COVID-19 Civic Freedom Tracker

Keep Civic Space Healthy

This tracker monitors government responses to the pandemic that affect civic freedoms and human rights, focusing on emergency laws. For information about our methodology, click here.

For more information and analysis by region, click here.

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The COVID-19 Civic Freedom Tracker is a collaborative effort by the ICNL, ECNL, and our global network of partners, with generous research support from the UN Special Rapporteur on the promotion and protection of human rights and fundamental freedoms while countering terrorism, Fionnuala D. Ní Aoláin. This is an ongoing effort, and we welcome you to email us at adeblock@icnl.org and simona@ecnl.org to share additional resources.


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Afghanistan

Movement Restrictions

The Ministry of the Interior announced a ban on recreational activities and indicated that police officers are ordered to "deal seriously" with those in violation. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 17 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Movement

Type: order

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Angola

State of Public Calamity

The state of calamity replaced the previous state of emergency on 26 May. Existing quarantine measures remain in Luanda province and around the Cazengo municipality (Cuanza Norte province). Travel in and out of Luanda and Cazengo remains prohibited and religious activities in these areas are also suspended. Gatherings of more than ten people are prohibited in public spaces, and no more than 15 people may gather in private spaces. Under the quarantine measures, a sanitary cordon can be established preventing the entry and exit of residents whenever the epidemiological situation requires it. In December 2020, all gatherings, including political rallies and protests were prohibited. A special recommendation is needed to move around during curfew hours between 10pm and 5am.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 26 May 2020 Continuously extended since introduction. Currently extended through 6/8/21.

Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency, Movement

Type: order

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Angola

Decree No. 82/20 on a State of Exception to Prevent and Control the Covid-19 Pandemic

The presidential decree declares a nationwide "state of exception." The decree grants the government power to limit individuals' freedom of movement and assembly, requisition private property, and forcibly confine people deemed likely to transmit COVID-19.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 27 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency, Movement

Type: order

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Angola

Police Brutality in Enforcing Lockdown

Angolan police have shot and killed a number of people in the course of enforcing lockdown measures. At least one video has circulated showing police violently assaulting a group of individuals for not complying with quarantine orders. In September 2020, hundreds marched in Angola’s capital to protest against police brutality after a doctor arrested for breaking anti-coronavirus rules died in custody.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 6 Aug 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement

Type: practice

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Argentina

General Prevention Measures Decree 235/2021

The Decree suspends social gatherings of more than 10 people in private homes, and limits general capacity for activities in closed spaces to 50%. In areas of "high epidemiological risk" the Decree suspends activities and social gatherings in closed spaces regardless of the number of people, and limits gatherings in open-air public spaces to no more than 20 individuals. The Decree also restricts movement between midnight and 6 a.m.

The Decree empowers governors to establish additional measures on a "temporary, proportional and reasonable basis."

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 8 Apr 2021

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement

Type: order

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Argentina

No. 297 of 2020 on Preventative and Mandatory Social Isolation

The decree mandates that all individuals self-isolate at their homes with minimal exceptions, in order to combat the spread of the coronavirus. The decree also prohibits gatherings of persons for any reason. According to the decree, the Ministry of Security will place permanent controls on public roads and routes as it deems necessary to limit movement and enforce compliance.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 19 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement

Type: order

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Argentina

Decree No. 260 Declaring a Public Health Emergency

Declares a one-year "public health emergency" under Law No. 27,541, due to the pandemic. 

Argentina extended the public health emergency when it expired in March 2020, until December 31, 2021. The emergency decree recommends travel restrictions to/from affected and higher risk areas, and leaves implementation in the hands of the "competent authorities".

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 12 Mar 2020 Extended through 31 December 2021

Issue(s): Emergency, Movement

Type: order

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Argentina

Restrictive Practices against Journalists, Protest, and Movement

Provincial authorities limited journalists’ ability to cover the situation in Formosa, used excessive force against those protesting COVID-19 measures, and severely restricted the ability of people from Clorinda to leave their city and get health care.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 26 Mar 2021

Issue(s): Assembly, Expression, Movement

Type: practice

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Argentina

Discriminatory Enforcement of COVID-19 Measures against Poor Communities

COVID-19 quarantines and  movement restrictions have been disproportionately enforced against people living in poor communities. Among 40,000 people arrested for violating such measures, most live in impoverished neighborhoods, where residents encounter difficulties complying with stay-at-home orders due to cramped living quarters and the need to work.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 30 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Discrimination, Movement

Type: practice

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Armenia

No. 298-N Declaring a State of Emergency

The decree declares a "state of emergency" to respond to the novel coronavirus, and provides for the suspension of certain constitutional rights and freedoms, including freedom of movement and freedom of peaceful assembly. The decree prohibits public gatherings of more than 20 persons. The decree also provides that any dissemination of information, including online, that refers to the coronavirus or activities carried out by health authorities, may only refer to information provided by a special emergency office under the Prime Minister of Armenia.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 16 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency, Expression, Access to Information, Movement

Type: order

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Aruba

General Regulations on Combating COVID19

The regulations impose a nightly curfew from 9pm to 6am. All non-essential groups are under a shelter-in-place order, and gatherings of 4 or more people are prohibited.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 31 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement

Type: regulation

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Australia

"Snap" Lockdowns

Authorities of New South Wales, Northern Territory, Queensland, South Australia, Victoria and Western Australia have imposed multiple "snap" lockdowns ranging from three days to a week to contain the outbreak.


Introduced 8 Jan 2021 Ongoing

Issue(s): Movement

Type: order

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Australia

State of Disaster Lockdown Order

On August 2, the Premier of Victoria announced a State of Disaster in regional Victoria. Movement restrictions were imposed on the region, prohibiting residents from leaving their homes for any reason other than shopping for food and essential items, care and caregiving, daily exercise, work and study that could not be done from home, or personal safety. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 2 Aug 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency, Movement

Type: order

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Australia

Public Health (COVID-19 Restrictions on Gathering and Movement) Order 2020

The order by New South Wales requires individuals to stay in their place of residence absence a reasonable excuse, and prohibits public gatherings of more than two people. Exceptions include gatherings of members of the same household, and gatherings essential for work or education.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 30 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement

Type: order

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Australia

Military Enforcement of State of Disaster

The premier announced that military personnel would be deployed to enforce the curfew and that breaches of curfew could be punished with fines of up to 20,000 Australian dollars (US $14,250). 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 4 Aug 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement, Militarization

Type: practice

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Austria

COVID-19 Measures Act

The law enables the Government to prohibit access to public places places insofar as this is necessary to prevent the spread of COVID-19.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 16 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Movement

Type: law

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Austria

Order of the Federal Minister for Social Affairs, Health, Nursing and Consumer Protection i

The order, issued under Section 2 of the COVID-19 Measures Act, prohibits people from entering public spaces. Exceptions include activities with the purpose of averting immediate danger to life, limb, or property; caring for or supporting vulnerable people; meeting necessary basic needs of daily life or fulfilling work responsibilities; and walking pets.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 16 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Movement

Type: order

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Azerbaijan

Amendments to the Criminal Code

The amendments increase the penalties for violations of sanitary, hygiene, and quarantine regimes. Under the amended criminal code, violations of the epidemic-related rules that threaten to spread disease may be punished by 3 years’ imprisonment or a fine of 2,500-5,000 Manat (US$1,500-3,000).

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 17 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Movement

Type: law

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Azerbaijan

Decision of the Cabinet of Ministers No. 124 of 2020

The decision introduces an SMS notification system to control individuals' movement. In order to leave their place of residence, persons must send an SMS with their identity information and reason for leaving. A person may leave only after receiving a positive response from the e-Government information system. The response will also indicate the amount of time a person is permitted to be outside of their residence.


Introduced 2 Apr 2020

Issue(s): Surveillance, Privacy, Movement

Type: order

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Azerbaijan

Operational Headquarters under the Cabinet of Ministers on Additional Measures Related to Coronavirus

The order restricts inter-district and inter-city traffic except for the movement of special purpose vehicles. The order also restricts access to all boulevards, parks and recreation areas, and suspends the in-person services of all commercial establishments, except supermarkets, grocery stores and pharmacies.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 29 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Movement

Type: order

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Azerbaijan

Declaration of Special Quarantine Regime

The order prohibits the assembly of more than 10 persons in public places. Persons over the age of 65 are also prohibited from leaving their homes.

(

See primary source or citation here

)

Introduced 24 Mar 2020 Extended through 28 December 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement

Type: order

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Bahamas, The

Emergency Powers (COVID 19) Order No. 1 of 2020

The Prime Minister's order imposes a nightly curfew from 9pm to 5am, and prohibits most public and private gatherings. Violations are punishable by up to $10,000 and 18 months in prison. The order is in place for an initial 11 days.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 20 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement

Type: order

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Bangladesh

Nationwide Lockdown and Army Deployment

The government imposed a strict lockdown including stay at home orders for citizens and the closure of offices and public transportation. The Army was deployed to enforce compliance with the order.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 30 May 2021

Issue(s): Movement, Militarization

Type: order

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Bangladesh

Refugee Camp Lockdown Order

Local administration imposed a lockdown order in five Rohingya refugee camps in southeastern Bangladesh. Movement into or out of the camps was strictly controlled and residents were ordered to stay indoors.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 21 May 2021

Issue(s): Movement

Type: order

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Bangladesh

Under the pretense of preventing the spread of COVID-19 in the city of Cox's Bazar, the government of Bangladesh has intercepted and detained boats carrying hundreds of Rohingya refugees fleeing an ethnically targeted military crackdown in Myanmar. The refugees have been relocated to an uninhabited island off of Bangladesh's southern coast.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 7 May 2020

Issue(s): Discrimination, Movement

Type: practice

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Belarus

Ban on Border Crossing for Citizens of Belarus

Following the adoption of the Resolution of the Council of Ministers No. 624, which  temporarily suspends border crossings to Belarus by land to foreigners, Alexander Lukashenko also ordered border guards to deny citizens of Belarus entry to the country. The ban does not apply to citizens of Belarus travelling back from Russia, due to the two countries' border arrangements.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 5 Nov 2020

Issue(s): Movement

Type: order

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Belarus

Resolution of the Council of Ministers No. 624

The Republic of Belarus temporarily suspended the border crossing for foreign citizens and stateless persons at road, railway and river border crossings. The airports are not affected by this restriction. The restriction to enter the country by land does not apply to foreigners traveling with diplomatic and service passports, foreigners with work permits, citizens of Russian Federation transiting the country and others.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 1 Nov 2020

Issue(s): Movement

Type: order

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Belarus

Decision of the National Public Health Emergency Commission No. 33

The National Public Health Emergency Commission designated "high risk districts". The Decision also introduces nationwide measures, including a ban on gatherings in public places of groups larger than 3 people, prohibition for persons over 63 years of age to leave their homes (unless an exception applies), and a prohibition of organizing activities and events with spectators.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 1 Oct 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement

Type: order

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Belarus

Resolution of the Council of Ministers No. 208

The resolution restricts individuals in self-isolation from leaving their home, with the exception of visiting the nearest grocery store or pharmacy. If leaving the home for those purposes, individuals in self-isolation are required to wear a mask and prevent contact with others. Violations of the self-isolation requirements are punishable by law.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 9 Apr 2020

Issue(s): Movement

Type: order

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Belize

Belize Constitution (Emergency Powers) Regulation 2020

The regulation imposes a curfew from 8pm to 5am. Only essential travel is permitted outside of curfew hours, and persons may not loiter, wander, assemble, or otherwise move in any public place and on any public road. Violations are punishable by a fine of $5,000.00 or imprisonment for 2 years.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 1 Apr 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement

Type: regulation

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Benin

Temporary Quarantine

The decree imposes a temporary quarantine, until April 12, around most cities affected by the virus. People within these cities will only be allowed to move for essential reasons (health, food supply). People are advised to minimize their movements within the country. Gatherings of 10 or more people are prohibited.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 30 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement

Type: order

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Benin

COVID-19 Health Cordon

The Government of Benin establishes a health cordon around 15 municipalities in order to isolate them and contain the spread of COVID-19. Travel in and out of the health cordon zone is prohibited except for emergencies. Within the cordon zone, public transportation is suspended and taxis and motorcycle taxis must abide by strict passenger limits. Bars and nightclubs are closed, gatherings of more than 10 people are banned, and people are required to practice social distancing and wear face masks at all times in public. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 30 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Movement

Type: order

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Bhutan

Nationwide Lockdown

The Government declared a nationwide lockdown, requiring people to stay at home. Violators face a maximum term of imprisonment of three years and a minimum term of one year. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 11 Aug 2020

Issue(s): Movement

Type: order

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Bolivia

Supreme Decree No. 4200

The decree extends the nationwide lockdown and stipulates additional measures. The Decree prohibits gatherings, and allows one person per residence at a time to leave to acquire essential items. Persons are allowed to leave their residence only during prescribed days and times, as determined by the last digit of their ID number. The Decree also establishes penalities for persons who incite non-compliance, misinform, or cause uncertainty among the population. Violators will be subject to criminal charges for crimes against public health, and can face one to ten years in prison if convicted.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 26 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Disinformation, Expression, Movement

Type: order

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Bolivia

Decree No. 4196 Declaring a State of Emergency

The decree declares a "national health emergency" and quarantine throughout Bolivia, due to the presence of the coronavirus. The decree imposes a curfew from 5pm to 5am, with limited exceptions for law enforcement, health workers, and other essential service providers. The decree prohibits all gatherings of people, with no exceptions, and closes Bolivia's borders.


Introduced 17 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Emergency, Movement

Type: order

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Bolivia

Decree No. 4192 on Prevention and Containment Measures

Among other things, the decree prohibits gatherings of more than 100 persons and imposes a curfew from 5pm to 5am, to combat the spread of coronavirus.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 16 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement

Type: order

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Bosnia and Herzegovina

Order No. 01-33-6615/20

The Order limits gatherings (both indoors and outdoors) to maximum 30 people and requires a 2-meter distance between participants. The Order also restricts the movement of people in the entire territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina between the hours of 11:00 p.m. and 5:00 a.m.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 23 Nov 2020 In force for 14 days. This Order repeals Order No. 01-33-6301/20 from 9 November 2020.

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement

Type: order

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Bosnia and Herzegovina

Order of the Federal Headquarters for Civic Protection No. 12-40-6-148-36/1

The order establishes a curfew from 8pm to 5am. Citizens in public spaces are required to abide by protective measures and keep more than 1.5 meters apart from others.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 29 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Movement

Type: order

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Bosnia and Herzegovina

Conclusion of the Emergency Headquarters to Limit and Ban Movement of Persons on the Territory of Republika Srpska No. 05-1/20

The order establishes a curfew from 8pm to 5am in the Republic of Srpska, and places a ban on the movement of people older than 65.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 21 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Movement

Type: order

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Bosnia and Herzegovina

Order of the Federal Headquarters for Civic Protection No. 12-40-6-148-34/20

The order bans the movement of citizens younger than 18 and older than 65.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 20 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Movement

Type: order

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Botswana

General Notice No. 128 on Directions for the Prevention of the Spread of COVID-19

Issued under the terms of the Public Health Act, the directions from the Director of Public Health Services restrict movement in and out of the country. The Directions also prohibit gatherings of more than 10 people indefinitely.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 20 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement

Type: order

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Botswana

Restriction on Movement Extension – G.N. No. 1 of 2021

The President, in accordance with regulation 5 (1) and (4) of the Emergency Powers (COVID-19) Regulations, 2020, extended the restriction on movement. The restrictions on movement apply from 20:00 hours to 04:00 hours daily. A person is required to carry a movement permit (essential services) issued under regulation 7 (1) to travel during periods where movement is restricted.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 4 Jan 2021 Extended to 3/31/2021

Issue(s): Movement

Type: regulation

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Botswana

Directions for the Prevention of the Spread of COVID-19 – G.N. No. 301 of 2020

Issued under the Emergency Powers Act and Emergency Powers (Covid-19) Regulations, the Directions restrict travel, including a ban on international travel and non-essential travel between domestic "COVID Zones". The Directions also impose a lockdown and prohibit gatherings or meetings of more than 50 people. A convenor must obtain a special permit for a meeting across COVID zones. There is also a provision that states, "Information from any other source other than the Director of Health Services and the World Health Organization should not be relied on by the public as credible and correct information."

(

See primary source or citation here

)

Introduced 29 Jul 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Access to Information, Movement

Type: regulation

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Botswana

Restrictions for the Holding of Meetings, Workshops and Conferences – G.N. No. 303 of 2020

The Notice permits the resumption of meetings, workshops and conferences for not more than 50 people. Such events must first be authorized by the Director of Health Services. Participants cannot travel from across "COVID Zones," except for facilitators and convenors with a special permit. For purposes of contact tracing, the host must maintain a register containing the personal details and contact details of all persons accessing the premises. This information shall be open for inspection by the Director of Health Services for the purposes of contact tracing, and by law enforcement in the case of investigation of an offence under the Emergency Powers (COVID-19) Regulations (2020). 

(

See primary source or citation here

)

Introduced 29 Jul 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Privacy, Movement

Type: regulation

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Botswana

SI 61 of 2020, Emergency Powers (Covid 19) Regulations

The regulations declare a nationwide lockdown and curfew from 8pm to 8am. Violations are punishable by a fine and up to six months' imprisonment. The regulations prohibit gatherings of more than 2 persons, and close all schools and churches. Persons are prohibited from relaying any information to the public about COVID-19 from a source other than the Director of Health Services and the WHO. Persons are also prohibited from publishing any statement with the intention to deceive any other person about COVID-19. Violators face a fine of up to 100,000 Pula ($8,100), imprisonment for up to five years, or both.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 2 Apr 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Disinformation, Expression, Movement

Type: regulation

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Brazil

Curfew Order

The city of Rio de Janeiro decreed a nightly curfew and the closure of any type of commercial activity on its beaches for a week due to the advance of the pandemic. New restrictions come into effect between March 4 and March 11, according to the Rio Mayor's Office Official Gazette.

"The permanence of people in the streets, areas and public squares of the municipality between 23:00 and 05:00 hours is prohibited," the text indicated. The Mayor's Office also suspended commerce and the provision of services on beaches, including street vendors, beach bars and handicraft markets.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 4 Mar 2021

Issue(s): Movement

Type: order

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Brazil

Decree No. 12.485

Araraquara, a city in the interior of the state of Sao Paulo, imposed a rigorous 15-day curfew after 12 cases of local transmission of the so-called COVID-19 Brazilian variant.

The measure was announced on 15 February 2021 by the Araraquara Mayor's Office. A fine of up to 6,000 reais (about 1,110 dollars) for those who violate the  decree was set. The circulation of people, bicycles or vehicles is only allowed  for essential services. Only essential shops are allowed to open, but with restricted hours.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 15 Feb 2021

Issue(s): Movement

Type: order

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Bulgaria

Law on Measures and Actions in the State of Emergency

The law among other things prohibits non-essential travel within and outside the country, in order to combat the spread of coronavirus. The law also provides that if individuals violate their quarantine, their mobile phone data may be subject to surveillance. As originally proposed, the law included criminal sanctions for spreading false information about contagious diseases, however this provision was removed before the law's adoption.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 23 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Emergency, Surveillance, Privacy, Movement

Type: law

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Bulgaria

Penal Code Amendments

The law amends Article 255 of Bulgaria's Penal Code to significantly increase the penalty for violating quarantine regulations or other orders related to preventing the spread of contagious disease - from a 300 BGN fine (150 EUR) to three years in prison. If the violation is committed during an epidemic, the amendments increase the penalty from one year to up to five years in prison and a 50,000 BGN fine (25,000 EUR).

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 14 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Movement

Type: law

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Bulgaria

Order of the Minister of Healthcare

The order prohibits persons under 60 from visiting shops or pharmacies between 8:30am and 10:30am. Visits to parks and playgrounds are prohibited, except for walking dogs. The order also limits travel, and allows the government to check the purposes of individuals' travel at established check points.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 20 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Movement

Type: order

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Burkina Faso

State of Sanitary Emergency

The Burkinabe ministerial board declares a "state of sanitary emergency," per Article 66 of Law No. 23/94 on the Public Health Code, and imposes a quarantine in numerous cities where cases of coronavirus have been confirmed as of March 27. It is unclear how long the quarantine will remain in effect. These new measures have been implemented amid a nationwide overnight curfew, ongoing between 7pm to 5am local time since March 21, until further notice.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 27 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Emergency, Movement

Type: law

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Burkina Faso

State of Health Alert

The Council of Ministers orders a quarantine of the capital Ouagadougou and its surrounding areas. The order prohibits all gatherings in these areas, and travel in and out of these areas is restricted. These new measures have been implemented amid a nationwide curfew from 7pm to 5am.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 27 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement

Type: order

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Cambodia

Law on National Management in the State of Emergency

The law provides the government with broad new powers during a state of emergency. These include: banning meetings and gatherings; restricting people from leaving their homes; mobilizing military forces; surveilling telecommunications "by any means"; banning or restricting news media that may harm "national security" or create confusion about the state of emergency; and other measures that are "suitable and necessary" to respond to the emergency. "Obstructing" the state's response to the emergency, or noncompliance with the response in a way that creates "public chaos," is punishable by up to 5 years in jail and a fine of up to 5 million riels ($1,200). Organizations found culpable of these offenses may be fined up to 1 billion riels ($247,000).

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 10 Apr 2020

Issue(s): Association, Assembly, Emergency, Surveillance, Press Freedom, Expression, Privacy, Access to Information, Movement, Militarization

Type: law

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Cambodia

Curfew and Restrictions on Public Gatherings

The Siem Reap Provincial Administration imposed a curfew from 10PM to 4AM and banned public gatherings.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 13 Jun 2021 Extended through 7 August 2021

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement

Type: order

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Cameroon

Government Response Strategy to the Coronavirus Pandemic (Covid-19)

The order among other things indefinitely closes all land, air, and sea borders and suspends entry visas to Cameroon; closes private and public schools; prohibits gatherings of more than 50 people; and provides that private health facilities, hotels, other lodging facilities, vehicles, and specific equipment may be requisitioned as necessary for implementation of the response plan.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 18 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement

Type: order

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Cape Verde

State of Emergency and Curfew

The government declares a nationwide "state of emergency" until April 17, on account of the coronavirus. Measures to be taken include instructing all individuals to remain at home with limited exceptions for essential activities and health care.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 1 Apr 2020

Issue(s): Emergency, Movement

Type: order

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Chad

State of Health Emergency

The President announced an initial 21-day State of Health Emergency which grants the government the power to restrict or prohibit the movement of people and vehicles, quarantine infected individuals, ban public gatherings, and close nonessential businesses. Those who violate COVID-19 measures may face up to three months in prison.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 25 Apr 2020 Extended 5/15/20; 7/17/20; 10/17/20; and 3/11/21 through 9/11/21

Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency, Movement

Type: order

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Chad

Decree No. 379/PR/2020

The decree announces a state of emergency in select provinces of Chad. The decree empowers local civil and military authorities to prohibit the movement of people and vehicles; to establish protection zones where people are "regulated"; to temporarily close performance halls, bars and meeting areas; to ban meetings "likely to provoke disturbances of public order"; to order nightly home searches; to collect all weapons; to take all measures to ensure control of the press and publications of all types of radio and television broadcasts; and to make arrests. Per the order, this expansion of local authorities' powers ends with the end of the state of emergency.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 26 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency, Press Freedom, Expression, Privacy, Access to Information, Movement, Militarization

Type: order

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Chile

Ministerial Border Closure Order

The Ministry of Health confirmed that borders will continue to be closed throughout June 2021. Under the order, only Chilean citizens and legal resident foreigners may enter the country. Nationals and residents in Chile may not travel abroad except in very extraordinary situations, for which they must request a permit from the Carabineros de Chile.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 7 Jun 2021

Issue(s): Movement

Type: order

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Chile

Curfew and Movement Restrictions

The government extended a curfew order to 9:00pm, closed the border, and prohibted non-resident foreigners from entering the country.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 1 Apr 2021

Issue(s): Movement

Type: order

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Chile

State of Catastrophe

The decree provides for the "constitutional exception" of a "state of catastrophe" for three months, due to the coronavirus. The decree allows the President to take further measures including imposing restrictions on gatherings in public spaces, establishing quarantines or curfews, and limiting individuals' movement.

The Chilean Chamber of Deputies approved the extension of the State of Constitutional Exception of Catastrophe until 30 June 2021.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 18 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency, Movement

Type: order

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China

Lockdown in Nanjing

Authorities in Nanjing imposed a lockdown on account of COVID-19. Residents living in medium-risk areas are required to stay at home.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 21 Jul 2021 Expires 8/4/21

Issue(s): Movement

Type: order

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China

Lockdown in Yunnan Province

Authorities imposed lockdowns in areas of the city of Ruilin and Longchuan County on account of COVID-19. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 7 Jul 2021 Expires 7/16/2021 (Ruilin) and 7/22/2021 (Longchuan County)

Issue(s): Movement

Type: order

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China

Declaration of "Wartime Mode" and Lockdown

Authorities declared a "wartime" mode in Urumqi, the capital of Xinjiang. Authorities ordered lockdown measures, including banning all public gatherings, forbidding residents to leave their housing compounds, and requiring those who needed to leave the city to present a negative COVID-19 test.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 18 Jul 2020 Lifted on 9/1/20

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement

Type: order

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China

Declaration of a "Wartime Emergency Mode" in Beijing District

Beijing officials have placed 29 residential communities under a "wartime emergency mode" after a surge of positive cases in the district. Officials have ordered a lockdown of the district (all neighborhoods of the district will be closed immediately and all residents must stay home).

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 13 Jun 2020 Lifted on 7/3/20

Issue(s): Movement

Type: order

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China

Lockdowns in Hubei Province

On January 23, the central government imposed travel lockdowns on Wuhan and nearby cities in Hubei province, effectively confining an estimated 56 million people. Wuhan authorities also suspended all vehicle traffic, with limited exceptions, in the city center. Many residents in Wuhan expressed difficulties about access to medical care and other life necessities. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 23 Jan 2020

Issue(s): Movement

Type: policy

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China

Secret Detention of Opposition Figures under Pretext of Quarantine

According to rights activists, the Chinese government has detained opposition figures upon being released from prison, under the pretext of quarantining them. "Quarantines" in this context involve detention without families' knowledge, and deprivation of individuals' ability to communicate with the outside world while they are held in secret locations. On one occasion, a woman was held in "quarantine" in a windowless room for more than a month, even though she had been tested and quarantined before her release from prison. On another occasion, a human rights defender was detained in the midst of standard day-to-day activities, interrogated, and "quarantined" in a hotel 500 miles away. Local officials have suggested these types of detentions go even beyond emergency powers granted to the Chinese government under the national emergency law. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 30 Jul 2020

Issue(s): Expression, Movement

Type: practice

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China

Use of Surveillance Cameras to Enforce Quarantine

Local governments in China have been installing surveillance cameras outside the homes of persons under quarantine in several cities. Some people reported that cameras have even been placed inside their homes.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 28 Apr 2020

Issue(s): Surveillance, Privacy, Movement

Type: practice

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Colombia

Decree No. 580

The President of Colombia issued an executive decree mandating individual social distancing, authorizing municipalities with high ICU occupancy rates due to COVID-19 to restrict certain activities and areas, and closing land and river borders with Venezuela through September 1, 2021. The decree extends and modifies earlier decrees issued during the COVID-19 pandemic which contained varying border closure rules. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 31 May 2021 Extends and modifies Decree No. 206 (26 Feb 2021)

Issue(s): Movement

Type: order

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Colombia

No. 457 Instructions Given Under the Health Emergency Generated by the COVID-19 Pandemic

The presidential decree establishes mandatory, preventive isolation measures for 21 days, unless extended. The decree strictly limits individuals' freedom of movement. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 22 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Movement

Type: order

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Cote d'Ivoire

State of Emergency

The president declares a "state of emergency," and imposes curfews and internal travel restrictions on account of the coronavirus. Authorities imposed a nationwide curfew with immediate effect between 11pm and 5am local time and banned all non-essential travel between Abidjan, where most COVID-19 cases are reported, and the rest of the country. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 23 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency, Movement

Type: order

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Croatia

Decision to Prohibit Leaving the Place of One's Residence

The decision prohibits individuals from leaving their place of residence without a special permit, to be issued for very limited cases. The decision is in effect for 30 days. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 23 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Movement

Type: order

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Cuba

Curfew

The government decreed a curfew in Havana and mandatory quarantine for travelers in state centers and hotels. The curfew is in effect between the hours of 9:00 p.m. and 5:00 a.m., and will be maintained "indefinitely". 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 4 Feb 2021

Issue(s): Movement

Type: order

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Cyprus

Decree No. 12 on Measures for Prevention of COVID-19 Spread

The decree prohibits individuals' movement between 9pm and 6am, with exception of people who have a document certifying that their movement is required by their employment. Non-work travel is allowed only once per day, and individuals are required either to have a form that indicates a permissible purpose, or to have sent an SMS to request official permission. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 30 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Movement

Type: order

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Czech Republic

Curfew measures and assembly restrictions

The resolution introduces a daytime curfew with limited exceptions for grocery shopping and outdoor exercise, and a nighttime curfew with exceptions only for essential workers and urgent medical needs. The resolution also limits the freedom of assembly to outdoor areas only and gatherings of up to 100 participants total, in groups of no more than 20 persons.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 30 Oct 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement

Type: order

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Czech Republic

Restrictions on Movement of those Living in Social Service Facilities

The order prohibits individuals living in social service facilities (e.g. senior homes and special care facilities) from leaving the premises of those facilities.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 12 Oct 2020

Issue(s): Discrimination, Movement

Type: order

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Czech Republic

Government Decision to Prohibit the Free Movement of Persons 

The order prohibits the free movement of persons throughout the Czech Republic, with the exception of necessary journeys and activities.


Introduced 15 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Movement

Type: order

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Czech Republic

No. 215 on the Adoption of an Emergency Measure

The decree declares a "state of emergency" for one month under Constitutional Act No. 110/1998, on account of the coronavirus. It prohibits non-essential or work-related travel and orders individuals to remain home and limit contact with others to the extent possible. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 12 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Emergency, Movement

Type: order

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Democratic Republic of Congo

Ministeral Decree No. 25/2020 on Practical Modalities for the Execution of Measures against the Second Wave of the COVID-19 Pandemic

The Ministerial Order introduces a curfew from 21:00 to 05:00, and restricts public gatherings of more than 20 persons. The order states that the new measures will remain in place “until further notice.”

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 17 Dec 2020 Extended until at least 25 March 2021

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement

Type: order

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Democratic Republic of Congo

State of Health Emergency

The presidential decree institutes a one-month "state of health emergency," and a 30-day lockdown and curfew from 8 p.m. to 5 a.m. local time. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 31 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Emergency, Movement

Type: order

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Democratic Republic of Congo

Order No. 20/014 Proclaiming a State of Health Emergency to Face the Covid-19 Pandemic

The initial presidential order declares a "state of health emergency" for a period of thirty days. The order bans travel from Kinshasa to provinces, and vice versa. The order also bans gatherings of more than twenty people. Residents are asked to stay home and only to travel as strictly necessary. Religious and sporting services are suspended, and certain public places are closed. The unilateral nature of the order prompted political pushback, and subsequent extensions of the order were subjected to parliamentary approval. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 24 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency, Movement

Type: order

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Dominican Republic

Decree 135-20 Establishing a Curfew

Under Decree 134-20 declaring a State of Emergency, Decree 135-20 establishes a curfew, prohibiting transit and the movement of people from 8pm to 6am. The Decree charges the Ministry of Defense and the Ministry of Interior and Police with execution of the curfew.


Introduced 20 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Movement

Type: order

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Ecuador

Order No. 1291

The President of Ecuador, Lenín Moreno, declared a state of exception due to public calamity. The Order temporarily suspends the right to exercise the freedom of movement, association, and assembly. The Order includes a lockdown on weekends and a nightly curfew in most of the country. The mobility restrictions will begin on Friday evenings and will end at 5:00 AM on Mondays. From Monday to Thursday there will be a night-time curfew, with exceptions for healthcare, food distribution and strategic sectors. The measures are in force for 28 days from 23 April to 20 May 2021.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 22 Apr 2021

Issue(s): Association, Assembly, Emergency, Movement

Type: order

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Ecuador

Executive Decree 1282

The President of Ecuador, Lenín Moreno, declared State of Exception due to public calamity responding to increasing COVID-19 infections in eight provinces. Executive Decree number 1282 declares a State of Exception in the provinces of Azuay, El Oro, Esmeraldas, Guayas, Loja, Manabí, Pichincha, and Santo Domingo de los Tsáchilas for 30 days. This State of Exception includes a curfew from 2 -9 of April 2021, from 8:00 p.m. to 5:00 a.m. The curfew prohibits circulating on roads and gathering in public spaces. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 2 Apr 2021

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement

Type: order

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Egypt

State of Emergency

The presidential decree declares a "state of emergency" for three months, under Article 154 of Egypt's Constitution. Egypt has been in a near-continuous state of emergency since April 2017, however the most recent declaration cites the "critical security and health situation" as grounds for extension. The declaration reinforces the authority of the armed forces and police to maintain security and save the lives of citizens, and provides that the state may impose restrictions on individuals' movement. The decree also states that violations of emergency orders will be punished with imprisonment.

حالة الطوارئ

 ÙŠÙ†Øµ المرسوم الرئاسي على إعلان "حالة الطوارئ" لمدة ثلاثة أشهر، بموجب المادة 154 من الدستور المصري. تشهد مصر حالة طوارئ شبه مستمرة منذ أبريل 2017ØŒ لكن الإعلان الأخير يشير إلى "الوضع الأمني والصحي الحرج" كأسباب للتمديد. يعزز الإعلان سلطة القوات المسلحة والشرطة في الحفاظ على الأمن وإنقاذ حياة المواطنين، وينص على أنه يجوز للدولة فرض قيود على تنقل الأفراد. ينص المرسوم أيضاً على عقوبة السجن على أي انتهاكات لقرارات الطوارئ.


Introduced 28 Apr 2020

Issue(s): Emergency, Movement, Militarization

Type: order

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Egypt

Nationwide Curfew and Ban of Public Gatherings

The government's measures impose a curfew from 8pm to 6am, and bans public religious gatherings during Ramadan. Those who do not abide by the measures face fines of up to 4,000 Egyptian pounds ($255) or prison.

حظر تجول في جميع أنحاء البلاد وحظر التجمعات العامة

 ØªÙØ±Ø¶ التدابير الحكومية حظر التجول من الساعة الثامنة مساءاً حتى الساعة السادسة صباحاً، وتحظر التجمعات الدينية العامة خلال شهر رمضان. يُعاقب كل من لا يلتزم بهذه التدابير بغرامات تصل إلى 4,000 جنيه مصري (255 دولار أمريكي) أو بالسجن.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 24 Mar 2020 On 14 September 2020 the Supreme Council for Corona Crisis Management announced relaxation of some of the restrictions on public gatherings, including permission for tourism gatherings, funerals, cultural exhibitions, meetings and conferences, certain sport and recreational activities, and childcare centers, all under certain specified conditions.

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement

Type: order

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El Salvador

Decree-Law No. 594 on Temporal Restrictions on Constitutional Rights to address COVID-19

The decree-law institutes 15-day restrictions on the right to free movement and peaceful assembly. Only meetings for religious, cultural, economic, or sports purposes will be allowed, and only after obtaining prior authorization by public health authorities. These restrictions were extended by subsequent Decree-Law No. 611. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 15 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement

Type: law

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El Salvador

Executive Decree No. 12

This decree announces "extraordinary measures of prevention and containment to declare the national territory as an area subject to sanitary control." The order establishes quarantine measures prohibiting movement of any persons outside their homes, with limited exceptions. The order authorizes the police to arrest those in violation and to transport them to "containment centers." The order also authorizes involvement of the military in enforcement of the quarantine. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 15 Mar 2020 For most recent updates: https://covid19.gob.sv/category/noticias/decretos-y-comunicados/

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement, Militarization

Type: order

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El Salvador

Decree No. 593 Declaring a State of Emergency

Declares a one-month "state of emergency" due to the Covid-19 pandemic. The measures include allowing for restrictions on individuals' travel and movement within the country, as well as bans on public gatherings. The decree also suspends all administrative and judicial functions deemed non-essential, such as operations for access to public information. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 14 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency, Access to Information, Movement

Type: order

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El Salvador

Police and Military Abuses in Enforcement of Movement restrictions

Salvadoran police and military have arbitrarily arrested, detained, and beaten hundreds of people for violating COVID-19 lockdown measures, including individuals working in essential services outside their homes. According to complaints to the country's Ombudsperson, dozens of detainees had to sleep in police station parking lots, were denied food and water, and were kept in unsanitary conditions. As of April 13, more than 4,000 detainees were held in overcrowded containment centers, many for violations of quarantine and lockdown orders. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 15 Apr 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement, Militarization

Type: practice

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Equatorial Guinea

Decree No. 42/2020 Declaring a State of Health Alert

The President declared a State of Health Alert, which temporarily suspends all types of demonstrations or gatherings of more than 10 people. Travel abroad is suspended for the duration of the Health Alert, except in cases of force majeure duly verified. All international flights of airlines are temporarily suspended. Airline officials, in collaboration with the emergency services, are required to provide the Ministry of Health and Social Protection with the list of passengers who have entered Equatorial Guinea since 1 February 2020. All travellers from affected countries must remain in quarantine for a period of 14 days and can only leave the premises with the permission of the competent health personnel.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 31 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement

Type: order

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Eritrea

Guidelines from the High Level Task Force on COVID-19

The guidelines among other things require all citizens to stay at home, except those engaged in essential services, for 21 days. Members of a household, not exceeding two at a time, are allowed out to buy essential food items and emergency medical treatment. Rigorous implementation of the measures will be secured by the police and security authorities as well as by neighborhood committees, and punitive legal measures will be taken on any individual in violation. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 1 Apr 2020

Issue(s): Movement

Type: regulation

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Ethiopia

State of Emergency

The Regional Council in Tigray declares a State of Emergency on account of the coronavirus. The order prohibits travel within the state, and bans large gatherings. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 26 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency, Movement

Type: law

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Fiji

Declaration of State of Natural Disaster

On April 16, PM Bainimarama declared a State of Natural Disaster after Fiji's 17th identified case of COVID-19. The declaration extends the quarantine period from 14 to 28 days, and imposes additional lockdowns on new areas. The order prohibits public gatherings and various recreational activities. The PM warned that any person who violates health protection measures would be arrested and charged. The end of the State of Natural Disaster was declared on May 15, 2020. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 16 Apr 2020 15 of May 2020 end of State of Natural Disaster

Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency, Movement

Type: order

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Fiji

Nationwide Curfew

The order establishes a nationwide curfew beginning March 30, from 10pm to 5am, in order to contain the coronavirus pandemic. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 28 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Movement

Type: order

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Fiji

Arrests in Enforcement of Quarantine and Deployment of Military

Hundreds of people have been arrested and charged for breaching laws and regulations on self-isolation, quarantine and movement restrictions. Fiji has also deployed military officers in order to support the government's response to the pandemic. Civil society activists have raised concerns regarding the pattern of widespread arrests in enforcement of lockdown measures and the lack of transparency around potential instances of the use of excessive force. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 21 Apr 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement, Militarization

Type: practice

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France

Emergency Law No. 2020-290 to Address the Covid-19 Epidemic

The law establishes a "state of health emergency", under Article 38 of the Constitution, in order to address the Covid-19 epidemic. The state of health emergency allows the Prime Minister to issue decrees restricting individuals' freedom of movement and assembly, and to take "any other regulatory measure" necessary to address the health crisis. A new state of health emergency, Decree no. 2020-1257, was declared on 14 October 2020. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 22 Mar 2020 Extended through 1 June 2021

Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency, Movement

Type: law

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France

Lockdown Measures

Residents are permitted to leave their homes only for essential purposes, and must be in possesion of an exemption certificate. Updates to COVID-19 restricitons may be found here.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 30 Oct 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement

Type: order

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Gabon

Law No. 001/2020 Amending and Supplementing Certain Provisions of Law No. 11/90 on the State of Emergency

As approved by the National Assembly and Senate, the law defines expanded powers afforded to the Minister of the Interior during a State of Emergency. The order authorizes the Minister of the Interior to impose an array of movement restrictions and containment measures.  

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 25 Apr 2020

Issue(s): Emergency, Movement

Type: law

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Gabon

Decree Number 00100/PR/PM, Declaring a State of Emergency in the Gabonese Republic

The President of the Republic of Gabon declared a "state of emergency" after consultation with legislative bodies. The state of emergency authorizes the government to take any restrictive measures required to address the COVID-19 pandemic. Following the declaration of the state of emergency, various prohibitions on movement were imposed throughout the country, including a full lockdown in Libreville. Businesses, religious institutions, and schools were closed, and gatherings over 10 people were banned. Refusal to comply with lockdown restrictions was made a criminal offense. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 10 Apr 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency, Movement

Type: order

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Gambia

National Curfew

The Gambian government introduced a nationwide curfew due to a rise in COVID-19 cases. The curfew will be in effect from 22:00 to 05:00 (local time). A ban on social gatherings is also in effect and markets are required to close by 14:00. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 5 Aug 2020 Measures relaxed on 9/17/2020

Issue(s): Movement

Type: order

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Gambia

Ban on Public Gatherings

Gambian authorities banned public gatherings and closed nonessential public places. Additionally, all flight passengers arriving in the Gambia are subject to a mandatory 14-day quarantine period in a government designated facility. These measures will be in effect until at least November 2, 2020.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 4 Aug 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement

Type: order

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Georgia

No. 1 on the Declaration of Emergency

The decree declares a one-month "state of emergency" throughout Georgia to counter the global coronavirus pandemic. Among other things, the decree allows Georgian authorities to restrict any kind of assembly of persons; restrict movement and travel; and establish rules of isolation and quarantine for which individuals and legal entities shall be held liable. Per the decree, failure to comply with the state of emergency will result in a fine; repeat offences will result in imprisonment for up to three years. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 21 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency, Movement

Type: order

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Ghana

Restrictions on Gatherings

President Nana Akufo-Addo announced that conferences, weddings, burials, non-contact sport, and political activities will be limited to a maximum of 100 participants. Festivals, sporting events, nightclubs, cinemas, and political rallies will remain banned, and the closure of Ghana's borders has been extended indefinitely.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 5 Jun 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement

Type: order

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Ghana

Additional Measures Taken Under the Imposition of Restrictions Act of 2020

Per presidential order, all individuals in the two major metropolitan regions are required to stay at home, and will only be permitted to leave their homes for essential items such as food, medicine, and water, or to visit the bank and public toilets. The order is in place for at least two weeks. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 31 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Movement

Type: order

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Ghana

Police Brutality in Enforcing Lockdown

During the early stages of lockdown in Ghana, police reportedly used excessive force in enforcing quarantine measures. In one video, a police officer is seen kicking a man and hitting him with a cane, while he struggles to get away. In another incident, police officers reportedly whipped two people with vehicle fan belts and horsewhips, while denying a nearby journalist access to his camera to record the incident. By April 1, twenty-one complaints had been lodged against police for conduct during lockdown. The police have claimed that the videos are outdated or doctored, and urged the public to ignore them. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 1 Apr 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Press Freedom, Access to Information, Movement

Type: practice

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Greece

No. D1a Imposing Temporary Measures to Restrict the Movement of Citizens

The governmental decision prohibits individuals from leaving their homes for non-essential purposes, with limited exceptions, to combat the spread of coronavirus. Individuals who leave their homes must either complete a special form on the government website, send a text to a government hotline, or carry a signed personal declaration with their justification for doing so. Violators are subject to fines of up to 150 euros. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 22 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Movement

Type: order

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Grenada

Emergency Powers (COVID 19) Regulations No. 3

The regulations impose a two-week curfew, confining all persons to their homes except for essential purposes during limited hours. All individuals in isolation must download a mobile surveillance application. Persons shall report their own or any observed flu-like symptoms affecting others to local police. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 6 Apr 2020

Issue(s): Emergency, Surveillance, Privacy, Movement

Type: regulation

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Guatemala

Decrees No. 5 and 6 on the Declaration of Public Calamity

Decree No. 5 declares a "state of public calamity" under Article 183 of Guatemala's Constitution, on account of the coronavirus. Under the decree, constitutional freedoms including freedom of movement and the right to peaceful assembly are suspended. The decree prohibits events of any size, as well any social, cultural, and sports activities. Decree No. 6 amends the restrictions to prohibit movement between 4:00pm until 4:00am for one week. The order calls upon the Guatemalan Army to support enforcement of the lockdown. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 21 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency, Movement, Militarization

Type: order

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Guinea

State of Emergency

The president announces a 30-day nationwide "state of emergency" due to the spread of the coronavirus. A nationwide curfew will be in place from 9pm to 5am beginning March 30, and gatherings of over 20 people are prohibited for 14 days (renewable). (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 27 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency, Movement

Type: order

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Guyana

Lockdown Measures

The Guyanese government implemented a curfew between 8pm and 5am and various other restrictions, including a prohibition on religious gatherings and closure of restaurants and other public gathering spaces. One order was issued on March 27, another on March 29, and another on April 2

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 27 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement

Type: order

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Haiti

Health State of Emergency

Authorities imposed a COVID-19-related health state of emergency. Under the restrictions, a nightly curfew is in effect from 22:00-05:00. Gatherings of more than 10 people are banned.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 25 May 2021 Extended through 29 June 2021

Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency, Movement

Type: order

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Haiti

State of Emergency

The government declares a state of emergency over the coronavirus outbreak, closing Haiti's borders and imposing a nationwide curfew. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 19 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Emergency, Movement

Type: order

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Honduras

Absolute Curfew for the Entire National Territory

On March 20, 2020, an absolute curfew was imposed throughout the country. Information about the extension of the curfew and nationwide COVID-19 data is avialable here

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 20 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement

Type: order

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Honduras

PCM 021-2020 on Emergency Measures

The emergency decree suspends numerous constitutional guarantees, including freedom of expression, association, assembly, and movement, and provides for emergency measures to address the spread of the coronavirus. These include a prohibition on public or private gatherings of any size, and limitations on individuals' movement. The decree provides that any individual who violates the restrictions on movement shall be arrested. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 15 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Association, Assembly, Emergency, Movement

Type: order

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Hungary

Law on Transitional Rules and Health Preparedness related to the Cessation of the State of Danger

The law introduces measures related to the revocation of the "state of danger" in Hungary. However, the law expands the powers of the government during another exceptional state, by authorizing the government to issue wide-ranging decrees without parliamentary approval during a “state of medical crisis.” During such a state, the law authorizes the government to suspend existing laws and restrict fundamental rights such as freedom of movement and assembly. The government may declare a “state of medical crisis” unilaterally, based on the recommendation of a government-appointed medical officer; the “state of medical crisis” can last up to six months and may be renewed by government decree. According to critics, the law gives the government expansive leeway to rule with minimal judicial and parliamentary scrutiny for an indefinite period.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 17 Jun 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency, Movement

Type: law

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Hungary

Government Decree No. 484/2020. (XI. 10.) on the Second Phase of Protective Measures to be Applied in the Event of a State of Danger

The Decree introduces a blanket ban on assemblies in public spaces, establishes a curfew between 8pm and 5am, and imposes heavy fines for violations up to 1,400 EUR (500,000 HUF) for participants of banned protests. The Decrees also allows the military to take part in patrols and monitor compliance with the emergency measures. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 10 Nov 2020 In effect through 11 December 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement, Militarization

Type: order

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India

Curfew & Restrictions on Movement and Public Gatherings

The Kashmir administration imposed a nighttime curfew and restrictions on movement and public gatherings (not more than 3 persons) in Districts of Kashmir Valley, citing COVID-19. The restrictions are in place for two days, ahead of the first anniversary of the revocation of the region's special status.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 3 Aug 2020 In effect through 8/5/20

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement

Type: order

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India

Lockdown Measures

The Kashmir administration imposed a complete lockdown in nine districts of the region, except for Bandipora district. Only agriculture, horticulture, construction activities are permitted. The movement of goods carriers, LPG and oil tankers is also permitted. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 22 Jul 2020 Until 7/27/20

Issue(s): Movement

Type: order

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India

The Assam COVID-19 Containment Regulations, 2020

This set of regulations include "geographic quarantine, social distancing measures, enhanced active surveillance, testing all suspected cases, isolation of cases, home quarantine of contacts, [and] social mobilization to follow preventive public health measures." The regulations indicate that house to house surveys are to be used for surveillance purposes. Those surveys involved daily house visits by supervisory officers. Individuals believed to be infected were required to isolate at home until examination by a Rapid Response Team. Surveillance teams reported their activities daily to a central authority. All non-essential services were shut down. Containment zones were established and restrictions were imposed on movement into and out of containment zones. The regulations also indicated that "rumors and myths are to be strictly controlled by the administration." 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 31 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Disinformation, Surveillance, Press Freedom, Expression, Privacy, Access to Information, Movement

Type: regulation

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Indonesia

Ban on Eid Day Tradition of Mudik, Circular Number 13 of 2021

The COVID-19 National Task Force issued Circular Number 13 of 2021, banning the Eid Day Tradition of Mudik (exodus). From May 6 - 17, 2021 travel is restricted. Violations against this circular will be subject to fines, social sanctions, confinement and/or criminal charges in accordance with the law.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 6 May 2021 Expires 17 May 2021

Issue(s): Movement

Type: order

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Indonesia

Regulation of the Minister of Health of the Republic of Indonesia, Number 9 of 2020

This order empowers sub-national leaders of regions impacted by COVID-19 to impose mandatory school and work vacations, restrictions on religious activities, restrictions on activities in public places or facilities, restrictions on social and cultural activities, and restrictions on public transportation. This order also activates the military for combatting COVID-19 domestically.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 3 Apr 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement, Militarization

Type: regulation

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Indonesia

Government Regulation of the Republic of Indonesia, Number 21 of 2020

Under certain circumstances, local authorities are empowered to impose "large scale social restrictions," which entail forced academic and work holidays, restrictions on religious activities, and "general" restrictions on other "activities".

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 31 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement

Type: regulation

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Iraq

National Lockdown

The Supreme Committee for National Health and Safety announced a curfew from 7pm until 6am to last for one month, in addition to a full ban on movement on Fridays and Saturdays. Public spaces were closed, with exceptions for shops and factories during daylight hours. Updates on COVID-19 restrictions are available here

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 20 Apr 2020 Extended

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement

Type: order

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Iraq

Kurdistan Movement Restrictions

The Kurdistan Regional Government announced stay-at-home orders with exemptions for international organizations and diplomatic missions, but not for local civil society organizations. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 10 Apr 2020 Extended June 1

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement

Type: order

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Iraq

Travel Restrictions and Restrictions on Public Life

Beginning in March, the Kurdistan Regional Government prohibited religious activites, rituals and activities, including Friday sermons. Restrictions also limit movements within Kurdistan and at border posts.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 4 Mar 2020 Extended 15 June 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement

Type: order

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Ireland

Health (Preservation and Protection and other Emergency Measures in the Public Interest) Act 2020

The law authorizes the government to take certain measures in response to the coronavirus, including banning mass gatherings; allowing health officials to detain individuals suspected of carrying COVID19 who are unlikely or unwilling to self-isolate; and allowing the government to restrict movement of people to certain areas. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 21 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency, Movement

Type: law

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Israel

Special Powers for Dealing With the Novel Coronavirus Bill (Temporary Order) Amendment No. 2), 2020

This law prohibits participation in protests and demonstrations more than two kilometers from one's place of residence. The text of the law claims that this restriction is a measure to control the spread of coronavirus. News reports have suggested this is a politically motivated restriction intended to repress dissent arising from the government's handling of the pandemic. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 30 Sep 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Expression, Movement

Type: law

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Italy

Decree No. 33 of 16 May 2020

The decree restricts individuals' freedom of movement to within the same region until May 18, and between different regions until June 3. The assembly of people in spaces open to the public is prohibited. Public events and shows, including cultural, recreational, sporting, and religious events, may only take place when deemed possible by the competent national or local authorities. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 16 May 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement

Type: order

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Italy

Decree of 26 April 2020

The decree stipulates that persons may only make journeys proven to be necessary for work, health, or basic needs. Persons may not travel beyond the region in which they are currently located, except for reasons relating to work, health, or emergency. The decree also prohibits any form of gathering in public or private places. Organized events, activities, or shows, in public or private, are also suspended, including cultural, recreational, sporting, religious events and fairs. The opening of places of worship is conditional on the adoption of distancing measures.

(

See primary source or citation here

)

Introduced 26 Apr 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement

Type: order

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Italy

Decree No. 9 of 2020 Further Urgent Measures to Contain and Manage the Epidemiological Emergency from COVID-19

The decree imposes strict restrictions on individuals' travel and movement nationwide, prohibiting all public and private meetings or other gatherings, and instituting surveillance of individuals who have had contact with confirmed coronavirus cases. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 9 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Surveillance, Privacy, Movement

Type: order

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Italy

Decree No. 8 Urgent Measures to Contain and Manage the Epidemiological Emergency from Covid-19

The decree empowers the President of the Council of Ministers to take measures to contain the spread of Covid-19 in certain areas of Italy designated as "red zones," including by limiting individuals' travel and movement; prohibiting all public and private meetings or other gatherings; and instituting surveillance of individuals who have had contact with confirmed coronavirus cases. Sanctions for noncompliance include detention for up to 3 months and fines of up to 200 Euros. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 8 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Surveillance, Privacy, Movement

Type: order

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Jamaica

Limits on Public Gatherings and Travel

The Prime Minister extended and modified restrictions on travelers from certain South American countries and India, and prohibited public gatherings of more than 10 people.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 2 May 2021

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement

Type: order

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Jamaica

No. 8 Disaster Risk Management (Enforcement Measures)

All individuals arriving on the island are tested for coronavirus, and must at a minimum self-quarantine for 14 days or until released from quarantine after testing negative. Health officials may order individuals they deem to be high risk--even if they test negative--to quarantine at a residence, hotel, or government designated facility. All persons in quarantine must wear an electronic monitoring device. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 15 Jun 2020

Issue(s): Surveillance, Privacy, Movement

Type: order

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Jamaica

Quarantine Measures

Initially, restrictions were imposed on movement of people in and out of the seven-and-eight Miles area of Bull Bay. The Jamaica Constabulary Force and the Jamacia Defense Force were both deployed in enforcement of the quarantine. Subsequently, the government issued an order on 17 March 2020 that all non-essential work in both the public and private sectors was to be done from home. Markets were restricted to operating between 6am and 2pm. This order also restricted gathering size to 20 persons and closed bars, night clubs, and other recreational facilities. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 14 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement, Militarization

Type: order

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Jordan

Order No. 2 Financial Penalties and Imprisonment for Violators of the Curfew

The order, issued by the Prime Minister under the Defense Act of 1992, provides that violators of the curfew may be punished by a fine of up to 500 Jordanian Dinars on the first offense, and one year in prison for a repeat offense.

قرار رقم 2 بشأن العقوبات المالية والحبس لمخالفي حظر التجول

 ÙŠÙ†Øµ القرار الذي تم إصداره من قبل رئيس الوزراء بموجب قانون الدفاع لسنة 1992 على أنه يجوز معاقبة مخالفي حظر التجول بغرامة تصل إلى 500 دينار أردني اذا كانت المخالفة لأول مرة، والسجن لمدة سنة واحدة في حال تكرار المخالفة. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 26 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Movement

Type: order

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Jordan

Order No. 1 Prohibiting Movement of People Within the Country

The order, issued by the Prime Minister and Minister of Defense under the Defense Act of 1992, imposes a ban on internal travel or movement within Jordan until further notice. Specific times will be designated for individuals to fulfill essential activities.

قرار رقم 1 بشأن حظر تنقل الأشخاص داخل البلاد

 ÙŠÙØ±Ø¶ الأمر الذي تم إصداره من قبل رئيس الوزراء ووزير الدفاع بموجب قانون الدفاع لسنة 1992 حظراً على التجول أو التنقل الداخلي في الأردن حتى إشعار آخر. وسيتم تحديد أوقات معينة للأفراد لتنفيذ الأنشطة الأساسية.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 21 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Movement

Type: order

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Jordan

State of Emergency

The decree declares a "state of emergency" under Art. 124 of Jordan's Constitution, on account of the coronavirus pandemic, and activates emergency provisions of Defense Law 13 of 1992. According to the decree and the Defense Law, the Prime Minister is charged with enacting measures to respond to the emergency. He has authority to suspend certain individual rights, including freedom of movement and expression.

إرادة ملكية بتفعيل العمل بقانون الدفاع بسبب حالة الطوارئ الصحية

 Ù‚رار ينص على إعلان العمل بقانون الدفاع بموجب المادة 124 من الدستور الأردني بسبب جائحة فيروس كورونا المستجد، وينطوي على تفعيل أحكام الطوارئ الواردة في قانون الدفاع رقم 13 لسنة 1992. بموجب القرار وقانون الدفاع، فإن رئيس الوزراء مكلف بسن تدابير للاستجابة لحالة الطوارئ، ويتمتع بسلطة تعليق بعض الحقوق والحريات الفردية مثل حرية التنقل والتعبير. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 17 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Emergency, Expression, Movement

Type: order

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Kazakhstan

Decision of the State Commission on Ensuring the State of Emergency under President of Kazakhstan

The State Commission approved the decision to strengthen the quarantine regime in the cities of of Nur-Sultan and Almaty. Citizens are restricted from leaving home, with the exception of leaving for food, medicine and employment. The order closes crowded places, including parks, squares, pedestrian streets, promenade, and playgrounds. Restriction of public transport will be phased. Meetings on the streets and in other public places by groups of more than three people (with the exception of family members) are prohibited. The order also bans the movement of minors unaccompanied by adults. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 28 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement

Type: order

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Kazakhstan

Decree No. 285 Declaring a State of Emergency

The decree declares a "state of emergency" for thirty days, on account of the coronavirus pandemic. Among other things, the decree suspends public events, closes the border, and introduces quarantine measures with the participation of relevant military departments.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 16 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency, Movement, Militarization

Type: order

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Kazakhstan

Decision of the State Commission on Ensuring the State of Emergency

With this decision, the State Comission for ensuring the State of Emergency under the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan decided to impose strict quarantine measures in the cities of Nur-Sultan and Almaty, beginning March 19.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 17 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement

Type: regulation

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Kazakhstan

SmartAstana Tracking App

The Kazakhstani Ministry of Health requires the approximately 8,000 Kazakhstani citizens currently under quarantine to use the SmartAstana tracking app, which allows officials to guarantee that these individuals remain in isolation. The app collects data on the user's location and movements, and it informs the Ministry of Health if the quarantined person leaves a 30-meter perimeter around their home or leaves their home without their phone. In either case, the app operator contacts the user by video call and finds out the reasons for the person's departure from the quarantine zone. Analysts note that the app is but one of recent efforts by the government to employ facial recognition, bio-metric identification, AI, and video surveillance technologies on the public. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 1 Apr 2020

Issue(s): Surveillance, Privacy, Movement

Type: practice

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Kenya

Public (State Curfew) Order, 2020

The order imposes a daily curfew and restrictions on individuals' movement, on account of the coronavirus. Public gatherings are prohibited during curfew period. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 27 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement

Type: order

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Kenya

Public Order No. 2 of 2021 on the Coronavirus Pandemic

On the advice of the National Security Council, the Council of Governors, and recommendations of the National Emergency Response Committee on COVID-19, the President declared the Counties of Nairobi, Kajiado, Machakos, Kiambu and Nakuru, a disease infected area. The Order introduced a new lockdown, barring travel by road or air; suspended all public gatherings and in-person meetings of whatever nature, including for parliament and county assemblies "until further notice." The ongoing curfew hours are revised from 20h00 to 04h00 in those counties, while a curfew was introduced for the rest of the country between 22h00 and 04h00. All physical meetings or events including social gatherings shall have a cap of no more than 15 persons until further notified. There is a prohibition against political gatherings "until otherwise directed." 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 26 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement

Type: order

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Kenya

Public Health (COVID19 Restriction of Movement of Persons and Related Measures) Rules, 2020

The Public Health Rules prohibit public gatherings except for funerals (which are limited to 15 people). Movement is prohibited in and out of places that the Minister has declared infected areas. Public transport services are required to operate at a limited capacity. 

(

See primary source or citation here

)

Introduced 17 Apr 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement

Type: regulation

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Kenya

Police Brutality in Enforcing Lockdown

Numerous reports indicate that doznes of civilians were killed by Kenyan police during early stages of the COVID-19 lockdown. There are also reports that police used teargas and gunshots without warning at the start of lockdown hours. By April 16, at least 12 deaths had been reported as resulting from police brutality in lockdown enforcement. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 15 Sep 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement

Type: practice

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Kenya

Arrests of Peaceful Protesters on Saba Saba

Police arrested fifty peaceful protesters under COVID-19 public gathering ban provisions, and they used tear gas to disperse demonstrators protesting police brutality. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 7 Jul 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement

Type: practice

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Korea, North

Maximum Emergency System

Kim Jong-un called an emergency meeting of the Politburo in order to put in place a "maximum emergency system" in response to the pandemic. This announcement also indicated that Kaesong City was in full lockdown and that the Central Emergency Anti-epidemic Headquarters was intensifying efforts to close the country's borders.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 29 Jul 2020

Issue(s): Emergency, Movement

Type: order

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Kuwait

Weekly Announcement of the Council of Ministers, March 21

Kuwait imposed a nationwide 11- hour curfew from 5 p.m. to 4 a.m. The national guard was ordered to assist the police in enforcing the lockdown. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 22 Mar 2020 Extended and expanded on 6 April 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement, Militarization

Type: order

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Kyrgyzstan

STOP COVID-19 Tracking App

The government of Kyrgyzstan launched the STOP COVID-19 mobile phone app to trace the location of individuals suspected of having, or known to have, COVID-19. By May 2020, the app, which was developed by the State Committee for IT and Communications, had led to the arrest of 151 individuals for leaving their homes, and imposition of fines of over $800. It is not known which government agency has access to the information gathered by the app, or where the information is stored. Due to the uncertainties surrounding the app’s use, privacy advocates argue that the app violates personal privacy protections and cybersecurity protected by Kyrgyz law. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 19 Jun 2020

Issue(s): Surveillance, Privacy, Movement

Type: practice

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Laos

Order No. 06/PM on the Reinforcement of Measures for the Containment, Prevention, and Full Response to the COVID-19 Pandemic

The Order imposes general restrictions on movement outside the home and on inter-regional travel. The Order also "strictly prohibit[s] the advertisement of, release, forward of any fake news via any media platform that can cause misunderstanding, panic and create negative impact on society." An agency is tasked with surveillance responsibilities to that end. The Order also indicates that the military will be involved in the enforcement of lockdown measures. Updates on restrictions and extensions are available here

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 31 Mar 2020 Extended

Issue(s): Assembly, Disinformation, Surveillance, Press Freedom, Expression, Movement, Militarization

Type: law

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Laos

Vientiane Lockdown Order

The Prime Minister ordered a lockdown of Vientiane banning all social events or gatherings, as well as movement into or out of designated COVID-19 "red zones." The order also continues "strict surveillance" of migrants at Laos' border crossings.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 19 Jul 2021

Issue(s): Assembly, Discrimination, Surveillance, Movement

Type: order

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Laos

Prime Minister’s Order on Reinforcement Measures on Containment, Prevention and Full Response to the COVID-19 Pandemic

The Prime Minister of Laos issued a stay-at-home order as a response to COVID-19. The order prohibits public gatherings of more than 10 persons and "strictly prohibit[s] the advertisement of, release, forward [of] any fake news via any media platform that can cause misunderstanding, panic and create negative impact on the society." The order also instructs the police to take "strict action" in accordance with existing laws, rules, and regulations in cases of violations.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 29 Mar 2020 Extended to 5 May 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Disinformation, Movement

Type: order

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Latvia

No. 103 on the Declaration of Emergency Situation

The order establishes an "emergency situation" throughout Latvia for one month, on account of the coronavirus. All public gatherings for meetings, marches, and rallies, as well as for religious or cultural purposes are prohibited, regardless of the number of participants. The order prohibits border crossings by air, rail, and road with limited exceptions. The order provides for administrative and criminal penalties to be applied in case of violations. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 13 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Emergency, Movement

Type: order

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Lebanon

Decision No. 54/2020 Imposing a Curfew

The decision, issued under the "state of general mobilization" declared on March 15, prohibits individuals from moving or driving from 7pm to 5am. The Law on National Defense authorizes the military and security forces to control transportation during a state of general mobilization.

القرار رقم 54 لسنة 2020 بشأن فرض حظر التجول

 Ø§Ù„قرار الصادر بموجب "حالة التعبئة العامة" المعلن في 15 مارس يحظر على الأفراد التنقل أو قيادة السيارات من الساعة السابعة مساءً إلى الساعة الخامسة صباحاً. يفوض قانون الدفاع الوطني القوات العسكرية والأمنية بالسيطرة على وسائل النقل أثناء حالة التعبئة العامة.

(

See primary source or citation here

)

Introduced 26 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Movement, Militarization

Type: order

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Lebanon

State of General Mobilization

The government announces a "state of general mobilization" under by Article 2 of Legislative Decree No. 102/1983 (Law on National Defense), on account of the health emergency caused by Covid-19. The decision stipulates that people should stay at home until March 29 (later extended until April 26), and refrain from leaving except for essential reasons. The decree also prohibits all gatherings in all private and public places.

حالة التعبئة العامة

 Ø§Ù„حكومة تعلن عن "حالة التعبئة العامة" بموجب المادة 2 من المرسوم التشريعي رقم 102 لسنة 1983 (قانون الدفاع الوطني)ØŒ بسبب الطوارئ الصحية الناشئة عن فيروس كورونا المستجد. ينص القرار على وجوب بقاء الأشخاص في منازلهم حتى 29 مارس (تم تمديده لاحقاً حتى 26 أبريل)ØŒ والامتناع عن مغادرتها إلا لأسباب جوهرية. يحظر القرار أيضاً جميع التجمعات في جميع الأماكن الخاصة والعامة.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 15 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency, Movement

Type: order

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Lesotho

Declaration of COVID-19 State of Emergency Order 26 of 2020

The Prime Minister declares a national "state of emergency" and orders a nationwide lockdown, beginning March 30. All social gatherings are prohibited except for funerals where not more than 50 people are expected to attend. The decree also provides that members of the press must "refrain from publishing fake news." (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 18 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Disinformation, Emergency, Press Freedom, Expression, Access to Information, Movement

Type: order

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Liberia

State of Emergency

President Weah declares a "state of emergency" for three weeks, renewable until the threat posed by COVID-19 subsides. During this period, residents may only leave home for essential journeys, which should be restricted to local communities and be limited to a single person per household for a maximum of one hour. The order tasks the Chief of Staff of the Armed Forces of Liberia and the Chairman of the National Joint Security with enforcing this stay-home policy. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 10 Apr 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency, Movement, Militarization

Type: order

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Libya

Government of National Accord (GNA) Presidential Council Resolution of No. 277 of 2020

Libya's UN-backed government imposes a lockdown and a ban on individual movement for 10 days starting from April 17, 2020, with limited exceptions for the transport and sale of food. Moving on foot is allowed between 7am and 12pm only.

قرار المجلس الرئاسي لحكومة الوفاق الوطني رقم 277 لسنة 2020

 Ø§Ù„حكومة الليبية المدعومة من الأمم المتحدة تفرض إغلاقاً وحظراً على تنقل الأفراد لمدة 10 أيام بدءاً من 17 أبريل 2020ØŒ مع استثناءات محدودة لنقل وبيع المواد الغذائية. يسمح بالتنقل على الأرجل بين الساعة السابعة صباحاً والساعة الثانية عشرة ظهراً فقط.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 17 Apr 2020

Issue(s): Movement

Type: order

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Luxembourg

State of Crisis

The order from the Grand Duke declares a "state of crisis" in accordance with Article 32(4) of the Constitution, among other things imposes strict limitations on individuals' movement, and provides for a fine of 145 Euroes in case of violation. The state of crisis is in place for 10 days, unless extended by the Chamber of Deputies, by a two-thirds majority. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 18 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Emergency, Movement

Type: order

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Madagascar

Decree No. 2020-359, Proclaiming the State of Health Emergency Throughout the Territory of the Republic

The Presidential order declares a state of emergency for fifteen days. The decree delegates control of movement of persons and vehicles to the Prime Minister. The decree also grants emergency powers to several ministers, including the Minister of National Defense, the Minister of Posts, Telecommunications and Digital Development, and the Secretary of State at the Ministry of National Defense in charge of the Gendarmerie. The state of emergency declaration was subsequently renewed every two weeks, through October 2020. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 21 Mar 2020 Extended through October 2020

Issue(s): Emergency, Movement, Militarization

Type: order

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Malawi

Public Health (Corona Virus Prevention, Containment and Management) Rules

The Minister of Health imposes a nationwide lockdown that prohibits all individual movement, with limited exceptions. Individuals in need of an essential service outside of their locality are required to obtain a permit from their local council. All gatherings of more than ten people are suspended. The Malawi Defence Force, the Malawi Police Service and the Department of Immigration and Citizenship Services will be deployed to ensure strict compliance with these measures. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 8 Apr 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement, Militarization

Type: regulation

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Malaysia

Enhanced Movement Control Order

The national government imposed an Enhanced Movement Control Order (EMCOs) on areas with high COVID-19 rates in Sabah, Pahang, and Kelantan. These orders include strict stay at home decrees and restrictions on travel into or out of the affected area. Similar EMCOs have been issued throughout the pandemic in other areas of Malaysia.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 26 Jul 2021

Issue(s): Movement

Type: order

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Malaysia

Full Closure Order

The Prime Minister ordered a two-week nationwide "Total Lockdown" which closed all non-essential businesses and required people to stay within 10 kilometers of their homes.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 28 May 2021

Issue(s): Movement

Type: order

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Malaysia

Restriction of Movement Order

The order mandates a "complete restriction" of movement and assembly nationwide. The order closes all houses of worship, non-essential businesses, and all government and private premises, except for those providing essential services. The order also bars Malaysians from travelling overseas, and prevents visitors from entering the country.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 18 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement

Type: order

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Malaysia

Arrest of Migrants for Violating COVID-19 Movement Control Order

Immigration authorites arrested hundreds of migrants for allegedly violating a COVID- movement control order and restrictions on public gatherings. The Home Minister said that the arrests would "protect Malaysians" and "help" migrants get vaccinated. The arrestees included refugees from Myanmar and other countries.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 21 Jun 2021

Issue(s): Assembly, Discrimination, Movement

Type: practice

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Mali

State of Health Emergency and Curfew

The President of Mali announced a state of health emergency and an indefinite curfew between 9:00pm and 5:00am. Land borders were also closed, with the exception of freight and the transport of goods. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 26 Mar 2020 Lifted on 9 May 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency, Movement

Type: order

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Mauritania

Curfew and Ban on Gatherings

The Mauritanian Ministry of Interior issued a ban on gatherings, as well as a curfew between the hours of 12:00 am and 6:00am.

(

See primary source or citation here

)

Introduced 19 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement

Type: order

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Mauritius

Quarantine (Quarantinable Diseases) Regulations, 2020

The order, issued by the Minister of Health and Wellness under Section 4 of the Public Health Act, imposes a complete lockdown for 14 days, including on supermarkets. Police have authority to enter any premises without a warrant to enforce compliance with the regulations. Criminal sanctions can be imposed for violations, including imprisonment of up to 6 months. Essential service workers must apply for an access permit to attend work on-site. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 20 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Privacy, Movement

Type: order

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Mexico

Border Closure

The government closed the northern and southern land borders to address the spread of COVID-19.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 18 Mar 2021

Issue(s): Movement

Type: order

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Mexico

Bulletin No. 144/2021

The Mexican Government announced the installation of new "sanitary and inspection filters" on the south border with Guatemala, authorizing the use of drones and night vision equipment. Land crossings for non-essential activities are banned for 30 days, with the possibility for extension. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 19 Mar 2021

Issue(s): Surveillance, Movement

Type: policy

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Montenegro

Decisions Related to Movement and Public Gatherings

The Decisions restrict public gatherings of more than 4 adults, except for persons performing their regular work tasks. Private gatherings in residential buildings are also banned, except for household members and those who are taking care of sick persons. A curfew is imposed from 7 p.m. to 5 a.m., with a few exceptions. Inter-city travel is not permitted. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 25 Nov 2020 In force until 8 December 2020, with extension possible.

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement

Type: order

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Morocco

Decree No. 2-20-293 Declaring a Health Emergency

The government declares a nationwide "state of health emergency" from March 20 until April 20, unless renewed. The order prohibits the movement of any person outside his home, except in cases of extreme necessity, and prohibits any meeting or gathering of groups of people for any reason.

مرسوم رقم 2-20-293 بشأن إعلان حالة الطوارئ الصحية

 Ø§Ù„حكومة تعلن "حالة الطوارئ الصحية" في جميع أنحاء البلاد للفترة من 20 مارس حتى 20 أبريل، ما لم يتم تجديدها. يحظر القرار تنقل أي شخص خارج منزله إلا في حالات الضرورة القصوى، ويحظر أي اجتماع أو تجمع لمجموعات من الناس لأي سبب من الأسباب.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 24 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency, Movement

Type: order

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Myanmar

Nationwide Lockdown Order

The military junta imposed a nationwide lockdown order prohibiting travel except for official duties or emergency situations. Local authorities in areas with high COVID-19 rates were authorized to impose stricter measures, including requiring people to request official permission to leave their homes.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 16 Jul 2021

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement

Type: order

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Myanmar

Stay-at-Home and Curfew order

Authorities issued new public health orders extending a nightly curefew and travel restrictions, including a suspension on international passenger flights. Officials in areas with higher COVID-19 rates may implement stricter measures, such as more stringent curfew hours and requiring people to obtain permission from the local administration before leaving the area.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 16 Jul 2021

Issue(s): Movement

Type: order

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Myanmar

Stay-at-home order in Yangon region (Order 107/2020)

The Ministry of Health and Sports issued a stay-at-home order (Order 107/2020) in Yangon region. The stay-at-home order bars residents from travelling between townships. Members of several professions may seek an exemption to the travel restrictions (including doctors, emergency workers, and police officers). However, journalists are not exempted and the restriction stops the work of drivers of newspaper delivery trucks. Rights groups said the restriction would make it more difficult for news organizations to cover Myanmar’s national election, which is scheduled for Nov. 8.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 21 Sep 2020

Issue(s): Press Freedom, Expression, Movement

Type: order

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Myanmar

Health Ministry Order on Movement

The Health Ministry ordered restrictions on the movement of residents in seven Yangon townships (Bahan, Insein, Hlaing Tharyar, Mayangone, Pabedan, Shwe Pyi Thar and South Okkalapa). Failure to comply could lead to up to 6 months in jail. Residents may only travel to and from work and must wear face masks at all times when outside. Only one member from each household is allowed to leave their home to buy groceries; two can travel together only for medical emergencies. Anyone needing to travel in larger groups must get permission from ward administrators. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 18 Apr 2020

Issue(s): Movement

Type: order

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Myanmar

Widespread Arrests for Curfew Violations

At least 500 people were sentenced to between one month and one year in prison for curfew and quarantine violations from late March to late May. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 20 May 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement

Type: practice

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Myanmar

Jail sentences for violating COVID-19 movement restrictions

Myanmar authorities have sentenced at least 500 people to between one month and one year in prison for violating curfews, quarantines, or other movement control orders.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 30 Apr 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement

Type: practice

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Namibia

State of Emergency COVID 19 Regulations, 2020

The regulations among other provisions impose a two-week nationwide "lockdown" from March 27, with restrictions on individual movement. The regulations also prohibit gatherings of 10 or more people, and provide that anyone who violates the prohibition is subject to a penalty of six months in prison and a N$2,000 fine. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 28 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement

Type: regulation

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Nepal

Police Brutality in COVID-19 Lockdown Enforcement

Police enforcement of lockdowns led to 187 cases of human rights violations, including 30 incidents involving excessive use of force by police against citizens.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 21 Jul 2021

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement

Type: practice

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Nepal

Arrest of Peaceful Protesters and Use of Excessive Force

At least ten peaceful protesters demanding better testing and quarantine facilities for returning migrant workers were arrested for violation of lockdown orders. Police have responded to protests with force, using water cannons, batons and tear gas to disperse protesters. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 13 Jun 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Expression, Movement, Militarization

Type: practice

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Netherlands

COVID-19 Temporary Measures Act

This bill provides for temporary expansion of regional ministers' power to regulate public gatherings for the duration of the pandemic. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 13 Oct 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement

Type: law

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Niger

Ministerial Communique No. 12/CM/2020 Declaring a State of Emergency

The decree by the Council of Ministers declares a nationwide "state of emergency," that among other provisions includes an overnight curfew in the city of Niamey, effective March 28. The curfew will be in effect for a two-week period between the hours of 7pm and 6am local time. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 27 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Emergency, Movement

Type: order

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Nigeria

Lockdown on Bauchi State

Nigerian authorities announce a 14-day lockdown on Bauchi state to prevent further spread of coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Citizens are ordered to stay at home, with permission to leave to buy food and seek medical care between 10am and 4pm on Wednesdays and Saturdays only.


Introduced 1 Apr 2020

Issue(s): Movement

Type: order

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Nigeria

Lockdown on Major Cities and States

The presidential order institutes a 14-day lockdown on individuals' movement in Abuja, Lagos, Ogun State and the Federal Capital Territory. The lockdown does not apply to hospital and medical institutions and certain commercial establishments including food, petroleum, electricity, and private security companies. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 30 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Movement

Type: order

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Nigeria

Police Brutality in Enforcing Lockdown

On April 15, the Nigerian National Human Rights Commission reported that the Nigerian Correctional Service, comprising police and army officers, had killed at least 18 civilians during lockdown enforcement. The Commission also reported that it had received 105 petitions from the families of those killed. By the time the report was issued, the number of deaths caused by security forces exceeded the number of deaths caused by coronavirus. The NHRC subsequently established a panel to investigate the brutality. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 15 Apr 2020

Issue(s): Movement, Militarization

Type: practice

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North Macedonia

Measures and Recommendations from the 25th, 26th, and 28th Session of the Government

The measures impose a ban on movement from 9pm-5am during the week, and from 4pm-5am during the weekend, with exceptions for emergencies. The measures also ban the movement of persons older than 67 from 11am-5am. Gatherings of groups larger than 5 people in public places and spaces are also prohibited. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 21 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement

Type: order

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Norway

National COVID-19 Measures

The National COVID-19 Measures require all travellers arriving in Norway to register before they cross the border. A maximum of 100 people are allowed at indoor events where all of the participants sit in designated, distanced seating. A maximum of 200 people are allowed at outdoor events.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 5 Nov 2020 Measures have been extended and adjusted since their implementation. Latest update as of 4/16/21

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement

Type: order

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Oman

National Lockdown Order

The Supreme Committee for Dealing with COVID-19 issued an order preventing movement and closing all public places and shops between July 25, 2020 and August 8, 2020, between the hours of 7:00 PM and 6:00 AM.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 25 Jul 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement

Type: order

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Oman

Supreme Covid-19 Control Committee Decision

The Committee decision prohibits all Ramadan gatherings, such as iftar meals and barbecues, at mosques or in any other public place. The Committee also bans social, sports, cultural and recreational activities, and extends the lockdown of Muscat Governorate through May 8.

قرار اللجنة العليا للتعامل مع كوفيد-19

 ÙŠÙ†Øµ قرار اللجنة على حظر كل التجمعات الرمضانية، مثل وجبات الإفطار وحفلات الشواء، في المساجد أو في أي مكان عام آخر. كما يحظر قرار اللجنة الأنشطة الاجتماعية والرياضية والثقافية والترفيهية، ويمدد إغلاق محافظة مسقط حتى 8 مايو.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 20 Apr 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement

Type: order

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Pakistan

Lockdown of Sindh Province

The government of Sindh province issues a complete ban on movement and gatherings of any kind for any purpose at any place, with limited exceptions for gatherings of essential workers.


Introduced 22 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement

Type: order

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Palestine

Emergency Order No. 1 of 2020

The decision, issued by the Prime Minister pursuant to his emergency powers, among other things restricts individuals' movement among governorates; prohibits gatherings of people including meetings, workshops, conferences, and demonstrations; and closes educational facilities and houses of worship. The decision also prohibits officials from making "any statement" to the press without permission from the Prime Minister. The decision generally prohibits all individuals from "dealing with any rumors or untrustworthy information, and the transferring and broadcasting thereof," and indicates that individuals should obtain information "from official sources only." The Prime Minister's decision orders all national security forces to ensure the decision's implementation, while protecting individuals' rights and freedoms.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 6 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Disinformation, Press Freedom, Expression, Access to Information, Movement, Militarization

Type: order

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Panama

Resolution 360 of the Ministry of Health

This measure restricts individuals' movement using sex as a basis for determining when individuals are permitted outside. The measure also imposes restrictions on the ability of persons older than 60 years of age to leave their homes. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 30 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Discrimination, Movement

Type: order

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Panama

Executive Order No. 490 Declaring a Curfew in the Republic of Panama

The Decree imposes a curfew from 9pm until 5am with limited exceptions, in order to combat the spread of coronavirus. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 17 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Movement

Type: order

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Papua New Guinea

National Pandemic Act

The National Pandemic Act restricts they following rights in the face of public health emergencies: the liberty of persons, the freedom from arbitrary search and entry, the freedom of expression, the freedom of assembly and association, the right to privacy, the right to freedom of information, and the right to freedom of movement. The Act was explicitly passed as a non-emergency law, meaning that its provisions do not expire with the end of the COVID-19 emergency. The Act affords power to declare and to revoke a "Public Health Emergency" to the Head of State, "acting on advice." The Act enables the Head of State to appoint the Controller, who has the power to impose measures such as forced medical observations and domestic movement restrictions. The Act empowers the Head of State to involve the Defence Force in the Controller's activities.  This Act was passed quickly through the parliament without adequate consultation of civil society, and was met with significant opposition due to the risks that it poses to human rights and its failure to include certain Constitutional protections (such as limiting the potential duration of an emergency delcaration to two months). The Act was invoked in early August 2020, and then the declaration of a Public Health Emergency was revoked on September 3, 2020. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 16 Jun 2020

Issue(s): Association, Assembly, Press Freedom, Expression, Access to Information, Movement, Militarization

Type: law

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Papua New Guinea

Emergency (General Provisions) (COVID 19) Bill 2020

The Act is made to regulate or restrict "liberty of persons," "the freedom of arbitrary search and entry," and "the right to freedom of movement." The Act establishes the functions of the Emergency Controller, giving them the responsibility to control the pandemic in Papua New Guinea. The Act gives the Emergency Controller the authority to issue emergency orders, restrict or issue direction for movement of persons, give direction with respect to occupation and operation of premises, enter and search any premises and seize items, require persons to "provide information or answer questions," direct persons to be quarantined, direct persons to undergo medical observation, and to regulate all modes of transportation.  Persons who do not comply with Emergency Controller orders are subject to fines of over US $14,000. This Act replaces the Emergency (General Provisions) (COVID 19) Regulation.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 1 Apr 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency, Privacy, Movement

Type: law

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Papua New Guinea

State of Emergency

The State of Emergency was originally declared by the Prime Minister in a statement given on March 22, for period of 14 days. The declaration allowed the Commissioner of Police to "assume control" of the emergency situation and to call upon the military to "ensure lawful order, control and response to SOE control measures." The order indicated that during the 14-day period, there was to be no public transportation and no movement from one province to another. Workplaces and educational institutions were closed. The Prime Minister released a statement on March 23 with an additional State of Emergency provision that "spreading false rumors and organising public gatherings will be charged appropriately."

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 22 Mar 2020 Extended through 2 June 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Disinformation, Emergency, Press Freedom, Expression, Movement, Militarization

Type: order

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Peru

No. 044-2020-PCM Declaring a State of Emergency

The decree declares a "state of emergency" on account of the coronavirus pandemic. The decree suspends individual rights under the Constitution of Peru, including the right to peacefully assemble, the right to freedom of movement, and the requirement that the government must have a warrant before it may arrest someone.

State of emergency orders have been renewed monthly by the Peruvian Executive Power since March 16, 2020. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 15 Mar 2020 Extended to 30 June 2021

Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency, Movement

Type: order

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Philippines

Proclamation No. 929 Declaring a State of Calamity

The executive proclamation declares a nationwide "state of calamity" under Section 15(2) of the Constiution, due to the coronavirus, for six months unless lifted or extended “as the circumstances may warrant." The proclamation imposes an enhanced community quarantine throughout the island of Luzon, which includes the capital Manila, from March 17 to April 13. It also directs all law enforcement agencies, "with support from the Armed Forces," to take "all necessary measures" to ensure order in affected areas. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 16 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Emergency, Movement, Militarization

Type: order

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Philippines

Inter-Agency Task Force for the Management of Emerging Infectious Diseases, Resolution No. 11

The order imposes a variety of community quarantine measures on the Metro Manila area. The order calls upon the Armed Forces of the Philippines to ensure the effective and orderly implementation of the lockdown measures. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 12 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Movement, Militarization

Type: order

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Portugal

Decree No. 8/2020

The Decree establishes a state of emergency for 15 days, renewable by the government every 15 days. The Decree limits movement on public roads and in public spaces between 11pm and 5am on weekdays and 1pm and 5am on weekends. Exceptions are made for essential travel, as defined by the Decree (including traveling for work, health reasons, buying groceries or medical products, assisting vulnerable people, force majeure, etc.). The Decree also allows for the measurements of body temperature, performed by non-invasive means, in order to control of access to the workplace, to public services or institutions, educational establishments and commercial, cultural or sports spaces, means of transport, in residential structures, health establishments, prisons or educational centers. Security forces and services are responsible for supervising compliance with the provisions of the Decree.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 8 Nov 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement, Militarization

Type: order

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Portugal

Decree No. 2-A of 2020 Declaring a State of Emergency

The presidential decree declares a state of emergency to limit the spread of the coronavirus. The measures include significant restrictions on movement throughout the country, and a prohibition on public gatherings. The decree is in place for an initial two weeks, and can be extended. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 18 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency, Movement

Type: order

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Romania

Decision No. 52 of 5.11.2020 of the National Committee for Emergency Situations

The National Committee for Emergency Situations imposed a curfew from 11 p.m. to 5 a.m., valid for 30 days. Exceptions from the curfew include transport to and from work, seeking medical assistance, purchasing medicine, or providing care to children or the elderly. The Decision also bans gatherings on the occasion of holidays, anniversaries, or parties in closed and/or open spaces, both public and private.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 6 Nov 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement

Type: order

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Romania

Military Ordinance no. 3/2020 on Measures to Prevent the Spread of COVID-19

This order by the Minister of the Interior prohibits non-essential travel outside homes. Extra restrictions are placed on people over age 65, though these restrictions do not apply midday, and they permit those over 65 to travel outside time restrictions for "professional interests" and for "agricultural activities." All persons entering the country are required to isolate at home. Local authorities are instructed to keep a database of homeless persons. The order imposes various restrictions on flights and sea vessels crossing national border. The order also expands the scope of responsibilities of the Ministry of Defense by increasing collaboration between the Ministry of Defense, the Ministry of the Interior and border police, and by involving the Ministry of Defense in maintaining domestic public order. The order further indicates that "national security institutions will design communication systems and computer applications, necessary for the Ministry of Internal Affairs, Ministry of Health and local authorities to communicate in real time and permanently with persons quarantined or isolated at home." Additionally, the order indicates that Romanian Police, the Romanian Gendarmerie and the local police are empowered to enforce the stay-at-home order, and it criminalizes non-compliance with the stay-at-home order. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 24 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Surveillance, Privacy, Movement, Militarization

Type: order

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Romania

Military Ordinance no. 2/2020 on Measures to Prevent the Spread of COVID-19

This order prohibits gatherings of more than three people who are not cohabitating, and it imposes restrictions on movement outside homes between 10:00 pm and 6:00 am. The order empowers the Romanian Police, the Romanian Gendarmerie, and the local police to take appropriate actions to enforce the order. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 21 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement, Militarization

Type: order

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Romania

Military Ordinance no. 1/2020 on Measures to Prevent the Spread of COVID-19

This order closes restaurants and suspends cultural, scientific, artistic, religious, sports, entertainment or gambling, spa treatment and personal care activities. It prohibits events being held in public places with more than 100 people, and events hosting 100 people have to meet spacing requirements. The order also indicates that individuals who are placed in quarantine may not leave their homes without permission from the relevant authorities, and the order empowers the Romanian Police, the Romanian Gendarmerie, and the local police to take appropriate actions to enforce the order. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 18 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement, Militarization

Type: order

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Romania

No. 195 on the Establishment of a State of Emergency in the Territory of Romania

The decree declares a "state of emergency" on account of the coronavirus pandemic. According to the decree, the following rights may be restricted during a state of emergency: freedom of movement, freedom of assembly, privacy, education, private property, and the right to strike. Additionally, the decree provides that the National Authority for Administrative and Regulatory Communications has powers to make "reasoned decisions" to censor online transmission of information related to COVID-19. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 16 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Disinformation, Emergency, Press Freedom, Expression, Privacy, Access to Information, Movement

Type: order

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Russia

Law No. 100-FZ Introducing Changes to the Criminal Code and Criminal Procedure Code

The amendments to Russia's Criminal Code establish new penalties for violations of quarantine orders, according to which an individual who violates the orders may be punished with fines or prison time--ranging from 40,000 rubles ($640) to up to 7 years in prison if the quarantine violation causes two or more deaths. The amendments also establish that public dissemination of false information that threatens the public health during an emergency is punishable by 3 years in prison, or up to 5 years if it leads to "grave consequences." (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 1 Apr 2020

Issue(s): Disinformation, Press Freedom, Expression, Access to Information, Movement

Type: law

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Russia

Decree on measures to ensure sanitary-epidemiological wellbeing of Russian Population

The executive order suspends activities of all state and private organizations and individual enterpreneurs (with some exceptions); establishes special procedures for restrictions on movement within territories (without providing specifics); and authorizes the implementation of "restrictive and other measures" during the period of April 4-30, 2020.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 2 Apr 2020

Issue(s): Association, Movement

Type: order

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Russia

Decree of Mayor of Moscow № 34-УМ

Pursuant to powers available under the state of high alert, this order suspends various recreational activities, including by closing playgrounds, museums and movie theaters. It also suspends retail activities and provision of face-to-face services. The order imposes self-quarantine and self-reporting requirements, along with social distancing requirements and restrictions on public transportation. All public events are prohibited until April 10, 2020.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 29 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement

Type: order

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Rwanda

Nationwide Prohibition on Non-Essential Movement

The notice institutes a complete ban on individuals' movement from their homes, except for essential services, for an initial 14-day period. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 21 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Movement

Type: order

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Rwanda

Statement on New Measures to Prevent COVID-19 Coronavirus Transmission

The order closed places of worship, schools, and higher educational institutions. This announcement also ordered that large gatherings be postponed, and that "unnecessary" movement be avoided. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 14 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement

Type: order

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Saint Lucia

Week-Long, 24-Hour Curfew

The government ordered a 24-hour curfew from April 1 to April 7. During the curfew, individuals are allowed to leave their homes only for medical emergencies, and only with written authorization from the National Emergency Management Organization (NEMO). (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 31 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Movement

Type: order

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San Marino

Law-Decree No. 51 Introducing Urgent Measures to Contain and Manage the COVID19-related Emergency (Coronavirus)

The decree shuts down all commercial activities except for pharmacies, food shops, petrol stations and newsagents. All schools are suspended, but farming is allowed to continue. The decree also bans movement out of the state without proper justification and gatherings of any nature. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 14 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement

Type: order

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Saudi Arabia

Curfew and Lockdowns

The King announced a daily curfew between 7pm and 6am, to last for 21 days.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 23 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement

Type: order

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Senegal

No. 2020-830 Proclaiming a State of Emergency

The presidential decree proclaims a national "state of emergency." Among other things the proclamation imposes curfews and empowers administrative officials to ban public gatherings, close public spaces, and limit travel between different regions. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 23 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency, Movement

Type: order

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Serbia

Restrictions and Prohibitions on Movement of Persons

The order imposes a curfew from 5pm to 5am on weekdays, during which individuals may not leave their homes, and prohibits elderly persons from leaving their homes except for Saturdays from 4pm to 7pm. The order also prohibits groups of two or more people from standing or moving together in a public place. The order exempts essential workers and citizens seeking medical care. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 18 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement

Type: order

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Seychelles

Initial Lockdown Measures

The Seychellois president ordered a nationwide lockdown that began on March 30. Per the government's directives, gatherings of more than four people in public places were prohibited, and shops were closed in the evenings.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 27 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement

Type: order

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Sierra Leone

Nationwide Lockdown

The Defence Minister and National Covid Response Coordinator announce a three-day nationwide lockdown as a containment measure against the spread of the virus. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 5 Apr 2020

Issue(s): Movement

Type: order

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Singapore

Amendment to the Employment of Foreign Manpower (Work Passes) Regulations 2012

The amended regulations impose a new requirement on most migrant workers living in Singapore, such that they must obtain permission from their employer before they may leave their living facilities. The amended regulations refer to Singapore's COVID-19 (Temporary Measures) (Control Order) Regulations of 2020, but they are not pegged to those regulations or otherwise time-limited. As of late June, an estimated 94% of COVID-19 cases in Singapore were migrant workers living in crowded dormitories. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 2 Jun 2020

Issue(s): Discrimination, Movement

Type: law

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Singapore

The COVID-19 (Temporary Measures) Act 2020

Among other things, the law allows the Health Minister to enact "Control Orders" for the purpose of preventing or controlling COVID-19 transmission, including orders to restrict the movement of or contact between people; limiting access to certain places; and prohibiting or restricting participation in any event or gathering in any premises. Failure to comply with the orders may be punished with a fine of up to $10,000, and jail for up to six months. Multiple violations of the rules will result in a doubled penalty. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 7 Apr 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement

Type: law

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Singapore

The COVID-19 (Temporary Measures) (Control Order) Regulation 2020

The regulations ban gatherings among any individuals who do not live together. Gatherings in public spaces are also prohibited. The regulations further limit the reasons for which people are allowed to leave their homes. Failure to comply with these rules may be punished with a fine of up to $10,000, and jail for up to six months. Multiple violations of the rules will result in a doubled penalty. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 7 Apr 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement

Type: regulation

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Singapore

Foreign Workers Required to Use Tracing App

The Minister of Health has ordered that all migrant workers living in dormitories must download the national contact tracing app, TraceTogether, by June 19. The app, which is not mandatory for other residents, requires that users register with their foreign identification number or passport number. A separate app, the SGWorkPass, indicates which migrant workers are allowed to leave their dormitories and resume work. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 16 Jun 2020

Issue(s): Discrimination, Surveillance, Privacy, Movement

Type: policy

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Slovakia

COVID-19 Testing Regime and Curfew

This measure institutes an antigen testing regime and a curfew. Those carrying a certificate demonstrating their antigen test are exempt from the curfew. Under a subsequent decree, the Chief Hygienist was ordered to mandate that employers and store owners require a negative coronavirus test from anyone attempting to enter their premises. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 22 Oct 2020 Extended on 28 October 2020 and 5 November 2020 due to several rounds of country-wide testing.

Issue(s): Privacy, Movement

Type: order

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Solomon Islands

Emergency Powers (Covid-19) Regulations 2020

The regulations, issued under the Emergency Powers Act in response to the COVID-19 pandemic, grant the Prime Minister a range of powers, including the power to: (1) temporarily close public spaces or declare public spaces to be emergency zones and restrict the freedoms of movement and assembly in these emergency zones; (2) suspend access to media outlets and online media outlets if these are found to publish and/or disseminate false information that is likely to create public alarm or that constitutes a threat to public peace and safety; (3) suspend any trade union for any duration during the emergency period and deregister any trade union that contravenes an official government Order; and (4) terminate any public servant that publicly criticizes or contradicts the government or its policies. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 26 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Association, Assembly, Disinformation, Press Freedom, Expression, Access to Information, Movement

Type: regulation

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South Africa

Repeal and Replacement of Regulations Issued under Sections 27(2) of the Disaster Management Act

The regulations repeals a number of prior orders and regulations issued under the Disaster Management Act, but retain a ban on all public gatherings except at funerals (which are limited to 50 people), workplaces, and gatherings for purchase of commodities. The regulation also provides for a system of contact tracing, and establishes a national COVID-19 Tracing Database. The Database will include the identification and contact information for all persons tested for COVID-19, and the details of known or suspected contacts of any person who tested positive for COVID-19. Within six weeks of the end of the State of Disaster, the Database information must be anonymized; anonymous information may be retained for research and any other information must be destroyed. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 29 Apr 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Surveillance, Privacy, Movement

Type: regulation

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South Africa

Police Brutality during Lockdown

Social media users have shared videos of police brutality against violators of the lockdown that was imposed on March 26, and authorities are investigating several reports of police torture and murder of citizens accused of breaching the lockdown orders. One man was beaten to death by soldiers while he was sipping alcohol outside his house in alleged violation of lockdown regulations. As of June 1, at least 11 people had died following police action during the lockdown, and more than 230,000 people had been arrested for lockdown violations. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 1 Jun 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement

Type: practice

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South Korea

Amendments to Infectious Disease Control and Prevention Act No. 14286

Allows the government to criminally prosecute suspected patients who refuse to get tested for the virus with a fine of up to 3,000,000 KRW (~$3,000). The amendment also significantly increases the potential penalty for breaking quarantine to up to one year of imprisonment or a fine of 10,000,000 KRW (~$10,000) for the offense. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 4 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Movement

Type: law

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South Sudan

Ministerial Order No. 1 Imposing Curfew

The Minister of Interior's order institutes a daily curfew between 8pm and 6am. Persons providing essential services are exempt from the curfew but are required to carry special permits.


Introduced 25 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Movement

Type: order

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Spain

Decree No. 926/2020

The Decree extends the national state of emergency. The Decree introduces new restrictions, including a curfew in public/publicly accessible spaces between 11pm and 6am; restriction of freedom of movement between autonomous regions; and limits on gatherings of people in spaces – both indoors and outdoors – to a maximum of 6 people. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 25 Oct 2020 Extended through May 9, 2021

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement

Type: order

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Spain

Decree No. 463/2020, Declaring a State of Alarm to Manage the Health Crisis Caused by Covid-19

The royal decree institutes a 15-day nationwide "state of alarm," due to the coronavirus pandemic. Among other measures, the decree limits individual movement to certain essential activities (procuring food or medical care), suspends operation of non-essential businesses, and centralizes control of health services and other critical government functions. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 19 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Emergency, Movement

Type: order

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Sri Lanka

Nationwide Lockdown Order

Sri Lanka imposed a series of nationwide lockdown orders prohibiting movement between 10 p.m. to 4 a.m. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 20 Aug 2021 Expires 30 August 2021

Issue(s): Movement

Type: order

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Sri Lanka

President of Sri Lanka Announcement on Curfew

The order imposes a curfew from 4pm-6am every day. Traveling to and from other districts is completely prohibited (except for individuals who are providing essential services). The order further designates some villages as isolated areas, in which no one is allowed to enter or leave. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 20 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Movement

Type: order

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Sri Lanka

Generalized Repression in Response to Pandemic

The Defense Ministry, which was appointed to lead the government's response to COVID-19, has arrested over 66,000 people for alleged curfew violations. Incidents of repression of dissent doubled in May, including beatings, arbitrary arrests, surveillance, death threats and hacking of electronic devices. The Ministry has sought assistance from intelligence agencies, rather than health services, in contact tracing, creating concern among civil society groups. There have been reports of intelligence agents interfering with civil society organizations attempting to service citizens' needs, and of intelligence agents visiting the homes of and making calls to organizations' members. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 8 Aug 2020

Issue(s): Association, Surveillance, Privacy, Movement, Militarization

Type: practice

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Sudan

Lockdown in Major Cities

Authorities announced a three-week lockdown in Khartoum and Omdurman. Essential services such as supermarkets and pharmacies will remain open, but only for limited periods. Individuals will be allowed limited movement within their neighborhoods to purchase necessities. A nighttime curfew is in effect nationwide from 8pm to 6am, and a ban on domestic travel remains in place.

الإغلاق في المدن الكبرى

 Ø£Ø¹Ù„نت السلطات عن إغلاق لمدة ثلاثة أسابيع في الخرطوم وأم درمان. ستظل الخدمات الأساسية مثل محلات السوبر ماركت والصيدليات مفتوحة، ولكن لفترات محدودة فقط. سيُسمح للأفراد بالتحرك بصورة محدودة داخل أحيائهم لشراء الضروريات. يسري حظر التجول الليلي في جميع أنحاء البلاد من الساعة الثامنة مساءاً حتى الساعة السادسة صباحاً، ولا يزال حظر السفر الداخلي سارياً.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 18 Apr 2020

Issue(s): Movement

Type: order

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Sudan

Emergency Order No. 1 of 2020 Declaring a Public Health Emergency

The order declares a "state of public health emergency" in Sudan due to the coronavirus pandemic. The order criminalizes "disseminating incorrect statements or information, including rumors, through any means of publication or misleading the authorities regarding the pandemic." The order also criminalizes a failure to quarantine and interference with transportation of those suspected of being infected with COVID-19. The order criminalizes as well non-compliance with lockdown measures by "being present in public places" and failing to maintain social distance in several different contexts. Non-compliance with authorities requesting medical examinations is also criminalized. The order affords police the authority to close public places in violation of the order, to seize vehicles, to detain and arrest persons in violation, and to take "all necessary measures" to implement the order. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 12 Apr 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Disinformation, Emergency, Press Freedom, Expression, Privacy, Movement

Type: order

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Sudan

Curfew and Ban on Public Gatherings

The government imposes a nighttime curfew nationwide from 10pm to 6am. The curfew followed a nationwide ban on mass gatherings, instituted on March 20.

حظر التجول وحظر التجمعات العامة

 Ø§Ù„حكومة تفرض حظر التجول الليلي في جميع أنحاء البلاد من الساعة العاشرة مساءاً حتى الساعة السادسة صباحاً. جاء حظر التجول بعد حظر على التجمعات العامة في جميع أنحاء البلاد، تم فرضه في 20 مارس.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 24 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement

Type: order

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Suriname

Closure of Borders and Restrictions on Movement and Gatherings

The government banned gatherings of more than five people, instituted a curfew, and imposed restrictions to travel from outside the country. Persons may travel across the border only after receiving prior approval from the competent Surinamese authorities. The order modifies earlier decrees, including a prior national stay at home order.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 17 Jun 2021

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement

Type: order

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Suriname

Countrywide Lockdown

Suriname imposed a shelter-in-place policy, announcing a total lockdown from June 4 until June 12, prohibiting nonessential movement, installing curfews for essential businesses like bakeries, and prohibiting travel by car or taxi with more than two people at a time. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 3 Jun 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement

Type: order

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Syria

Ban on Domestic Travel

The government has barred individuals' travel between cities and governorates starting March 29, 2020, until further notice, to combat the spread of coronavirus.

حظر التنقل الداخلي

 Ø­Ø¸Ø±Øª الحكومة تنقل الأفراد بين المدن والمحافظات اعتباراً من 29 مارس 2020 حتى إشعار آخر، وذلك لمكافحة انتشار فيروس كورونا المستجد.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 29 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Movement

Type: order

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Thailand

Regulation No. 27 Issued under Section 9 of the Royal Decree on Public Administration in Emergency Situations B.E. 2548 (2005)

The Regulation establishes a curfew for certain provinces, including the Bangkok metropolitan area, between 9:00pm and 4:00am. Gatherings of more than 5 persons are prohibited. The Regulation also "prohibits the spread or dissemination of news (whether by books, publications or any other media) that includes content which may: (i) incite fear among the public, or (ii) intentionally distort information to cause misunderstanding in emergency situations which affects the security of the state or the public's good morals across Thailand." Violators could face a fine of up to THB 40,000 and/or imprisonment up to 2 years.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 12 Jul 2021

Issue(s): Assembly, Disinformation, Press Freedom, Expression, Movement

Type: regulation

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Timor-Leste

Decree No. 3/2020 Measures for the Implementation of the Declaration of State of Emergency

The Decree imposes a mandatory quarantine for 14 days of those arriving into the country, limits movement around the country, and prohibits gatherings and demonstrations involving more than five people. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 28 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement

Type: order

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Timor-Leste

Decree of the President of the Republic No. 29/2020 Declaring a State of Emergency

The President of Timor-Leste declared a State of Emergency in response to the Covid-19 pandemic, in effect for 30 days. The State of Emergency partially suspends the rights to assembly and freedom of movement.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 27 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency, Movement

Type: order

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Togo

Overnight Curfew

Togolese authorities imposed a 21:00 to 05:00 (local time) overnight curfew in the prefectures of Tchaoudjo, Tchamba, and Sotouboua, citing a spike in COVID-19 cases. Local lockdowns have also been announced for the cities of Sokode, Tchamba, and Adjengre, where the majority of recently confirmed cases of the disease have been concentrated. The announcement came a week after the country's state of emergency due to the COVID-19 pandemic was extended until September 15, 2020.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 25 Aug 2020 Lifted on 10/8/20; re-imposed 12/20/20 until 1/3/21

Issue(s): Movement

Type: order

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Togo

Declaration of National Health Emergency and Curfew

In his address, the president declares a three-month nationwide "health emergency," and a six-month period of exceptional lawmaking authority under Article 86 of the Constitution. A nationwide curfew will also be in place between 7pm and 6am, beginning April 2. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 1 Apr 2020

Issue(s): Emergency, Movement

Type: order

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Trinidad and Tobago

State of Emergency and Curfew

The Government of Trinidad and Tobago declared a state of emergency and established a daily curfew between 9:00 p.m. and 5:00 a.m. The state of emergency is in effect for an initial period of 90 days, and may be renewed. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 15 May 2021

Issue(s): Emergency, Movement

Type: order

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Trinidad and Tobago

Public Health [2019 Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCov)] (No. 4) Regulations, 2020

The Regulations prohibit public gatherings of more than 10 people and non-essential work for two weeks. The Regulations have been amended dozens of times to include varying degrees of quarantine and lockdown measures. All amendedments are available here.  

(

See primary source or citation here

)

Introduced 27 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement

Type: order

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Tunisia

Governmental Decree No. 2020-152 of 13 March 2020

The decree declares COVID-19 a communicable disease, governed by Law No. 92-71 of 1992 on communicable diseases, which allows authorities to apply quarantine, prevention, and control measures. The declaration also allows the government to impose criminal sanctions provided for in other legislation, such as Article 312 of the Penal Code, which provides that anyone who contravenes prohibitions and prophylactic or control measures ordered in times of epidemic can be punished with six months' imprisonment and a fine. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 13 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Movement

Type: order

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Turkey

Restrictions and Measures Circulars

The Circulars introduce a complex set of restrictions, including weekday and weekend curfews, additional restrictions for persons over 65 years and under 20 years, travel restrictions, suspension of the operation of certain businesses, and other restrictions. Persons may travel in certain circumstances, provided that they obtain permission from the Travel Permit Boards. Officials may also determine the number of people who may enter crowded streets or squares, if necessary. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 30 Nov 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement

Type: order

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Turkey

Curfew Circular on Those 65 and Over and with Chronic Diseases

Turkey's Ministry of Interior restricted citizens over the age of 65, as well as the chronically ill, from leaving their residence. These citizens are prohibited from walking in public areas such as parks and roads, and may not travel by public transport. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 21 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Movement

Type: order

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Uganda

Nationwide Lockdown

The presidential order declares a 14-day nationwide lockdown beginning April 1, to prevent further spread of the coronavirus. The order prohibits movement by private vehicles and imposes a curfew from 7pm until 6:30am as of March 31. All members of the public, except for individuals transporting cargo, are instructed to stay indoors. The order also prohibits gatherings of more than five people.


Introduced 1 Apr 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement

Type: order

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Ukraine

Resolution No. 211 on Prevention of the Spread of COVID-19

The government's resolution among other things prohibits individuals from remaining in public places without a facemask or a respirator; congregating in groups of more than two persons (except for exigencies of work and accompanying children); visiting parks, public gardens, and other outdoor areas (except for pets walking with one person and in case of emergency); and being on the streets without ID cards. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 3 Apr 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement

Type: order

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United Arab Emirates

Resolution No. 38 on Penalties to Contain Coronavirus

The Attorney General's resolution stipulates fines for various violations of Cabinet Resolution No. 17 to contain the spread of Covid-19. The penalties include a fine of AED 10,000 ($2,700) for "organizing gatherings or meetings" or "being present in groups at public places or private farms," and a fine of AED 50,000 ($13,600) for failure to comply with quarantine instructions. The resolution provides that repeat violators will be referred to the public prosecutor.

قرار رقم 38 بشأن العقوبات المتعلقة بالحد من انتشار فيروس كورونا المستجد

 ÙŠÙ†Øµ قرار النائب العام على الغرامات المترتبة على المخالفات المختلفة لقرار مجلس الوزراء رقم 17 بشأن الحد من انتشار فيروس كورونا المستجد. تتضمن العقوبات غرامة قدرها 10,000 درهم (2,700 دولار أمريكي) على "تنظيم التجمعات أو الاجتماعات" أو "التواجد في مجموعات في الأماكن العامة أو المزارع الخاصة"ØŒ وغرامة قدرها 50,000 درهم (13,600 دولار أمريكي) لعدم الالتزام بتعليمات الحجر الصحي. ينص القرار على إحالة الأشخاص من ذوي المخالفات المتكررة إلى النائب العام.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 28 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement

Type: regulation

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United Kingdom

Coronavirus Act 2020

The Act gives UK authorities emergency powers to address the coronavirus pandemic, including the power to detain individuals deemed “potentially infectious" and put them in isolation facilities. Individuals who fail to comply may be subject to a £1,000 fine. The Act also enables the government to restrict public events and other gatherings to prevent or otherwise control the spread of coronavirus. Under the Act, surveillance warrants may be in place for up to twelve days before they must be reviewed by judicial authorities, up from the current three days. The Act must be renewed by parliament every six months. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 26 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency, Surveillance, Privacy, Movement

Type: law

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United Kingdom

Nationwide Stay-at-Home Order

Pubs, bars and restaurants are closed with exceptions for takeaway and delivery services. Residents are ordered to stay at home, with exceptions for education, for work that cannot be performed remotely, for exercise and outdoor recreation, for medical needs, for shopping, and for caring for vulnerable people. Non-essential shops are ordered to be closed. The measures are temporary and will end in early December. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 31 Oct 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement

Type: order

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United States

States of Emergency in All 50 States

As of April 7, 2020, all 50 U.S. states have declared a "state of emergency" in response to COVID-19. 42 states have issued orders urging residents to stay at home. Several of the remaining states have stay at home orders in parts of the state. Washington State was the first to declare a state of emergency on March 2, 2020. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 7 Apr 2020

Issue(s): Emergency, Movement

Type: order

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United States

Measures to Contain the Spread of Coronavirus in Puerto Rico

The governor's executive order establishes a lockdown, requiring residents to stay in their homes 24 hours a day, seven days a week between March 31 and April 12, 2020. The order provides limited circumstances for leaving between 5am and 7pm. Under the order, "breaching, disrespecting, or disobeying" the curfew may be punished with up to 6 months in jail and a $5000 fine. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 30 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Movement

Type: order

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Uzbekistan

Decision of the Special Republican Commission

The Decision establishes a strict self-isolation regime for Tashkent, Nukus, and regional centers. Persons older than 65 are prohibited from leaving their homes except to visit pharmacies or grocery stores. The decision also temporarily suspends the organization of private charitable events. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 1 Apr 2020

Issue(s): Movement

Type: order

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Venezuela

Municipal Health Emergency Decree DDA-003-2021

The Mayor of Pedro María Freites in Anzoátegui state declared a state of health emergency. The decree allows the Mayor to place restrictions on movement and gatherings. The state of health emergency will be in effect for 30 days, and may be extended. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 9 Jun 2021

Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency, Movement

Type: order

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Venezuela

Detention of Migrant Workers and Others Returning Home

Upon arriving home from other countries in Latin America, low-income Venezuelans,  including thousands of migrant workers, have been held under military guard in crowded "confinement centers" for weeks or months, with limited food, water, or masks. Some have been forced to take coronavirus tests and treated with unproven medications, including drugs identified by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and the W.H.O. as having dangerous side effects. By contrast, wealthier Venezuelans arriving in the country can pay a fee to skip the confinement and continue home. The National Armed Forces have referred to those who try to evade the government's border controls as "trocheros" ("bioterrorists"), and encouraged Venezuelans to report them to authorities.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 19 Aug 2020

Issue(s): Discrimination, Movement, Militarization

Type: practice

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Vietnam

Hanoi Lockdown Order

The government imposed a 15-day lockdown in the capital Hanoi and banned gatherings of more than two people in public. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 24 Jul 2021

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement

Type: order

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Vietnam

Ho Chi Minh City Lockdown Order

Lockdown decree prohibts gatherings of more than two people and imposes a stay at home order. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 9 Jul 2021

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement

Type: order

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Vietnam

Directive 16/TT-TTg on Implementation of Urgent Measures for Prevention and Control of COVID-19

The directive requires people to self-isolate at home. Exceptions include buying food or medicine, working at factories or production facilities trading in essential services and goods, and other emergency cases. The directive also requires that people maintain an interpersonal distance of at least two meters, and not gather in groups of more than two people outside of the workplace, schools, hospitals, and businesses that are allowed to remain open. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 1 Apr 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement

Type: order

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Zimbabwe

Public Health (COVID-19 Prevention, Containment and Treatment) (National Lockdown) (No. 2) (Amendment) Order, 2021 (No. 16)

The Order amends the Public Health (COVID-19 Prevention, Containment and Treatment) (National Lockdown) (No. 2) Order, SI 200 of 2020 in respect to public gatherings. The Order caps gatherings at 50 persons, and sets a curfew between 22:00 hours and 05:30 hours on the following day. The Order also provides broad discretion to enforcement officers to accept/reject justifications for a person exempted from the regulations: proof "by any other means satisfactory to the enforcement officer."

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 2 Mar 2021

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement

Type: order

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Zimbabwe

Public Health (COVID-19 Prevention, Containment and Treatment) (National Lockdown) (No. 2) (Amendment) Order, 2021 (No. 13)

The Minister of Health and Child Care amended the curfew to begin at 20:00 hours and end at 05:30 hours on the following day. A Level IV lockdown was extended, with revised prohibitions of gatherings (maximum 30 people for funerals; and all gatherings for worship and for public hearings are suspended). 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 15 Feb 2021

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement

Type: order

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Zimbabwe

Public Health (COVID-19 Prevention, Containment and Treatment) (National Lockdown) (No. 2) (Amendment) Order, 2021 (No. 9)

The Minister of Health reduced the number of people permitted to gather from 100 to "no more than 2 in any public place." The curfew was expanded to begin at 18:00hrs and end at 06:00hrs the following day. The country reverted to a Level IV National Lockdown. Gatherings are capped at 30 people for funerals, and there is a complete prohibition of worship and public hearings for 30 days.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 2 Jan 2021

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement

Type: order

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Zimbabwe

SI 2020-099 Public Health (COVID-19 Prevention, Containment and Treatment) (National Lockdown) (Amendment) Order, 2020 (No. 5)

This order extends the nationwide lockdown for an additional two weeks.  The order also imposes additional restrictions on movement, including a requirement that individuals using public transport must be temperature-tested before boarding. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 2 May 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement

Type: order

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Zimbabwe

SI No. 83 of 2020 on Public Health (COVID-19 Prevention, Containment and Treatment) (National Lockdown) Order

The order imposes a national lockdown for 21 days and prohibits all public gatherings of more than 2 people, with very limited exceptions, on account of the coronavirus pandemic. Anyone who violates the lockdown can be punished with a Level 12 fine and one year's imprisonment. A person found further than 5km from his home may be arrested without a warrant and put in detention, isolation, or quarantine. Any person who publishes or communicates false news about any official involved with enforcing the national lockdown, or about any private individual with the effect of harming the state's enforcement of the lockdown, shall be liable to a penalty of up to a Level 14 fine or 20 years in prison or both.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 30 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Disinformation, Press Freedom, Expression, Access to Information, Movement

Type: order

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