COVID-19 Civic Freedom Tracker

Keep Civic Space Healthy

This tracker monitors government responses to the pandemic that affect civic freedoms and human rights, focusing on emergency laws. For information about our methodology, click here.

For more information and analysis by region, click here.

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The COVID-19 Civic Freedom Tracker is a collaborative effort by the ICNL, ECNL, and our global network of partners, with generous research support from the UN Special Rapporteur on the promotion and protection of human rights and fundamental freedoms while countering terrorism, Fionnuala D. Ní Aoláin. This is an ongoing effort, and we welcome you to email us at epage@icnl.org and simona@ecnl.org to share additional resources.


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Albania

Normative Act

The normative act, issued by the government without parliamentary approval per Article 101 of Albania's Constitution, provides for fines to be levied on anyone who violates measures to contain the coronavirus. Among other provisions, participating in or organizing a political, social, or cultural gathering is subject to a fine of 5 million lek (40,000 Euros).

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 15 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly

Type: order

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Algeria

Ban on Public Gatherings

President Abdelmadjid Tebboune bans all protests, marches, demonstrations, and other mass gatherings, due to the coronavirus epidemic. His order also closes all public spaces suspected of being a hub for the virus.

حظر التجمعات العامة

 أصدر الرئيس الجزائري أمرا بحظر جميع الاحتجاجات والمسيرات والمظاهرات والتجمعات العامة الأخرى بسبب وباء فيروس كورونا المستجد. أيضاً، يقضي القرار الذي أصدره بإغلاق جميع الأماكن العامة المشتبه في أن تكون بؤرة لانتشار الفيروس.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 17 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly

Type: order

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Angola

Decree No. 82/20 on a State of Exception to Prevent and Control the Covid-19 Pandemic

The presidential decree declares a nationwide "state of exception." The decree grants the government power to limit individuals' freedom of movement and assembly, requisition private property, and forcibly confine people deemed likely to transmit COVID-19.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 27 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency, Movement

Type: order

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Argentina

No. 297 of 2020 on Preventative and Mandatory Social Isolation

The decree mandates that all individuals self-isolate at their homes with minimal exceptions, in order to combat the spread of the coronavirus. The decree also prohibits gatherings of persons for any reason. According to the decree, the Ministry of Security will place permanent controls on public roads and routes as it deems necessary to limit movement and enforce compliance.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 19 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement

Type: order

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Armenia

No. 298-N Declaring a State of Emergency

The decree declares a "state of emergency" to respond to the novel coronavirus, and provides for the suspension of certain constitutional rights and freedoms, including freedom of movement and freedom of peaceful assembly. The decree prohibits public gatherings of more than 20 persons. The decree also provides that any dissemination of information, including online, that refers to the coronavirus or activities carried out by health authorities, may only refer to information provided by a special emergency office under the Prime Minister of Armenia.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 16 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency, Expression, Access to Information, Movement

Type: order

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Aruba

General Regulations on Combating COVID19

The regulations impose a nightly curfew from 9pm to 6am. All non-essential groups are under a shelter-in-place order, and gatherings of 4 or more people are prohibited.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 31 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement

Type: regulation

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Australia

State of Disaster Lockdown Order

On August 2, the Premier of Victoria announced a State of Disaster in regional Victoria. Movement restrictions were imposed on the region, prohibiting residents from leaving their homes for any reason other than shopping for food and essential items, care and caregiving, daily exercise, work and study that could not be done from home, or personal safety. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 2 Aug 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency, Movement

Type: order

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Australia

Public Health (COVID-19 Restrictions on Gathering and Movement) Order 2020

The order by New South Wales requires individuals to stay in their place of residence absence a reasonable excuse, and prohibits public gatherings of more than two people. Exceptions include gatherings of members of the same household, and gatherings essential for work or education.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 30 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement

Type: order

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Australia

Direction under Section 16 of the Public Health Act 1997

The order declares a "state of emergency" in Tasmania and among other things prohibits all gatherings of three or more people, with limited exceptions, in order to combat the spread of Covid-19.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 30 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency

Type: order

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Australia

Emergency Management (Gatherings) (COVID-19) Direction 2020

The order by South Australia's government prohibits gatherings of more than 10 persons, or fewer than 10 if social distance is not maintained. The prohibition applies to public and private, indoor and outdoor spaces, and includes limited exceptions for essential businesses and health care facilities, among others.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 2 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly

Type: order

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Australia

Military Enforcement of State of Disaster

The premier announced that military personnel would be deployed to enforce the curfew and that breaches of curfew could be punished with fines of up to 20,000 Australian dollars (US $14,250). 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 4 Aug 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement, Militarization

Type: practice

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Austria

Measures Against the Convergence of Large Crowds

The decree, issued under Section 15 of the Epidemics Act of 1950, instructs local health authorities to issue regulations that prohibit all large gatherings of 500 people or more outside or 100 people or more inside.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 10 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly

Type: order

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Azerbaijan

Declaration of Special Quarantine Regime

The order prohibits the assembly of more than 10 persons in public places. Persons over the age of 65 are also prohibited from leaving their homes.


Introduced 24 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement

Type: order

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Bahamas, The

Emergency Powers (COVID 19) Order No. 1 of 2020

The Prime Minister's order imposes a nightly curfew from 9pm to 5am, and prohibits most public and private gatherings. Violations are punishable by up to $10,000 and 18 months in prison. The order is in place for an initial 11 days.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 20 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement

Type: order

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Belgium

State of Emergency

The federal government declares a "state of emergency" on account of the coronavirus, and bans gatherings of more than two people.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 12 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency

Type: order

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Belize

Belize Constitution (Emergency Powers) Regulation 2020

The regulation imposes a curfew from 8pm to 5am. Only essential travel is permitted outside of curfew hours, and persons may not loiter, wander, assemble, or otherwise move in any public place and on any public road. Violations are punishable by a fine of $5,000.00 or imprisonment for 2 years.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 1 Apr 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement

Type: regulation

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Benin

Temporary Quarantine

The decree imposes a temporary quarantine, until April 12, around most cities affected by the virus. People within these cities will only be allowed to move for essential reasons (health, food supply). People are advised to minimize their movements within the country. Gatherings of 10 or more people are prohibited.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 30 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement

Type: order

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Benin

Prohibiting Non-Essential Gatherings

The decree prohibits non-essential gatherings indefinitely, and imposes a mandatory quarantine for 14 days of those arriving into the country.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 17 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly

Type: order

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Bolivia

Supreme Decree No. 4200

The decree extends the nationwide lockdown and stipulates additional measures. The Decree prohibits gatherings, and allows one person per residence at a time to leave to acquire essential items. Persons are allowed to leave their residence only during prescribed days and times, as determined by the last digit of their ID number. The Decree also establishes penalities for persons who incite non-compliance, misinform, or cause uncertainty among the population. Violators will be subject to criminal charges for crimes against public health, and can face one to ten years in prison if convicted.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 26 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Disinformation, Expression, Movement

Type: order

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Bolivia

Decree No. 4192 on Prevention and Containment Measures

Among other things, the decree prohibits gatherings of more than 100 persons and imposes a curfew from 5pm to 5am, to combat the spread of coronavirus.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 16 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement

Type: order

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Bosnia and Herzegovina

Order No.12-40-6-148-40/20 of Federal Headquarters for Civic Protection

The order prohibits two or more individuals from moving and standing together in outdoor spaces, and requires 1.5 meters of distance between individuals, on account of Covid-19.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 22 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly

Type: order

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Botswana

No. 30 of 2020 on Public Health (Declaration of Public Health Emergency)

The order declares a "public health emergency," and among other things suspends gatherings of more than 100 people.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 20 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency

Type: order

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Botswana

General Notice No. 128 on Directions for the Prevention of the Spread of COVID-19

Issued under the terms of the Public Health Act, the directions from the Director of Public Health Services restrict movement in and out of the country. The Directions also prohibit gatherings of more than 10 people indefinitely.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 20 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement

Type: order

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Botswana

Emergency (COVID-19) (Amendment) No. 2 Regulations

The regulations empower the Chief Justice to suspend any operations of procedures and timelines in the judiciary's rules. The Chief Justice may also issue directions relating to detention, bail, remand and "take any measures" aimed at addressing or preventing the spread of Covid-19. The regulations further suspend the right to strike and lockout.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 9 Apr 2020

Issue(s): Assembly

Type: regulation

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Botswana

SI 61 of 2020, Emergency Powers (Covid 19) Regulations

The regulations declare a nationwide lockdown and curfew from 8pm to 8am. Violations are punishable by a fine and up to six months' imprisonment. The regulations prohibit gatherings of more than 2 persons, and close all schools and churches. Persons are prohibited from relaying any information to the public about COVID-19 from a source other than the Director of Health Services and the WHO. Persons are also prohibited from publishing any statement with the intention to deceive any other person about COVID-19. Violators face a fine of up to 100,000 Pula ($8,100), imprisonment for up to five years, or both.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 2 Apr 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Disinformation, Expression, Movement

Type: regulation

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Brunei

Prohibition on Mass Gatherings

In order to prevent spread of the virus, Brunei's Ministry of Health banned "mass gatherings," whether organized or spontaneous, including sporting events, weddings, and get-togethers involving large crowds.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 13 May 2020

Issue(s): Assembly

Type: order

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Burkina Faso

State of Health Alert

The Council of Ministers orders a quarantine of the capital Ouagadougou and its surrounding areas. The order prohibits all gatherings in these areas, and travel in and out of these areas is restricted. These new measures have been implemented amid a nationwide curfew from 7pm to 5am.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 27 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement

Type: order

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Burkina Faso

Ban on Public Gatherings

Authorities prohibit all demonstrations and public gatherings until at least April 30.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 12 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly

Type: order

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Cambodia

Law on National Management in the State of Emergency

The law provides the government with broad new powers during a state of emergency. These include: banning meetings and gatherings; restricting people from leaving their homes; mobilizing military forces; surveilling telecommunications "by any means"; banning or restricting news media that may harm "national security" or create confusion about the state of emergency; and other measures that are "suitable and necessary" to respond to the emergency. "Obstructing" the state's response to the emergency, or noncompliance with the response in a way that creates "public chaos," is punishable by up to 5 years in jail and a fine of up to 5 million riels ($1,200). Organizations found culpable of these offenses may be fined up to 1 billion riels ($247,000).

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 10 Apr 2020

Issue(s): Association, Assembly, Emergency, Surveillance, Press Freedom, Expression, Privacy, Access to Information, Movement, Militarization

Type: law

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Cameroon

Government Response Strategy to the Coronavirus Pandemic (Covid-19)

The order among other things indefinitely closes all land, air, and sea borders and suspends entry visas to Cameroon; closes private and public schools; prohibits gatherings of more than 50 people; and provides that private health facilities, hotels, other lodging facilities, vehicles, and specific equipment may be requisitioned as necessary for implementation of the response plan.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 18 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement

Type: order

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Canada

Declaration of an Emergency to Protect the Public

The executive order by the government of Ontario declares an emergency under Section 7.0.1(1) the Emergency Management and Civil Protection Act. Among other things, the order prohibits gatherings of 50 or more people.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 27 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency

Type: order

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Chad

Decree No. 379/PR/2020

The decree announces a state of emergency in select provinces of Chad. The decree empowers local civil and military authorities to prohibit the movement of people and vehicles; to establish protection zones where people are "regulated"; to temporarily close performance halls, bars and meeting areas; to ban meetings "likely to provoke disturbances of public order"; to order nightly home searches; to collect all weapons; to take all measures to ensure control of the press and publications of all types of radio and television broadcasts; and to make arrests. Per the order, this expansion of local authorities' powers ends with the end of the state of emergency.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 26 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency, Press Freedom, Expression, Privacy, Access to Information, Movement, Militarization

Type: order

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Chile

State of Catastrophe

The decree provides for the "constitutional exception" of a "state of catastrophe" for three months, due to the coronavirus. The decree allows the President to take further measures including imposing restrictions on gatherings in public spaces, establishing quarantines or curfews, and limiting individuals' movement. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 18 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency, Movement
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Colombia

Resolution No. 385 Declaring a Health Emergency

The resolution declares a "health emergency" throughout the country until May 30, on account of the coronavirus. Among other things, prohibits large public gatherings, and orders television and radio stations and all other mass media to disseminate information provided by the Health Ministry. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 12 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Press Freedom, Expression, Access to Information
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Comoros

Prohibiting Public Gatherings

Authorities prohibit all demonstrations and public gatherings for at least one month. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 18 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly
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Cote d'Ivoire

State of Emergency

The president declares a "state of emergency," and imposes curfews and internal travel restrictions on account of the coronavirus. Authorities imposed a nationwide curfew with immediate effect between 11pm and 5am local time and banned all non-essential travel between Abidjan, where most COVID-19 cases are reported, and the rest of the country. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 23 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency, Movement
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Croatia

Decision to Restrict Gathering on the Streets and Other Public Places

The decision implements a broad, month-long prohibition on gathering in public places where a large number of people can move, due to the risk of coronavirus transmission. The decision does not define "large number." (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 21 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly
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Croatia

Decision on Measures to Limit social Gatherings, Work in Commerce, Services and the Holding of Sports and Cultural Events

The measures place a 30-day ban on all public events, prohibit the gathering of more than 5 persons in one place, and order the closure of all non-essential businesses. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 19 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly
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Democratic Republic of Congo

Order No. 20/014 Proclaiming a State of Health Emergency to Face the Covid-19 Pandemic

The initial presidential order declares a "state of health emergency" for a period of thirty days. The order bans travel from Kinshasa to provinces, and vice versa. The order also bans gatherings of more than twenty people. Residents are asked to stay home and only to travel as strictly necessary. Religious and sporting services are suspended, and certain public places are closed. The unilateral nature of the order prompted political pushback, and subsequent extensions of the order were subjected to parliamentary approval. 

(See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 24 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency, Movement
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Denmark

No. 158 on Amendment of the Law on Measures Countering Infectious and Other Communicable Diseases

The law further enables the government to ban gatherings of 3 or more people, with certain exemptions including gatherings at private homes and orderinary gatherings at places of work. The law also explicitly exempts opinion-shaping assemblies, including demonstrations and political meetings. The law expires on March 1, 2021. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: law
Date Introduced: 31 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly
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Denmark

No. 133 on Amendment of the Law on Measures Countering Infectious and Other Communicable Diseases

The law enables the government to ban gatherings of 10 or more people, with certain exemptions including gatherings at private homes and ordinary gatherings at places of work. The law also explicitly exempts opinion-shaping assemblies, including demonstrations and political meetings. The law expires on March 1, 2021. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: law
Date Introduced: 12 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly
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Denmark

Executive Order on Prohibition of Major Assemblies and Prohibition of Access to and Restrictions on Certain Premises for Coronavirus Disease Management 2019 (COVID-19)

The order, issued under Law No. 133, prohibits gatherings and events of 10 or more people throughout Denmark starting on March 18, with exemptions including "opinion-shaping assemblies." The order is in effect until April 14. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 18 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly
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Ecuador

No. 1017 Declaring a State of Exception

The decree declares a "state of exception" to respond to the covid-19 pandemic. The decree suspends certain individual rights under the constitution, including the right to association and assembly. The decree also provides for governmental authority to use digital tools to surveil individuals under mandatory isolation or quarantine.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 16 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Association, Assembly, Emergency, Surveillance, Privacy

Type: order

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Egypt

Amendments to Emergency Law 162/1958

The amendments expand the powers of the president and military prosecution during a declared state of emergency. Under the amended Emergency Law, powers available to the president now include the power to: ban private and public gatherings in addition to protests; shut down schools and universities; suspend operations in the private and public sector; and subject anyone returning from outside the country to quarantine. The amendments also allow the president to give military prosecutors preliminary investigation authority over any crimes. Egypt has been in a continuous state of emergency since April 2017, and most recently extended the state of emergency for another three months beginning January 27.

تعديلات على قانون الطوارئ رقم 162 لسنة 1958

 توسع التعديلات من سلطات الرئيس ونطاق المحاكمات العسكرية خلال إعلان حالة الطوارئ. بموجب قانون الطوارئ المعدل، فإن السلطات المتاحة للرئيس الآن تشمل حظر التجمعات الخاصة والعامة بالإضافة إلى الاحتجاجات، إغلاق المدارس والجامعات، ووقف العمل في القطاعين الخاص والعام، وإخضاع أي شخص يعود من خارج البلاد للحجر الصحي. أيضاً، تتيح التعديلات للرئيس منح أعضاء النيابة العامة العسكرية سلطة التحقيق الأولية في أي جرائم. تشهد مصر حالة طوارئ مستمرة منذ أبريل 2017، ومؤخراً تم تمديد حالة الطوارئ لمدة ثلاثة أشهر أخرى بدأت في 27 يناير.

(See primary source or citation here)

Type: law
Date Introduced: 8 May 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency, Militarization
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Egypt

Ban on Public Religious Gatherings

The government bans all gatherings, public iftars, fast-breaking meals, and collective social activities for the holy month of Ramadan.

حظر التجمعات الدينية العامة

 الحكومة تحظر كل التجمعات وموائد الإفطار العامة والوجبات السريعة والأنشطة الاجتماعية الجماعية خلال شهر رمضان المبارك.

(See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 7 Apr 2020
Issue(s): Assembly
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Egypt

Nationwide Curfew and Ban of Public Gatherings

The government's measures impose a curfew from 8pm to 6am, and bans public religious gatherings during Ramadan. Those who do not abide by the measures face fines of up to 4,000 Egyptian pounds ($255) or prison.

حظر تجول في جميع أنحاء البلاد وحظر التجمعات العامة

 تفرض التدابير الحكومية حظر التجول من الساعة الثامنة مساءاً حتى الساعة السادسة صباحاً، وتحظر التجمعات الدينية العامة خلال شهر رمضان. يُعاقب كل من لا يلتزم بهذه التدابير بغرامات تصل إلى 4,000 جنيه مصري (255 دولار أمريكي) أو بالسجن.

(See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 24 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Movement
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El Salvador

Decree-Law No. 594 on Temporal Restrictions on Constitutional Rights to address COVID-19

The decree-law institutes 15-day restrictions on the right to free movement and peaceful assembly. Only meetings for religious, cultural, economic, or sports purposes will be allowed, and only after obtaining prior authorization by public health authorities. These restrictions were extended by subsequent Decree-Law No. 611. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: law
Date Introduced: 15 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Movement
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El Salvador

Decree No. 593 Declaring a State of Emergency

Declares a one-month "state of emergency" due to the Covid-19 pandemic. The measures include allowing for restrictions on individuals' travel and movement within the country, as well as bans on public gatherings. The decree also suspends all administrative and judicial functions deemed non-essential, such as operations for access to public information. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 14 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency, Access to Information, Movement
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Eritrea

Ministry of Health Public Guidelines No.3

Among other limitations, the order prohibits gatherings of ten or more people for any purpose, indefinitely. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 23 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly
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Eswatini

State of Emergency

The King proclaims a "national emergency" on March 17 and a ban on all public and private gatherings of over 50 people. The Ministry of Home Affairs will also create a "control management system" for refugees and asylum seekers. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 17 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency
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Eswatini

The Coronavirus (COVID 19) Regulations, Legal Notice No. 72 of 2020

The Prime Minister, on behalf of the King, imposes additional measures to contain the coronavirus, including a prohibition on gatherings of more than 20 people. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: regulation
Date Introduced: 27 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly
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Ethiopia

State of Emergency

The Regional Council in Tigray declares a State of Emergency on account of the coronavirus. The order prohibits travel within the state, and bans large gatherings. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: law
Date Introduced: 26 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency, Movement
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Ethiopia

Ban on Public Gatherings

The Prime Minister issues a ban on all public gatherings on account of the coronavirus. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 20 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly
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Ethiopia

Regulation 466 to Implement the State of Emergency Proclamation No. 3/2020

The regulation prohibits meetings for religious, government, social, or political purposes in places of worship, public institutions, hotels, meeting halls or any other place. The regulation also prohibits regional or federal officials from giving statements to members of the press about COVID-19, without first obtaining permission from the federal committee or from sub-committees at regional level; exceptions are made for professional commentary on COVID-19 laws, professional medical explanations, or daily press briefings by the Ministry of Health. The regulation also prohibits disseminating information about COVID-19 and related issues that would cause "terror and undue distress among the public." The regulation requires public communication professionals and media outlets to ensure that information, analysis, or programs on COVID-19 are "without exaggeration, appropriate and not prone to cause panic and terror among the public." 

(See primary source or citation here)
Type: regulation
Date Introduced: 20 Apr 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Disinformation, Press Freedom, Expression, Access to Information
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Ethiopia

Regulation No. 3 of 2020 on the Implementation of the State of Emergency Declaration

The Attorney General issued regulations to further define and implement the state of emergency. The regulations prohibit gatherings of more than four people. Under the regulations, spreading information that can cause public confusion or alarm is prohibited. The regulations also require all media professionals to report Covid-related news in a way that is neither exaggerated nor understated, and is not likely to create confusion or alarm. The regulations create a legal duty to report anyone suspected of contracting the virus to the police or Ministry of Health. Violations of these provisions are subject to penalty of up to three years in prison a fine of up to 200,000 Ethiopian Birr ($6,000).

(See primary source or citation here)
Type: regulation
Date Introduced: 8 Apr 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Disinformation, Press Freedom, Expression, Privacy, Access to Information
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Fiji

Ban on Public Gatherings

The Prime Minister states that gatherings of 20 or more individuals are prohibited nationwide, on account of the coronavirus. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 21 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly
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France

Emergency Law No. 2020-290 to Address the Covid-19 Epidemic

The law establishes a "state of health emergency" for two months, under Article 38 of the Constitution, in order to address the Covid-19 epidemic. The state of health emergency allows the Prime Minister to issue decrees restricting individuals' freedom of movement and assembly, and to take "any other regulatory measure" necessary to address the health crisis. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: law
Date Introduced: 22 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency, Movement
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Gabon

Decree Number 00100/PR/PM, Declaring a State of Emergency in the Gabonese Republic

The President of the Republic of Gabon declared a "state of emergency" after consultation with legislative bodies. The state of emergency authorizes the government to take any restrictive measures required to address the COVID-19 pandemic. Following the declaration of the state of emergency, various prohibitions on movement were imposed throughout the country, including a full lockdown in Libreville. Businesses, religious institutions, and schools were closed, and gatherings over 10 people were banned. Refusal to comply with lockdown restrictions was made a criminal offense. 

(See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 10 Apr 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency, Movement
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Gabon

Ban on Public Gatherings

The government prohibits gatherings of more than 30 people on account of the coronavirus. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 16 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly
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Georgia

No. 1 on the Declaration of Emergency

The decree declares a one-month "state of emergency" throughout Georgia to counter the global coronavirus pandemic. Among other things, the decree allows Georgian authorities to restrict any kind of assembly of persons; restrict movement and travel; and establish rules of isolation and quarantine for which individuals and legal entities shall be held liable. Per the decree, failure to comply with the state of emergency will result in a fine; repeat offences will result in imprisonment for up to three years. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 21 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency, Movement
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Germany

Decision by the Chancellor and the Heads of the Federal States of April 15

The decision extends the joint resolutions of March 12 and 22, which ban gatherings and restrict individuals from spending time in public spaces. These provisions will remain in effect until May 3, 2020. In addition, the decision prohibits large events through at least August 31, 2020. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 15 Apr 2020
Issue(s): Assembly
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Germany

Decision by the Chancellor and the Heads of the Federal States of March 22

The decision prohibits individuals from spending time in public spaces with more than one other person from outside that individual's household, and also prohibits celebrations involving groups of people gathering in in public places, apartments, and private facilities. The measures are in place for at least two weeks. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 22 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly
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Germany

Decision by the Chancellor and the Heads of the Federal States of March 12

The decision prohibits events with more than 1,000 participants, to combat the spread of the coronavirus. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 12 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly
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Ghana

Measures Taken to Combat the Coronavirus Pandemic

The president orders a 30-day ban on all public gatherings, and directs the Attorney General to submit to Parliament emergency legislation under Article 21 of the Constitution. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 15 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency
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Ghana

Police Brutality in Enforcing Lockdown

During the early stages of lockdown in Ghana, police reportedly used excessive force in enforcing quarantine measures. In one video, a police officer is seen kicking a man and hitting him with a cane, while he struggles to get away. In another incident, police officers reportedly whipped two people with vehicle fan belts and horsewhips, while denying a nearby journalist access to his camera to record the incident. By April 1, twenty-one complaints had been lodged against police for conduct during lockdown. The police have claimed that the videos are outdated or doctored, and urged the public to ignore them. 

(See primary source or citation here)

Type: practice
Date Introduced: 1 Apr 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Press Freedom, Access to Information, Movement
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Greenland

Law No. 1 of 2020 on Changes to the Parliamentary Regulation Regarding Civilian Measures Against Infectious Diseases

The law enables the government to ban gatherings and events (whether indoor or outdoor, public or private) of 10 or more people. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: law
Date Introduced: 1 Apr 2020
Issue(s): Assembly
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Greenland

Home Rule's Order No. 6 of 2020 on Temporary Restrictions and Prohibition of Assemblies in Nuuk, Sermersooq Municipality

The order, issued under Law No. 1 of 2020, prohibits gatherings and events of 10 or more people in the wider capital area (Nuuk) for 10 days starting on April 3, with exemptions including gatherings of family members in private residences and assemblies with a "political or opinion-shaping purpose." (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 3 Apr 2020
Issue(s): Assembly
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Guatemala

No. 5 on the Declaration of Public Calamity

The decree declares a "state of public calamity" under Article 183 of Guatemala's Constitution, on account of the coronavirus. Under the decree, constitutional freedoms including freedom of movement and the right to peaceful assembly are suspended. The decree prohibits events of any size, as well any social, cultural, and sports activities. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 21 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency, Movement
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Guinea

State of Emergency

The president announces a 30-day nationwide "state of emergency" due to the spread of the coronavirus. A nationwide curfew will be in place from 9pm to 5am beginning March 30, and gatherings of over 20 people are prohibited for 14 days (renewable). (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 27 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency, Movement
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Guyana

Lockdown Measures

The Guyanese government implemented a curfew between 8pm and 5am and various other restrictions, including a prohibition on religious gatherings and closure of restaurants and other public gathering spaces. One order was issued on March 27, another on March 29, and another on April 2

(See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 27 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Movement
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Honduras

PCM 021-2020 on Emergency Measures

The emergency decree suspends numerous constitutional guarantees, including freedom of expression, association, assembly, and movement, and provides for emergency measures to address the spread of the coronavirus. These include a prohibition on public or private gatherings of any size, and limitations on individuals' movement. The decree provides that any individual who violates the restrictions on movement shall be arrested. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 15 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Association, Assembly, Emergency, Movement
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Hong Kong

Prevention and Control of Disease (Prohibition on Group Gathering) Regulation

The regulation prohibits gatherings of four or more people in order to combat the Covid-19 epidemic. The prohibition, which provides limited exemptions including for funerals and gatherings of government employees, is in place for 14 days. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: regulation
Date Introduced: 29 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly
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Hungary

Law on Transitional Rules and Health Preparedness related to the Cessation of the State of Danger

The law introduces measures related to the revocation of the "state of danger" in Hungary. However, the law expands the powers of the government during another exceptional state, by authorizing the government to issue wide-ranging decrees without parliamentary approval during a “state of medical crisis.” During such a state, the law authorizes the government to suspend existing laws and restrict fundamental rights such as freedom of movement and assembly. The government may declare a “state of medical crisis” unilaterally, based on the recommendation of a government-appointed medical officer; the “state of medical crisis” can last up to six months and may be renewed by government decree. According to critics, the law gives the government expansive leeway to rule with minimal judicial and parliamentary scrutiny for an indefinite period.

(See primary source or citation here)

Type: law
Date Introduced: 17 Jun 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency, Movement
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Iceland

Expanding a Ban on Assemblies in Iceland

The government's order, issued under the Act on Health Security and Communicable Diseases No. 19/1997, prohibits gatherings of 20 or more people throughout Iceland (including both public and private spaces) starting on March 23. A previous 100-person limit had been in place since 16 March. The ban will remain in force until May 4, 2020 and may be extended. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 23 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly
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India

Order No. 40-3/2020-D on Measures to be Taken by States and Union Territories to Contain Covid-19

The order among other things provides for a 21-day ban on all social, political, sports, entertainment, academic, cultural, and religious gatherings. Violations of these and other provisions in the order are subject to penalty under Section 51-60 of the Disaster Management Act, and Section 188 of the Penal Code. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 24 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly
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India

The Assam COVID-19 Containment Regulations, 2020

This set of regulations include "geographic quarantine, social distancing measures, enhanced active surveillance, testing all suspected cases, isolation of cases, home quarantine of contacts, [and] social mobilization to follow preventive public health measures." The regulations indicate that house to house surveys are to be used for surveillance purposes. Those surveys involved daily house visits by supervisory officers. Individuals believed to be infected were required to isolate at home until examination by a Rapid Response Team. Surveillance teams reported their activities daily to a central authority. All non-essential services were shut down. Containment zones were established and restrictions were imposed on movement into and out of containment zones. The regulations also indicated that "rumors and myths are to be strictly controlled by the administration." 

(See primary source or citation here)

Type: regulation
Date Introduced: 31 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Disinformation, Surveillance, Press Freedom, Expression, Privacy, Access to Information, Movement
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India

Arrest of Protesters and Activists

Over a matter of weeks, nearly a dozen prominent activists and potentially dozens of other demonstrators were detained while coronavirus restrictions blocked prisoners' ability to file bail applications and to meet with attorneys. Although the arrests mirrored practices that preceded the virus, the fact that the arrests were conducted during lockdown meant that activists were unable to quickly file responses to charges that human rights groups assert were brought on limited evidence. The arrests have had the effect of controlling dissenters' ability to protest social and political issues.

(See primary source or citation here)

Type: practice
Date Introduced: 19 Jul 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Expression
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India

Dispersal of Sit-in and Destruction of Protest Site

Citing a ban on public gatherings because of the Covid-19 pandemic, police in Delhi broke up a months-long sit-in protest against India's controversial new citizenship law. Police bulldozers destroyed tents and billboards at the protest site. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: practice
Date Introduced: 24 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly
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Indonesia

Regulation of the Minister of Health of the Republic of Indonesia, Number 9 of 2020

This order empowers sub-national leaders of regions impacted by COVID-19 to impose mandatory school and work vacations, restrictions on religious activities, restrictions on activities in public places or facilities, restrictions on social and cultural activities, and restrictions on public transportation. This order also activates the military for combatting COVID-19 domestically.

(See primary source or citation here)

Type: regulation
Date Introduced: 3 Apr 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Movement, Militarization
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Indonesia

Government Regulation of the Republic of Indonesia, Number 21 of 2020

Under certain circumstances, local authorities are empowered to impose "large scale social restrictions," which entail forced academic and work holidays, restrictions on religious activities, and "general" restrictions on other "activities".

(See primary source or citation here)

Type: regulation
Date Introduced: 31 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Movement
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Iraq

Order No. 55 of 2020

The order by Iraq's Ministry of Health imposes a 14-day ban on all public gatherings, to combat the spread of coronavirus.

قرار رقم 55 لسنة 2020

 يفرض القرار الصادر عن وزارة الصحة العراقية حظراً لمدة 14 يوم على جميع التجمعات العامة لمكافحة انتشار فيروس كورونا المستجد.

Type: order
Date Introduced: 26 Feb 2020
Issue(s): Assembly
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Iraq

Arrest of Journalists and Protesters

At least 8 journalists were arrested in Iraqi Kurdistan while covering a protest by public school teachers and government employees who were demanding their salaries. Kurdish officials said that the journalists and 11 protesters were detained for violating the ban on mass gatherings, imposed due to COVID-19.

اعتقال الصحفيين والمتظاهرين

 تم اعتقال ما لا يقل عن 8 صحفيين في كردستان العراق أثناء تغطيتهم لاحتجاج من قبل معلمي المدارس الحكومية وموظفي الحكومة الذين كانوا يطالبون برواتبهم. قال مسؤولون أكراد أن الصحفيين و 11 متظاهراً اعتُقلوا لانتهاكهم الحظر المفروض على التجمعات العامة؛ الذي تم فرضه بسبب فيروس كورونا المستجد (كوفيد-19).

(See primary source or citation here)

Type: practice
Date Introduced: 21 May 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Press Freedom, Expression
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Ireland

Health (Preservation and Protection and other Emergency Measures in the Public Interest) Act 2020

The law authorizes the government to take certain measures in response to the coronavirus, including banning mass gatherings; allowing health officials to detain individuals suspected of carrying COVID19 who are unlikely or unwilling to self-isolate; and allowing the government to restrict movement of people to certain areas. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: law
Date Introduced: 21 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency, Movement
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Italy

Decree No. 33 of 16 May 2020

The decree restricts individuals' freedom of movement to within the same region until May 18, and between different regions until June 3. The assembly of people in spaces open to the public is prohibited. Public events and shows, including cultural, recreational, sporting, and religious events, may only take place when deemed possible by the competent national or local authorities. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 16 May 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Movement
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Italy

Decree of 26 April 2020

The decree stipulates that persons may only make journeys proven to be necessary for work, health, or basic needs. Persons may not travel beyond the region in which they are currently located, except for reasons relating to work, health, or emergency. The decree also prohibits any form of gathering in public or private places. Organized events, activities, or shows, in public or private, are also suspended, including cultural, recreational, sporting, religious events and fairs. The opening of places of worship is conditional on the adoption of distancing measures.

(See primary source or citation here)
Type: order
Date Introduced: 26 Apr 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Movement
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Italy

Decree No. 9 of 2020 Further Urgent Measures to Contain and Manage the Epidemiological Emergency from COVID-19

The decree imposes strict restrictions on individuals' travel and movement nationwide, prohibiting all public and private meetings or other gatherings, and instituting surveillance of individuals who have had contact with confirmed coronavirus cases. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 9 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Surveillance, Privacy, Movement
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Italy

Decree No. 8 Urgent Measures to Contain and Manage the Epidemiological Emergency from Covid-19

The decree empowers the President of the Council of Ministers to take measures to contain the spread of Covid-19 in certain areas of Italy designated as "red zones," including by limiting individuals' travel and movement; prohibiting all public and private meetings or other gatherings; and instituting surveillance of individuals who have had contact with confirmed coronavirus cases. Sanctions for noncompliance include detention for up to 3 months and fines of up to 200 Euros. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 8 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Surveillance, Privacy, Movement
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Jordan

Defence Order No. 16 of 2020

The order prohibits wedding parties, social gatherings, and any other gatherings of more than twenty people. Wakes are prohibited, though outdoor burials are permitted. Electronic bracelets are required for real-time location tracking of quarantined persons. 

(See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 19 Sep 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Surveillance, Privacy
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Kazakhstan

Decision of the State Commission on Ensuring the State of Emergency under President of Kazakhstan

The State Commission approved the decision to strengthen the quarantine regime in the cities of of Nur-Sultan and Almaty. Citizens are restricted from leaving home, with the exception of leaving for food, medicine and employment. The order closes crowded places, including parks, squares, pedestrian streets, promenade, and playgrounds. Restriction of public transport will be phased. Meetings on the streets and in other public places by groups of more than three people (with the exception of family members) are prohibited. The order also bans the movement of minors unaccompanied by adults. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 28 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Movement
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Kazakhstan

Decree No. 285 Declaring a State of Emergency

The decree declares a "state of emergency" for thirty days, on account of the coronavirus pandemic. Among other things, the decree suspends public events, closes the border, and introduces quarantine measures with the participation of relevant military departments.

(See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 16 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency, Movement, Militarization
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Kazakhstan

Decision of the State Commission on Ensuring the State of Emergency

With this decision, the State Comission for ensuring the State of Emergency under the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan decided to impose strict quarantine measures in the cities of Nur-Sultan and Almaty, beginning March 19.

(See primary source or citation here)

Type: regulation
Date Introduced: 17 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Movement
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Kenya

Public (State Curfew) Order, 2020

The order imposes a daily curfew and restrictions on individuals' movement, on account of the coronavirus. Public gatherings are prohibited during curfew period. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 27 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Movement
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Kenya

Ministry of Health Measures

The order suspends all public gatherings and meetings for 30 days. The order also states that Kenyans must not "abuse" social media platforms or spread misinformation that "can cause fear and panic." (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 13 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Disinformation, Expression
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Kenya

Public Health (COVID19 Restriction of Movement of Persons and Related Measures) Rules, 2020

The Public Health Rules prohibit public gatherings except for funerals (which are limited to 15 people). Movement is prohibited in and out of places that the Minister has declared infected areas. Public transport services are required to operate at a limited capacity. 

(See primary source or citation here)
Type: regulation
Date Introduced: 17 Apr 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Movement
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Kenya

Police Brutality in Enforcing Lockdown

Numerous reports indicate that doznes of civilians were killed by Kenyan police during early stages of the COVID-19 lockdown. There are also reports that police used teargas and gunshots without warning at the start of lockdown hours. By April 16, at least 12 deaths had been reported as resulting from police brutality in lockdown enforcement. 

(See primary source or citation here)

Type: practice
Date Introduced: 15 Sep 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Movement
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Kuwait

Ministerial Decision No. 64 of 2020 on Gatherings

The decision bans any type of gathering, whether held in public or private areas. The order penalizes anyone who violates the decision with imprisonment of up to 3 months, in accordance with Decree No. 8 of 1969.

قرار وزاري رقم 64 لسنة 2020 بشأن التجمعات

 يحظر القرار أي نوع من التجمعات سواءً أقيمت في أماكن عامة أو خاصة. و يعاقب أي شخص يخالف القرار بالسجن لمدة تصل إلى 3 أشهر بموجب القانون رقم 8 لسنة 1969.

Type: order
Date Introduced: 18 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly
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Kyrgyzstan

State of Emergency

The order establishes a "state of emergency" for thirty days throughout the Kyrgyz Republic, due to the coronavirus. All public gatherings including rallies, demonstrations, and strikes, are prohibited. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: law
Date Introduced: 22 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency
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Lebanon

State of General Mobilization

The government announces a "state of general mobilization" under by Article 2 of Legislative Decree No. 102/1983 (Law on National Defense), on account of the health emergency caused by Covid-19. The decision stipulates that people should stay at home until March 29 (later extended until April 26), and refrain from leaving except for essential reasons. The decree also prohibits all gatherings in all private and public places.

حالة التعبئة العامة

 الحكومة تعلن عن "حالة التعبئة العامة" بموجب المادة 2 من المرسوم التشريعي رقم 102 لسنة 1983 (قانون الدفاع الوطني)، بسبب الطوارئ الصحية الناشئة عن فيروس كورونا المستجد. ينص القرار على وجوب بقاء الأشخاص في منازلهم حتى 29 مارس (تم تمديده لاحقاً حتى 26 أبريل)، والامتناع عن مغادرتها إلا لأسباب جوهرية. يحظر القرار أيضاً جميع التجمعات في جميع الأماكن الخاصة والعامة.

(See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 15 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency, Movement
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Lesotho

Declaration of COVID-19 State of Emergency Order 26 of 2020

The Prime Minister declares a national "state of emergency" and orders a nationwide lockdown, beginning March 30. All social gatherings are prohibited except for funerals where not more than 50 people are expected to attend. The decree also provides that members of the press must "refrain from publishing fake news." (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 18 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Disinformation, Emergency, Press Freedom, Expression, Access to Information, Movement
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Liberia

State of Emergency

President Weah declares a "state of emergency" for three weeks, renewable until the threat posed by COVID-19 subsides. During this period, residents may only leave home for essential journeys, which should be restricted to local communities and be limited to a single person per household for a maximum of one hour. The order tasks the Chief of Staff of the Armed Forces of Liberia and the Chairman of the National Joint Security with enforcing this stay-home policy. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 10 Apr 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency, Movement, Militarization
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Liberia

Declaration of National Health Emergency

The Minister of Health declares a "national health emergency" on account of the coronavirus, and among other things bans all gatherings of more than 10 people. Individuals are required to report those who show signs of COVID-19 to the health and security authorities. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 21 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency, Privacy
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Malawi

State of Disaster

The order establishes a one-month "state of disaster" due to the coronavirus. Among other things, the order prohibits gatherings of more than 100 individuals. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 20 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency
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Malawi

Public Health (Corona Virus Prevention, Containment and Management) Rules

The Minister of Health imposes a nationwide lockdown that prohibits all individual movement, with limited exceptions. Individuals in need of an essential service outside of their locality are required to obtain a permit from their local council. All gatherings of more than ten people are suspended. The Malawi Defence Force, the Malawi Police Service and the Department of Immigration and Citizenship Services will be deployed to ensure strict compliance with these measures. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: regulation
Date Introduced: 8 Apr 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Movement, Militarization
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Malaysia

Restriction of Movement Order 

The order mandates a "complete restriction" of movement and assembly nationwide. The order closes all houses of worship, non-essential businesses, and all government and private premises, except for those providing essential services. The order also bars Malaysians from travelling overseas, and prevents visitors from entering the country. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 18 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Movement
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Mali

Ban on Public Gatherings

The decree indefinitely suspends all meetings, seminars and colloquiums, and bans social, political, cultural gatherings of more than 50 people.

(See primary source or citation here)
Type: order
Date Introduced: 19 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly
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Mauritania

Ban on Gatherings

The Prime Minister and an Interministerial Committee announce their decision to suspend all events and demonstrations, and restrict border crossings. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 14 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly
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Mexico

Preventive Measures to Mitigate and Control Health Risks Caused by COVID-19

The regulation issued by the Ministry of Health suspends "until further notice" mass events and meetings and congregations of more than 100 people. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: regulation
Date Introduced: 24 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly
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Moldova

Parliamentary Decision on the Declaration of State of Emergency

The parliamentary decision declares a "state of emergency," under Article 66 of the Constitution, on account of the coronavirus. Among other things, the declaration provides for a prohibition on meetings, public demonstrations, and other mass events; coordination of mass media related to the crisis; and introduction of "special rules" for telecommunications during the crisis. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: law
Date Introduced: 17 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency, Press Freedom, Expression, Access to Information
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Moldova

Decree No. 7 on the National Emergency Public Health Commission

The decree suspends religious meetings and services, conducted by all congregations, throughout the entire territory of Moldova. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 13 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly
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Moldova

Decree No. 6 of the National Emergency Public Health Commission

The decree prohibits mass demonstrations, events, and rallies of more than 50 persons. The decree also bans persons under self-isolation from leaving the territory of the Republic of Moldova. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 10 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly
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Montenegro

Temporary Measures to Combat the Spread of Coronavirus

Ministry of Health adopts new temporary measures to combat the spread of coronavirus. Among other things the measures ban gatherings in outdoor or indoor public places, and provide that non-compliance is subject to criminal penalty. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 18 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly
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Morocco

Decree No. 2-20-293 Declaring a Health Emergency

The government declares a nationwide "state of health emergency" from March 20 until April 20, unless renewed. The order prohibits the movement of any person outside his home, except in cases of extreme necessity, and prohibits any meeting or gathering of groups of people for any reason.

مرسوم رقم 2-20-293 بشأن إعلان حالة الطوارئ الصحية

 الحكومة تعلن "حالة الطوارئ الصحية" في جميع أنحاء البلاد للفترة من 20 مارس حتى 20 أبريل، ما لم يتم تجديدها. يحظر القرار تنقل أي شخص خارج منزله إلا في حالات الضرورة القصوى، ويحظر أي اجتماع أو تجمع لمجموعات من الناس لأي سبب من الأسباب.

(See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 24 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency, Movement
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Mozambique

State of Emergency

The presidential decree declares a 30-day "state of emergency," along with a Stage 3 level of emergency to contain the spread of the coronavirus outbreak. Public and private gatherings are prohibited, while entertainment establishments and schools are been closed until further notice.

(See primary source or citation here)
Type: order
Date Introduced: 30 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency
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Myanmar

Ministry of Health and Sports Order No. 37/2020

The order, issued under Article 21(b) of the Prevention and Control of Communicable Diseases Law, bans groups of 5 or more people from assembling, including for religious gatherings. The order provides limited exceptions for individuals gathering to carry out essential functions, such as government and factory workers. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: regulation
Date Introduced: 16 Apr 2020
Issue(s): Assembly
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Namibia

State of Emergency COVID 19 Regulations, 2020

The regulations among other provisions impose a two-week nationwide "lockdown" from March 27, with restrictions on individual movement. The regulations also prohibit gatherings of 10 or more people, and provide that anyone who violates the prohibition is subject to a penalty of six months in prison and a N$2,000 fine. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: regulation
Date Introduced: 28 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Movement
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Netherlands

Decision 1666478-203555-PG on Regional Emergencies

The central government’s decision orders all regions of the Netherlands to adopt emergency decrees, under the law on public health. The regional decrees must limit public gatherings, defined as groups of three or more people who are not maintaining 1.5 meters of distance between them. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 23 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency
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Netherlands

Emergency COVID-19 Safety Ordinance for Amsterdam-Amstelland Region

The emergency ordinance prohibits organizing or participating in meetings, through June 1, to combat the spread of Covid-19. The ordinance provides exceptions including for governmental meetings, funerals and weddings, and religious meetings, as long as participants maintain 1.5 meters of distance among one another. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: regulation
Date Introduced: 2 Apr 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency
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New Zealand

Section 70(1)(m) Health Act Order on Mandatory Self-Isolation

The order closes all premises other than government offices and essential businesses, and prohibits outdoor congregations of people, whether in public or private spaces. The order remains in effect "until further notice." (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 25 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly
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Nigeria

Ban on Gatherings

The government of Niger State issued an order banning gatherings of more than 50 people, indefinitely, to combat the spread of COVID-19. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: law
Date Introduced: 18 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly
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Nigeria

Prohibition on Mass Gatherings

The Presidential Task Force on countering the coronavirus threat reiterates a ban on gatherings of 50 or more people. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 23 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly
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Nigeria

Arrest of Peaceful Protestors

Security forces arrested 62 anti-government protesters in two locations on August 5, for breaching social distancing rules. Police also used teargas to disperse the demonstrations. 

(See primary source or citation here)

Type: practice
Date Introduced: 5 Aug 2020
Issue(s): Assembly
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North Macedonia

Decision on Measures to Prevent the Introduction and Spread of Coronavirus

Among other things, the new measures include a prohibition on indoor or outdoor gatherings of any size, and provide for criminal penalties in case of violation. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: law
Date Introduced: 13 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly
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North Macedonia

Measures and Recommendations from the 25th, 26th, and 28th Session of the Government

The measures impose a ban on movement from 9pm-5am during the week, and from 4pm-5am during the weekend, with exceptions for emergencies. The measures also ban the movement of persons older than 67 from 11am-5am. Gatherings of groups larger than 5 people in public places and spaces are also prohibited. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 21 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Movement
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Oman

National Lockdown Order

The Supreme Committee for Dealing with COVID-19 issued an order preventing movement and closing all public places and shops between July 25, 2020 and August 8, 2020, between the hours of 7:00 PM and 6:00 AM.

(See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 25 Jul 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Movement
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Oman

Supreme Covid-19 Control Committee Decision

The Committee decision prohibits all Ramadan gatherings, such as iftar meals and barbecues, at mosques or in any other public place. The Committee also bans social, sports, cultural and recreational activities, and extends the lockdown of Muscat Governorate through May 8.

قرار اللجنة العليا للتعامل مع كوفيد-19

 ينص قرار اللجنة على حظر كل التجمعات الرمضانية، مثل وجبات الإفطار وحفلات الشواء، في المساجد أو في أي مكان عام آخر. كما يحظر قرار اللجنة الأنشطة الاجتماعية والرياضية والثقافية والترفيهية، ويمدد إغلاق محافظة مسقط حتى 8 مايو.

(See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 20 Apr 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Movement
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Oman

Suspension of Newspapers and Ban on Gatherings

The Supreme Committee for Dealing with COVID-19 orders all newspapers, magazines, and other publications to cease printing, and prohibits the circulation and sale of imported newspapers, magazines, and publications as well. The order also bans gatherings of any kind in public places, and provides that violators will be sanctioned.

وقف إصدار الصحف وحظر التجمعات

 اللجنة العليا للتعامل مع كوفيد-19 تصدر قراراً بوقف طباعة جميع الصحف والمجلات والمنشورات الأخرى، وتحظر تداول وبيع الصحف والمجلات والمنشورات الخارجية أيضاً. يحظر القرار أيضاً التجمعات من أي نوع في الأماكن العامة وينص على معاقبة المخالفين.

(See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 22 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Press Freedom, Expression, Access to Information
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Oman

Drones to Limit Social Gatherings

Oman authorities are using drones to patrol areas and limit social gatherings.

طائرات بدون طيار للحد من التجمعات الاجتماعية

السلطات العمانية تستخدم طائرات بدون طيار للقيام بدوريات في المناطق والحد من التجمعات الاجتماعية.

(See primary source or citation here)

Type: practice
Date Introduced: 6 Apr 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Surveillance, Privacy
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Pakistan

Lockdown of Sindh Province

The government of Sindh province issues a complete ban on movement and gatherings of any kind for any purpose at any place, with limited exceptions for gatherings of essential workers.

Type: order
Date Introduced: 22 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Movement
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Pakistan

Arrests of Student Protestors

Students across Pakistan have been protesting against mandatory online classes because they lack reliable internet service and/or cannot afford devices for online learning. Arrests of protesters took place in Balochistan and students were charged with organising a rally during a lockdown. 

(See primary source or citation here)

Type: practice
Date Introduced: 25 Jun 2020
Issue(s): Assembly
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Palestine

Emergency Order No. 1 of 2020

The decision, issued by the Prime Minister pursuant to his emergency powers, among other things restricts individuals' movement among governorates; prohibits gatherings of people including meetings, workshops, conferences, and demonstrations; and closes educational facilities and houses of worship. The decision also prohibits officials from making "any statement" to the press without permission from the Prime Minister. The decision generally prohibits all individuals from "dealing with any rumors or untrustworthy information, and the transferring and broadcasting thereof," and indicates that individuals should obtain information "from official sources only." The Prime Minister's decision orders all national security forces to ensure the decision's implementation, while protecting individuals' rights and freedoms.

(See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 6 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Disinformation, Press Freedom, Expression, Access to Information, Movement, Militarization
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Paraguay

Resolution No. 90 of the Ministry of Public Health and Social Wellbeing

The regulation suspends large public and private gatherings, all events in enclosed spaces, and all educational activities. Noncompliance is subject to sanctions established by Law No. 836/1980, the Sanitary Code. The regulation is in place for 15 days but may be extended. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: regulation
Date Introduced: 10 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly
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Peru

No. 044-2020-PCM Declaring a State of Emergency

The decree declares a "state of emergency" on account of the coronavirus pandemic. The decree suspends individual rights under the Constitution of Peru, including the right to peacefully assemble, the right to freedom of movement, and the requirement that the government must have a warrant before it may arrest someone. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 15 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency, Movement
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Portugal

Decree No. 2-A of 2020 Declaring a State of Emergency

The presidential decree declares a state of emergency to limit the spread of the coronavirus. The measures include significant restrictions on movement throughout the country, and a prohibition on public gatherings. The decree is in place for an initial two weeks, and can be extended. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 18 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency, Movement
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Romania

Military Ordinance no. 3/2020 on Measures to Prevent the Spread of COVID-19

This order by the Minister of the Interior prohibits non-essential travel outside homes. Extra restrictions are placed on people over age 65, though these restrictions do not apply midday, and they permit those over 65 to travel outside time restrictions for "professional interests" and for "agricultural activities." All persons entering the country are required to isolate at home. Local authorities are instructed to keep a database of homeless persons. The order imposes various restrictions on flights and sea vessels crossing national border. The order also expands the scope of responsibilities of the Ministry of Defense by increasing collaboration between the Ministry of Defense, the Ministry of the Interior and border police, and by involving the Ministry of Defense in maintaining domestic public order. The order further indicates that "national security institutions will design communication systems and computer applications, necessary for the Ministry of Internal Affairs, Ministry of Health and local authorities to communicate in real time and permanently with persons quarantined or isolated at home." Additionally, the order indicates that Romanian Police, the Romanian Gendarmerie and the local police are empowered to enforce the stay-at-home order, and it criminalizes non-compliance with the stay-at-home order. 

(See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 24 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Surveillance, Privacy, Movement, Militarization
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Romania

Military Ordinance no. 2/2020 on Measures to Prevent the Spread of COVID-19

This order prohibits gatherings of more than three people who are not cohabitating, and it imposes restrictions on movement outside homes between 10:00 pm and 6:00 am. The order empowers the Romanian Police, the Romanian Gendarmerie, and the local police to take appropriate actions to enforce the order. 

(See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 21 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Movement, Militarization
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Romania

Military Ordinance no. 1/2020 on Measures to Prevent the Spread of COVID-19

This order closes restaurants and suspends cultural, scientific, artistic, religious, sports, entertainment or gambling, spa treatment and personal care activities. It prohibits events being held in public places with more than 100 people, and events hosting 100 people have to meet spacing requirements. The order also indicates that individuals who are placed in quarantine may not leave their homes without permission from the relevant authorities, and the order empowers the Romanian Police, the Romanian Gendarmerie, and the local police to take appropriate actions to enforce the order. 

(See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 18 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Movement, Militarization
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Romania

No. 195 on the Establishment of a State of Emergency in the Territory of Romania

The decree declares a "state of emergency" on account of the coronavirus pandemic. According to the decree, the following rights may be restricted during a state of emergency: freedom of movement, freedom of assembly, privacy, education, private property, and the right to strike. Additionally, the decree provides that the National Authority for Administrative and Regulatory Communications has powers to make "reasoned decisions" to censor online transmission of information related to COVID-19. 

(See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 16 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Disinformation, Emergency, Press Freedom, Expression, Privacy, Access to Information, Movement
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Russia

Decree of Mayor of Moscow № 34-УМ

Pursuant to powers available under the state of high alert, this order suspends various recreational activities, including by closing playgrounds, museums and movie theaters. It also suspends retail activities and provision of face-to-face services. The order imposes self-quarantine and self-reporting requirements, along with social distancing requirements and restrictions on public transportation. All public events are prohibited until April 10, 2020.

(See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 29 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Movement
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Russia

Decree of the Mayor of Moscow No. 26-УМ

The Mayoral decree among other things prohibits gatherings of more than 50 individuals. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 23 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly
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Rwanda

Statement on New Measures to Prevent COVID-19 Coronavirus Transmission

The order closed places of worship, schools, and higher educational institutions. This announcement also ordered that large gatherings be postponed, and that "unnecessary" movement be avoided. 

(See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 14 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Movement
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Samoa

Amended State of Emergency Orders for COVID-19

The order extends Samoa's state of emergency, newly prohibits all international travel, prescribes the operating hours of essential businesses, and prohibits gatherings of 5 or more. The order also sets forth penalties for violations: Failure to comply is subject to a $200 fine and detention for up to 3 months; violators who are convicted of an offense are liable to a fine of up to $10,000 and up to one year in prison. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 18 Apr 2020
Issue(s): Assembly
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Samoa

State of Emergency

The decree establishes a "state of emergency" and closes Samoa's borders. Public gatherings are restricted to no more than five people. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 21 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency
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San Marino

Law-Decree No. 51 Introducing Urgent Measures to Contain and Manage the COVID19-related Emergency (Coronavirus)

The decree shuts down all commercial activities except for pharmacies, food shops, petrol stations and newsagents. All schools are suspended, but farming is allowed to continue. The decree also bans movement out of the state without proper justification and gatherings of any nature. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 14 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Movement
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Senegal

No. 2020-830 Proclaiming a State of Emergency

The presidential decree proclaims a national "state of emergency." Among other things the proclamation imposes curfews and empowers administrative officials to ban public gatherings, close public spaces, and limit travel between different regions. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 23 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency, Movement
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Senegal

Order No. 007782 Relating to the Provisional Ban on Demonstrations or Rallies

The order prohibits all demonstrations or gatherings of people in outdoor or indoor places, for one month. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 14 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly
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Serbia

No. 39 of 2020 Banning Public Indoor Gatherings

The order prohibits public indoor gatherings of more than five people, throughout Serbia, in order to combat the spread of Covid-19. The order provides for limited exceptions, including employees of public institutions. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 21 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly
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Serbia

Restrictions and Prohibitions on Movement of Persons

The order imposes a curfew from 5pm to 5am on weekdays, during which individuals may not leave their homes, and prohibits elderly persons from leaving their homes except for Saturdays from 4pm to 7pm. The order also prohibits groups of two or more people from standing or moving together in a public place. The order exempts essential workers and citizens seeking medical care. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 18 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Movement
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Seychelles

Initial Lockdown Measures

The Seychellois president ordered a nationwide lockdown that began on March 30. Per the government's directives, gatherings of more than four people in public places were prohibited, and shops were closed in the evenings.

(See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 27 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Movement
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Singapore

The COVID-19 (Temporary Measures) Act 2020

Among other things, the law allows the Health Minister to enact "Control Orders" for the purpose of preventing or controlling COVID-19 transmission, including orders to restrict the movement of or contact between people; limiting access to certain places; and prohibiting or restricting participation in any event or gathering in any premises. Failure to comply with the orders may be punished with a fine of up to $10,000, and jail for up to six months. Multiple violations of the rules will result in a doubled penalty. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: law
Date Introduced: 7 Apr 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Movement
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Singapore

The COVID-19 (Temporary Measures) (Control Order) Regulation 2020

The regulations ban gatherings among any individuals who do not live together. Gatherings in public spaces are also prohibited. The regulations further limit the reasons for which people are allowed to leave their homes. Failure to comply with these rules may be punished with a fine of up to $10,000, and jail for up to six months. Multiple violations of the rules will result in a doubled penalty. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: regulation
Date Introduced: 7 Apr 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Movement
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Slovenia

Ordinance on the Temporary Prohibition on Public Gathering

The ordinance temporarily prohibits individuals from gathering at public meetings and other events in public places, in order to contain the spread of the Covid-19 epidemic. The prohibition remains in place until revoked. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: regulation
Date Introduced: 19 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly
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Solomon Islands

Emergency Powers (Covid-19) Regulations 2020

The regulations, issued under the Emergency Powers Act in response to the COVID-19 pandemic, grant the Prime Minister a range of powers, including the power to: (1) temporarily close public spaces or declare public spaces to be emergency zones and restrict the freedoms of movement and assembly in these emergency zones; (2) suspend access to media outlets and online media outlets if these are found to publish and/or disseminate false information that is likely to create public alarm or that constitutes a threat to public peace and safety; (3) suspend any trade union for any duration during the emergency period and deregister any trade union that contravenes an official government Order; and (4) terminate any public servant that publicly criticizes or contradicts the government or its policies. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: regulation
Date Introduced: 26 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Association, Assembly, Disinformation, Press Freedom, Expression, Access to Information, Movement
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South Africa

Disaster Management Regulations of 2020

Among other things, the regulations criminalize making statements intended to deceive another person about any measure taken by the government to address COVID-19. The regulations also prohibit gatherings of more than 100 people. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 18 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Disinformation, Press Freedom, Expression, Access to Information
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South Africa

State of Disaster

The declaration establishes a "state of disaster" under section 27(2) of the Disaster Management Act No. 57 of 2002, due to the coronavirus. The declaration includes a ban on public gatherings of more than 100 people, as well as border and internal travel restrictions. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 15 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency
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South Africa

Repeal and Replacement of Regulations Issued under Sections 27(2) of the Disaster Management Act

The regulations repeals a number of prior orders and regulations issued under the Disaster Management Act, but retain a ban on all public gatherings except at funerals (which are limited to 50 people), workplaces, and gatherings for purchase of commodities. The regulation also provides for a system of contact tracing, and establishes a national COVID-19 Tracing Database. The Database will include the identification and contact information for all persons tested for COVID-19, and the details of known or suspected contacts of any person who tested positive for COVID-19. Within six weeks of the end of the State of Disaster, the Database information must be anonymized; anonymous information may be retained for research and any other information must be destroyed. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: regulation
Date Introduced: 29 Apr 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Surveillance, Privacy, Movement
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South Africa

Police Brutality during Lockdown

Social media users have shared videos of police brutality against violators of the lockdown that was imposed on March 26, and authorities are investigating several reports of police torture and murder of citizens accused of breaching the lockdown orders. One man was beaten to death by soldiers while he was sipping alcohol outside his house in alleged violation of lockdown regulations. As of June 1, at least 11 people had died following police action during the lockdown, and more than 230,000 people had been arrested for lockdown violations. 

(See primary source or citation here)

Type: practice
Date Introduced: 1 Jun 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Movement
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South Korea

Infectious Disease Control and Prevention Act No. 14286

The Act, amended following the MERS epidemic in 2016 and again in 2020, gives the minister of health extensive legal authority to collect private data, without a warrant, from individuals already confirmed or suspected of having an infectious disease. The Act also allows authorities to send the whereabouts of certain patients to all smartphones in the patients' vicinity via an emergency text. The Act also allows authorities to “restrict or prohibit performances, assemblies, religious ceremonies, or any other large gathering of people.” (See primary source or citation here)

Type: law
Date Introduced: 2 Dec 2016
Issue(s): Assembly, Surveillance, Privacy
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Sudan

Curfew and Ban on Public Gatherings

The government imposes a nighttime curfew nationwide from 10pm to 6am. The curfew followed a nationwide ban on mass gatherings, instituted on March 20.

حظر التجول وحظر التجمعات العامة

 الحكومة تفرض حظر التجول الليلي في جميع أنحاء البلاد من الساعة العاشرة مساءاً حتى الساعة السادسة صباحاً. جاء حظر التجول بعد حظر على التجمعات العامة في جميع أنحاء البلاد، تم فرضه في 20 مارس.

(See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 24 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Movement
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Suriname

Countrywide Lockdown

Suriname imposed a shelter-in-place policy, announcing a total lockdown from June 4 until June 12, prohibiting nonessential movement, installing curfews for essential businesses like bakeries, and prohibiting travel by car or taxi with more than two people at a time. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 3 Jun 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Movement
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Sweden

Ordinance No. 114 Banning the Holding of Public Gatherings and Events

The ordinance prohibits events and assemblies larger than 50 people "for the time being," on account of the epidemic, and allows local officials to restrict smaller gatherings as well. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: regulation
Date Introduced: 12 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly
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Switzerland

Regulation No. 2 on Measures to Combat the Corona Virus

As amended, the regulation, issued under the Epidemics Act, prohibits any gatherings of 5 or more people in public areas. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: regulation
Date Introduced: 13 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly
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Switzerland

Regulation on Measures to Combat the Corona Virus

The regulation, issued under the Epidemics Act, prohibits public and private events of 1,000 or more people. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: regulation
Date Introduced: 28 Feb 2020
Issue(s): Assembly
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Tanzania

Ban on Public Gatherings

The government institutes a 30-day prohibition on public gatherings, including rallies and other political gatherings. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 17 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly
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Thailand

Order Issued under Thailand’s 2005 Decree on Administration in Emergency Situations

The ministerial decree among other things bars “reporting or spreading of information regarding COVID-19 which is untrue and may cause public fear, as well as deliberate distortion of information which causes misunderstanding and hence affects peace and order or public morals.” The decree empowers authorities to order journalists and media groups to “correct” reports deemed incorrect, and allows authorities to pursue charges against journalists under the Computer Crimes Act, which allows for five-year prison penalties for violations. The decree also bans all gatherings. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 25 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Disinformation, Press Freedom, Expression, Access to Information
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Togo

Prohibition on Mass Gatherings

The Council of Ministers issued a series of decisions to address the pandemic, including the cancellation of all international events in Togo for three weeks, and a one-month prohibition on gatherings of 100 or more persons. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 16 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly
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Tonga

State of Emergency

The government declares a "state of emergency," to prevent the spread of COVID-19. During the state of emergency, foreign nationals are banned from entering Tonga, and Tongan nationals must be quarantined for 14-days upon arrival. Public gatherings are restricted to a maximum of 20 people, and all concerts, sports events, funerals, weddings, and birthdays are banned. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 20 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency
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Turkey

Coronavirus Measures of the Ministry of Tourism and Culture Letter No. E.48575

The order prohibits CSOs from conducting general assembly meetings online. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 9 Apr 2020
Issue(s): Association, Assembly
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Turkey

Additional Circular on Coronavirus Measures to Provincial Governorships

The circular postpones all meetings and activities of civil society organizations that bring people physically together, including trainings, workshops, and general assembly meetings. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 16 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Association, Assembly
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Uganda

Nationwide Lockdown

The presidential order declares a 14-day nationwide lockdown beginning April 1, to prevent further spread of the coronavirus. The order prohibits movement by private vehicles and imposes a curfew from 7pm until 6:30am as of March 31. All members of the public, except for individuals transporting cargo, are instructed to stay indoors. The order also prohibits gatherings of more than five people.

Type: order
Date Introduced: 1 Apr 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Movement
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Uganda

The Public Health (Control of COVID-19) Rules 2020

The presidential directive among other things prohibits educational, religious, and political gatherings including "rallies, conferences, elections" for 32 days.

(See primary source or citation here)
Type: order
Date Introduced: 18 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly
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Uganda

Widespread Arrests and Excessive Force in Implementation of Lockdown Measures

Following the government's issuance of lockdown measures to combat COVID-19, the Ugandan police have engaged in widespread arrests and excessive force in response to protest and gatherings. Police have used tear gas and fired ammunition at individuals peacefully protesting the economic impacts of the government's response to the pandemic, as well as the ineffectiveness of the government's response in preventing the virus's spread. Police also arrested 19 LGBTQI+ individuals, purportedly under charges of violating distancing measures, however the individuals were ultimately released and the case against them withdrawn after human rights groups argued that police were using pandemic restrictions to target a minority group. 

(See primary source or citation here)

Type: practice
Date Introduced: 31 Aug 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Discrimination
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Ukraine

Resolution No. 211 on Prevention of the Spread of COVID-19

The government's resolution among other things prohibits individuals from remaining in public places without a facemask or a respirator; congregating in groups of more than two persons (except for exigencies of work and accompanying children); visiting parks, public gardens, and other outdoor areas (except for pets walking with one person and in case of emergency); and being on the streets without ID cards. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 3 Apr 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Movement
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United Arab Emirates

Resolution No. 38 on Penalties to Contain Coronavirus

The Attorney General's resolution stipulates fines for various violations of Cabinet Resolution No. 17 to contain the spread of Covid-19. The penalties include a fine of AED 10,000 ($2,700) for "organizing gatherings or meetings" or "being present in groups at public places or private farms," and a fine of AED 50,000 ($13,600) for failure to comply with quarantine instructions. The resolution provides that repeat violators will be referred to the public prosecutor.

قرار رقم 38 بشأن العقوبات المتعلقة بالحد من انتشار فيروس كورونا المستجد

 ينص قرار النائب العام على الغرامات المترتبة على المخالفات المختلفة لقرار مجلس الوزراء رقم 17 بشأن الحد من انتشار فيروس كورونا المستجد. تتضمن العقوبات غرامة قدرها 10,000 درهم (2,700 دولار أمريكي) على "تنظيم التجمعات أو الاجتماعات" أو "التواجد في مجموعات في الأماكن العامة أو المزارع الخاصة"، وغرامة قدرها 50,000 درهم (13,600 دولار أمريكي) لعدم الالتزام بتعليمات الحجر الصحي. ينص القرار على إحالة الأشخاص من ذوي المخالفات المتكررة إلى النائب العام.

(See primary source or citation here)

Type: regulation
Date Introduced: 28 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Movement
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United Kingdom

Coronavirus Act 2020

The Act gives UK authorities emergency powers to address the coronavirus pandemic, including the power to detain individuals deemed “potentially infectious" and put them in isolation facilities. Individuals who fail to comply may be subject to a £1,000 fine. The Act also enables the government to restrict public events and other gatherings to prevent or otherwise control the spread of coronavirus. Under the Act, surveillance warrants may be in place for up to twelve days before they must be reviewed by judicial authorities, up from the current three days. The Act must be renewed by parliament every six months. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: law
Date Introduced: 26 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency, Surveillance, Privacy, Movement
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Venezuela

Decree No. 4.161 Declaring a State of Alarm

The presidential decree declares a nationwide "state of alarm" for thirty days, renewable for one month at a time. Among other things, the decree prohibits public gatherings and authorizes the competent authorities to take "all necessary measures" to enforce orders related to quarantine and isolation. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 13 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency
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Vietnam

Directive 16/TT-TTg on Implementation of Urgent Measures for Prevention and Control of COVID-19

The directive requires people to self-isolate at home. Exceptions include buying food or medicine, working at factories or production facilities trading in essential services and goods, and other emergency cases. The directive also requires that people maintain an interpersonal distance of at least two meters, and not gather in groups of more than two people outside of the workplace, schools, hospitals, and businesses that are allowed to remain open. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 1 Apr 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Movement
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Zambia

Public Health (Infected Areas) (Coronavirus Disease 2019) Regulations, No. 22 of 2020

The regulations among other things ban public gatherings of more than 5 people. They also provide that health officials may enter private premises without a warrant to "search for a case of Covid-19," and mandate that any individual suspected of having Covid-19 must be reported to health officials. The regulations provide that failure to comply with the regulations or a directive under the regulations shall be punished by a six-month prison sentence and a fine of 2,500 "penalty units." (See primary source or citation here)

Type: regulation
Date Introduced: 13 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Privacy
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Zimbabwe

SI 2020-099 Public Health (COVID-19 Prevention, Containment and Treatment) (National Lockdown) (Amendment) Order, 2020 (No. 5)

This order extends the nationwide lockdown for an additional two weeks.  The order also imposes additional restrictions on movement, including a requirement that individuals using public transport must be temperature-tested before boarding. 

(See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 2 May 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Movement
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Zimbabwe

SI No. 83 of 2020 on Public Health (COVID-19 Prevention, Containment and Treatment) (National Lockdown) Order

The order imposes a national lockdown for 21 days and prohibits all public gatherings of more than 2 people, with very limited exceptions, on account of the coronavirus pandemic. Anyone who violates the lockdown can be punished with a Level 12 fine and one year's imprisonment. A person found further than 5km from his home may be arrested without a warrant and put in detention, isolation, or quarantine. Any person who publishes or communicates “false news” about any official involved with enforcing the national lockdown, or about any private individual with the effect of harming the state’s enforcement of the lockdown, shall be liable to a penalty of up to a Level 14 fine or 20 years in prison or both. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 30 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Disinformation, Press Freedom, Expression, Access to Information, Movement
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Zimbabwe

SI No. 77 of 2020 Public Health (COVID-19 Prevention, Containment and Treatment) Regulations

Promulgated under the Public Health Act, the regulations among other things prohibit all gatherings of over 100 people for any purpose. Enforcement officers can arrest and detain those who refuse to comply. Enforcement officers can also order anyone reasonably suspected of infection to submit to a medical exam, which may include but not be limited to the taking of a bodily sample. The regulations provide for criminal sanctions in case of violation, up to one year's imprisonment and Level 12 fine. The regulations are in place until May 20 and can be extended for one month at a time. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: regulation
Date Introduced: 23 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Privacy
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Zimbabwe

SI 2020-082 Public Health (COVID-19 Prevention, Containment and Treatment) (Amendment) Regulations, 2020 (No. 1)

Under the amended regulations, the prohibition on gatherings is extended to any gathering of two or more people. The amendments also alter the regulations issued in relation to COVID to include as "enforcement officers" (previously police and municipal police) members of the military.

(See primary source or citation here)

Type: regulation
Date Introduced: 23 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Militarization
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