue(s): Disinformation, Expression

Type: practice

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El Salvador

Decree-Law No. 594 on Temporal Restrictions on Constitutional Rights to address COVID-19

The decree-law institutes 15-day restrictions on the right to free movement and peaceful assembly. Only meetings for religious, cultural, economic, or sports purposes will be allowed, and only after obtaining prior authorization by public health authorities. These restrictions were extended by subsequent Decree-Law No. 611. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 15 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement

Type: law

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El Salvador

Executive Decree No. 12

This decree announces "extraordinary measures of prevention and containment to declare the national territory as an area subject to sanitary control." The order establishes quarantine measures prohibiting movement of any persons outside their homes, with limited exceptions. The order authorizes the police to arrest those in violation and to transport them to "containment centers." The order also authorizes involvement of the military in enforcement of the quarantine. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 15 Mar 2020 For most recent updates: https://covid19.gob.sv/category/noticias/decretos-y-comunicados/

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement, Militarization

Type: order

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El Salvador

Decree No. 593 Declaring a State of Emergency

Declares a one-month "state of emergency" due to the Covid-19 pandemic. The measures include allowing for restrictions on individuals' travel and movement within the country, as well as bans on public gatherings. The decree also suspends all administrative and judicial functions deemed non-essential, such as operations for access to public information. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 14 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency, Access to Information, Movement

Type: order

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El Salvador

Police and Military Abuses in Enforcement of Movement restrictions

Salvadoran police and military have arbitrarily arrested, detained, and beaten hundreds of people for violating COVID-19 lockdown measures, including individuals working in essential services outside their homes. According to complaints to the country's Ombudsperson, dozens of detainees had to sleep in police station parking lots, were denied food and water, and were kept in unsanitary conditions. As of April 13, more than 4,000 detainees were held in overcrowded containment centers, many for violations of quarantine and lockdown orders. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 15 Apr 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement, Militarization

Type: practice

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Equatorial Guinea

Decree No. 42/2020 Declaring a State of Health Alert

The President declared a State of Health Alert, which temporarily suspends all types of demonstrations or gatherings of more than 10 people. Travel abroad is suspended for the duration of the Health Alert, except in cases of force majeure duly verified. All international flights of airlines are temporarily suspended. Airline officials, in collaboration with the emergency services, are required to provide the Ministry of Health and Social Protection with the list of passengers who have entered Equatorial Guinea since 1 February 2020. All travellers from affected countries must remain in quarantine for a period of 14 days and can only leave the premises with the permission of the competent health personnel.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 31 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement

Type: order

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Eritrea

Ministry of Health Public Guidelines No.3

Among other limitations, the order prohibits gatherings of ten or more people for any purpose, indefinitely. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 23 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly

Type: order

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Eritrea

Guidelines from the High Level Task Force on COVID-19

The guidelines among other things require all citizens to stay at home, except those engaged in essential services, for 21 days. Members of a household, not exceeding two at a time, are allowed out to buy essential food items and emergency medical treatment. Rigorous implementation of the measures will be secured by the police and security authorities as well as by neighborhood committees, and punitive legal measures will be taken on any individual in violation. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 1 Apr 2020

Issue(s): Movement

Type: regulation

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Estonia

Declaration of an Emergency Situation on the Administrative Territory of the Republic of Estonia

Declares an "emergency situation" under Article 87(8) of the Constitution, on account of the pandemic spread of coronavirus. The declaration is in effect until May 1 unless extended or revoked. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 13 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Emergency

Type: order

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Eswatini

State of Emergency

The King proclaims a "national emergency" on March 17 and a ban on all public and private gatherings of over 50 people. The Ministry of Home Affairs will also create a "control management system" for refugees and asylum seekers. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 17 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency

Type: order

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Eswatini

The Coronavirus (COVID 19) Regulations, Legal Notice No. 72 of 2020

The Prime Minister, on behalf of the King, imposes additional measures to contain the coronavirus, including a prohibition on gatherings of more than 20 people. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 27 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly

Type: regulation

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Ethiopia

State of Emergency

The Regional Council in Tigray declares a State of Emergency on account of the coronavirus. The order prohibits travel within the state, and bans large gatherings. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 26 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency, Movement

Type: law

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Ethiopia

State of Emergency

The Government of Ethiopia declares a nationwide "state of emergency" under Article 93 of the Constitution. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 8 Apr 2020

Issue(s): Emergency

Type: order

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Ethiopia

Ban on Public Gatherings

The Prime Minister issues a ban on all public gatherings on account of the coronavirus. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 20 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly

Type: order

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Ethiopia

Regulation 466 to Implement the State of Emergency Proclamation No. 3/2020

The regulation prohibits meetings for religious, government, social, or political purposes in places of worship, public institutions, hotels, meeting halls or any other place. The regulation also prohibits regional or federal officials from giving statements to members of the press about COVID-19, without first obtaining permission from the federal committee or from sub-committees at regional level; exceptions are made for professional commentary on COVID-19 laws, professional medical explanations, or daily press briefings by the Ministry of Health. The regulation also prohibits disseminating information about COVID-19 and related issues that would cause "terror and undue distress among the public." The regulation requires public communication professionals and media outlets to ensure that information, analysis, or programs on COVID-19 are "without exaggeration, appropriate and not prone to cause panic and terror among the public." 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 20 Apr 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Disinformation, Press Freedom, Expression, Access to Information

Type: regulation

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Ethiopia

Regulation No. 3 of 2020 on the Implementation of the State of Emergency Declaration

The Attorney General issued regulations to further define and implement the state of emergency. The regulations prohibit gatherings of more than four people. Under the regulations, spreading information that can cause public confusion or alarm is prohibited. The regulations also require all media professionals to report Covid-related news in a way that is neither exaggerated nor understated, and is not likely to create confusion or alarm. The regulations create a legal duty to report anyone suspected of contracting the virus to the police or Ministry of Health. Violations of these provisions are subject to penalty of up to three years in prison a fine of up to 200,000 Ethiopian Birr ($6,000).

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 8 Apr 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Disinformation, Press Freedom, Expression, Privacy, Access to Information

Type: regulation

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Fiji

Declaration of State of Natural Disaster

On April 16, PM Bainimarama declared a State of Natural Disaster after Fiji's 17th identified case of COVID-19. The declaration extends the quarantine period from 14 to 28 days, and imposes additional lockdowns on new areas. The order prohibits public gatherings and various recreational activities. The PM warned that any person who violates health protection measures would be arrested and charged. The end of the State of Natural Disaster was declared on May 15, 2020. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 16 Apr 2020 15 of May 2020 end of State of Natural Disaster

Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency, Movement

Type: order

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Fiji

Nationwide Curfew

The order establishes a nationwide curfew beginning March 30, from 10pm to 5am, in order to contain the coronavirus pandemic. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 28 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Movement

Type: order

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Fiji

Ban on Public Gatherings

The Prime Minister states that gatherings of 20 or more individuals are prohibited nationwide, on account of the coronavirus. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 21 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly

Type: order

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Fiji

Contact Tracing App Raises Privacy Concerns

The Fijian government has encouraged people to download COVID-19 contact tracing app CareFiji. CareFiji uses Bluetooth signals to determine if a person has come into close contact with someone who has tested positive to coronavirus. Once downloaded, the app allows the Ministry of Health and Medical Services to notify users who have been in contact with a COVID-positive person. All working Fijians must download the app, as well as government officials and civil servants. As part of Phase 2 recovery, venues such as gyms and cinemas must check the CareFiji app of any person that enters the facility. The MIT Technology Review’s Covid Tracing Tracker has scored CareFiji three stars, flagging the app for not limiting the use of data it collects and for not indicating whether the data would be destroyed later on.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 21 Jun 2020

Issue(s): Privacy

Type: practice

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Fiji

Arrests in Enforcement of Quarantine and Deployment of Military

Hundreds of people have been arrested and charged for breaching laws and regulations on self-isolation, quarantine and movement restrictions. Fiji has also deployed military officers in order to support the government's response to the pandemic. Civil society activists have raised concerns regarding the pattern of widespread arrests in enforcement of lockdown measures and the lack of transparency around potential instances of the use of excessive force. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 21 Apr 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement, Militarization

Type: practice

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Fiji

Arrests and Criminal Penalties for Exercising the Right to Freedom of Expression

Fiji has used existing public order laws to prosecute those posting information about the virus on social media. One opposition politician who posted about COVID-19 on social media was charged for "malicious writings of false news or reports tending to create or foster public alarm and anxiety."

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 30 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Disinformation, Expression

Type: practice

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Finland

Declaration of Exceptional Circumstances

The government declares "exceptional circumstances" to address the coronavirus. "Exceptional circumstances" are defined in Finland's Emergency Powers Act and the State of Defence Act, and allow for the government to activate extraordinary powers. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 16 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Emergency

Type: order

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France

Emergency Law No. 2020-290 to Address the Covid-19 Epidemic

The law establishes a "state of health emergency", under Article 38 of the Constitution, in order to address the Covid-19 epidemic. The state of health emergency allows the Prime Minister to issue decrees restricting individuals' freedom of movement and assembly, and to take "any other regulatory measure" necessary to address the health crisis. A new state of health emergency, Decree no. 2020-1257, was declared on 14 October 2020. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 22 Mar 2020 Extended through 1 June 2021

Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency, Movement

Type: law

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France

Lockdown Measures

Residents are permitted to leave their homes only for essential purposes, and must be in possesion of an exemption certificate. Updates to COVID-19 restricitons may be found here.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 30 Oct 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement

Type: order

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Gabon

Law No. 001/2020 Amending and Supplementing Certain Provisions of Law No. 11/90 on the State of Emergency

As approved by the National Assembly and Senate, the law defines expanded powers afforded to the Minister of the Interior during a State of Emergency. The order authorizes the Minister of the Interior to impose an array of movement restrictions and containment measures.  

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 25 Apr 2020

Issue(s): Emergency, Movement

Type: law

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Gabon

Decree Number 00100/PR/PM, Declaring a State of Emergency in the Gabonese Republic

The President of the Republic of Gabon declared a "state of emergency" after consultation with legislative bodies. The state of emergency authorizes the government to take any restrictive measures required to address the COVID-19 pandemic. Following the declaration of the state of emergency, various prohibitions on movement were imposed throughout the country, including a full lockdown in Libreville. Businesses, religious institutions, and schools were closed, and gatherings over 10 people were banned. Refusal to comply with lockdown restrictions was made a criminal offense. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 10 Apr 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency, Movement

Type: order

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Gabon

Ban on Public Gatherings

The government prohibits gatherings of more than 30 people on account of the coronavirus. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 16 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly

Type: order

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Gambia

National Curfew

The Gambian government introduced a nationwide curfew due to a rise in COVID-19 cases. The curfew will be in effect from 22:00 to 05:00 (local time). A ban on social gatherings is also in effect and markets are required to close by 14:00. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 5 Aug 2020 Measures relaxed on 9/17/2020

Issue(s): Movement

Type: order

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Gambia

Ban on Public Gatherings

Gambian authorities banned public gatherings and closed nonessential public places. Additionally, all flight passengers arriving in the Gambia are subject to a mandatory 14-day quarantine period in a government designated facility. These measures will be in effect until at least November 2, 2020.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 4 Aug 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement

Type: order

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Gambia

State of Emergency

The President declares a 21-day state of "public emergency" on account of the coronavirus pandemic. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 18 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Emergency

Type: order

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Georgia

No. 1 on the Declaration of Emergency

The decree declares a one-month "state of emergency" throughout Georgia to counter the global coronavirus pandemic. Among other things, the decree allows Georgian authorities to restrict any kind of assembly of persons; restrict movement and travel; and establish rules of isolation and quarantine for which individuals and legal entities shall be held liable. Per the decree, failure to comply with the state of emergency will result in a fine; repeat offences will result in imprisonment for up to three years. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 21 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency, Movement

Type: order

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Georgia

Measures to be Implemented in Connection with the Prevention of the Spread of COVID-19 in Georgia

The ordinance, which implements Presidential Decree N1, further articulates governmental powers in place for the duration of the emergency. Among other things, the ordinance suspends the timeframe for issuing public information and responding to information requests, which means that during the state of emergency public institutions are not obliged to comply with the deadlines set by access to information laws. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 23 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Access to Information

Type: regulation

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Germany

Decision by the Chancellor and the Heads of the Federal States of April 15

The decision extends the joint resolutions of March 12 and 22, which ban gatherings and restrict individuals from spending time in public spaces. These provisions will remain in effect until May 3, 2020. In addition, the decision prohibits large events through at least August 31, 2020. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 15 Apr 2020

Issue(s): Assembly

Type: order

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Germany

Decision by the Chancellor and the Heads of the Federal States of March 22

The decision prohibits individuals from spending time in public spaces with more than one other person from outside that individual's household, and also prohibits celebrations involving groups of people gathering in in public places, apartments, and private facilities. The measures are in place for at least two weeks. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 22 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly

Type: order

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Germany

Decision by the Chancellor and the Heads of the Federal States of March 12

The decision prohibits events with more than 1,000 participants, to combat the spread of the coronavirus. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 12 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly

Type: order

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Ghana

Imposition of Restrictions Act of 2020

The Act allows the President to take measures that restrict individuals' fundamental freedoms, per Article 21(4) of the Constitution, to respond to the coronavirus pandemic. The Act allows for a three-month period during which restrictions may be imposed in case of an emergency, in the interest of public health and safety, after which the restrictions may be renewed for one month at a time.


Introduced 21 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Emergency

Type: law

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Ghana

Restrictions on Gatherings

President Nana Akufo-Addo announced that conferences, weddings, burials, non-contact sport, and political activities will be limited to a maximum of 100 participants. Festivals, sporting events, nightclubs, cinemas, and political rallies will remain banned, and the closure of Ghana's borders has been extended indefinitely.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 5 Jun 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement

Type: order

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Ghana

Additional Measures Taken Under the Imposition of Restrictions Act of 2020

Per presidential order, all individuals in the two major metropolitan regions are required to stay at home, and will only be permitted to leave their homes for essential items such as food, medicine, and water, or to visit the bank and public toilets. The order is in place for at least two weeks. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 31 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Movement

Type: order

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Ghana

Establishment of Emergency Communications Instrument (E.I. 63) 2020

The President of Ghana invoked the Establishment of Emergency Communications Instrument under the Electronic Communications Act (2008). The Executive Instrument grants the President emergency powers to fight the pandemic. The President may order telecom companies to provide the government with personal customer details such as subscriber databases, subscriber cell reference data, uncashed subscriber mobile money transfer data, and mobile money merchant codes. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 23 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Privacy

Type: order

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Ghana

Measures Taken to Combat the Coronavirus Pandemic

The president orders a 30-day ban on all public gatherings, and directs the Attorney General to submit to Parliament emergency legislation under Article 21 of the Constitution. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 15 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency

Type: order

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Ghana

Deployment of Biosurveillance App

Ghana is using PanaBIOS, an African Union-backed biosurveillance technology. PanaBIOS is an app that uses algorithms to trace persons facing potential health threats and track and keep records of test samples. The African Union and the African Centers for Disease Control are encouraging member states to use the app, which would allow results from facilities across the continent to be centralized. The app has raised questions regarding data access and data privacy. The app does not currently have a privacy policy available to the public, in which it explains to users its data collection and sharing practices. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 16 Sep 2020

Issue(s): Surveillance, Privacy

Type: practice

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Ghana

Police Brutality in Enforcing Lockdown

During the early stages of lockdown in Ghana, police reportedly used excessive force in enforcing quarantine measures. In one video, a police officer is seen kicking a man and hitting him with a cane, while he struggles to get away. In another incident, police officers reportedly whipped two people with vehicle fan belts and horsewhips, while denying a nearby journalist access to his camera to record the incident. By April 1, twenty-one complaints had been lodged against police for conduct during lockdown. The police have claimed that the videos are outdated or doctored, and urged the public to ignore them. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 1 Apr 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Press Freedom, Access to Information, Movement

Type: practice

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Greece

No. D1a Imposing Temporary Measures to Restrict the Movement of Citizens

The governmental decision prohibits individuals from leaving their homes for non-essential purposes, with limited exceptions, to combat the spread of coronavirus. Individuals who leave their homes must either complete a special form on the government website, send a text to a government hotline, or carry a signed personal declaration with their justification for doing so. Violators are subject to fines of up to 150 euros. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 22 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Movement

Type: order

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Greenland

Law No. 1 of 2020 on Changes to the Parliamentary Regulation Regarding Civilian Measures Against Infectious Diseases

The law enables the government to ban gatherings and events (whether indoor or outdoor, public or private) of 10 or more people. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 1 Apr 2020

Issue(s): Assembly

Type: law

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Greenland

Home Rule's Order No. 6 of 2020 on Temporary Restrictions and Prohibition of Assemblies in Nuuk, Sermersooq Municipality

The order, issued under Law No. 1 of 2020, prohibits gatherings and events of 10 or more people in the wider capital area (Nuuk) for 10 days starting on April 3, with exemptions including gatherings of family members in private residences and assemblies with a "political or opinion-shaping purpose." (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 3 Apr 2020

Issue(s): Assembly

Type: order

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Grenada

Emergency Powers (COVID 19) Regulations No. 3

The regulations impose a two-week curfew, confining all persons to their homes except for essential purposes during limited hours. All individuals in isolation must download a mobile surveillance application. Persons shall report their own or any observed flu-like symptoms affecting others to local police. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 6 Apr 2020

Issue(s): Emergency, Surveillance, Privacy, Movement

Type: regulation

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Guatemala

Decrees No. 5 and 6 on the Declaration of Public Calamity

Decree No. 5 declares a "state of public calamity" under Article 183 of Guatemala's Constitution, on account of the coronavirus. Under the decree, constitutional freedoms including freedom of movement and the right to peaceful assembly are suspended. The decree prohibits events of any size, as well any social, cultural, and sports activities. Decree No. 6 amends the restrictions to prohibit movement between 4:00pm until 4:00am for one week. The order calls upon the Guatemalan Army to support enforcement of the lockdown. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 21 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency, Movement, Militarization

Type: order

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Guatemala

Alerta Guate

On March 25, the Guatemalan government released a video of the President promoting the application and encouraging citizens to download it. The "Guatemalan Alert" application disseminates official government announcements about the pandemic. The application collects users' email addresses, social media account names, age, personal interests, and geographic location. The application also requests permission to record audio and calls, and to access files on the user's device. These data are made available to a private company based in the US, and there is little transparency regarding the extent to which data can be shared with third parties. The data can be kept up to ten years. Civil society organizations have also expressed concerns about the implementing company's international funders.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 25 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Surveillance, Privacy, Access to Information

Type: practice

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Guinea

State of Emergency

The president announces a 30-day nationwide "state of emergency" due to the spread of the coronavirus. A nationwide curfew will be in place from 9pm to 5am beginning March 30, and gatherings of over 20 people are prohibited for 14 days (renewable). (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 27 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency, Movement

Type: order

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Guinea-Bissau

State of Alert

Authorities downgraded the country's COVID-19 response from a State of Calamity to a State of Alert, through at least March 10, 2021. Demonstrations, meetings, and conferences can resume outdoors and at 50 percent capacity indoors, and may not exceed 100 people.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 16 Dec 2020

Issue(s): Assembly

Type: order

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Guinea-Bissau

State of Calamity

Authorities announced that the country's COVID-19 response had been downgraded from a State of Emergency to a State of Calamity. The State of Calamity prohibits processions, parades, demonstrations and other public events of more than 25 people.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 9 Sep 2020 Expired 12/10/20

Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency

Type: order

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Guinea-Bissau

State of Emergency

The government has declared a nationwide "state of emergency" and introduced restrictive measures to prevent further spread of the virus, including the closure of all land and sea borders and commercial air links. Public transport has also been suspended, while only essential shops remain open, including food and medical stores.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 2 Apr 2020 Lifted and downgraded to State of Calamity on 9 September 2020.

Issue(s): Emergency

Type: order

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Guyana

Lockdown Measures

The Guyanese government implemented a curfew between 8pm and 5am and various other restrictions, including a prohibition on religious gatherings and closure of restaurants and other public gathering spaces. One order was issued on March 27, another on March 29, and another on April 2

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 27 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement

Type: order

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Haiti

Health State of Emergency

Authorities imposed a COVID-19-related health state of emergency. Under the restrictions, a nightly curfew is in effect from 22:00-05:00. Gatherings of more than 10 people are banned.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 25 May 2021 Extended through 29 June 2021

Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency, Movement

Type: order

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Haiti

State of Emergency

The government declares a state of emergency over the coronavirus outbreak, closing Haiti's borders and imposing a nationwide curfew. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 19 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Emergency, Movement

Type: order

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Honduras

Absolute Curfew for the Entire National Territory

On March 20, 2020, an absolute curfew was imposed throughout the country. Information about the extension of the curfew and nationwide COVID-19 data is avialable here

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 20 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement

Type: order

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Honduras

PCM 021-2020 on Emergency Measures

The emergency decree suspends numerous constitutional guarantees, including freedom of expression, association, assembly, and movement, and provides for emergency measures to address the spread of the coronavirus. These include a prohibition on public or private gatherings of any size, and limitations on individuals' movement. The decree provides that any individual who violates the restrictions on movement shall be arrested. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 15 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Association, Assembly, Emergency, Movement

Type: order

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Honduras

PCM 005-2020 Declaring a State of Health Emergency

The decree declares a "state of health emergency," due to the coronavirus. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 10 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Emergency

Type: order

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Hong Kong

Prevention and Control of Disease (Prohibition on Group Gathering) Regulation

The regulation prohibits gatherings of four or more people in order to combat the Covid-19 epidemic. The prohibition, which provides limited exemptions including for funerals and gatherings of government employees, is in place for 14 days. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 29 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly

Type: regulation

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Hong Kong

Arbitrary Enforcement of the Restriction on Public Gatherings

Hong Kong police have aggressively enforced COVID-19-related restrictions on public gatherings against pro-democracy protesters. Activists and pro-democracy lawmakers allege that the police are selectively exercising their powers to suppress protests rather than to promote social distancing (other groups are largely allowed to gather with impunity). 

In 2021, Hong Kong’s annual June 4 Tiananmen vigil was banned on COVID-19 grounds for the second year. Hong Kong police arrested Chow Hang Tung, the organizer of the vigil.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 11 May 2020

Issue(s): Assembly

Type: practice

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Hong Kong

Electronic Wristbands for Monitoring Quarantined Individuals

The government is using electronic wristbands to enforce quarantines. The wristbands are connected to a smartphone app and are used to ensure that individuals remain at home. Violations are subject to a $5,000 HKD fine ($644) and six months in prison. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 18 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Surveillance, Privacy

Type: practice

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Hungary

Law Terminating the "State of Danger"

The law calls on the government to terminate the "state of danger" instituted under Decree 40/2020 of March 11, in accordance with Article 54(3) of Hungary's Fundamental Law, and withdrawal of the Law on Protection Against The Coronavirus. Article 54(3) of the Fundamental Law requires the termination of a "special legal order" if the conditions for it no longer exist. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 18 Jun 2020

Issue(s): Emergency

Type: law

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Hungary

Law on Transitional Rules and Health Preparedness related to the Cessation of the State of Danger

The law introduces measures related to the revocation of the "state of danger" in Hungary. However, the law expands the powers of the government during another exceptional state, by authorizing the government to issue wide-ranging decrees without parliamentary approval during a “state of medical crisis.” During such a state, the law authorizes the government to suspend existing laws and restrict fundamental rights such as freedom of movement and assembly. The government may declare a “state of medical crisis” unilaterally, based on the recommendation of a government-appointed medical officer; the “state of medical crisis” can last up to six months and may be renewed by government decree. According to critics, the law gives the government expansive leeway to rule with minimal judicial and parliamentary scrutiny for an indefinite period.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 17 Jun 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency, Movement

Type: law

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Hungary

Law on Protection Against the Coronavirus

The law extends the government's emergency powers, and suspends elections during that time. Under the law, the government may effectively rule by decree, for an indefinite period of time, without being bound by current laws. The law also punishes anyone who “distorts” or publishes “false” information on the pandemic with five years in jail.

The law was withdrawn as of 18 June 2020, along with the termination of the "state of danger." (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 30 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Disinformation, Emergency, Press Freedom, Elections, Expression

Type: law

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Hungary

Government Decree No. 521/2020 (XI.25.)

The Decree extends the period of responding to access to information requests from 15 days to 45 days, in the case that timely completion of the request would jeopardize the completion of public tasks related to the State of Danger. The deadline can be extended a further 45 days.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 25 Nov 2020 In effect from 26 November 2020 until 8 February 2021

Issue(s): Access to Information

Type: order

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Hungary

Government Decree No. 484/2020. (XI. 10.) on the Second Phase of Protective Measures to be Applied in the Event of a State of Danger

The Decree introduces a blanket ban on assemblies in public spaces, establishes a curfew between 8pm and 5am, and imposes heavy fines for violations up to 1,400 EUR (500,000 HUF) for participants of banned protests. The Decrees also allows the military to take part in patrols and monitor compliance with the emergency measures. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 10 Nov 2020 In effect through 11 December 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement, Militarization

Type: order

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Hungary

Law No. CIX of 2020 on the Protection Against the Second Wave of the Global Coronavirus Pandemic

The Law extends the government's emergency powers so that it may effectively rule by decree. The Law sets a 90-day time limit for the government’s exceptional powers. During the period of the state of danger, new interim elections and national and local referendum cannot be scheduled. Any previously scheduled elections or referendums are required to be cancelled. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 10 Nov 2020

Issue(s): Emergency, Elections

Type: order

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Hungary

Termination of GDPR Rights and Extension of Deadlines for FOI Requests

The government restricted data protection rights as stipulated by the GDPR and the Act on Freedom of Information. The new rules allow the government to use the personal data of citizens without clear regulations about when they can use it, and for what purpose. The government also extended the deadline for public institutions to provide requested data through FOI regulations from 15 to 45 days. The deadline can be prolonged for an additional 45 days, meaning one could have to wait up to 90 days for a response. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 5 May 2020

Issue(s): Surveillance, Privacy, Access to Information

Type: order

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Hungary

State of Danger

The government declares a national "state of danger" to counter the consequences of the Covid-19 epidemic. The "state of danger" is a special state of emergency regulated by Hungary's constitution.

The declaration was withdrawn as of 18 June 2020. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 11 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Emergency

Type: order

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Iceland

Expanding a Ban on Assemblies in Iceland

The government's order, issued under the Act on Health Security and Communicable Diseases No. 19/1997, prohibits gatherings of 20 or more people throughout Iceland (including both public and private spaces) starting on March 23. A previous 100-person limit had been in place since 16 March. The ban will remain in force until May 4, 2020 and may be extended. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 23 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly

Type: order

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India

Mobile Phone Tracking and Mandatory Selfies to Confirm Home Quarantine

The Karnataka state government directs all persons in quarantine to send a “selfie” of themselves every hour from their home, failing which they may be housed in government-created mass quarantine centers. The directive mentions that the selfie image shall include location coordinates to inform the government of the sender's location, and that every selfie sent by a home-quarantined person will be verified by the government. The state government has also released a mobile application which reveals the addresses of COVID-19 patients. The mobile app for tracking of quarantined patients has also been adopted by the Delhi, Gujarat, Tamil Nadu, and Maharashtra governments. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 31 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Surveillance, Privacy

Type: law

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India

Curfew & Restrictions on Movement and Public Gatherings

The Kashmir administration imposed a nighttime curfew and restrictions on movement and public gatherings (not more than 3 persons) in Districts of Kashmir Valley, citing COVID-19. The restrictions are in place for two days, ahead of the first anniversary of the revocation of the region's special status.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 3 Aug 2020 In effect through 8/5/20

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement

Type: order

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India

Lockdown Measures

The Kashmir administration imposed a complete lockdown in nine districts of the region, except for Bandipora district. Only agriculture, horticulture, construction activities are permitted. The movement of goods carriers, LPG and oil tankers is also permitted. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 22 Jul 2020 Until 7/27/20

Issue(s): Movement

Type: order

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India

Restriction on the Dissemination of Information Online (CP/XI (6)/144/(Prohibitory Order)/2020)

The Mumbai Commissioner of Police issued an order prohibiting the "dissemination of information through various messaging and social media platforms which is found to be incorrect, derogatory and discriminatory towards a particular community, distortion of facts, causing panic and confusion among the general public, inciting mistrust towards government functionaries and their actions taken in order to prevent spread of the COVID-19 virus and thereby causing danger to human health or safety or a disturbance of the public tranquility." Additionally, any person designated as an "admin" of a platform is personally responsible for whatever information is disseminated. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 10 Apr 2020

Issue(s): Disinformation, Expression

Type: order

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India

Prior Approval Required for Publishing Information about Coronavirus

The Maharashtra government prohibits organizations or individuals from publicizing information about the coronavirus without ascertaining prior clearance from relevant government health authorities, in order to avoid spread of misinformation. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 24 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Disinformation, Press Freedom, Expression, Access to Information

Type: order

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India

Order No. 40-3/2020-D on Measures to be Taken by States and Union Territories to Contain Covid-19

The order among other things provides for a 21-day ban on all social, political, sports, entertainment, academic, cultural, and religious gatherings. Violations of these and other provisions in the order are subject to penalty under Section 51-60 of the Disaster Management Act, and Section 188 of the Penal Code. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 24 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly

Type: order

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India

Maharashtra Public Trust (Amendment) Ordinance

The government of Maharashtra state amends the Maharashtra Public Trust Act 1950 with Section 57A, establishing a separate “Epidemic Disease Relief Fund & Disaster Relief Fund,” on account of the coronavirus. The amendments require all public trusts to contribute a percentage of their gross annual income to the fund.

(

See primary source or citation here

)

Introduced 10 Apr 2020

Issue(s): Association

Type: regulation

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India

The Assam COVID-19 Containment Regulations, 2020

This set of regulations include "geographic quarantine, social distancing measures, enhanced active surveillance, testing all suspected cases, isolation of cases, home quarantine of contacts, [and] social mobilization to follow preventive public health measures." The regulations indicate that house to house surveys are to be used for surveillance purposes. Those surveys involved daily house visits by supervisory officers. Individuals believed to be infected were required to isolate at home until examination by a Rapid Response Team. Surveillance teams reported their activities daily to a central authority. All non-essential services were shut down. Containment zones were established and restrictions were imposed on movement into and out of containment zones. The regulations also indicated that "rumors and myths are to be strictly controlled by the administration." 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 31 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Disinformation, Surveillance, Press Freedom, Expression, Privacy, Access to Information, Movement

Type: regulation

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India

Arrest of Protesters and Activists

Over a matter of weeks, nearly a dozen prominent activists and potentially dozens of other demonstrators were detained while coronavirus restrictions blocked prisoners' ability to file bail applications and to meet with attorneys. Although the arrests mirrored practices that preceded the virus, the fact that the arrests were conducted during lockdown meant that activists were unable to quickly file responses to charges that human rights groups assert were brought on limited evidence. The arrests have had the effect of controlling dissenters' ability to protest social and political issues.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 19 Jul 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Expression

Type: practice

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India

COVID-19 Crackdown on Journalists

Since the outbreak of the pandemic, state and national governmental actors in India have cracked down on journalists' coverage of the pandemic, and have employed lockdown measures in a way that adversely impacts journalists' ability to cover the pandemic. When writing critical coverage of governmental responses to the pandemic, journalists have been refused curfew passes, arrested under charges of spreading false information when covering governmental responses to pandemic, charged with acting negligently to spread infectious disease, heavily interrogated or physically assaulted by police, and charged with disobedience under the Epidemic Diseases Act. In at least one instance, a journalist was held incommunicado for 72 hours before finally being taken before a judge and charged.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 27 May 2020

Issue(s): Disinformation, Press Freedom, Expression, Access to Information

Type: practice

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India

Mobile Phone Tracking App

The government has made it mandatory for all central government officials to use the government-built Aarogya Setu app on their mobile phones. The app alerts users if a person in their vicinity has tested positive for Covid-19. The government has also made the app mandatory in virus "containment zones" throughout the country. The app lacks privacy protections, with the use of both Bluetooth and GPS, and with little transparency about how the data will be handled.


Introduced 1 May 2020

Issue(s): Surveillance, Privacy

Type: practice

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India

Assam Anti-Disinformation Campaign

The Government of Assam filed charges against a Bengali daily published from Silchar, for carrying a false news report about the state’s first COVID-19 patient. The case was brought against the reporter who filed the story and the publisher of the newspaper under Section 188 of IPC and provisions of Assam COVID-19 Regulation, 2020. Additionally, Assam DIPR has formed a five-member committee for monitoring and checking fake news in all forms of media. The committee includes officials from the information, health, police and disaster management departments. The committee surveilled social media accounts and created WhatsApp numbers for the purpose of tracking information circulating on Whatsapp. As of April 8, 52 cases had been registered for spreading rumours/uploading objectionable comments on social media and a total of 25 people had been arrested, while eight were detained and then released.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 8 Apr 2020

Issue(s): Disinformation, Surveillance, Press Freedom, Expression, Privacy, Access to Information

Type: practice

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India

Dispersal of Sit-in and Destruction of Protest Site

Citing a ban on public gatherings because of the Covid-19 pandemic, police in Delhi broke up a months-long sit-in protest against India's controversial new citizenship law. Police bulldozers destroyed tents and billboards at the protest site. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 24 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly

Type: practice

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India

Hand Stamps to Enforce Quarantines

The government of Maharashtra state announces a policy to stamp the hands of individuals required to self-quarantine. The stamps indicate that the stamped person must stay at home for two weeks, and indicate the dates of the person's required isolation. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 17 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Surveillance, Privacy

Type: practice

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Indonesia

Pedulilindungi Contact-Tracing Application

The PeduliLindingi application traces users' movement in real time using Bluetooth technology. Civil society organizations have expressed concern about the government's failure to make the source code for the app available and about other ways in which the government's use of the app has fallen short of providing sufficient protection for data privacy.  It is unclear whether the data are stored on a central server, and it is unclear to what extent consent is needed for data to be shared.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 30 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Surveillance, Privacy

Type: law

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Indonesia

Ban on Eid Day Tradition of Mudik, Circular Number 13 of 2021

The COVID-19 National Task Force issued Circular Number 13 of 2021, banning the Eid Day Tradition of Mudik (exodus). From May 6 - 17, 2021 travel is restricted. Violations against this circular will be subject to fines, social sanctions, confinement and/or criminal charges in accordance with the law.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 6 May 2021 Expires 17 May 2021

Issue(s): Movement

Type: order

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Indonesia

Presidential Decree No. 11 of 2020 Declaring a Public Health Emergency

The decree declares the COVID-19 pandemic to be a "public health emergency," in accordance with the provisions of the law and regulations of Indonesia. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 31 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Emergency

Type: order

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Indonesia

Regulation of the Minister of Health of the Republic of Indonesia, Number 9 of 2020

This order empowers sub-national leaders of regions impacted by COVID-19 to impose mandatory school and work vacations, restrictions on religious activities, restrictions on activities in public places or facilities, restrictions on social and cultural activities, and restrictions on public transportation. This order also activates the military for combatting COVID-19 domestically.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 3 Apr 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement, Militarization

Type: regulation

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Indonesia

Government Regulation of the Republic of Indonesia, Number 21 of 2020

Under certain circumstances, local authorities are empowered to impose "large scale social restrictions," which entail forced academic and work holidays, restrictions on religious activities, and "general" restrictions on other "activities".

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 31 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement

Type: regulation

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Indonesia

Police Guidelines on Cybercrimes Related to Covid-19

The Police Chief issued an internal memo that provides guidelines for the Police on how to handle cybercrimes during the COVID-19 pandemic. The Police asserted that (i) anyone insulting the President and other top officials in relation to Covid-19 policies will be charged under Article 207 of the Criminal Code (one and a half year imprisonment) and (ii) anyone spreading false information related to government policies in handling Covid-19 will be subject to Articles 14 & 15 of the Criminal Code (maximum sentence of 10 years imprisonment). The police have arrested numerous persons on these charges.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 4 Apr 2020

Issue(s): Disinformation, Expression

Type: policy

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Indonesia

Arrests for Spreading Coronavirus-Related Rumors

Several individuals have been arrested in Indonesia under allegations of spreading rumors and fake news related to the coronavirus pandemic.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 10 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Disinformation, Expression

Type: practice

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Iran

Arrests for Spreading Coronavirus-Related Rumors

A spokesman for the armed forces stated on April 28 that 3,600 people in Iran have been arrested for spreading rumors regarding the coronavirus pandemic. Civil society groups and government agencies outside Iran, including the U.S. State Department, have criticized Tehran for persecuting journalists who reported on the epidemic without obtaining prior approval from the government, or who attempted to report on the real extent of the outbreak in Iran by contacting foreign officials for information. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 29 Apr 2020

Issue(s): Disinformation, Press Freedom, Expression, Access to Information

Type: practice

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Iran

Government App Tracks Location and Movement

The government released a mobile app, A19, that claims to be able to detect whether or not the user is infected with COVID-19. The app collects personal details including the user's name, address, and date of birth, and uses software similar to that used by fitness apps to precisely track and share the user's location and movements. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 3 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Surveillance, Privacy

Type: practice

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Iran

Restricting Internet Access

For 24 hours after announcing that a top adviser to Iran’s Supreme Leader had died as a result of the coronavirus, the government blocked access in Iran to the Farsi version of Wikipedia. A digital rights advocacy group has also reported widespread internet disruptions at night in certain parts of the country, including Qom, where the outbreak is believed to have originated. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 2 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Press Freedom, Expression, Access to Information

Type: practice

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Iraq

National Lockdown

The Supreme Committee for National Health and Safety announced a curfew from 7pm until 6am to last for one month, in addition to a full ban on movement on Fridays and Saturdays. Public spaces were closed, with exceptions for shops and factories during daylight hours. Updates on COVID-19 restrictions are available here

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 20 Apr 2020 Extended

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement

Type: order

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Iraq

Kurdistan Movement Restrictions

The Kurdistan Regional Government announced stay-at-home orders with exemptions for international organizations and diplomatic missions, but not for local civil society organizations. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 10 Apr 2020 Extended June 1

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement

Type: order

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Iraq

Travel Restrictions and Restrictions on Public Life

Beginning in March, the Kurdistan Regional Government prohibited religious activites, rituals and activities, including Friday sermons. Restrictions also limit movements within Kurdistan and at border posts.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 4 Mar 2020 Extended 15 June 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement

Type: order

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Iraq

Order No. 55 of 2020

The order by Iraq's Ministry of Health imposes a 14-day ban on all public gatherings, to combat the spread of coronavirus.

قرار رقم 55 لسنة 2020

 ÙŠÙØ±Ø¶ القرار الصادر عن وزارة الصحة العراقية حظراً لمدة 14 يوم على جميع التجمعات العامة لمكافحة انتشار فيروس كورونا المستجد.


Introduced 26 Feb 2020

Issue(s): Assembly

Type: order

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Iraq

Arrest of Journalists and Protesters

At least 8 journalists were arrested in Iraqi Kurdistan while covering a protest by public school teachers and government employees who were demanding their salaries. Kurdish officials said that the journalists and 11 protesters were detained for violating the ban on mass gatherings, imposed due to COVID-19.

اعتقال الصحفيين والمتظاهرين

 

تم اعتقال ما لا يقل عن 8 صحفيين في كردستان العراق أثناء تغطيتهم لاحتجاج من قبل معلمي المدارس الحكومية وموظفي الحكومة الذين كانوا يطالبون برواتبهم. قال مسؤولون أكراد أن الصحفيين و 11 متظاهراً اعتُقلوا لانتهاكهم الحظر المفروض على التجمعات العامة؛ الذي تم فرضه بسبب فيروس كورونا المستجد (كوفيد-19). 

النوع: ممارسة

تاريخ النفاذ: 21 مايو 2020

التصنيف: حرية التجمع، حرية الصحافة، حرية التعبير

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 21 May 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Press Freedom, Expression

Type: practice

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Iraq

Arrest of peaceful protesters and journalists

Kurdistan Regional Government authorities arrested dozens of protesters and at least eight journalists in mid-May under the pretext of enforcing COVID-19 prevention measures. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 19 May 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Press Freedom, Expression

Type: practice

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Iraq

Suspension of News Outlet License

Iraq has revoked Reuters news agency's reporting license for three months, after the agency reported that the number of new coronavirus cases in the country was in the thousands--much higher than official figures. In addition to temporarily revoking Reuters's licence, Iraq said it would impose a fine of about $21,000, and asked Reuters to issue an apology for a report that "put social security at risk."

إلغاء ترخيص وسيلة إخبارية

 Ø£Ù„غى العراق ترخيص وكالة أنباء رويترز لمدة ثلاثة أشهر، بعد أن أفادت الوكالة أن عدد حالات الإصابة بفيروس كورونا المستجد في البلاد كان بالآلاف – وهو أعلى بكثير من الأرقام الرسمية. بالإضافة الى إلغاء ترخيص رويترز مؤقتاً، قال العراق أنه سيفرض على وكالة رويترز غرامة قدرها حوالي 21 ألف دولار أمريكي؛ وطلب من رويترز نشر اعتذار عن تقرير "يعرض الأمن الاجتماعي للخطر".

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 3 Apr 2020

Issue(s): Press Freedom, Expression

Type: practice

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Ireland

Health (Preservation and Protection and other Emergency Measures in the Public Interest) Act 2020

The law authorizes the government to take certain measures in response to the coronavirus, including banning mass gatherings; allowing health officials to detain individuals suspected of carrying COVID19 who are unlikely or unwilling to self-isolate; and allowing the government to restrict movement of people to certain areas. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 21 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency, Movement

Type: law

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Israel

Special Powers for Dealing With the Novel Coronavirus Bill (Temporary Order) Amendment No. 2), 2020

This law prohibits participation in protests and demonstrations more than two kilometers from one's place of residence. The text of the law claims that this restriction is a measure to control the spread of coronavirus. News reports have suggested this is a politically motivated restriction intended to repress dissent arising from the government's handling of the pandemic. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 30 Sep 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Expression, Movement

Type: law

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Israel

Law on Shin Bet (Security Agency) Contact-Tracing Program

The law authorizes the Israeli Security Agency, Shin Bet, to track actual and suspected COVID-19 cases in coordination with the Ministry of Health. Under the law, Shin Bet is able to track individuals' locations and share cell phone traffic and location data with the Ministry of Health, so long as an authorizing declaration--issued by the government or the Knesset--is in place. The data are used to identify individuals with whom COVID-19 patients have had close contact; the Health Ministry sends a text message to those individuals, and they are required by law to enter quarantine. Shin Bet can retain individuals' data for up to 14 days after providing it to the Ministry of Health. Since the surveillance plan was announced, members of the public have started using prepaid SIM cards and burner phones in order to communicate without being detected. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 1 Jul 2020

Issue(s): Surveillance, Privacy

Type: law

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Israel

Tracking Cellphone Data

New regulations allow the police to track the cellphones of coronavirus patients or those suspected of being infected, without seeking a court order. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 21 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Surveillance, Privacy

Type: regulation

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Italy

Decree No. 33 of 16 May 2020

The decree restricts individuals' freedom of movement to within the same region until May 18, and between different regions until June 3. The assembly of people in spaces open to the public is prohibited. Public events and shows, including cultural, recreational, sporting, and religious events, may only take place when deemed possible by the competent national or local authorities. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 16 May 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement

Type: order

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Italy

Decree of 26 April 2020

The decree stipulates that persons may only make journeys proven to be necessary for work, health, or basic needs. Persons may not travel beyond the region in which they are currently located, except for reasons relating to work, health, or emergency. The decree also prohibits any form of gathering in public or private places. Organized events, activities, or shows, in public or private, are also suspended, including cultural, recreational, sporting, religious events and fairs. The opening of places of worship is conditional on the adoption of distancing measures.

(

See primary source or citation here

)

Introduced 26 Apr 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement

Type: order

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Italy

Decree No. 9 of 2020 Further Urgent Measures to Contain and Manage the Epidemiological Emergency from COVID-19

The decree imposes strict restrictions on individuals' travel and movement nationwide, prohibiting all public and private meetings or other gatherings, and instituting surveillance of individuals who have had contact with confirmed coronavirus cases. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 9 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Surveillance, Privacy, Movement

Type: order

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Italy

Decree No. 8 Urgent Measures to Contain and Manage the Epidemiological Emergency from Covid-19

The decree empowers the President of the Council of Ministers to take measures to contain the spread of Covid-19 in certain areas of Italy designated as "red zones," including by limiting individuals' travel and movement; prohibiting all public and private meetings or other gatherings; and instituting surveillance of individuals who have had contact with confirmed coronavirus cases. Sanctions for noncompliance include detention for up to 3 months and fines of up to 200 Euros. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 8 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Surveillance, Privacy, Movement

Type: order

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Italy

State of Emergency

Declaring a "state of emergency" on account of the coronavirus. The state of emergency is in effect for 180 days. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 31 Jan 2020 Extended through 31 January 2021

Issue(s): Emergency

Type: order

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Jamaica

No. 8 Disaster Risk Management (Enforcement Measures)

All individuals arriving on the island are tested for coronavirus, and must at a minimum self-quarantine for 14 days or until released from quarantine after testing negative. Health officials may order individuals they deem to be high risk--even if they test negative--to quarantine at a residence, hotel, or government designated facility. All persons in quarantine must wear an electronic monitoring device. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 15 Jun 2020

Issue(s): Surveillance, Privacy, Movement

Type: order

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Jamaica

Quarantine Measures

Initially, restrictions were imposed on movement of people in and out of the seven-and-eight Miles area of Bull Bay. The Jamaica Constabulary Force and the Jamacia Defense Force were both deployed in enforcement of the quarantine. Subsequently, the government issued an order on 17 March 2020 that all non-essential work in both the public and private sectors was to be done from home. Markets were restricted to operating between 6am and 2pm. This order also restricted gathering size to 20 persons and closed bars, night clubs, and other recreational facilities. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 14 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement, Militarization

Type: order

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Jamaica

State of Emergency

The government has activated the Emergency Powers Act, the Disaster Risk Management Act, and the Public Health Act, and declared that the entire country is a disaster area. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 13 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Emergency

Type: order

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Jamaica

Prohibition on Public Gatherings

After the second confirmed case of COVID-19 in Jamaica, the Prime Minister announced a 14-day prohibition on issuance of permits for public gatherings. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 12 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly

Type: order

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Japan

State of Emergency

The Prime Minister declares a "state of emergency" in Tokyo and six other major metropolitan areas, under Article 32 of the Act on Special Measures. The declaration does not impose restrictions on movement, but allows governors to request that individuals remain home and recommend to organizers that they cancel events. Violators are not subject to penalty unless they fail to comply with orders related to storing and shipping medical supplies.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 7 Apr 2020 Lifted on 3/21/21 ; reinstated on 4/25/21 until 5/11/21 ; reextended until 5/31/21 ; reextended on 5/28/21 until 6/20/21 ; reextended on 7/12/21 until 8/22/21

Issue(s): Emergency

Type: order

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Jordan

Defence Order No. 16 of 2020

The order prohibits wedding parties, social gatherings, and any other gatherings of more than twenty people. Wakes are prohibited, though outdoor burials are permitted. Electronic bracelets are required for real-time location tracking of quarantined persons. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 19 Sep 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Surveillance, Privacy

Type: order

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Jordan

Defence Order No. 8 on Reporting of Infections

The order requires all Jordanians and residents to immediately report to the authorities if they are infected with the coronavirus, if they have come into contact with an infected person, or if they become aware of any infected persons. Violators of this order will face imprisonment of up to three years and a fine of JOD 3,000 ($4,200). These penalties do not preclude steeper penalties in other laws.

الأردن

قرار الدفاع رقم 8 بشأن الإبلاغ عن الإصابات

 

يُلزم القرار جميع الأردنيين والمقيمين إبلاغ السلطات على الفور في حالة إصابتهم بفيروس كورونا المستجد، أو إذا خالطوا أي شخص مصاب، أو إذا كانوا على علم بأي أشخاص مصابين. يفرض القرار عقوبة السجن لمدة تصل إلى ثلاث سنوات وغرامة قدرها 3,000 دينار أردني (4,200 دولار أمريكي) على كل من يخالفه ولا تحول هذه العقوبات دون تطبيق عقوبات أشد صرامة في قوانين أخرى. (أنظر المصدر الرئيسي أو الاقتباس هنا)

 

النوع: قرار

تاريخ النفاذ: 15 أبريل 2020

التصنيف: الخصوصية

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 15 Apr 2020

Issue(s): Privacy

Type: order

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Jordan

Order No. 2 Financial Penalties and Imprisonment for Violators of the Curfew

The order, issued by the Prime Minister under the Defense Act of 1992, provides that violators of the curfew may be punished by a fine of up to 500 Jordanian Dinars on the first offense, and one year in prison for a repeat offense.

قرار رقم 2 بشأن العقوبات المالية والحبس لمخالفي حظر التجول

 ÙŠÙ†Øµ القرار الذي تم إصداره من قبل رئيس الوزراء بموجب قانون الدفاع لسنة 1992 على أنه يجوز معاقبة مخالفي حظر التجول بغرامة تصل إلى 500 دينار أردني اذا كانت المخالفة لأول مرة، والسجن لمدة سنة واحدة في حال تكرار المخالفة. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 26 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Movement

Type: order

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Jordan

Order No. 1 Prohibiting Movement of People Within the Country

The order, issued by the Prime Minister and Minister of Defense under the Defense Act of 1992, imposes a ban on internal travel or movement within Jordan until further notice. Specific times will be designated for individuals to fulfill essential activities.

قرار رقم 1 بشأن حظر تنقل الأشخاص داخل البلاد

 ÙŠÙØ±Ø¶ الأمر الذي تم إصداره من قبل رئيس الوزراء ووزير الدفاع بموجب قانون الدفاع لسنة 1992 حظراً على التجول أو التنقل الداخلي في الأردن حتى إشعار آخر. وسيتم تحديد أوقات معينة للأفراد لتنفيذ الأنشطة الأساسية.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 21 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Movement

Type: order

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Jordan

State of Emergency

The decree declares a "state of emergency" under Art. 124 of Jordan's Constitution, on account of the coronavirus pandemic, and activates emergency provisions of Defense Law 13 of 1992. According to the decree and the Defense Law, the Prime Minister is charged with enacting measures to respond to the emergency. He has authority to suspend certain individual rights, including freedom of movement and expression.

إرادة ملكية بتفعيل العمل بقانون الدفاع بسبب حالة الطوارئ الصحية

 Ù‚رار ينص على إعلان العمل بقانون الدفاع بموجب المادة 124 من الدستور الأردني بسبب جائحة فيروس كورونا المستجد، وينطوي على تفعيل أحكام الطوارئ الواردة في قانون الدفاع رقم 13 لسنة 1992. بموجب القرار وقانون الدفاع، فإن رئيس الوزراء مكلف بسن تدابير للاستجابة لحالة الطوارئ، ويتمتع بسلطة تعليق بعض الحقوق والحريات الفردية مثل حرية التنقل والتعبير. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 17 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Emergency, Expression, Movement

Type: order

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Jordan

Suspension of Newspapers

Within the framework of the National Defense Law, the Jordanian Council of Ministers suspends the printing and sale of paper newspapers, on grounds that they contribute to the spread of Covid-19.

وقف إصدار الصحف

في إطار قانون الدفاع الوطني، قرر مجلس الوزراء الأردني وقف طباعة وبيع الصحف الورقية بحجة أنها تساهم في انتشار فيروس كورونا لمستجد. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 17 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Press Freedom, Expression, Access to Information

Type: order

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Jordan

Prior Approval Required Before Speaking to Press About COVID-19

The Jordanian Health Minister institutes a policy requiring that all hospital directors and Health Ministry officials obtain permission from the Ministry before speaking with members of the press. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 13 May 2020

Issue(s): Press Freedom, Expression, Access to Information

Type: policy

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Jordan

Armed Forces Deploy in Anticipation of Lockdown

The Jordanian armed forces deployed soldiers to all governorates in preparation for a nationwide 48-hour total lockdown. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 7 Oct 2020

Issue(s): Militarization

Type: practice

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Kazakhstan

Decision of the State Commission on Ensuring the State of Emergency under President of Kazakhstan

The State Commission approved the decision to strengthen the quarantine regime in the cities of of Nur-Sultan and Almaty. Citizens are restricted from leaving home, with the exception of leaving for food, medicine and employment. The order closes crowded places, including parks, squares, pedestrian streets, promenade, and playgrounds. Restriction of public transport will be phased. Meetings on the streets and in other public places by groups of more than three people (with the exception of family members) are prohibited. The order also bans the movement of minors unaccompanied by adults. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 28 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement

Type: order

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Kazakhstan

Decree No. 285 Declaring a State of Emergency

The decree declares a "state of emergency" for thirty days, on account of the coronavirus pandemic. Among other things, the decree suspends public events, closes the border, and introduces quarantine measures with the participation of relevant military departments.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 16 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency, Movement, Militarization

Type: order

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Kazakhstan

Decision of the State Commission on Ensuring the State of Emergency

With this decision, the State Comission for ensuring the State of Emergency under the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan decided to impose strict quarantine measures in the cities of Nur-Sultan and Almaty, beginning March 19.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 17 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement

Type: regulation

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Kazakhstan

SmartAstana Tracking App

The Kazakhstani Ministry of Health requires the approximately 8,000 Kazakhstani citizens currently under quarantine to use the SmartAstana tracking app, which allows officials to guarantee that these individuals remain in isolation. The app collects data on the user's location and movements, and it informs the Ministry of Health if the quarantined person leaves a 30-meter perimeter around their home or leaves their home without their phone. In either case, the app operator contacts the user by video call and finds out the reasons for the person's departure from the quarantine zone. Analysts note that the app is but one of recent efforts by the government to employ facial recognition, bio-metric identification, AI, and video surveillance technologies on the public. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 1 Apr 2020

Issue(s): Surveillance, Privacy, Movement

Type: practice

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Kazakhstan

Use of Sergek Video Surveillance in Almaty

In Almaty, the Ministry of the Interior uses Sergek video surveillance installed in 27 checkpoints around the city to identify people who break quarantine.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 30 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Surveillance, Privacy

Type: practice

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Kenya

Public (State Curfew) Order, 2020

The order imposes a daily curfew and restrictions on individuals' movement, on account of the coronavirus. Public gatherings are prohibited during curfew period. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 27 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement

Type: order

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Kenya

Public Order No. 2 of 2021 on the Coronavirus Pandemic

On the advice of the National Security Council, the Council of Governors, and recommendations of the National Emergency Response Committee on COVID-19, the President declared the Counties of Nairobi, Kajiado, Machakos, Kiambu and Nakuru, a disease infected area. The Order introduced a new lockdown, barring travel by road or air; suspended all public gatherings and in-person meetings of whatever nature, including for parliament and county assemblies "until further notice." The ongoing curfew hours are revised from 20h00 to 04h00 in those counties, while a curfew was introduced for the rest of the country between 22h00 and 04h00. All physical meetings or events including social gatherings shall have a cap of no more than 15 persons until further notified. There is a prohibition against political gatherings "until otherwise directed." 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 26 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement

Type: order

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Kenya

Ministry of Health Measures

The order suspends all public gatherings and meetings for 30 days. The order also states that Kenyans must not "abuse" social media platforms or spread misinformation that "can cause fear and panic." (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 13 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Disinformation, Expression

Type: order

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Kenya

Public Health (COVID19 Restriction of Movement of Persons and Related Measures) Rules, 2020

The Public Health Rules prohibit public gatherings except for funerals (which are limited to 15 people). Movement is prohibited in and out of places that the Minister has declared infected areas. Public transport services are required to operate at a limited capacity. 

(

See primary source or citation here

)

Introduced 17 Apr 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement

Type: regulation

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Kenya

Arrests under Cyber Crimes Act of 2018 for Spreading "False" News

Kenya's Computer Misuse and Cyber Crimes Act of 2018, which includes clauses criminalizing "false information" and "publication of false information," has been used to make arrests and to charge persons sharing information related to the pandemic.  One man was arrested for publishing a tweet indicating that he had heard about an outbreak in east Africa. A student was arrested for tweeting that the government was deceiving the public regarding the pandemic. Other bloggers have also been arrested for spreading "false information." These arrests have come alongside a warning issued by the Cabinet Secretary for Health, Mutahi Kagwe, indicating that, "these rumours must stop... but because I know empty appeals will not work, we will proceed and arrest a number of them to prove our point."

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 22 Sep 2020

Issue(s): Disinformation, Press Freedom, Expression

Type: practice

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Kenya

Police Brutality in Enforcing Lockdown

Numerous reports indicate that doznes of civilians were killed by Kenyan police during early stages of the COVID-19 lockdown. There are also reports that police used teargas and gunshots without warning at the start of lockdown hours. By April 16, at least 12 deaths had been reported as resulting from police brutality in lockdown enforcement. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 15 Sep 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement

Type: practice

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Kenya

Arrests of Peaceful Protesters on Saba Saba

Police arrested fifty peaceful protesters under COVID-19 public gathering ban provisions, and they used tear gas to disperse demonstrators protesting police brutality. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 7 Jul 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement

Type: practice

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Korea, North

Maximum Emergency System

Kim Jong-un called an emergency meeting of the Politburo in order to put in place a "maximum emergency system" in response to the pandemic. This announcement also indicated that Kaesong City was in full lockdown and that the Central Emergency Anti-epidemic Headquarters was intensifying efforts to close the country's borders.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 29 Jul 2020

Issue(s): Emergency, Movement

Type: order

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Kuwait

Weekly Announcement of the Council of Ministers, March 21

Kuwait imposed a nationwide 11- hour curfew from 5 p.m. to 4 a.m. The national guard was ordered to assist the police in enforcing the lockdown. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 22 Mar 2020 Extended and expanded on 6 April 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement, Militarization

Type: order

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Kuwait

Ministerial Decision No. 64 of 2020 on Gatherings

The decision bans any type of gathering, whether held in public or private areas. The order penalizes anyone who violates the decision with imprisonment of up to 3 months, in accordance with Decree No. 8 of 1969.

قرار وزاري رقم 64 لسنة 2020 بشأن التجمعات

 ÙŠØ­Ø¸Ø± القرار أي نوع من التجمعات سواءً أقيمت في أماكن عامة أو خاصة. Ùˆ يعاقب أي شخص يخالف القرار بالسجن لمدة تصل إلى 3 أشهر بموجب القانون رقم 8 لسنة 1969.


Introduced 18 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly

Type: order

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Kuwait

Surveillance Bracelets

The government of Kuwait will require all returning nationals to wear electronic bracelets to ensure their compliance with measures to control the spread of COVID-19, including restrictions on movement.

أساور المراقبة

 Ø³ØªÙ„زم الحكومة الكويتية جميع المواطنين العائدين بوضع الأساور الإلكترونية لضمان امتثالهم لتدابير مكافحة انتشار فيروس كورونا المستجد، ويشمل ذلك فرض قيود على التنقل.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 19 Apr 2020

Issue(s): Surveillance, Privacy

Type: practice

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Kuwait

Shlonik Contact Tracing App Raises Privacy Concerns

Kuwait's Health Ministry launched an official contact-tracing application, Shlonik, which captures individuals' real-time location through GPS and uploads the location data to a centralized government database. The database links individuals' locations with their national ID numbers, which users must submit to use the app. The app can pair with a Bluetooth bracelet, to help ensure that the user remains close to their phone, in order to enforce quarantine measures. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 18 Apr 2020

Issue(s): Surveillance, Privacy

Type: practice

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Kyrgyzstan

State of Emergency

The order establishes a "state of emergency" for thirty days throughout the Kyrgyz Republic, due to the coronavirus. All public gatherings including rallies, demonstrations, and strikes, are prohibited. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 22 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency

Type: law

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Kyrgyzstan

Decree Suspending Local Elections

The presidential decree suspends the holding of local elections throughout the country in April due to the national state of emergency related to the spread of COVID-19. According to the decree, the elections will be rescheduled following the end of the state of emergency. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 23 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Elections

Type: order

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Kyrgyzstan

STOP COVID-19 Tracking App

The government of Kyrgyzstan launched the STOP COVID-19 mobile phone app to trace the location of individuals suspected of having, or known to have, COVID-19. By May 2020, the app, which was developed by the State Committee for IT and Communications, had led to the arrest of 151 individuals for leaving their homes, and imposition of fines of over $800. It is not known which government agency has access to the information gathered by the app, or where the information is stored. Due to the uncertainties surrounding the app’s use, privacy advocates argue that the app violates personal privacy protections and cybersecurity protected by Kyrgyz law. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 19 Jun 2020

Issue(s): Surveillance, Privacy, Movement

Type: practice

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Laos

Order No. 06/PM on the Reinforcement of Measures for the Containment, Prevention, and Full Response to the COVID-19 Pandemic

The Order imposes general restrictions on movement outside the home and on inter-regional travel. The Order also "strictly prohibit[s] the advertisement of, release, forward of any fake news via any media platform that can cause misunderstanding, panic and create negative impact on society." An agency is tasked with surveillance responsibilities to that end. The Order also indicates that the military will be involved in the enforcement of lockdown measures. Updates on restrictions and extensions are available here

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 31 Mar 2020 Extended

Issue(s): Assembly, Disinformation, Surveillance, Press Freedom, Expression, Movement, Militarization

Type: law

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Laos

Vientiane Lockdown Order

The Prime Minister ordered a lockdown of Vientiane banning all social events or gatherings, as well as movement into or out of designated COVID-19 "red zones." The order also continues "strict surveillance" of migrants at Laos' border crossings.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 19 Jul 2021

Issue(s): Assembly, Discrimination, Surveillance, Movement

Type: order

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Laos

Prime Minister’s Order on Reinforcement Measures on Containment, Prevention and Full Response to the COVID-19 Pandemic

The Prime Minister of Laos issued a stay-at-home order as a response to COVID-19. The order prohibits public gatherings of more than 10 persons and "strictly prohibit[s] the advertisement of, release, forward [of] any fake news via any media platform that can cause misunderstanding, panic and create negative impact on the society." The order also instructs the police to take "strict action" in accordance with existing laws, rules, and regulations in cases of violations.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 29 Mar 2020 Extended to 5 May 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Disinformation, Movement

Type: order

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Latvia

No. 103 on the Declaration of Emergency Situation

The order establishes an "emergency situation" throughout Latvia for one month, on account of the coronavirus. All public gatherings for meetings, marches, and rallies, as well as for religious or cultural purposes are prohibited, regardless of the number of participants. The order prohibits border crossings by air, rail, and road with limited exceptions. The order provides for administrative and criminal penalties to be applied in case of violations. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 13 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Emergency, Movement

Type: order

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Lebanon

Decision No. 54/2020 Imposing a Curfew

The decision, issued under the "state of general mobilization" declared on March 15, prohibits individuals from moving or driving from 7pm to 5am. The Law on National Defense authorizes the military and security forces to control transportation during a state of general mobilization.

القرار رقم 54 لسنة 2020 بشأن فرض حظر التجول

 Ø§Ù„قرار الصادر بموجب "حالة التعبئة العامة" المعلن في 15 مارس يحظر على الأفراد التنقل أو قيادة السيارات من الساعة السابعة مساءً إلى الساعة الخامسة صباحاً. يفوض قانون الدفاع الوطني القوات العسكرية والأمنية بالسيطرة على وسائل النقل أثناء حالة التعبئة العامة.

(

See primary source or citation here

)

Introduced 26 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Movement, Militarization

Type: order

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Lebanon

State of General Mobilization

The government announces a "state of general mobilization" under by Article 2 of Legislative Decree No. 102/1983 (Law on National Defense), on account of the health emergency caused by Covid-19. The decision stipulates that people should stay at home until March 29 (later extended until April 26), and refrain from leaving except for essential reasons. The decree also prohibits all gatherings in all private and public places.

حالة التعبئة العامة

 Ø§Ù„حكومة تعلن عن "حالة التعبئة العامة" بموجب المادة 2 من المرسوم التشريعي رقم 102 لسنة 1983 (قانون الدفاع الوطني)ØŒ بسبب الطوارئ الصحية الناشئة عن فيروس كورونا المستجد. ينص القرار على وجوب بقاء الأشخاص في منازلهم حتى 29 مارس (تم تمديده لاحقاً حتى 26 أبريل)ØŒ والامتناع عن مغادرتها إلا لأسباب جوهرية. يحظر القرار أيضاً جميع التجمعات في جميع الأماكن الخاصة والعامة.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 15 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency, Movement

Type: order

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Lesotho

Declaration of COVID-19 State of Emergency Order 26 of 2020

The Prime Minister declares a national "state of emergency" and orders a nationwide lockdown, beginning March 30. All social gatherings are prohibited except for funerals where not more than 50 people are expected to attend. The decree also provides that members of the press must "refrain from publishing fake news." (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 18 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Disinformation, Emergency, Press Freedom, Expression, Access to Information, Movement

Type: order

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Liberia

Regulation of "Fake" News under Pretext of Addressing Pandemic

On April 29, Liberia's solicitor general announced that the government would shut down news outlets disseminating "fake news", providing Liberia's COVID-19 state of emergency law as justification.  At the same time, the government announed a shift in press pass policies, rendering journalists unable to cover the pandemic. The shift in press pass policies was accompanied by an announcement that constitutional rights to free movement, assembly, speech and press were being temporarily suspended.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 29 Apr 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Disinformation, Press Freedom, Expression

Type: order

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Liberia

State of Emergency

President Weah declares a "state of emergency" for three weeks, renewable until the threat posed by COVID-19 subsides. During this period, residents may only leave home for essential journeys, which should be restricted to local communities and be limited to a single person per household for a maximum of one hour. The order tasks the Chief of Staff of the Armed Forces of Liberia and the Chairman of the National Joint Security with enforcing this stay-home policy. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 10 Apr 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency, Movement, Militarization

Type: order

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Liberia

Declaration of National Health Emergency

The Minister of Health declares a "national health emergency" on account of the coronavirus, and among other things bans all gatherings of more than 10 people. Individuals are required to report those who show signs of COVID-19 to the health and security authorities. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 21 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency, Privacy

Type: order

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Libya

Government of National Accord (GNA) Presidential Council Resolution of No. 277 of 2020

Libya's UN-backed government imposes a lockdown and a ban on individual movement for 10 days starting from April 17, 2020, with limited exceptions for the transport and sale of food. Moving on foot is allowed between 7am and 12pm only.

قرار المجلس الرئاسي لحكومة الوفاق الوطني رقم 277 لسنة 2020

 Ø§Ù„حكومة الليبية المدعومة من الأمم المتحدة تفرض إغلاقاً وحظراً على تنقل الأفراد لمدة 10 أيام بدءاً من 17 أبريل 2020ØŒ مع استثناءات محدودة لنقل وبيع المواد الغذائية. يسمح بالتنقل على الأرجل بين الساعة السابعة صباحاً والساعة الثانية عشرة ظهراً فقط.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 17 Apr 2020

Issue(s): Movement

Type: order

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Liechtenstein

Biometric Bracelet Testing Scheme

Under a pilot coronavirus tracking program, some citizens will wear biometric bracelets that track metrics like skin temperature, breathing and pulse. The bracelets send the data directly to a lab in Switzerland for analysis. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 15 Apr 2020

Issue(s): Surveillance, Privacy

Type: practice

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Lithuania

State of Emergency

The government declares a "state of emergency" to coordinate its response to the coronavirus. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 26 Feb 2020

Issue(s): Emergency

Type: order

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Luxembourg

State of Crisis

The order from the Grand Duke declares a "state of crisis" in accordance with Article 32(4) of the Constitution, among other things imposes strict limitations on individuals' movement, and provides for a fine of 145 Euroes in case of violation. The state of crisis is in place for 10 days, unless extended by the Chamber of Deputies, by a two-thirds majority. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 18 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Emergency, Movement

Type: order

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Madagascar

Decree No. 2020-359, Proclaiming the State of Health Emergency Throughout the Territory of the Republic

The Presidential order declares a state of emergency for fifteen days. The decree delegates control of movement of persons and vehicles to the Prime Minister. The decree also grants emergency powers to several ministers, including the Minister of National Defense, the Minister of Posts, Telecommunications and Digital Development, and the Secretary of State at the Ministry of National Defense in charge of the Gendarmerie. The state of emergency declaration was subsequently renewed every two weeks, through October 2020. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 21 Mar 2020 Extended through October 2020

Issue(s): Emergency, Movement, Militarization

Type: order

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Malawi

State of Disaster

The order establishes a one-month "state of disaster" due to the coronavirus. Among other things, the order prohibits gatherings of more than 100 individuals. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 20 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency

Type: order

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Malawi

Public Health (Corona Virus Prevention, Containment and Management) Rules

The Minister of Health imposes a nationwide lockdown that prohibits all individual movement, with limited exceptions. Individuals in need of an essential service outside of their locality are required to obtain a permit from their local council. All gatherings of more than ten people are suspended. The Malawi Defence Force, the Malawi Police Service and the Department of Immigration and Citizenship Services will be deployed to ensure strict compliance with these measures. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 8 Apr 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement, Militarization

Type: regulation

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Malaysia

Enhanced Movement Control Order

The national government imposed an Enhanced Movement Control Order (EMCOs) on areas with high COVID-19 rates in Sabah, Pahang, and Kelantan. These orders include strict stay at home decrees and restrictions on travel into or out of the affected area. Similar EMCOs have been issued throughout the pandemic in other areas of Malaysia.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 26 Jul 2021

Issue(s): Movement

Type: order

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Malaysia

Full Closure Order

The Prime Minister ordered a two-week nationwide "Total Lockdown" which closed all non-essential businesses and required people to stay within 10 kilometers of their homes.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 28 May 2021

Issue(s): Movement

Type: order

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Malaysia

State of Emergency

Malaysia's king declared a state of emergency through August 1, 2021, to limit the spread of COVID-19. Among other things, the declaration suspends parliament, allows the government to enact laws without parliamentary approval, and postpones national elections. Parliament reopened 7/26/2021, after a 7 month suspension.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 12 Jan 2021 Expired 1 August 2021

Issue(s): Emergency, Elections

Type: order

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Malaysia

Restriction of Movement Order

The order mandates a "complete restriction" of movement and assembly nationwide. The order closes all houses of worship, non-essential businesses, and all government and private premises, except for those providing essential services. The order also bars Malaysians from travelling overseas, and prevents visitors from entering the country.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 18 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement

Type: order

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Malaysia

Arrest of Migrants for Violating COVID-19 Movement Control Order

Immigration authorites arrested hundreds of migrants for allegedly violating a COVID- movement control order and restrictions on public gatherings. The Home Minister said that the arrests would "protect Malaysians" and "help" migrants get vaccinated. The arrestees included refugees from Myanmar and other countries.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 21 Jun 2021

Issue(s): Assembly, Discrimination, Movement

Type: practice

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Malaysia

Contact Tracing App Surveillance

Police used data from the contact tracing app MySejahtera to monitor residents in districts under an enhanced movement control order. A civil society leader was arrested for social media posts criticizing the use of personal data by the police to infringe privacy.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 12 Nov 2020

Issue(s): Surveillance, Expression, Privacy

Type: practice

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Malaysia

Arrests and Criminal Penalties for "Fake News"

Malaysian authorities are arresting individuals for spreading "fake news" related to COVID-19. Individuals are charged with provisions of the Penal Code and the Communications and Multimedia Act that carry penalties of up to one year in prison and 50,000 Malaysian Ringgit ($11,400). (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 29 Jan 2020

Issue(s): Disinformation, Expression

Type: practice

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Mali

State of Health Emergency and Curfew

The President of Mali announced a state of health emergency and an indefinite curfew between 9:00pm and 5:00am. Land borders were also closed, with the exception of freight and the transport of goods. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 26 Mar 2020 Lifted on 9 May 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency, Movement

Type: order

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Mali

Ban on Public Gatherings

The decree indefinitely suspends all meetings, seminars and colloquiums, and bans social, political, cultural gatherings of more than 50 people.

(

See primary source or citation here

)

Introduced 19 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly

Type: order

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Mauritania

Curfew and Ban on Gatherings

The Mauritanian Ministry of Interior issued a ban on gatherings, as well as a curfew between the hours of 12:00 am and 6:00am.

(

See primary source or citation here

)

Introduced 19 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement

Type: order

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Mauritania

Ban on Gatherings

The Prime Minister and an Interministerial Committee announce their decision to suspend all events and demonstrations, and restrict border crossings. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 14 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly

Type: order

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Mauritius

Quarantine (Quarantinable Diseases) Regulations, 2020

The order, issued by the Minister of Health and Wellness under Section 4 of the Public Health Act, imposes a complete lockdown for 14 days, including on supermarkets. Police have authority to enter any premises without a warrant to enforce compliance with the regulations. Criminal sanctions can be imposed for violations, including imprisonment of up to 6 months. Essential service workers must apply for an access permit to attend work on-site. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 20 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Privacy, Movement

Type: order

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Mexico

Suspension of Deadlines for Access to Information Laws

This declaration suspends deadlines established under several laws related to public transparency and public access to information. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 20 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Access to Information

Type: order

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Mexico

Preventive Measures to Mitigate and Control Health Risks Caused by COVID-19

The regulation issued by the Ministry of Health suspends "until further notice" mass events and meetings and congregations of more than 100 people. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 24 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly

Type: regulation

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Mexico

Bulletin No. 144/2021

The Mexican Government announced the installation of new "sanitary and inspection filters" on the south border with Guatemala, authorizing the use of drones and night vision equipment. Land crossings for non-essential activities are banned for 30 days, with the possibility for extension. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 19 Mar 2021

Issue(s): Surveillance, Movement

Type: policy

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Mexico

Cellphone Monitoring

Telephone companies are obliged to provide access to cellphone antennas to enable the Digital Agency for Public Innovation (ADIP) to monitor movement of and contact between people in Mexico City, with the objective of identifying whether people comply with isolation instructions. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 21 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Surveillance, Privacy

Type: practice

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Moldova

Parliamentary Decision on the Declaration of State of Emergency

The parliamentary decision declares a "state of emergency," under Article 66 of the Constitution, on account of the coronavirus. Among other things, the declaration provides for a prohibition on meetings, public demonstrations, and other mass events; coordination of mass media related to the crisis; and introduction of "special rules" for telecommunications during the crisis. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 17 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency, Press Freedom, Expression, Access to Information

Type: law

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Moldova

Parliament Decision No. 55 Declaring a State of Emergency

The parliamentary decision declares a "state of emergency" for 60 days. The state of emergency allows the Commission for Exceptional Situations of the Republic of Moldova to issue provisions relating to movement within country, the prohibition of public events and assemblies, and the coordination of media activities, among other things. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 17 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Emergency

Type: law

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Moldova

The Audiovisual Council of the Republic of Moldova Provision No. 2

During the state of emergency, all audiovisual media providers under the jurisdiction of the Republic of Moldova are required to present the official position of the competent public authorities (World Health Organization, Exceptional Situation Commission of the Republic of Moldova, the Government of the Republic of Moldova, and the Ministry of Health, Labour and Social Protection). All presenters, moderators, and editors must not express their own opinion on topics concerning the COVID-19 pandemic, to ensure "maximum accuracy and correctness." (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 24 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Press Freedom, Expression, Access to Information

Type: order

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Moldova

Decree No. 7 on the National Emergency Public Health Commission

The decree suspends religious meetings and services, conducted by all congregations, throughout the entire territory of Moldova. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 13 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly

Type: order

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Moldova

Decree No. 6 of the National Emergency Public Health Commission

The decree prohibits mass demonstrations, events, and rallies of more than 50 persons. The decree also bans persons under self-isolation from leaving the territory of the Republic of Moldova. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 10 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly

Type: order

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Mongolia

Amendments to the Law on Disaster Protection

The amendments give authorities the power to take measures to "reduce and stop the spread of obviously false information about disasters in the mass media and social networks."

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 5 May 2020

Issue(s): Disinformation

Type: law

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Mongolia

Law on Preventing and Combating the COVID-19 Pandemic and Mitigating its Socioeconomic Impact

The Law prohibits the dissemination of false information related to COVID-19 prevention and control and "the reduction of its negative socioeconomic impact." It also provides a specific article on the duties of the media. The article prohibits the media from disseminating “false information” on COVID-19 prevention and control and "the reduction of its negative impact on society and the economy" and obliges the media to obtain “true and objective information” from reliable sources.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 29 Apr 2020

Issue(s): Disinformation, Press Freedom

Type: law

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Mongolia

Ban on Gatherings

The Cabinet ordered the prohibition of all public gatherings in response to COVID-19. At the time of the order, there were no confirmed cases of COVID-19 in Mongolia. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 26 Jan 2020

Issue(s): Assembly

Type: order

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Montenegro

Decisions Related to Movement and Public Gatherings

The Decisions restrict public gatherings of more than 4 adults, except for persons performing their regular work tasks. Private gatherings in residential buildings are also banned, except for household members and those who are taking care of sick persons. A curfew is imposed from 7 p.m. to 5 a.m., with a few exceptions. Inter-city travel is not permitted. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 25 Nov 2020 In force until 8 December 2020, with extension possible.

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement

Type: order

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Montenegro

Temporary Measures to Combat the Spread of Coronavirus

Ministry of Health adopts new temporary measures to combat the spread of coronavirus. Among other things the measures ban gatherings in outdoor or indoor public places, and provide that non-compliance is subject to criminal penalty. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 18 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly

Type: order

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Montenegro

Disclosure of Identity of Persons in Self-Isolation

According to the policy, Montenegro's National Infectious Diseases Coordination Body will publish the names of individuals who have been required to self-isolate, along with the municipality and street where they live. The list will be updated daily. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 21 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Surveillance, Privacy

Type: policy

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Morocco

Decree No. 2-20-293 Declaring a Health Emergency

The government declares a nationwide "state of health emergency" from March 20 until April 20, unless renewed. The order prohibits the movement of any person outside his home, except in cases of extreme necessity, and prohibits any meeting or gathering of groups of people for any reason.

مرسوم رقم 2-20-293 بشأن إعلان حالة الطوارئ الصحية

 Ø§Ù„حكومة تعلن "حالة الطوارئ الصحية" في جميع أنحاء البلاد للفترة من 20 مارس حتى 20 أبريل، ما لم يتم تجديدها. يحظر القرار تنقل أي شخص خارج منزله إلا في حالات الضرورة القصوى، ويحظر أي اجتماع أو تجمع لمجموعات من الناس لأي سبب من الأسباب.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 24 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency, Movement

Type: order

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Morocco

Decree No. 2-20-292 on Special Provisions for a State of Health Emergency

The decree enables the government to declare a "state of health emergency" and take exceptional measures to stop the spread of disease. Anyone who contravenes the decree that declares a health emergency, or incites others to contravene the decree through speech or threat uttered in a public place or meeting, written or printed materials, photos, posters, audiovisual or electronic communications, or any other means can be imprisoned one to three months or be fined 300 to 1,300 dirhams ($30-$130).

 

مرسوم رقم 2-20-292 Ø¨Ø´Ø£Ù† الأحكام الخاصة لحالة الطوارئ الصحية

 ÙŠÙ…نح المرسوم الحكومة سلطة إعلان "حالة الطوارئ الصحية" واتخاذ تدابير استثنائية لوقف انتشار المرض.يعاقب المرسوم  Ø£ÙŠ شخص يخالف بنوده ØŒ أو يحرض الآخرين على مخالفته   Ù…Ù† خلال الخطاب أو التهديد الصادر في مكان عام أو في اجتماع عام أو مواد مكتوبة أو مطبوعة أو صور أو ملصقات أو اتصالات سمعية بصرية أو إلكترونية أو أي وسيلة أخرى بالسجن من شهر إلى ثلاثة أشهر أو بغرامة تتراوح بين 300 Ùˆ 1,300 درهم (30130 دولار أمريكي).

 

 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 23 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Disinformation, Emergency, Expression

Type: order

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Morocco

Suspension of Newspapers

The Minister of Culture, Youth and Sports announces the suspension of the publication and distribution of print newspapers until further notice.

وقف إصدار الصحف

 ÙˆØ²ÙŠØ± الثقافة والشباب والرياضة يعلن وقف نشر وتوزيع الصحف المطبوعة حتى إشعار آخر.

 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 22 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Press Freedom, Expression, Access to Information

Type: order

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Morocco

Arrests for Fake News

At least a dozen people were arrested on charges of spreading fake news related to the coronavirus pandemic by mid-March, including individuals that criticized the government's response to the coronavirus. At least one other was arrested in April, and at least one other was arrested in August.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 19 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Disinformation, Press Freedom, Expression

Type: practice

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Mozambique

State of Emergency

The presidential decree declares a 30-day "state of emergency," along with a Stage 3 level of emergency to contain the spread of the coronavirus outbreak. Public and private gatherings are prohibited, while entertainment establishments and schools are been closed until further notice.

(

See primary source or citation here

)

Introduced 30 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency

Type: order

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Myanmar

Nationwide Lockdown Order

The military junta imposed a nationwide lockdown order prohibiting travel except for official duties or emergency situations. Local authorities in areas with high COVID-19 rates were authorized to impose stricter measures, including requiring people to request official permission to leave their homes.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 16 Jul 2021

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement

Type: order

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Myanmar

Stay-at-Home and Curfew order

Authorities issued new public health orders extending a nightly curefew and travel restrictions, including a suspension on international passenger flights. Officials in areas with higher COVID-19 rates may implement stricter measures, such as more stringent curfew hours and requiring people to obtain permission from the local administration before leaving the area.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 16 Jul 2021

Issue(s): Movement

Type: order

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Myanmar

Stay-at-home order in Yangon region (Order 107/2020)

The Ministry of Health and Sports issued a stay-at-home order (Order 107/2020) in Yangon region. The stay-at-home order bars residents from travelling between townships. Members of several professions may seek an exemption to the travel restrictions (including doctors, emergency workers, and police officers). However, journalists are not exempted and the restriction stops the work of drivers of newspaper delivery trucks. Rights groups said the restriction would make it more difficult for news organizations to cover Myanmar’s national election, which is scheduled for Nov. 8.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 21 Sep 2020

Issue(s): Press Freedom, Expression, Movement

Type: order

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Myanmar

Health Ministry Order on Movement

The Health Ministry ordered restrictions on the movement of residents in seven Yangon townships (Bahan, Insein, Hlaing Tharyar, Mayangone, Pabedan, Shwe Pyi Thar and South Okkalapa). Failure to comply could lead to up to 6 months in jail. Residents may only travel to and from work and must wear face masks at all times when outside. Only one member from each household is allowed to leave their home to buy groceries; two can travel together only for medical emergencies. Anyone needing to travel in larger groups must get permission from ward administrators. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 18 Apr 2020

Issue(s): Movement

Type: order

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Myanmar

Ministry of Health and Sports Order No. 37/2020

The order, issued under Article 21(b) of the Prevention and Control of Communicable Diseases Law, bans groups of 5 or more people from assembling, including for religious gatherings. The order provides limited exceptions for individuals gathering to carry out essential functions, such as government and factory workers. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 16 Apr 2020

Issue(s): Assembly

Type: regulation

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Myanmar

Arrests and Criminal Penalties for Exercising the Right to Freedom of Expression

Myanmar authorities have prosecuted several individuals, including human rights defenders and journalists, who have criticized the government response to Covid-19 or shared information on Covid-19. They were  held on numerous charges (spreading misinformation, defamation, sedition, "causing fear or alarm to the public") based on different provisions of the Myanmar's Penal Code, the Telecommunications Act, or the Natural Disaster Management Law.  

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 21 May 2020

Issue(s): Disinformation, Press Freedom, Expression

Type: practice

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Myanmar

Widespread Arrests for Curfew Violations

At least 500 people were sentenced to between one month and one year in prison for curfew and quarantine violations from late March to late May. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 20 May 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement

Type: practice

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Myanmar

Labor Activists Imprisoned for Breaking COVID-19 Orders

Six labor rights activists, including two union leaders, were sentenced to three months imprisonment for leading strikes which violated COVID-19 orders. They were sentenced, inter alia, for “wilful failure to comply” with government directives for “natural disaster management” under section 30a of the Natural Disaster Management Law; for defying the governemnt ban on gatherings of five people or more; and for violating a night-time curfew under section 188 of the Penal Code.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 5 May 2020

Issue(s): Assembly

Type: practice

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Myanmar

Jail sentences for violating COVID-19 movement restrictions

Myanmar authorities have sentenced at least 500 people to between one month and one year in prison for violating curfews, quarantines, or other movement control orders.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 30 Apr 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement

Type: practice

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Myanmar

Mass Censorship

Between March 19 and 31, 2020, the Ministry of Transport and Communications issued directives to major telecommunications companies in Myanmar under Section 77 of the Telecommunications Law, which allows the Ministry to take restrictive actions during "emergencies". The directives ordered telecommunications companies to block access to nearly 70 websites based on claims they spread "fake news" surrounding the pandemic. The blockages have received significant criticism from both domestic and international civil society organizations. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 31 Mar 2020 In early September, three websites were reopened.

Issue(s): Disinformation, Press Freedom, Expression, Access to Information

Type: practice

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Namibia

Proclamation No. 7 Declaring a State of Emergency

The proclamation institutes a national "state of emergency" under Article 26(5) of the Namibian Constitution, on account of the coronavirus pandemic. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 18 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Emergency

Type: order

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Namibia

State of Emergency COVID 19 Regulations, 2020

The regulations among other provisions impose a two-week nationwide "lockdown" from March 27, with restrictions on individual movement. The regulations also prohibit gatherings of 10 or more people, and provide that anyone who violates the prohibition is subject to a penalty of six months in prison and a N$2,000 fine. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 28 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement

Type: regulation

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Nepal

Ban on Public Gatherings

The Nepali government banned assemblies of more than 25 people for cultural, social and religious activities at party palaces, temples, monasteries, mosques, churches, and other religious and public spaces.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 18 Mar 2020 Temporarily renewed in Kathmandu on 8/19/2020

Issue(s): Assembly

Type: order

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Nepal

Police Brutality in COVID-19 Lockdown Enforcement

Police enforcement of lockdowns led to 187 cases of human rights violations, including 30 incidents involving excessive use of force by police against citizens.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 21 Jul 2021

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement

Type: practice

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Nepal

Intimidation and Harassment of Journalists Reporting on COVID-19

There have been ongoing threats and attacks against journalists by government actors in Nepal for their reporting on the COVID-19 pandemic.  Police have detained reporters for the act of reporting during lockdown on multiple occasions. In at least some cases, the relevant reporters were covering the impact of the pandemic on Nepali society and the government’s handling thereof.  Public health workers have threatened a journalist for reporting on the smuggling of medical supplies. One reporter was beaten by soldiers for photographing a lockdown checkpoint.  A parliamentarian threatened a bureau chief for reporting that the parliamentarian’s wife had violated lockdown restrictions. Additionally, a leader of an opposition party was at one point phoned and threatened by a politician after reporting that the politician had not cooperated in quarantining someone suspected of carrying the virus. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 3 Jul 2020

Issue(s): Press Freedom, Expression, Access to Information, Militarization

Type: practice

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Nepal

Arrest of Peaceful Protesters and Use of Excessive Force

At least ten peaceful protesters demanding better testing and quarantine facilities for returning migrant workers were arrested for violation of lockdown orders. Police have responded to protests with force, using water cannons, batons and tear gas to disperse protesters. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 13 Jun 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Expression, Movement, Militarization

Type: practice

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Nepal

Closure of Online News Portals

The Press Council, an independent statutory authority, shut down 17 online news portals for allegedly publishing disinformation related to Covid-19. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 16 Apr 2020

Issue(s): Disinformation, Press Freedom, Expression

Type: practice

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Netherlands

COVID-19 Temporary Measures Act

This bill provides for temporary expansion of regional ministers' power to regulate public gatherings for the duration of the pandemic. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 13 Oct 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement

Type: law

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Netherlands

Decision 1666478-203555-PG on Regional Emergencies

The central government’s decision orders all regions of the Netherlands to adopt emergency decrees, under the law on public health. The regional decrees must limit public gatherings, defined as groups of three or more people who are not maintaining 1.5 meters of distance between them. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 23 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency

Type: order

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Netherlands

Emergency COVID-19 Safety Ordinance for Amsterdam-Amstelland Region

The emergency ordinance prohibits organizing or participating in meetings, through June 1, to combat the spread of Covid-19. The ordinance provides exceptions including for governmental meetings, funerals and weddings, and religious meetings, as long as participants maintain 1.5 meters of distance among one another. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 2 Apr 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency

Type: regulation

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New Zealand

Section 70(1)(m) Health Act Order on Mandatory Self-Isolation

The order closes all premises other than government offices and essential businesses, and prohibits outdoor congregations of people, whether in public or private spaces. The order remains in effect "until further notice." (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 25 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly

Type: order

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New Zealand

State of Emergency

The government declares a "state of national emergency" under the Civil Defence Emergency Management Act 2002, due to COVID-19. The state of national emergency applies to all of New Zealand, including all offshore islands, and must be renewed every 7 days. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 25 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Emergency

Type: order

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Nicaragua

Political Discrimination in Determination of Prisoner Release

Due to overcrowding, lack of safe drinking water and medical services in prisons, the Nicaraguan government released thousands of inmates but selectively kept political prisoners behind bars.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 10 Aug 2020

Issue(s): Discrimination

Type: practice

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Niger

Ministerial Communique No. 12/CM/2020 Declaring a State of Emergency

The decree by the Council of Ministers declares a nationwide "state of emergency," that among other provisions includes an overnight curfew in the city of Niamey, effective March 28. The curfew will be in effect for a two-week period between the hours of 7pm and 6am local time. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 27 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Emergency, Movement

Type: order

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Nigeria

Ban on Gatherings

The government of Niger State issued an order banning gatherings of more than 50 people, indefinitely, to combat the spread of COVID-19. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 18 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly

Type: law

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Nigeria

Lockdown on Bauchi State

Nigerian authorities announce a 14-day lockdown on Bauchi state to prevent further spread of coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Citizens are ordered to stay at home, with permission to leave to buy food and seek medical care between 10am and 4pm on Wednesdays and Saturdays only.


Introduced 1 Apr 2020

Issue(s): Movement

Type: order

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Nigeria

Lockdown on Major Cities and States

The presidential order institutes a 14-day lockdown on individuals' movement in Abuja, Lagos, Ogun State and the Federal Capital Territory. The lockdown does not apply to hospital and medical institutions and certain commercial establishments including food, petroleum, electricity, and private security companies. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 30 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Movement

Type: order

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Nigeria

Prohibition on Mass Gatherings

The Presidential Task Force on countering the coronavirus threat reiterates a ban on gatherings of 50 or more people. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 23 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly

Type: order

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Nigeria

Arrest of Peaceful Protestors

Security forces arrested 62 anti-government protesters in two locations on August 5, for breaching social distancing rules. Police also used teargas to disperse the demonstrations. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 5 Aug 2020

Issue(s): Assembly

Type: practice

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Nigeria

Police Brutality in Enforcing Lockdown

On April 15, the Nigerian National Human Rights Commission reported that the Nigerian Correctional Service, comprising police and army officers, had killed at least 18 civilians during lockdown enforcement. The Commission also reported that it had received 105 petitions from the families of those killed. By the time the report was issued, the number of deaths caused by security forces exceeded the number of deaths caused by coronavirus. The NHRC subsequently established a panel to investigate the brutality. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 15 Apr 2020

Issue(s): Movement, Militarization

Type: practice

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Nigeria

Data Use to Combat COVID-19

The Nigeria Governors' Forum has formed a partnership with MTN Nigeria, a telecommunication and internet service provider, to use subscriber data to combat COVID-19. The partnership has raised concerns over information sharing, privacy, and the protection of human rights. The data that will be used to develop services relating to COVID-19 will be personal information that was not originally shared or intended for this purpose. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 5 Apr 2020

Issue(s): Surveillance, Privacy

Type: practice

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North Macedonia

Decision on Measures to Prevent the Introduction and Spread of Coronavirus

Among other things, the new measures include a prohibition on indoor or outdoor gatherings of any size, and provide for criminal penalties in case of violation. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 13 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly

Type: law

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North Macedonia

Measures and Recommendations from the 23rd Session of the Government

The Ministry of Interior has the mandate to undertake "appropriate measures" against people that spread disinformation on social media in relation to COVID, and against media outlets that further disseminate that information. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 3 May 2020

Issue(s): Disinformation, Expression

Type: order

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North Macedonia

Measures and Recommendations from the 25th, 26th, and 28th Session of the Government

The measures impose a ban on movement from 9pm-5am during the week, and from 4pm-5am during the weekend, with exceptions for emergencies. The measures also ban the movement of persons older than 67 from 11am-5am. Gatherings of groups larger than 5 people in public places and spaces are also prohibited. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 21 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement

Type: order

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North Macedonia

State of Emergency

The presidential order establishes a one-month "state of emergency" due to the coronavirus. The order is issued under Article 125 of the Constitution, as the parliament was unable to convene. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 18 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Emergency

Type: order

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Norway

Corona Act

The temporary law is an enabling act that gives the Government the authority to supplement or depart from existing law as needed to respond to the coronavirus pandemic. The Parliament must be notified and retains some power to block such moves. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 21 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Emergency

Type: law

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Norway

National COVID-19 Measures

The National COVID-19 Measures require all travellers arriving in Norway to register before they cross the border. A maximum of 100 people are allowed at indoor events where all of the participants sit in designated, distanced seating. A maximum of 200 people are allowed at outdoor events.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 5 Nov 2020 Measures have been extended and adjusted since their implementation. Latest update as of 4/16/21

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement

Type: order

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Oman

National Lockdown Order

The Supreme Committee for Dealing with COVID-19 issued an order preventing movement and closing all public places and shops between July 25, 2020 and August 8, 2020, between the hours of 7:00 PM and 6:00 AM.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 25 Jul 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement

Type: order

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Oman

Supreme Covid-19 Control Committee Decision

The Committee decision prohibits all Ramadan gatherings, such as iftar meals and barbecues, at mosques or in any other public place. The Committee also bans social, sports, cultural and recreational activities, and extends the lockdown of Muscat Governorate through May 8.

قرار اللجنة العليا للتعامل مع كوفيد-19

 ÙŠÙ†Øµ قرار اللجنة على حظر كل التجمعات الرمضانية، مثل وجبات الإفطار وحفلات الشواء، في المساجد أو في أي مكان عام آخر. كما يحظر قرار اللجنة الأنشطة الاجتماعية والرياضية والثقافية والترفيهية، ويمدد إغلاق محافظة مسقط حتى 8 مايو.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 20 Apr 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement

Type: order

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Oman

Suspension of Newspapers and Ban on Gatherings

The Supreme Committee for Dealing with COVID-19 orders all newspapers, magazines, and other publications to cease printing, and prohibits the circulation and sale of imported newspapers, magazines, and publications as well. The order also bans gatherings of any kind in public places, and provides that violators will be sanctioned.

وقف إصدار الصحف وحظر التجمعات

 Ø§Ù„لجنة العليا للتعامل مع كوفيد-19 تصدر قراراً بوقف طباعة جميع الصحف والمجلات والمنشورات الأخرى، وتحظر تداول وبيع الصحف والمجلات والمنشورات الخارجية أيضاً. يحظر القرار أيضاً التجمعات من أي نوع في الأماكن العامة وينص على معاقبة المخالفين.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 22 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Press Freedom, Expression, Access to Information

Type: order

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Oman

Drones to Limit Social Gatherings

Oman authorities are using drones to patrol areas and limit social gatherings.

طائرات بدون طيار للحد من التجمعات الاجتماعية

السلطات العمانية تستخدم طائرات بدون طيار للقيام بدوريات في المناطق والحد من التجمعات الاجتماعية.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 6 Apr 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Surveillance, Privacy

Type: practice

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Pakistan

Ministry Order Deploying Military Forces

The Ministry of Interior order authorizes the deployment of Pakistan Army troops "in connection with the prevailing situation related to the spread of COVID-19 and matters ancillary thereto."


Introduced 23 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Militarization

Type: order

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Pakistan

Lockdown of Sindh Province

The government of Sindh province issues a complete ban on movement and gatherings of any kind for any purpose at any place, with limited exceptions for gatherings of essential workers.


Introduced 22 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement

Type: order

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Pakistan

Arrests of Student Protestors

Students across Pakistan have been protesting against mandatory online classes because they lack reliable internet service and/or cannot afford devices for online learning. Arrests of protesters took place in Balochistan and students were charged with organising a rally during a lockdown. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 25 Jun 2020

Issue(s): Assembly

Type: practice

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Pakistan

Use of Counter-terrorist Tactics to Track COVID-19

The Pakistani government has involved the Inter-Services Intelligence agency in tracking the spread of the coronavirus. Geo-fencing and phone-monitoring systems normally used to track militant non-state actors have been employed to monitor neighborhoods on lockdown and to listen in on conversations COVID-19 patients have with their contacts to assess whether contacts have shown symptoms. In June 2020, two Pakistani reporters were tortured by the Anti-Terrorism Force for covering a protest at a quarantine centre on the Afghan border. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 28 May 2020

Issue(s): Surveillance, Press Freedom, Privacy

Type: practice

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Palestine

Emergency Order No. 6 of 2020

The decree requires those subject to home quarantine to download a cellphone application that will track their movements outside the home. The Ministry of Health and law enforcement agencies are charged with implementation of the decision. The application uses GPS tracking to keep track of individuals' movements. Individuals must pledge in writing that they will not leave their homes without their phones. First- and second-degree relatives are tasked with ensuring quarantined individuals remain at home. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 30 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Surveillance, Privacy

Type: order

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Palestine

Emergency Order No. 1 of 2020

The decision, issued by the Prime Minister pursuant to his emergency powers, among other things restricts individuals' movement among governorates; prohibits gatherings of people including meetings, workshops, conferences, and demonstrations; and closes educational facilities and houses of worship. The decision also prohibits officials from making "any statement" to the press without permission from the Prime Minister. The decision generally prohibits all individuals from "dealing with any rumors or untrustworthy information, and the transferring and broadcasting thereof," and indicates that individuals should obtain information "from official sources only." The Prime Minister's decision orders all national security forces to ensure the decision's implementation, while protecting individuals' rights and freedoms.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 6 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Disinformation, Press Freedom, Expression, Access to Information, Movement, Militarization

Type: order

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Palestine

Announcement of State of Emergency and Initial Imposition of Restrictions

President Mahmoud Abbas declares a state of emergency in all of the Palestinian territories for thirty days on account of the coronavirus. The declaration affords the Prime Minster all necessary powers and indicates that competent authorities should take "all necessary measures" to combat the virus. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 5 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Emergency

Type: order

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Panama

Resolution 360 of the Ministry of Health

This measure restricts individuals' movement using sex as a basis for determining when individuals are permitted outside. The measure also imposes restrictions on the ability of persons older than 60 years of age to leave their homes. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 30 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Discrimination, Movement

Type: order

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Panama

Executive Order No. 490 Declaring a Curfew in the Republic of Panama

The Decree imposes a curfew from 9pm until 5am with limited exceptions, in order to combat the spread of coronavirus. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 17 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Movement

Type: order

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Panama

Resolution No. 11 Declaring a National State of Emergency and Other Provisions

Declaring a "state of emergency" on account of the coronavirus. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 13 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Emergency

Type: order

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Papua New Guinea

National Pandemic Act

The National Pandemic Act restricts they following rights in the face of public health emergencies: the liberty of persons, the freedom from arbitrary search and entry, the freedom of expression, the freedom of assembly and association, the right to privacy, the right to freedom of information, and the right to freedom of movement. The Act was explicitly passed as a non-emergency law, meaning that its provisions do not expire with the end of the COVID-19 emergency. The Act affords power to declare and to revoke a "Public Health Emergency" to the Head of State, "acting on advice." The Act enables the Head of State to appoint the Controller, who has the power to impose measures such as forced medical observations and domestic movement restrictions. The Act empowers the Head of State to involve the Defence Force in the Controller's activities.  This Act was passed quickly through the parliament without adequate consultation of civil society, and was met with significant opposition due to the risks that it poses to human rights and its failure to include certain Constitutional protections (such as limiting the potential duration of an emergency delcaration to two months). The Act was invoked in early August 2020, and then the declaration of a Public Health Emergency was revoked on September 3, 2020. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 16 Jun 2020

Issue(s): Association, Assembly, Press Freedom, Expression, Access to Information, Movement, Militarization

Type: law

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Papua New Guinea

Emergency (General Provisions) (COVID 19) Bill 2020

The Act is made to regulate or restrict "liberty of persons," "the freedom of arbitrary search and entry," and "the right to freedom of movement." The Act establishes the functions of the Emergency Controller, giving them the responsibility to control the pandemic in Papua New Guinea. The Act gives the Emergency Controller the authority to issue emergency orders, restrict or issue direction for movement of persons, give direction with respect to occupation and operation of premises, enter and search any premises and seize items, require persons to "provide information or answer questions," direct persons to be quarantined, direct persons to undergo medical observation, and to regulate all modes of transportation.  Persons who do not comply with Emergency Controller orders are subject to fines of over US $14,000. This Act replaces the Emergency (General Provisions) (COVID 19) Regulation.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 1 Apr 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency, Privacy, Movement

Type: law

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Papua New Guinea

Emergency Defence Force COVID-19 Bill, 2020

This Act orders the Defence Force to cooperate with the Emergency Controller as needed during the national emergency. The Defence Force is required to be responsive to the orders and directions of the Emergency Controller. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 30 Mar 2019

Issue(s): Militarization

Type: law

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Papua New Guinea

State of Emergency

The State of Emergency was originally declared by the Prime Minister in a statement given on March 22, for period of 14 days. The declaration allowed the Commissioner of Police to "assume control" of the emergency situation and to call upon the military to "ensure lawful order, control and response to SOE control measures." The order indicated that during the 14-day period, there was to be no public transportation and no movement from one province to another. Workplaces and educational institutions were closed. The Prime Minister released a statement on March 23 with an additional State of Emergency provision that "spreading false rumors and organising public gatherings will be charged appropriately."

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 22 Mar 2020 Extended through 2 June 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Disinformation, Emergency, Press Freedom, Expression, Movement, Militarization

Type: order

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Paraguay

Law No. 6524 Declaring a State of Emergency

The law declares a nationwide "state of emergency" and establishes administrative, labor, corporate, and financial measures to deal with the COVID-19 pandemic.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 26 Mar 2020 Extended through 20 June 2021

Issue(s): Emergency

Type: law

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Paraguay

Decree No. 3456 on a State of Sanitary Emergency

The President declares a "state of sanitary emergency" pursuant to his powers under a 1980 statute. The order authorizes the Ministry of Public Health and Social Welfare to provide "general preventative isolation" for the protection of public health. The order indicates that executive branch ministries must adopt "all necessary measures" to mitigate the spread of COVID-19. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 16 Mar 2020 Extended through 20 July 2021

Issue(s): Emergency

Type: order

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Paraguay

Resolution No. 90 of the Ministry of Public Health and Social Wellbeing

The regulation suspends large public and private gatherings, all events in enclosed spaces, and all educational activities. Noncompliance is subject to sanctions established by Law No. 836/1980, the Sanitary Code. The regulation is in place for 15 days but may be extended. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 10 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly

Type: regulation

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Peru

Supreme Decree 070-2020-PCM

The decree authorizes the government to access geolocation tracing data of certain individuals, including those who call an emergency phone line to report symptoms of the COVID-19 and are later confirmed to have the virus. The decree also mandates that private companies operating cell phone networks send out a weekly questionnaire to their subscribers, seeking information on identifying COVID-19 cases, and that state authorities may access the data collected through the questionnaire. The decree is issued pursuant to powers granted under the initial State of Emergency decree. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 16 Apr 2020

Issue(s): Surveillance, Privacy

Type: order

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Peru

No. 044-2020-PCM Declaring a State of Emergency

The decree declares a "state of emergency" on account of the coronavirus pandemic. The decree suspends individual rights under the Constitution of Peru, including the right to peacefully assemble, the right to freedom of movement, and the requirement that the government must have a warrant before it may arrest someone.

State of emergency orders have been renewed monthly by the Peruvian Executive Power since March 16, 2020. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 15 Mar 2020 Extended to 30 June 2021

Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency, Movement

Type: order

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Peru

Peru en Tus Manos Tracking App

The Peru en Tus Manos mobile phone application was introduced on April 2, more than two weeks before the issuance of a law or decree authorizing the government to collect or use personal data to combat the COVID-19 crisis. The app uses geolocation tracking to track users' location in real time, but the privacy policy does not explain the destination or uses of that geolocation information. The government also refused to make the source code for the application available to the public.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 2 Apr 2020

Issue(s): Surveillance, Privacy

Type: practice

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Philippines

Act No. 11469 for the Nation to Heal As One

The law grants the president numerous broad and exceptional powers to deal with the pandemic. The law also provides in Section 6(6) that “spreading false information regarding the COVID-19 crisis on social media and other platforms” is punishable by up to two months in jail and fines of up to one million pesos ($19,500). (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 24 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Disinformation, Expression

Type: law

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Philippines

Proclamation No. 929 Declaring a State of Calamity

The executive proclamation declares a nationwide "state of calamity" under Section 15(2) of the Constiution, due to the coronavirus, for six months unless lifted or extended “as the circumstances may warrant." The proclamation imposes an enhanced community quarantine throughout the island of Luzon, which includes the capital Manila, from March 17 to April 13. It also directs all law enforcement agencies, "with support from the Armed Forces," to take "all necessary measures" to ensure order in affected areas. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 16 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Emergency, Movement, Militarization

Type: order

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Philippines

Inter-Agency Task Force for the Management of Emerging Infectious Diseases, Resolution No. 11

The order imposes a variety of community quarantine measures on the Metro Manila area. The order calls upon the Armed Forces of the Philippines to ensure the effective and orderly implementation of the lockdown measures. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 12 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Movement, Militarization

Type: order

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Philippines

Proclamation No. 922 Declaring a State of Public Health Emergency

The proclamation declares a "state of public health emergency" under section 15(2) of the Constitution, and authorizes deployment of the Philippine National Police and other law enforcement agencies to provide assistance in addressing Covid-19. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 8 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Emergency

Type: order

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Philippines

Police Ordered to Arrest Mask Violators

In a pre-recorded public address, President Duterte told police to arrest and detain Filipinos who are improperly using face mask in a bid to “protect the public” against COVID-19.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 6 May 2021

Issue(s): Militarization

Type: practice

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Philippines

Police deployed to find COVID cases

The government has authorized the police to accompany health workers in visits to peoples' homes, searching for individuals with COVID-19. Under the policing plan, called operation Oplan Kalinga ("Care Strategy"), police may take any COVID-19 positive individuals to private quarantine facilities if they are unable to satisfy the requirements of home quarantine (such as having their own bathroom, and not residing with elderly or pregnant people). The door-to-door visits by police echo the government's tactics in their "war on drugs," in which police have killed thousands of people, including hundreds during the pandemic.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 15 Jul 2020

Issue(s): Privacy

Type: practice

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Philippines

Arrests for Spreading "Fake" News about COVID-19

As of April 6, at least 32 people have been arrested in the Philippines for spreading "fake" news about the coronavirus. The government of the Philippines has also established a website, which indicates that spreading false information "that may affect overall unified response to the COVID-19 pandemic" is a criminal act, and sharing a tipline and a Facebook page where community members can report "fake news and other cybercrimes."

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 9 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Disinformation, Press Freedom, Expression, Access to Information

Type: practice

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Poland

Order No. 180 Regarding Use of the Military to Provide Assistance to the Police

As a result of the increase in the number of COVID-19 cases, the military Gendarmerie will assist the police in maintaining security and public order from October 28 until the date of cancellation of the State of Epidemic. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 26 Oct 2020

Issue(s): Militarization

Type: order

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Poland

Cellphone App to Monitor Quarantine Compliance

The government launched a cellphone app that allows police to monitor individuals' compliance with quarantine; those who do not are subject to a fine of up to PLN 5,000. The app includes facial recognition technology.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 19 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Surveillance, Privacy

Type: practice

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Portugal

Decree No. 8/2020

The Decree establishes a state of emergency for 15 days, renewable by the government every 15 days. The Decree limits movement on public roads and in public spaces between 11pm and 5am on weekdays and 1pm and 5am on weekends. Exceptions are made for essential travel, as defined by the Decree (including traveling for work, health reasons, buying groceries or medical products, assisting vulnerable people, force majeure, etc.). The Decree also allows for the measurements of body temperature, performed by non-invasive means, in order to control of access to the workplace, to public services or institutions, educational establishments and commercial, cultural or sports spaces, means of transport, in residential structures, health establishments, prisons or educational centers. Security forces and services are responsible for supervising compliance with the provisions of the Decree.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 8 Nov 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement, Militarization

Type: order

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Portugal

Resolution of the Council of Ministers no. 92-A/2020

The Resolution renews the “state of calamity” across the nation and issues restrictions for specific listed municipalities, reviewable every 15 days. Restrictions include a prohibition on gatherings and events of more than five people. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 2 Nov 2020

Issue(s): Assembly

Type: order

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Portugal

Decree No. 2-A of 2020 Declaring a State of Emergency

The presidential decree declares a state of emergency to limit the spread of the coronavirus. The measures include significant restrictions on movement throughout the country, and a prohibition on public gatherings. The decree is in place for an initial two weeks, and can be extended. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 18 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency, Movement

Type: order

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Qatar

Law No. 9 Amending Law No. 17 of 1990 Regarding the Protection from Infectious Diseases to Assess with Combating COVID-19

Emir Sheikh Tamim Bin Hamad Al-Thani issued Amendments to Law No. 17. The amendments require certain individuals, including heads of households and office managers, to report to authorities if they suspect that a person has an infectious disease. The amendments also provide for up to three years in prison and a 200,000 Qatari Riyal fine in the case of noncompliance with this requirement or failure to comply with quarantine rules.

تعديلات على القانون رقم 17 لسنة 1990 بشأن الوقاية من الأمراض المعدية للحد من إنتشار فيروس كورونا.

المستجد

 Ø£ØµØ¯Ø± الأمير الشيخ تميم بن حمد آل ثاني تعديلات على القانون رقم 17. تُلزم التعديلات أفراداً معينين، بمن فيهم أرباب الأسر ومدراء المكاتب، إبلاغ السلطات إذا اشتبهوا في إصابة شخص بمرض معدي. تنص التعديلات أيضاً على عقوبة السجن لمدة لا تتجاوز ثلاث سنوات وغرامة قدرها 200,000 ريال قطري في حالة عدم الامتثال لهذا الشرط أو عدم الامتثال لقواعد الحجر الصحي.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 26 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Privacy

Type: order

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Qatar

Mandatory Contact-Tracing Application

Participation in Qatar's contact-tracing application was mandated "until further notice" starting May 22. The app, Ehtiraz, uses real-time GPS and Bluetooth location tracking, and uploads collected data to a centralized government database for health officials' use in tracing possible COVID-19 infections. Citizens and residents are required to have the app installed on their mobile devices when leaving their homes. Failure to have the app installed could lead to a fine of $55,000 or three years in prison. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 26 May 2020

Issue(s): Surveillance, Privacy

Type: practice

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Romania

Decision No. 52 of 5.11.2020 of the National Committee for Emergency Situations

The National Committee for Emergency Situations imposed a curfew from 11 p.m. to 5 a.m., valid for 30 days. Exceptions from the curfew include transport to and from work, seeking medical assistance, purchasing medicine, or providing care to children or the elderly. The Decision also bans gatherings on the occasion of holidays, anniversaries, or parties in closed and/or open spaces, both public and private.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 6 Nov 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement

Type: order

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Romania

Decision No. 394 of the Government of Romania

A State of Alert was introduced in Romania, following the end of the state of emergency. It has been extended several times, most recently by Decision No. 967 on 14 November 2020 for an additional 30 days.       

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 18 May 2020

Issue(s): Emergency

Type: order

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Romania

Military Ordinance no. 3/2020 on Measures to Prevent the Spread of COVID-19

This order by the Minister of the Interior prohibits non-essential travel outside homes. Extra restrictions are placed on people over age 65, though these restrictions do not apply midday, and they permit those over 65 to travel outside time restrictions for "professional interests" and for "agricultural activities." All persons entering the country are required to isolate at home. Local authorities are instructed to keep a database of homeless persons. The order imposes various restrictions on flights and sea vessels crossing national border. The order also expands the scope of responsibilities of the Ministry of Defense by increasing collaboration between the Ministry of Defense, the Ministry of the Interior and border police, and by involving the Ministry of Defense in maintaining domestic public order. The order further indicates that "national security institutions will design communication systems and computer applications, necessary for the Ministry of Internal Affairs, Ministry of Health and local authorities to communicate in real time and permanently with persons quarantined or isolated at home." Additionally, the order indicates that Romanian Police, the Romanian Gendarmerie and the local police are empowered to enforce the stay-at-home order, and it criminalizes non-compliance with the stay-at-home order. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 24 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Surveillance, Privacy, Movement, Militarization

Type: order

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Romania

Military Ordinance no. 2/2020 on Measures to Prevent the Spread of COVID-19

This order prohibits gatherings of more than three people who are not cohabitating, and it imposes restrictions on movement outside homes between 10:00 pm and 6:00 am. The order empowers the Romanian Police, the Romanian Gendarmerie, and the local police to take appropriate actions to enforce the order. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 21 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement, Militarization

Type: order

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Romania

Military Ordinance no. 1/2020 on Measures to Prevent the Spread of COVID-19

This order closes restaurants and suspends cultural, scientific, artistic, religious, sports, entertainment or gambling, spa treatment and personal care activities. It prohibits events being held in public places with more than 100 people, and events hosting 100 people have to meet spacing requirements. The order also indicates that individuals who are placed in quarantine may not leave their homes without permission from the relevant authorities, and the order empowers the Romanian Police, the Romanian Gendarmerie, and the local police to take appropriate actions to enforce the order. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 18 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement, Militarization

Type: order

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Romania

No. 195 on the Establishment of a State of Emergency in the Territory of Romania

The decree declares a "state of emergency" on account of the coronavirus pandemic. According to the decree, the following rights may be restricted during a state of emergency: freedom of movement, freedom of assembly, privacy, education, private property, and the right to strike. Additionally, the decree provides that the National Authority for Administrative and Regulatory Communications has powers to make "reasoned decisions" to censor online transmission of information related to COVID-19. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 16 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Disinformation, Emergency, Press Freedom, Expression, Privacy, Access to Information, Movement

Type: order

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Russia

Law No. 98-ФЗ Amending Certain Legislative Acts of the Russian Federation on the Prevention and Response of Emergencies

The law gives the prime minister the power to declare a nationwide state of emergency on account of "the spread of a disease that poses danger to others" and to establish mandatory rules of conduct. The law also provides that elections and referenda may be postponed when a state of emergency is in effect. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 1 Apr 2020

Issue(s): Elections

Type: law

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Russia

Law No. 100-FZ Introducing Changes to the Criminal Code and Criminal Procedure Code

The amendments to Russia's Criminal Code establish new penalties for violations of quarantine orders, according to which an individual who violates the orders may be punished with fines or prison time--ranging from 40,000 rubles ($640) to up to 7 years in prison if the quarantine violation causes two or more deaths. The amendments also establish that public dissemination of false information that threatens the public health during an emergency is punishable by 3 years in prison, or up to 5 years if it leads to "grave consequences." (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 1 Apr 2020

Issue(s): Disinformation, Press Freedom, Expression, Access to Information, Movement

Type: law

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Russia

Decree on measures to ensure sanitary-epidemiological wellbeing of Russian Population

The executive order suspends activities of all state and private organizations and individual enterpreneurs (with some exceptions); establishes special procedures for restrictions on movement within territories (without providing specifics); and authorizes the implementation of "restrictive and other measures" during the period of April 4-30, 2020.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 2 Apr 2020

Issue(s): Association, Movement

Type: order

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Russia

Decree of Mayor of Moscow № 34-УМ

Pursuant to powers available under the state of high alert, this order suspends various recreational activities, including by closing playgrounds, museums and movie theaters. It also suspends retail activities and provision of face-to-face services. The order imposes self-quarantine and self-reporting requirements, along with social distancing requirements and restrictions on public transportation. All public events are prohibited until April 10, 2020.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 29 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement

Type: order

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Russia

Decree of the Mayor of Moscow No. 26-УМ

The Mayoral decree among other things prohibits gatherings of more than 50 individuals. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 23 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly

Type: order

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Russia

CCTV Cameras to Enforce Quarantine Measures in Moscow

Authorities are using a network of 100,000 new CCTV cameras on the streets of Moscow, controlled from a centralized COVID-19 control center, to enforce quarantine measures using facial recognition.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 24 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Surveillance, Privacy

Type: practice

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Rwanda

Nationwide Prohibition on Non-Essential Movement

The notice institutes a complete ban on individuals' movement from their homes, except for essential services, for an initial 14-day period. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 21 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Movement

Type: order

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Rwanda

Statement on New Measures to Prevent COVID-19 Coronavirus Transmission

The order closed places of worship, schools, and higher educational institutions. This announcement also ordered that large gatherings be postponed, and that "unnecessary" movement be avoided. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 14 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement

Type: order

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Saint Lucia

Week-Long, 24-Hour Curfew

The government ordered a 24-hour curfew from April 1 to April 7. During the curfew, individuals are allowed to leave their homes only for medical emergencies, and only with written authorization from the National Emergency Management Organization (NEMO). (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 31 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Movement

Type: order

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Samoa

Amended State of Emergency Orders for COVID-19

The order extends Samoa's state of emergency, newly prohibits all international travel, prescribes the operating hours of essential businesses, and prohibits gatherings of 5 or more. The order also sets forth penalties for violations: Failure to comply is subject to a $200 fine and detention for up to 3 months; violators who are convicted of an offense are liable to a fine of up to $10,000 and up to one year in prison. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 18 Apr 2020

Issue(s): Assembly

Type: order

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Samoa

State of Emergency

The decree establishes a "state of emergency" and closes Samoa's borders. Public gatherings are restricted to no more than five people.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 21 Mar 2020 Last extension on 7/5/2021 until 8/1/2021

Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency

Type: order

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San Marino

Law-Decree No. 51 Introducing Urgent Measures to Contain and Manage the COVID19-related Emergency (Coronavirus)

The decree shuts down all commercial activities except for pharmacies, food shops, petrol stations and newsagents. All schools are suspended, but farming is allowed to continue. The decree also bans movement out of the state without proper justification and gatherings of any nature. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 14 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement

Type: order

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Saudi Arabia

Curfew and Lockdowns

The King announced a daily curfew between 7pm and 6am, to last for 21 days.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 23 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement

Type: order

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Saudi Arabia

Restrictions on Gatherings

The Ministry of Municipal and Rural Affairs issued a decision to all secretariats and municipalities ordering the cessation of all public social gatherings, including those for funeral wakes, weddings, and similar events. The order did not exempt gatherings for political or expressive purposes. The Ministry also directed authorities to temporarily close all places designated for games and recreational activities in and outside commercial complexes.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 15 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly

Type: order

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Saudi Arabia

Arrests of Individuals Spreading "Fake News" about Pandemic

The Public Prosecutor of Saudi Arabia has arrested a number of individuals for spreading "fake news" about the pandemic. The Public Prosecutor also tweeted: “Receiving information from its official sources is a moral obligation and commitment, and a legal responsibility. Do not fall victim to malicious rumors and news from anonymous sources that violate the procedures and effort, and cause terror regarding the Coronavirus, in order to avoid strict criminal accountability in this regard.”

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 1 May 2020

Issue(s): Disinformation, Press Freedom, Expression

Type: practice

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Senegal

No. 2020-830 Proclaiming a State of Emergency

The presidential decree proclaims a national "state of emergency." Among other things the proclamation imposes curfews and empowers administrative officials to ban public gatherings, close public spaces, and limit travel between different regions. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 23 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency, Movement

Type: order

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Senegal

Order No. 007782 Relating to the Provisional Ban on Demonstrations or Rallies

The order prohibits all demonstrations or gatherings of people in outdoor or indoor places, for one month. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 14 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly

Type: order

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Serbia

Decree Centralizing the Distribution of Information on the Coronavirus

The decree provided that the Crisis Headquarters led by the Prime Minister is the sole source of information about the pandemic, and that information from unauthorized sources must not be considered accurate or verified. The order also provided for legal consequences for spreading disinformation during the state of emergency. Following criticism of the decree and the arrest of at least one journalist for her reporting on the pandemic, the Prime Minister announced on April 2--less than one week after the decree's introduction--that it would be revoked. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 28 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Disinformation, Press Freedom, Expression, Access to Information

Type: order

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Serbia

No. 39 of 2020 Banning Public Indoor Gatherings

The order prohibits public indoor gatherings of more than five people, throughout Serbia, in order to combat the spread of Covid-19. The order provides for limited exceptions, including employees of public institutions. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 21 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly

Type: order

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Serbia

Restrictions and Prohibitions on Movement of Persons

The order imposes a curfew from 5pm to 5am on weekdays, during which individuals may not leave their homes, and prohibits elderly persons from leaving their homes except for Saturdays from 4pm to 7pm. The order also prohibits groups of two or more people from standing or moving together in a public place. The order exempts essential workers and citizens seeking medical care. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 18 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement

Type: order

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Serbia

State of Emergency

The decree, issued under Article 200(5) of the Constitution, declares a "state of emergency" throughout Serbia on account of the coronavirus. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 15 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Emergency

Type: order

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Seychelles

Initial Lockdown Measures

The Seychellois president ordered a nationwide lockdown that began on March 30. Per the government's directives, gatherings of more than four people in public places were prohibited, and shops were closed in the evenings.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 27 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement

Type: order

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Sierra Leone

Nationwide Lockdown

The Defence Minister and National Covid Response Coordinator announce a three-day nationwide lockdown as a containment measure against the spread of the virus. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 5 Apr 2020

Issue(s): Movement

Type: order

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Sierra Leone

State of Emergency

The president declares a "state of emergency" for one year. The state of emergency includes deployement of the armed forces and police across the country to enforce compliance with all public health directives. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 25 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Emergency, Militarization

Type: order

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Singapore

Amendment to the Employment of Foreign Manpower (Work Passes) Regulations 2012

The amended regulations impose a new requirement on most migrant workers living in Singapore, such that they must obtain permission from their employer before they may leave their living facilities. The amended regulations refer to Singapore's COVID-19 (Temporary Measures) (Control Order) Regulations of 2020, but they are not pegged to those regulations or otherwise time-limited. As of late June, an estimated 94% of COVID-19 cases in Singapore were migrant workers living in crowded dormitories. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 2 Jun 2020

Issue(s): Discrimination, Movement

Type: law

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Singapore

The COVID-19 (Temporary Measures) Act 2020

Among other things, the law allows the Health Minister to enact "Control Orders" for the purpose of preventing or controlling COVID-19 transmission, including orders to restrict the movement of or contact between people; limiting access to certain places; and prohibiting or restricting participation in any event or gathering in any premises. Failure to comply with the orders may be punished with a fine of up to $10,000, and jail for up to six months. Multiple violations of the rules will result in a doubled penalty. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 7 Apr 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement

Type: law

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Singapore

Preliminary Campaigning Guidelines for General Election Under COVID-19

Singapore's Elections Department released guidelines that ban large public gatherings during the campaign period, citing the COVID-19 pandemic. Such gatherings include rallies and pre-result election meetings. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 18 Jun 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Elections

Type: order

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Singapore

The COVID-19 (Temporary Measures) (Control Order) Regulation 2020

The regulations ban gatherings among any individuals who do not live together. Gatherings in public spaces are also prohibited. The regulations further limit the reasons for which people are allowed to leave their homes. Failure to comply with these rules may be punished with a fine of up to $10,000, and jail for up to six months. Multiple violations of the rules will result in a doubled penalty. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 7 Apr 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement

Type: regulation

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Singapore

Foreign Workers Required to Use Tracing App

The Minister of Health has ordered that all migrant workers living in dormitories must download the national contact tracing app, TraceTogether, by June 19. The app, which is not mandatory for other residents, requires that users register with their foreign identification number or passport number. A separate app, the SGWorkPass, indicates which migrant workers are allowed to leave their dormitories and resume work. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 16 Jun 2020

Issue(s): Discrimination, Surveillance, Privacy, Movement

Type: policy

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Singapore

SafeEntry Tracing App

Businesses and certain other venues are required to use the SafeEntry system, which allows visitors to check into and out of their premises by scanning their smartphones or identification card. The system is linked directly to the Minister of Health. The website for the system indicates that "data collected by SafeEntry is only used by authorised personnel, and stringent measures are in place to safeguard the data in accordance with the Government’s data security standards." (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 9 May 2020

Issue(s): Surveillance, Privacy

Type: practice

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Slovakia

COVID-19 Testing Regime and Curfew

This measure institutes an antigen testing regime and a curfew. Those carrying a certificate demonstrating their antigen test are exempt from the curfew. Under a subsequent decree, the Chief Hygienist was ordered to mandate that employers and store owners require a negative coronavirus test from anyone attempting to enter their premises. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 22 Oct 2020 Extended on 28 October 2020 and 5 November 2020 due to several rounds of country-wide testing.

Issue(s): Privacy, Movement

Type: order

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Slovakia

Resolution 284/2020

The resolution prohibits public gatherings of more than six persons. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 12 Oct 2020

Issue(s): Assembly

Type: order

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Slovakia

State of Emergency

The government declares a state of emergency in relation to the coronavirus pandemic. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 12 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Emergency

Type: order

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Slovenia

Ordinance on the Temporary Prohibition on Public Gathering

The ordinance temporarily prohibits individuals from gathering at public meetings and other events in public places, in order to contain the spread of the Covid-19 epidemic. The prohibition remains in place until revoked. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 19 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly

Type: regulation

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Solomon Islands

Emergency Powers (Covid-19) Regulations 2020

The regulations, issued under the Emergency Powers Act in response to the COVID-19 pandemic, grant the Prime Minister a range of powers, including the power to: (1) temporarily close public spaces or declare public spaces to be emergency zones and restrict the freedoms of movement and assembly in these emergency zones; (2) suspend access to media outlets and online media outlets if these are found to publish and/or disseminate false information that is likely to create public alarm or that constitutes a threat to public peace and safety; (3) suspend any trade union for any duration during the emergency period and deregister any trade union that contravenes an official government Order; and (4) terminate any public servant that publicly criticizes or contradicts the government or its policies. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 26 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Association, Assembly, Disinformation, Press Freedom, Expression, Access to Information, Movement

Type: regulation

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South Africa

Disaster Management Regulations of 2020

Among other things, the regulations criminalize making statements intended to deceive another person about any measure taken by the government to address COVID-19. The regulations also prohibit gatherings of more than 100 people. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 18 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Disinformation, Press Freedom, Expression, Access to Information

Type: order

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South Africa

State of Disaster

The declaration establishes a "state of disaster" under section 27(2) of the Disaster Management Act No. 57 of 2002, due to the coronavirus. The declaration includes a ban on public gatherings of more than 100 people, as well as border and internal travel restrictions. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 15 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency

Type: order

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South Africa

Repeal and Replacement of Regulations Issued under Sections 27(2) of the Disaster Management Act

The regulations repeals a number of prior orders and regulations issued under the Disaster Management Act, but retain a ban on all public gatherings except at funerals (which are limited to 50 people), workplaces, and gatherings for purchase of commodities. The regulation also provides for a system of contact tracing, and establishes a national COVID-19 Tracing Database. The Database will include the identification and contact information for all persons tested for COVID-19, and the details of known or suspected contacts of any person who tested positive for COVID-19. Within six weeks of the end of the State of Disaster, the Database information must be anonymized; anonymous information may be retained for research and any other information must be destroyed. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 29 Apr 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Surveillance, Privacy, Movement

Type: regulation

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South Africa

Electronic Communications, Postal and Telecommunications Directions

The regulations create numerous obligations for private actors: radio services are required to stream public announcements on COVID; internet providers are obliged to remove "fake news" from their platforms immediately after identifying it; and national address systems and databases must be made available to assist government in tracking and tracing individuals infected or exposed.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 26 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Disinformation, Press Freedom, Expression, Access to Information

Type: regulation

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South Africa

Police Brutality during Lockdown

Social media users have shared videos of police brutality against violators of the lockdown that was imposed on March 26, and authorities are investigating several reports of police torture and murder of citizens accused of breaching the lockdown orders. One man was beaten to death by soldiers while he was sipping alcohol outside his house in alleged violation of lockdown regulations. As of June 1, at least 11 people had died following police action during the lockdown, and more than 230,000 people had been arrested for lockdown violations. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 1 Jun 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement

Type: practice

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South Korea

Amendments to Infectious Disease Control and Prevention Act No. 14286

Allows the government to criminally prosecute suspected patients who refuse to get tested for the virus with a fine of up to 3,000,000 KRW (~$3,000). The amendment also significantly increases the potential penalty for breaking quarantine to up to one year of imprisonment or a fine of 10,000,000 KRW (~$10,000) for the offense. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 4 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Movement

Type: law

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South Korea

Infectious Disease Control and Prevention Act No. 14286

The Act, amended following the MERS epidemic in 2016 and again in 2020, gives the minister of health extensive legal authority to collect private data, without a warrant, from individuals already confirmed or suspected of having an infectious disease. The Act allows authorities to send the whereabouts of certain patients to all smartphones in the patients' vicinity via an emergency text. The Act also allows authorities to restrict or prohibit performances, assemblies, religious ceremonies, or any other large gathering of people.


Introduced 2 Dec 2016

Issue(s): Assembly, Surveillance, Privacy

Type: law

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South Sudan

Ministerial Order No. 1 Imposing Curfew

The Minister of Interior's order institutes a daily curfew between 8pm and 6am. Persons providing essential services are exempt from the curfew but are required to carry special permits.


Introduced 25 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Movement

Type: order

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Spain

Decree No. 926/2020

The Decree extends the national state of emergency. The Decree introduces new restrictions, including a curfew in public/publicly accessible spaces between 11pm and 6am; restriction of freedom of movement between autonomous regions; and limits on gatherings of people in spaces – both indoors and outdoors – to a maximum of 6 people. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 25 Oct 2020 Extended through May 9, 2021

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement

Type: order

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Spain

Decree No. 463/2020, Declaring a State of Alarm to Manage the Health Crisis Caused by Covid-19

The royal decree institutes a 15-day nationwide "state of alarm," due to the coronavirus pandemic. Among other measures, the decree limits individual movement to certain essential activities (procuring food or medical care), suspends operation of non-essential businesses, and centralizes control of health services and other critical government functions. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 19 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Emergency, Movement

Type: order

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Sri Lanka

Nationwide Lockdown Order

Sri Lanka imposed a series of nationwide lockdown orders prohibiting movement between 10 p.m. to 4 a.m. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 20 Aug 2021 Expires 30 August 2021

Issue(s): Movement

Type: order

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Sri Lanka

President of Sri Lanka Announcement on Curfew

The order imposes a curfew from 4pm-6am every day. Traveling to and from other districts is completely prohibited (except for individuals who are providing essential services). The order further designates some villages as isolated areas, in which no one is allowed to enter or leave. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 20 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Movement

Type: order

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Sri Lanka

Generalized Repression in Response to Pandemic

The Defense Ministry, which was appointed to lead the government's response to COVID-19, has arrested over 66,000 people for alleged curfew violations. Incidents of repression of dissent doubled in May, including beatings, arbitrary arrests, surveillance, death threats and hacking of electronic devices. The Ministry has sought assistance from intelligence agencies, rather than health services, in contact tracing, creating concern among civil society groups. There have been reports of intelligence agents interfering with civil society organizations attempting to service citizens' needs, and of intelligence agents visiting the homes of and making calls to organizations' members. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 8 Aug 2020

Issue(s): Association, Surveillance, Privacy, Movement, Militarization

Type: practice

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Sri Lanka

Arrests for False Information

Sri Lanka’s police announced that it would arrest those who disseminate false or disparaging statements about government officials combating the spread of the Covid-19 virus. The next day, five persons were arrested on charges of posting false and misleading content about COVID-19 on social media.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 1 Apr 2020

Issue(s): Disinformation, Expression

Type: practice

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Sudan

Lockdown in Major Cities

Authorities announced a three-week lockdown in Khartoum and Omdurman. Essential services such as supermarkets and pharmacies will remain open, but only for limited periods. Individuals will be allowed limited movement within their neighborhoods to purchase necessities. A nighttime curfew is in effect nationwide from 8pm to 6am, and a ban on domestic travel remains in place.

الإغلاق في المدن الكبرى

 Ø£Ø¹Ù„نت السلطات عن إغلاق لمدة ثلاثة أسابيع في الخرطوم وأم درمان. ستظل الخدمات الأساسية مثل محلات السوبر ماركت والصيدليات مفتوحة، ولكن لفترات محدودة فقط. سيُسمح للأفراد بالتحرك بصورة محدودة داخل أحيائهم لشراء الضروريات. يسري حظر التجول الليلي في جميع أنحاء البلاد من الساعة الثامنة مساءاً حتى الساعة السادسة صباحاً، ولا يزال حظر السفر الداخلي سارياً.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 18 Apr 2020

Issue(s): Movement

Type: order

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Sudan

Emergency Order No. 1 of 2020 Declaring a Public Health Emergency

The order declares a "state of public health emergency" in Sudan due to the coronavirus pandemic. The order criminalizes "disseminating incorrect statements or information, including rumors, through any means of publication or misleading the authorities regarding the pandemic." The order also criminalizes a failure to quarantine and interference with transportation of those suspected of being infected with COVID-19. The order criminalizes as well non-compliance with lockdown measures by "being present in public places" and failing to maintain social distance in several different contexts. Non-compliance with authorities requesting medical examinations is also criminalized. The order affords police the authority to close public places in violation of the order, to seize vehicles, to detain and arrest persons in violation, and to take "all necessary measures" to implement the order. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 12 Apr 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Disinformation, Emergency, Press Freedom, Expression, Privacy, Movement

Type: order

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Sudan

Curfew and Ban on Public Gatherings

The government imposes a nighttime curfew nationwide from 10pm to 6am. The curfew followed a nationwide ban on mass gatherings, instituted on March 20.

حظر التجول وحظر التجمعات العامة

 Ø§Ù„حكومة تفرض حظر التجول الليلي في جميع أنحاء البلاد من الساعة العاشرة مساءاً حتى الساعة السادسة صباحاً. جاء حظر التجول بعد حظر على التجمعات العامة في جميع أنحاء البلاد، تم فرضه في 20 مارس.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 24 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement

Type: order

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Suriname

Countrywide Lockdown

Suriname imposed a shelter-in-place policy, announcing a total lockdown from June 4 until June 12, prohibiting nonessential movement, installing curfews for essential businesses like bakeries, and prohibiting travel by car or taxi with more than two people at a time. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 3 Jun 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement

Type: order

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Suriname

State of Emergency

The government act declares an exceptional emergency status in connection with the COVID-19 pandemic, under Article 72(c) of the Constitution. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 9 Apr 2020

Issue(s): Emergency

Type: order

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Sweden

Ordinance No. 114 Banning the Holding of Public Gatherings and Events

The ordinance prohibits events and assemblies larger than 50 people "for the time being," on account of the epidemic, and allows local officials to restrict smaller gatherings as well. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 12 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly

Type: regulation

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Switzerland

Regulation No. 2 on Measures to Combat the Corona Virus

As amended, the regulation, issued under the Epidemics Act, prohibits any gatherings of 5 or more people in public areas. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 13 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly

Type: regulation

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Switzerland

Regulation on Measures to Combat the Corona Virus

The regulation, issued under the Epidemics Act, prohibits public and private events of 1,000 or more people. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 28 Feb 2020

Issue(s): Assembly

Type: regulation

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Syria

Election Postponement

Syria postponed parliamentary elections due to COVID-19. The elections, originally scheduled for 13 April 2020, were postponed for the second time, to 19 July 2020.

تأجيل الانتخابات

 Ø£Ø¬Ù‘َلت سوريا الانتخابات البرلمانية بسبب فيروس كورونا المستجد. تم تأجيل الانتخابات، التي كان من المقرر إجراؤها في 13 أبريل 2020ØŒ للمرة الثانية إلى 19 يوليو 2020.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 7 May 2020

Issue(s): Elections

Type: order

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Syria

Ban on Domestic Travel

The government has barred individuals' travel between cities and governorates starting March 29, 2020, until further notice, to combat the spread of coronavirus.

حظر التنقل الداخلي

 Ø­Ø¸Ø±Øª الحكومة تنقل الأفراد بين المدن والمحافظات اعتباراً من 29 مارس 2020 حتى إشعار آخر، وذلك لمكافحة انتشار فيروس كورونا المستجد.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 29 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Movement

Type: order

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Taiwan

Electronic Security Monitoring System

The monitoring system tracks individuals using the GPS on their mobile devices. The system sends warning text messages to quarantined individuals who attempt to leave their homes, as well as to local government officials and the Central Epidemic Command Center. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 18 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Surveillance, Privacy

Type: practice

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Tanzania

Ban on Public Gatherings

The government institutes a 30-day prohibition on public gatherings, including rallies and other political gatherings. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 17 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly

Type: order

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Tanzania

Electronic and Postal Communications (Online Content) Regulations, 2020

This set of regulations was signed in July by the Minister of Information, Culture, Arts and Sports. The regulations apply to all content published online, whether on blogs, public accounts, messaging tools like WhatsApp, live streaming, or otherwise. The regulations prohibit citizens from publishing or sharing information on "the outbreak of a deadly or contagious disease in the country or elsewhere without the approval of the respective authorities," under penalty of a fine of more than US$2,000 and imprisonment of one year. The regulations also prohibit online calls for protests, including any "contents that are involved in planning, organizing, promoting and calling for demonstrations, marches or the like that would lead to public disorder." The regulations, issued just prior to elections in Tanzania, have been criticized as being in violation of Articles 13 and 18 of the Constitution.  

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 17 Jul 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Press Freedom, Expression, Access to Information

Type: regulation

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Tanzania

Suppression of Pandemic Statistics

The government refused to publish official COVID-19 data at least from April 29 until mid-August. The President also declared Tanzania to be free of COVID-19 in early June, despite ongoing reports of the virus being present at least through late July

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 14 Aug 2020

Issue(s): Expression, Access to Information

Type: practice

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Thailand

Declaration of a State of Emergency

The Prime Minister declared a state of emergency in Bangkok, asserting that the escalating protests by pro-democracy groups contravened the law and the constitution, undermined measures to curtail Covid-19, and harmed national security and public safety. The decree prohibits gatherings of more than five people in Bangkok and institutes a nationwide ban on publishing and broadcasting news that could incite fear. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 15 Oct 2020 Lifted on 10/22/2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Press Freedom, Expression

Type: order

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Thailand

Declaration of a State of Emergency

The Prime Minister declared a State of Emergency in Thailand on account of COVID-19. The state of emergency allows the government to restrict travel, declare curfews, and shut down media spreading false information. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 26 Mar 2020 Extended multiple times, through 30 November 2020

Issue(s): Emergency

Type: order

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Thailand

Order Issued under Thailand’s 2005 Decree on Administration in Emergency Situations

The ministerial decree among other things bars “reporting or spreading of information regarding COVID-19 which is untrue and may cause public fear, as well as deliberate distortion of information which causes misunderstanding and hence affects peace and order or public morals.” The decree empowers authorities to order journalists and media groups to “correct” reports deemed incorrect, and allows authorities to pursue charges against journalists under the Computer Crimes Act, which allows for five-year prison penalties for violations. The decree also bans all gatherings. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 25 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Disinformation, Press Freedom, Expression, Access to Information

Type: order

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Thailand

Regulation No. 27 Issued under Section 9 of the Royal Decree on Public Administration in Emergency Situations B.E. 2548 (2005)

The Regulation establishes a curfew for certain provinces, including the Bangkok metropolitan area, between 9:00pm and 4:00am. Gatherings of more than 5 persons are prohibited. The Regulation also "prohibits the spread or dissemination of news (whether by books, publications or any other media) that includes content which may: (i) incite fear among the public, or (ii) intentionally distort information to cause misunderstanding in emergency situations which affects the security of the state or the public's good morals across Thailand." Violators could face a fine of up to THB 40,000 and/or imprisonment up to 2 years.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 12 Jul 2021

Issue(s): Assembly, Disinformation, Press Freedom, Expression, Movement

Type: regulation

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Thailand

Defamation Lawsuits Against Critics

The Prime Minister's office filed defamation legal actions against more than 25 celebrities who had expressed criticism of the government's handling of the pandemic.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 23 Jul 2021

Issue(s): Expression

Type: practice

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Thailand

COVID-19 Fake News Task Force

Thailand Department of Special Investigation (DSI) has set up a center to investigate COVID-19 "fake news". DSI Director-General Korawat Panprapakorn stated that the task force will investigate attempts to spread false news to mislead the public about COVID-19, with a focus on online platforms.  The task force will submit reports to the Justice Ministry.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 3 May 2021

Issue(s): Disinformation

Type: practice

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Thailand

Increased Crackdown on Peaceful Protesters Following Emergency Decree

Since the imposition of the COVID-19 Emergency Decree on March 26, 2020, civil society groups have reported increased detention and harassment of peaceful protestors. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 20 Aug 2020

Issue(s): Assembly

Type: practice

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Thailand

Arrests of Government Critics for Social Distancing Violations

According to rights activists, Thai authorities are using Covid-19 regulations as a pretext to silence critics of the government. Several pro-democracy activists who took part in anti-government rallies were arrested and charged with violating social distancing measures. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 13 May 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Expression

Type: practice

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Thailand

Intimidation of Whistleblowers and Journalists

Whistleblowers and journalists have faced retaliatory lawsuits and intimidation by the Thai authorities after they reported alleged corruption related to hoarding and profiteering of surgical masks and medical supplies. Some medical staff were also threatened with disciplinary action for speaking out about shortages of essential supplies needed to treat Covid-19.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 19 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Press Freedom, Expression, Access to Information

Type: practice

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Timor-Leste

Decree No. 3/2020 Measures for the Implementation of the Declaration of State of Emergency

The Decree imposes a mandatory quarantine for 14 days of those arriving into the country, limits movement around the country, and prohibits gatherings and demonstrations involving more than five people. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 28 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement

Type: order

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Timor-Leste

Decree of the President of the Republic No. 29/2020 Declaring a State of Emergency

The President of Timor-Leste declared a State of Emergency in response to the Covid-19 pandemic, in effect for 30 days. The State of Emergency partially suspends the rights to assembly and freedom of movement.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 27 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency, Movement

Type: order

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Togo

Overnight Curfew

Togolese authorities imposed a 21:00 to 05:00 (local time) overnight curfew in the prefectures of Tchaoudjo, Tchamba, and Sotouboua, citing a spike in COVID-19 cases. Local lockdowns have also been announced for the cities of Sokode, Tchamba, and Adjengre, where the majority of recently confirmed cases of the disease have been concentrated. The announcement came a week after the country's state of emergency due to the COVID-19 pandemic was extended until September 15, 2020.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 25 Aug 2020 Lifted on 10/8/20; re-imposed 12/20/20 until 1/3/21

Issue(s): Movement

Type: order

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Togo

Declaration of National Health Emergency and Curfew

In his address, the president declares a three-month nationwide "health emergency," and a six-month period of exceptional lawmaking authority under Article 86 of the Constitution. A nationwide curfew will also be in place between 7pm and 6am, beginning April 2. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 1 Apr 2020

Issue(s): Emergency, Movement

Type: order

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Togo

Prohibition on Mass Gatherings

The Council of Ministers issued a series of decisions to address the pandemic, including the cancellation of all international events in Togo for three weeks, and a one-month prohibition on gatherings of 100 or more persons. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 16 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly

Type: order

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Tonga

State of Emergency

The government declares a "state of emergency," to prevent the spread of COVID-19. During the state of emergency, foreign nationals are banned from entering Tonga, and Tongan nationals must be quarantined for 14-days upon arrival. Public gatherings are restricted to a maximum of 20 people, and all concerts, sports events, funerals, weddings, and birthdays are banned.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 20 Mar 2020 Last extension on 7/5/2021, until 8/2/2021

Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency

Type: order

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Trinidad and Tobago

State of Emergency and Curfew

The Government of Trinidad and Tobago declared a state of emergency and established a daily curfew between 9:00 p.m. and 5:00 a.m. The state of emergency is in effect for an initial period of 90 days, and may be renewed. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 15 May 2021

Issue(s): Emergency, Movement

Type: order

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Trinidad and Tobago

Public Health [2019 Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCov)] (No. 4) Regulations, 2020

The Regulations prohibit public gatherings of more than 10 people and non-essential work for two weeks. The Regulations have been amended dozens of times to include varying degrees of quarantine and lockdown measures. All amendedments are available here.  

(

See primary source or citation here

)

Introduced 27 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement

Type: order

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Tunisia

Law No. 30 of 2020 Granting Prime Minister Power to Issue Decrees to Combat the Spread of Covid-19

Under Article 70 of Tunisia's Constitution, the Parliament adopted a law allowing the Prime Minister to issue decrees for two months without referring to the legislature. After the two-month period, any decrees issued by the prime minister will be submitted to parliament for ratification.

قانون رقم 30 لسنة 2020 بمنح رئيس الوزراء سلطة إصدار مراسيم لمكافحة انتشار فيروس كورونا المستجد

 Ø¨Ù…وجب المادة 70 من الدستور التونسي، اعتمد البرلمان قانوناً يسمح لرئيس الوزراء بإصدار مراسيم لمدة شهرين دون الرجوع إلى السلطة التشريعية. بعد مدة الشهرين، سيتم عرض أي مراسيم يصدرها رئيس الوزراء على البرلمان للمصادقة عليها.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 4 Apr 2020

Type: law

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Tunisia

Governmental Decree No. 2020-152 of 13 March 2020

The decree declares COVID-19 a communicable disease, governed by Law No. 92-71 of 1992 on communicable diseases, which allows authorities to apply quarantine, prevention, and control measures. The declaration also allows the government to impose criminal sanctions provided for in other legislation, such as Article 312 of the Penal Code, which provides that anyone who contravenes prohibitions and prophylactic or control measures ordered in times of epidemic can be punished with six months' imprisonment and a fine. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 13 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Movement

Type: order

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Tunisia

Contact-Tracing App Raises Privacy Concerns

Tunisia's contact-tracing application tracks individuals' whereabouts in real time, using Bluetooth signals and GPS location data, to detect users who may have had contact with individuals infected with COVID-19. The app uploads location data and personal information including phone numbers to a centralized database that is accessible to the National Observatory of Emerging Diseases. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 19 May 2020

Issue(s): Surveillance, Privacy

Type: practice

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Tunisia

Arrests for Criticism of Government's COVID Response

Authorities have arrested journalists, bloggers, activists, and others after they criticized the government's response to the pandemic. Individuals who have criticized officials' failure to abide by COVID-19 safety measures, or officials' distribution of pandemic aid, have faced various charges under Tunisia's Penal Code, including “causing noises and disturbances to the public” (Article 316); “insulting a civil servant” (Article 125); and “accusing public officials of crimes related to their jobs without furnishing proof of guilt” (Article 128), among others. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 28 Apr 2020

Issue(s): Disinformation, Press Freedom, Expression

Type: practice

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Tunisia

Deployment of Surveillance Robots

The Interior Ministry has deployed surveillance robots in parts of the capital, Tunis, to ensure that individuals are observing the government's lockdown orders. Individuals approached by the robot must present their ID and papers for the police to verify remotely.

 

نشر روبوتات مراقبة

 Ù†Ø´Ø±Øª وزارة الداخلية روبوتات مراقبة في أجزاء من العاصمة تونس للتأكد من التزام الأفراد بأوامر الإغلاق الصادرة عن الحكومة. يجب على الأفراد الذين يقترب منهم الروبوت عرض بطاقات هويتهم وأوراقهم الثبوتية لتتمكن الشرطة من التحقق منها عن بعد.

 

 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 3 Apr 2020

Issue(s): Surveillance, Privacy

Type: practice

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Turkey

Restrictions and Measures Circulars

The Circulars introduce a complex set of restrictions, including weekday and weekend curfews, additional restrictions for persons over 65 years and under 20 years, travel restrictions, suspension of the operation of certain businesses, and other restrictions. Persons may travel in certain circumstances, provided that they obtain permission from the Travel Permit Boards. Officials may also determine the number of people who may enter crowded streets or squares, if necessary. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 30 Nov 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement

Type: order

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Turkey

Coronavirus Measures of the Ministry of Tourism and Culture Letter No. E.48575

The order prohibits CSOs from conducting general assembly meetings online. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 9 Apr 2020

Issue(s): Association, Assembly

Type: order

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Turkey

Curfew Circular on Those 65 and Over and with Chronic Diseases

Turkey's Ministry of Interior restricted citizens over the age of 65, as well as the chronically ill, from leaving their residence. These citizens are prohibited from walking in public areas such as parks and roads, and may not travel by public transport. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 21 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Movement

Type: order

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Turkey

Additional Circular on Coronavirus Measures to Provincial Governorships

The circular postpones all meetings and activities of civil society organizations that bring people physically together, including trainings, workshops, and general assembly meetings. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 16 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Association, Assembly

Type: order

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Turkey

Censorship of Media Criticism

Turkey's Radio and Television Supreme Council (RTUK) has imposed administrative fines on media outlets after those outlets have presented coverage that was critical of the government's handling of the COVID-19 pandemic. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 14 Aug 2020

Issue(s): Press Freedom, Expression, Access to Information

Type: practice

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Turkey

Pandemic Isolation Tracking Project

The Turkish Health Ministry launches the Pandemic Isolation Tracking Project to ensure COVID-19 patients are following quarantine measures. Downloading the app is mandatory for all confirmed coronavirus patients, and those found to be leaving their homes will receive automated text messages and calls.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 9 Apr 2020

Issue(s): Surveillance, Privacy

Type: practice

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Turkey

Arrests for Covid-Related Social Media

According to the Interior Minister, the government has arrested more than 400 people for "provocative" posts about the coronavirus outbreak on social media. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 25 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Disinformation, Expression

Type: practice

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Tuvalu

Proclamation of State of Emergency for the Management and Minimisation of the Impact of Coronavirus (COVID-19)

The government declared a State of Emergency in Tuvalu on account of COVID-19 and banned gatherings of more than 10 people.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 20 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency

Type: order

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Uganda

Nationwide Lockdown

The presidential order declares a 14-day nationwide lockdown beginning April 1, to prevent further spread of the coronavirus. The order prohibits movement by private vehicles and imposes a curfew from 7pm until 6:30am as of March 31. All members of the public, except for individuals transporting cargo, are instructed to stay indoors. The order also prohibits gatherings of more than five people.


Introduced 1 Apr 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement

Type: order

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Uganda

The Public Health (Control of COVID-19) Rules 2020

The presidential directive among other things prohibits educational, religious, and political gatherings including "rallies, conferences, elections" for 32 days.

(

See primary source or citation here

)

Introduced 18 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly

Type: order

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Uganda

Widespread Arrests and Excessive Force in Implementation of Lockdown Measures

Following the government's issuance of lockdown measures to combat COVID-19, the Ugandan police have engaged in widespread arrests and excessive force in response to protest and gatherings. Police have used tear gas and fired ammunition at individuals peacefully protesting the economic impacts of the government's response to the pandemic, as well as the ineffectiveness of the government's response in preventing the virus's spread. Police also arrested 19 LGBTQI+ individuals, purportedly under charges of violating distancing measures, however the individuals were ultimately released and the case against them withdrawn after human rights groups argued that police were using pandemic restrictions to target a minority group. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 31 Aug 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Discrimination

Type: practice

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Ukraine

On Amendments to the Law of Ukraine "On Protection of the Population from Infectious Diseases" on Prevention of the Spread of Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19)

As amended, the law allows for the processing of personal data (health status, place of hospitalization or self-isolation, name, date of birth, place of residence) without consent. The data must be used solely for the purpose of implementing anti-epidemic measures. These provisions are adopted only for the period of quarantine and 30 days after its termination, at which point all such data shall be impersonalized. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 13 Apr 2020

Issue(s): Privacy

Type: law

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Ukraine

Resolution No. 211 on Prevention of the Spread of COVID-19

The government's resolution among other things prohibits individuals from remaining in public places without a facemask or a respirator; congregating in groups of more than two persons (except for exigencies of work and accompanying children); visiting parks, public gardens, and other outdoor areas (except for pets walking with one person and in case of emergency); and being on the streets without ID cards. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 3 Apr 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement

Type: order

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Ukraine

Declaring an Emergency Situation

The Cabinet of Ministers introduces a 30-day "emergency situation regime" throughout Ukraine. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 25 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Emergency

Type: order

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United Arab Emirates

Council of Ministers Decision Regarding the Publication and Exchange of Health Information Related to Communicable Diseases and Epidemics

The decision prohibits any person from publishing or circulating false or misleading health information that is not officially announced or approved by the Ministry of Health. Violations are subject to a fine of up to $5,500.

قرار مجلس الوزراء بشأن نشر وتبادل المعلومات الصحية الخاصة بالأمراض السارية والأوبئة

 ÙŠØ­Ø¸Ø± القرار على أي شخص نشر أو تداول المعلومات الصحية الكاذبة أو المضللة غير المعلنة رسمياً أو غير المعتمدة من قبل وزارة الصحة. يتم فرض غرامات على مخالفة القرار تصل قيمتها إلى 5,500 دولار أمريكي. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 18 Apr 2020

Issue(s): Disinformation, Expression

Type: order

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United Arab Emirates

Cabinet Resolution No. 17 of 2020

The Resolution establishes that no person shall violate the preventative and precautionary measures, instructions, and duties issued by the Ministry of Health & Prevention, Ministry of Interior, or the National Emergency, Crisis, and Disaster Management Authority.

قرار مجلس الوزراء رقم 17 لسنة 2020

 Ø¥ØµØ¯Ø§Ø± لائحة ضبط مخالفات التدابير الاحترازية والتعليمات والواجبات المفروضة للحد من انتشار فيروس كوفيد 19 يحظر القرار على أي شخص مخالفة التدابير الاحترازية والإجراءات الوقائية والتعليمات الصادرة من وزارة الصحة ووقاية المجتمع أو وزارة الداخلية أو الهيئة الوطنية لإدارة الطوارئ والأزمات والكوارث. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 24 Mar 2020

Type: order

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United Arab Emirates

Resolution No. 38 on Penalties to Contain Coronavirus

The Attorney General's resolution stipulates fines for various violations of Cabinet Resolution No. 17 to contain the spread of Covid-19. The penalties include a fine of AED 10,000 ($2,700) for "organizing gatherings or meetings" or "being present in groups at public places or private farms," and a fine of AED 50,000 ($13,600) for failure to comply with quarantine instructions. The resolution provides that repeat violators will be referred to the public prosecutor.

قرار رقم 38 بشأن العقوبات المتعلقة بالحد من انتشار فيروس كورونا المستجد

 ÙŠÙ†Øµ قرار النائب العام على الغرامات المترتبة على المخالفات المختلفة لقرار مجلس الوزراء رقم 17 بشأن الحد من انتشار فيروس كورونا المستجد. تتضمن العقوبات غرامة قدرها 10,000 درهم (2,700 دولار أمريكي) على "تنظيم التجمعات أو الاجتماعات" أو "التواجد في مجموعات في الأماكن العامة أو المزارع الخاصة"ØŒ وغرامة قدرها 50,000 درهم (13,600 دولار أمريكي) لعدم الالتزام بتعليمات الحجر الصحي. ينص القرار على إحالة الأشخاص من ذوي المخالفات المتكررة إلى النائب العام.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 28 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement

Type: regulation

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United Arab Emirates

Action Under the Federal Criminal Law and the Federal Law to Combat Cybercrime

The Attorney General states that UAE security authorities will impose harsh penalties ranging from one to several years in prison for spreading false information about the coronavirus on social media. Individuals will be held accountable according to the articles of the Federal Criminal Law and the Federal Law to Combat Cybercrime. 

إجراءات بموجب القانون الجنائي الاتحادي والقانون الاتحادي لمكافحة الجرائم الإلكترونية

 ÙŠØ´ÙŠØ± النائب العام إلى أن السلطات الأمنية في الإمارات العربية المتحدة ستفرض عقوبات قاسية بالسجن تتراوح بين سنة إلى عدة سنوات لنشر معلومات كاذبة حول فيروس كورونا المستجد على وسائل التواصل الاجتماعي. سيخضع الأفراد للمساءلة وفقاً لمواد القانون الجنائي الاتحادي والقانون الاتحادي لمكافحة الجرائم الإلكترونية

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 16 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Disinformation, Expression

Type: practice

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United Kingdom

Coronavirus Act 2020

The Act gives UK authorities emergency powers to address the coronavirus pandemic, including the power to detain individuals deemed “potentially infectious" and put them in isolation facilities. Individuals who fail to comply may be subject to a £1,000 fine. The Act also enables the government to restrict public events and other gatherings to prevent or otherwise control the spread of coronavirus. Under the Act, surveillance warrants may be in place for up to twelve days before they must be reviewed by judicial authorities, up from the current three days. The Act must be renewed by parliament every six months. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 26 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency, Surveillance, Privacy, Movement

Type: law

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United Kingdom

Nationwide Stay-at-Home Order

Pubs, bars and restaurants are closed with exceptions for takeaway and delivery services. Residents are ordered to stay at home, with exceptions for education, for work that cannot be performed remotely, for exercise and outdoor recreation, for medical needs, for shopping, and for caring for vulnerable people. Non-essential shops are ordered to be closed. The measures are temporary and will end in early December. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 31 Oct 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement

Type: order

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United States

Executive Order 2020-67 (COVID-19)

The Governor of Michigan declared a state of emergency under the Emergency Management Act on March 10, 2020. Under the Act, both houses of the legislature must approve a request to extend the state of emergency, otherwise it expires after 28 days. While both houses agreed to extend the emergency until April 30, they did not agree to extend it further. In response, on April 29, the Governor declared the emergency over, but she then declared a new emergency under the Emergency Management Act one minute later on the same day, thus triggering a new, 28-day period in which the emergency is in effect, but does not require legislative approval. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 29 Apr 2020

Issue(s): Emergency

Type: order

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United States

States of Emergency in All 50 States

As of April 7, 2020, all 50 U.S. states have declared a "state of emergency" in response to COVID-19. 42 states have issued orders urging residents to stay at home. Several of the remaining states have stay at home orders in parts of the state. Washington State was the first to declare a state of emergency on March 2, 2020. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 7 Apr 2020

Issue(s): Emergency, Movement

Type: order

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United States

Banning Spread of False Information in Puerto Rico

The order by Puerto Rico's governor makes it illegal for media outlets or social media accounts “to transmit or allow the transmission” of “false information with the intention of creating confusion, panic, or public hysteria, with regards to any proclamation or executive order declaring an emergency, disaster or curfew.” (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 6 Apr 2020

Issue(s): Disinformation, Press Freedom, Expression, Access to Information

Type: order

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United States

Measures to Contain the Spread of Coronavirus in Puerto Rico

The governor's executive order establishes a lockdown, requiring residents to stay in their homes 24 hours a day, seven days a week between March 31 and April 12, 2020. The order provides limited circumstances for leaving between 5am and 7pm. Under the order, "breaching, disrespecting, or disobeying" the curfew may be punished with up to 6 months in jail and a $5000 fine. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 30 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Movement

Type: order

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United States

Proclamation on Declaring a National Emergency Concerning the Novel Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Outbreak

Declares that the Covid-19 outbreak constitutes a "national emergency." (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 13 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Emergency

Type: order

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United States

Measures Affecting Public Record Requests and Public Meeting Requirements

Federal agencies and state and local governments have issued a mix of policy directives, orders, and laws regarding the impact of COVID-19 on public record requests and public meeting requirements. Some states, such as New Jersey or Washington DC, have suspended deadlines for responding to public record requests for the duration of the emergency. With regard to public meeting requirements, most states have changed their rules to allow for virtual meetings that the public can observe, but some, such as Illinois and Nebraska, have not explicitly provided for public participation in virtual meetings. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 1 Apr 2020

Issue(s): Access to Information

Type: policy

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United States

Delays in Responses to Freedom of Information Requests

A press freedom organization has documented more than 130 instances of state and local officials citing the pandemic as a reason for delayed responses to freedom of information (FOIA) requests. Some state and local jurisdictions have indicated that they plan not to respond to FOIA requests until the end of the pandemic. These delays have adversely impacted coverage of the pandemic, among other issues, as journalists are unable to obtain public records and other government information. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 1 Oct 2020

Issue(s): Press Freedom, Expression, Access to Information

Type: practice

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United States

Arrests for False Information Related to Coronavirus

According to multiple reports, individuals in the state of Texas have been arrested and accused of publishing false reports related to coronavirus. Arrests have been carried out by state police as well as the FBI. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 24 Apr 2020

Issue(s): Disinformation, Expression

Type: practice

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Uruguay

Presidential Order

The Order introduces a series of measures, including the closing of public offices until April 12, except for essential services. In addition, public gatherings are suspended.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 23 Mar 2021

Issue(s): Assembly, Access to Information

Type: order

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Uzbekistan

Amendments to the Criminal Code, Criminal Procedural Code, and Code on Administrative Offenses

The amendments substantially increase liability for violation of medical and quarantine procedures, including criminal liability for distributing "false" information related to quarantine or infectious diseases, with more severe penalties for sharing such information in the media or internet -- up to a $10,000 fine and three years imprisonment. The amendments also introduce administrative fines for failure to use medical masks in public places while in a quarantine regime, amongst other provisions. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 26 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Disinformation, Press Freedom, Expression, Access to Information

Type: law

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Uzbekistan

Decision of the Special Republican Commission

The Decision establishes a strict self-isolation regime for Tashkent, Nukus, and regional centers. Persons older than 65 are prohibited from leaving their homes except to visit pharmacies or grocery stores. The decision also temporarily suspends the organization of private charitable events. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 1 Apr 2020

Issue(s): Movement

Type: order

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Vanuatu

Declaration of a State of Emergency

The government declared a State of Emergency in Vanuatu on account of COVID-19.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 26 Mar 2020 Extended to 12/31/2020

Issue(s): Emergency

Type: order

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Vanuatu

State of Emergency Regulation Order No. 35 of 2020

The Regulation prohibits social gatherings of more than 5 people and "prohibits all media outlets to publish any articles on COVID-19, unless it has the respective authorization by the National Disaster Management Office after consultation with the Ministry of Health." Vanuatu had zero suspected or confirmed cases of COVID-19 when the Regulation went into force. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 26 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Press Freedom, Expression

Type: regulation

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Venezuela

Municipal Health Emergency Decree DDA-003-2021

The Mayor of Pedro María Freites in Anzoátegui state declared a state of health emergency. The decree allows the Mayor to place restrictions on movement and gatherings. The state of health emergency will be in effect for 30 days, and may be extended. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 9 Jun 2021

Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency, Movement

Type: order

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Venezuela

Decree No. 4.161 Declaring a State of Alarm

The presidential decree declares a nationwide "state of alarm" for thirty days, renewable for one month at a time. Among other things, the decree prohibits public gatherings and authorizes the competent authorities to take "all necessary measures" to enforce orders related to quarantine and isolation. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 13 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency

Type: order

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Venezuela

Detention of Migrant Workers and Others Returning Home

Upon arriving home from other countries in Latin America, low-income Venezuelans,  including thousands of migrant workers, have been held under military guard in crowded "confinement centers" for weeks or months, with limited food, water, or masks. Some have been forced to take coronavirus tests and treated with unproven medications, including drugs identified by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and the W.H.O. as having dangerous side effects. By contrast, wealthier Venezuelans arriving in the country can pay a fee to skip the confinement and continue home. The National Armed Forces have referred to those who try to evade the government's border controls as "trocheros" ("bioterrorists"), and encouraged Venezuelans to report them to authorities.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 19 Aug 2020

Issue(s): Discrimination, Movement, Militarization

Type: practice

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Venezuela

Detention, Threats, and Surveillance of Healthcare Workers Who Comment on COVID-19

Venezuelan authorities have arrested and jailed health care workers who spoke out against the government's failure to protect them during the COVID-19 pandemic. From April to August, at least a dozen health workers were detained, including many who were not informed of the charges against them. Other health care workers who have publicly questioned government statistics on the virus say they have been threatened. The governor of one Venezuelan state also announced that he had deployed military counterintelligence to investigate a doctor who had made public statements about possible infections. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 18 Aug 2020

Issue(s): Surveillance, Expression, Access to Information

Type: practice

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Venezuela

Harassment of Individuals Who Question Coronavirus Statistics

President Nicolás Maduro of Venezuela has detained or raided the homes of dozens of journalists, social activists, and opposition leaders for questioning the government’s coronavirus figures. As of early May, at least 10 journalists had been detained and more than two dozen threatened due to their reporting on the pandemic. Journalists have also been denied access to hospitals. In at least one case, a journalist was arrested and detained under the (false) claim that the journalist was infected with COVID-19.

 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 28 Jul 2020

Issue(s): Press Freedom, Expression, Access to Information

Type: practice

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Vietnam

Hanoi Lockdown Order

The government imposed a 15-day lockdown in the capital Hanoi and banned gatherings of more than two people in public. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 24 Jul 2021

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement

Type: order

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Vietnam

Ho Chi Minh City Lockdown Order

Lockdown decree prohibts gatherings of more than two people and imposes a stay at home order. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 9 Jul 2021

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement

Type: order

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Vietnam

Directive 16/TT-TTg on Implementation of Urgent Measures for Prevention and Control of COVID-19

The directive requires people to self-isolate at home. Exceptions include buying food or medicine, working at factories or production facilities trading in essential services and goods, and other emergency cases. The directive also requires that people maintain an interpersonal distance of at least two meters, and not gather in groups of more than two people outside of the workplace, schools, hospitals, and businesses that are allowed to remain open. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 1 Apr 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement

Type: order

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Vietnam

Covid-19 Contact Tracing App Raises Privacy Concerns

Bluezone is a contact-tracing app developed by leading Vietnamese internet security company Bkav and the Ministry of Information and Communications to detect Covid-19 exposure. According to state media, the app has been downloaded more than 20 million times and used to trace 1,400 people suspected of infection. Using GPS or Bluetooth technology, these apps can access users’ personal information as well as the locations and the people they have been in contact with. The MIT Technology Review’s Covid Tracing Tracker has scored Bluezone two stars,  flagging the app for not limiting the use of data it collects and for not indicating whether the data would be destroyed later on.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 20 Apr 2020

Issue(s): Surveillance, Privacy

Type: practice

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Vietnam

Fines Issued Under Decree 15/2020/ND-CP regarding Law on Cyber Security

The Government's Department of Information and Communications has fined hundreds of individuals for posting incorrect information about the coronavirus outbreak. The fines are based on the Law on Cyber Security, which prohibits the spread of "fake news," broadly defined to include not only incorrect or misrepresented information, but also slander, insulting a person's "honor and dignity," and "causing confusion." Decree 15/2020/ND-CP, which came into effect on April 15, imposes fines of VND10m to VND20m ($425-$850) for posting or sharing fake news online. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 15 Apr 2020

Issue(s): Disinformation, Expression

Type: practice

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Yemen

Decree 6 of 2020

The decree temporarily suspends production and distribution of paper copies of government and private newspapers, to combat the spread of the coronavirus.

قرار رقم 6 لسنة 2020

ينص القرار على وقف إصدار وتوزيع النسخ الورقية للصحف الحكومية والخاصة وذلك لمكافحة انتشار فيروس كورونا المستجد.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 25 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Press Freedom, Expression, Access to Information

Type: order

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Zambia

Public Health (Infected Areas) (Coronavirus Disease 2019) Regulations, No. 22 of 2020

The regulations among other things ban public gatherings of more than 5 people. They also provide that health officials may enter private premises without a warrant to "search for a case of Covid-19," and mandate that any individual suspected of having Covid-19 must be reported to health officials. The regulations provide that failure to comply with the regulations or a directive under the regulations shall be punished by a six-month prison sentence and a fine of 2,500 "penalty units." (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 13 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Privacy

Type: regulation

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Zimbabwe

Public Health (COVID-19 Prevention, Containment and Treatment) (National Lockdown) (No. 2) (Amendment) Order, 2021 (No. 16)

The Order amends the Public Health (COVID-19 Prevention, Containment and Treatment) (National Lockdown) (No. 2) Order, SI 200 of 2020 in respect to public gatherings. The Order caps gatherings at 50 persons, and sets a curfew between 22:00 hours and 05:30 hours on the following day. The Order also provides broad discretion to enforcement officers to accept/reject justifications for a person exempted from the regulations: proof "by any other means satisfactory to the enforcement officer."

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 2 Mar 2021

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement

Type: order

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Zimbabwe

Public Health (COVID-19 Prevention, Containment and Treatment) (National Lockdown) (No. 2) (Amendment) Order, 2021 (No. 13)

The Minister of Health and Child Care amended the curfew to begin at 20:00 hours and end at 05:30 hours on the following day. A Level IV lockdown was extended, with revised prohibitions of gatherings (maximum 30 people for funerals; and all gatherings for worship and for public hearings are suspended). 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 15 Feb 2021

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement

Type: order

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Zimbabwe

Public Health (COVID-19 Prevention, Containment and Treatment) (National Lockdown) (No. 2) (Amendment) Order, 2021 (No. 9)

The Minister of Health reduced the number of people permitted to gather from 100 to "no more than 2 in any public place." The curfew was expanded to begin at 18:00hrs and end at 06:00hrs the following day. The country reverted to a Level IV National Lockdown. Gatherings are capped at 30 people for funerals, and there is a complete prohibition of worship and public hearings for 30 days.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 2 Jan 2021

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement

Type: order

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Zimbabwe

SI 2020-101 Public Health (COVID-19 Prevention, Containment and Treatment) (National Lockdown) (Amendment) Order, 2020 (No. 6)

The prohibition on gatherings is extended by one month, and face mask requirements are heightened. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 5 May 2020

Issue(s): Assembly

Type: order

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Zimbabwe

SI 2020-099 Public Health (COVID-19 Prevention, Containment and Treatment) (National Lockdown) (Amendment) Order, 2020 (No. 5)

This order extends the nationwide lockdown for an additional two weeks.  The order also imposes additional restrictions on movement, including a requirement that individuals using public transport must be temperature-tested before boarding. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 2 May 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement

Type: order

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Zimbabwe

SI No. 83 of 2020 on Public Health (COVID-19 Prevention, Containment and Treatment) (National Lockdown) Order

The order imposes a national lockdown for 21 days and prohibits all public gatherings of more than 2 people, with very limited exceptions, on account of the coronavirus pandemic. Anyone who violates the lockdown can be punished with a Level 12 fine and one year's imprisonment. A person found further than 5km from his home may be arrested without a warrant and put in detention, isolation, or quarantine. Any person who publishes or communicates false news about any official involved with enforcing the national lockdown, or about any private individual with the effect of harming the state's enforcement of the lockdown, shall be liable to a penalty of up to a Level 14 fine or 20 years in prison or both.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 30 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Disinformation, Press Freedom, Expression, Access to Information, Movement

Type: order

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Zimbabwe

SI No. 76 of 2020 Declaration of State of Disaster (COVID-19) Notice

The presidential directive declares a "state of disaster" per Section 27(2) of the Civil Protection Act, on account of the coronavirus pandemic. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 17 Mar 2020

Type: order

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Zimbabwe

Public Health (COVID-19 Prevention, Containment and Treatment) (Amendment) Regulations, 2020 (No. 4)

The Regulations suspend the holding of any by-election to fill a casual vacancy in Parliament or in a local authority. Such elections will remain suspended for the duration of the declaration of COVID-19 as a "formidable epidemic disease."

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 30 Sep 2020

Issue(s): Elections

Type: regulation

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Zimbabwe

SI No. 77 of 2020 Public Health (COVID-19 Prevention, Containment and Treatment) Regulations

Promulgated under the Public Health Act, the regulations among other things prohibit all gatherings of over 100 people for any purpose. Enforcement officers can arrest and detain those who refuse to comply. Enforcement officers can also order anyone reasonably suspected of infection to submit to a medical exam, which may include but not be limited to the taking of a bodily sample. The regulations provide for criminal sanctions in case of violation, up to one year's imprisonment and Level 12 fine. The regulations are in place until May 20 and can be extended for one month at a time. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 23 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Privacy

Type: regulation

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Zimbabwe

SI 2020-082 Public Health (COVID-19 Prevention, Containment and Treatment) (Amendment) Regulations, 2020 (No. 1)

Under the amended regulations, the prohibition on gatherings is extended to any gathering of two or more people. The amendments also alter the regulations issued in relation to COVID to include as "enforcement officers" (previously police and municipal police) members of the military.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 23 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Militarization

Type: regulation

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