COVID-19 Civic Freedom Tracker

Keep Civic Space Healthy

This tracker monitors government responses to the pandemic that affect civic freedoms and human rights, focusing on emergency laws. For information about our methodology, click here.

For more information and analysis by region, click here.

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The COVID-19 Civic Freedom Tracker is a collaborative effort by the ICNL, ECNL, and our global network of partners, with generous research support from the UN Special Rapporteur on the promotion and protection of human rights and fundamental freedoms while countering terrorism, Fionnuala D. Ní Aoláin. This is an ongoing effort, and we welcome you to email us at adeblock@icnl.org and simona@ecnl.org to share additional resources.


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Albania

Military Enforcement of Curfew

Albania’s government deployed the army to enforce a strict 40-hour curfew aimed at stopping the spread of coronavirus.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 21 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Militarization

Type: practice

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Australia

Military Enforcement of State of Disaster

The premier announced that military personnel would be deployed to enforce the curfew and that breaches of curfew could be punished with fines of up to 20,000 Australian dollars (US $14,250). 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 4 Aug 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement, Militarization

Type: practice

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Bangladesh

Nationwide Lockdown and Army Deployment

The government imposed a strict lockdown including stay at home orders for citizens and the closure of offices and public transportation. The Army was deployed to enforce compliance with the order.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 30 May 2021

Issue(s): Movement, Militarization

Type: order

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Bangladesh

Arrests for Criticizing Government Response to Pandemic

According to rights groups, in two weeks since mid-March, Bangladeshi authorities have arrested doctors, activists, and students for "spreading rumors" and "misinformation" on Facebook, after they published posts that were criticizal of the government’s response to COVID-19. Most of the arrests were based on the 2018 Digital Security Act. The Information Ministry announced that it had formed a unit under the Rapid Action Battalion, the country’s primary counterterrorism unit, to monitor social media and various television outlets for “rumors” about COVID-19 cases.  

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 31 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Disinformation, Press Freedom, Expression, Militarization

Type: practice

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Cambodia

Law on National Management in the State of Emergency

The law provides the government with broad new powers during a state of emergency. These include: banning meetings and gatherings; restricting people from leaving their homes; mobilizing military forces; surveilling telecommunications "by any means"; banning or restricting news media that may harm "national security" or create confusion about the state of emergency; and other measures that are "suitable and necessary" to respond to the emergency. "Obstructing" the state's response to the emergency, or noncompliance with the response in a way that creates "public chaos," is punishable by up to 5 years in jail and a fine of up to 5 million riels ($1,200). Organizations found culpable of these offenses may be fined up to 1 billion riels ($247,000).

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 10 Apr 2020

Issue(s): Association, Assembly, Emergency, Surveillance, Press Freedom, Expression, Privacy, Access to Information, Movement, Militarization

Type: law

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Chad

Decree No. 379/PR/2020

The decree announces a state of emergency in select provinces of Chad. The decree empowers local civil and military authorities to prohibit the movement of people and vehicles; to establish protection zones where people are "regulated"; to temporarily close performance halls, bars and meeting areas; to ban meetings "likely to provoke disturbances of public order"; to order nightly home searches; to collect all weapons; to take all measures to ensure control of the press and publications of all types of radio and television broadcasts; and to make arrests. Per the order, this expansion of local authorities' powers ends with the end of the state of emergency.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 26 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency, Press Freedom, Expression, Privacy, Access to Information, Movement, Militarization

Type: order

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Democratic Republic of Congo

Mask Mandate

Mayor Gentiny Ngobila declared a mask mandate in the DRC capital city of Kinshasa. The city’s Police Chief, Slyvano Kasongo, said police would be deployed in large numbers to track down those who do not follow the new mandate. Persons found in violation of the mandate have been asked to pay FC 5000 (USD2.50). People gathering at funerals will also be arrested for contravening the city’s COVID-19 regulations.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 26 Nov 2020

Issue(s): Militarization

Type: order

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Egypt

Amendments to Emergency Law 162/1958

The amendments expand the powers of the president and military prosecution during a declared state of emergency. Under the amended Emergency Law, powers available to the president now include the power to: ban private and public gatherings in addition to protests; shut down schools and universities; suspend operations in the private and public sector; and subject anyone returning from outside the country to quarantine. The amendments also allow the president to give military prosecutors preliminary investigation authority over any crimes. Egypt has been in a continuous state of emergency since April 2017, and has repeatedly extended the state of emergency for three-month periods, most recently in January, April, July, and October 2020.

تعديلات على قانون الطوارئ رقم 162 لسنة 1958

 ØªÙˆØ³Ø¹ التعديلات من سلطات الرئيس ونطاق المحاكمات العسكرية خلال إعلان حالة الطوارئ. بموجب قانون الطوارئ المعدل، فإن السلطات المتاحة للرئيس الآن تشمل حظر التجمعات الخاصة والعامة بالإضافة إلى الاحتجاجات، إغلاق المدارس والجامعات، ووقف العمل في القطاعين الخاص والعام، وإخضاع أي شخص يعود من خارج البلاد للحجر الصحي. أيضاً، تتيح التعديلات للرئيس منح أعضاء النيابة العامة العسكرية سلطة التحقيق الأولية في أي جرائم. تشهد مصر حالة طوارئ مستمرة منذ أبريل 2017ØŒ ومؤخراً تم تمديد حالة الطوارئ لمدة ثلاثة أشهر أخرى بدأت في 26 اكتوبر.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 8 May 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency, Militarization

Type: law

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Egypt

State of Emergency

The presidential decree declares a "state of emergency" for three months, under Article 154 of Egypt's Constitution. Egypt has been in a near-continuous state of emergency since April 2017, however the most recent declaration cites the "critical security and health situation" as grounds for extension. The declaration reinforces the authority of the armed forces and police to maintain security and save the lives of citizens, and provides that the state may impose restrictions on individuals' movement. The decree also states that violations of emergency orders will be punished with imprisonment.

حالة الطوارئ

 ÙŠÙ†Øµ المرسوم الرئاسي على إعلان "حالة الطوارئ" لمدة ثلاثة أشهر، بموجب المادة 154 من الدستور المصري. تشهد مصر حالة طوارئ شبه مستمرة منذ أبريل 2017ØŒ لكن الإعلان الأخير يشير إلى "الوضع الأمني والصحي الحرج" كأسباب للتمديد. يعزز الإعلان سلطة القوات المسلحة والشرطة في الحفاظ على الأمن وإنقاذ حياة المواطنين، وينص على أنه يجوز للدولة فرض قيود على تنقل الأفراد. ينص المرسوم أيضاً على عقوبة السجن على أي انتهاكات لقرارات الطوارئ.


Introduced 28 Apr 2020

Issue(s): Emergency, Movement, Militarization

Type: order

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El Salvador

Executive Decree No. 12

This decree announces "extraordinary measures of prevention and containment to declare the national territory as an area subject to sanitary control." The order establishes quarantine measures prohibiting movement of any persons outside their homes, with limited exceptions. The order authorizes the police to arrest those in violation and to transport them to "containment centers." The order also authorizes involvement of the military in enforcement of the quarantine. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 15 Mar 2020 For most recent updates: https://covid19.gob.sv/category/noticias/decretos-y-comunicados/

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement, Militarization

Type: order

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El Salvador

Police and Military Abuses in Enforcement of Movement restrictions

Salvadoran police and military have arbitrarily arrested, detained, and beaten hundreds of people for violating COVID-19 lockdown measures, including individuals working in essential services outside their homes. According to complaints to the country's Ombudsperson, dozens of detainees had to sleep in police station parking lots, were denied food and water, and were kept in unsanitary conditions. As of April 13, more than 4,000 detainees were held in overcrowded containment centers, many for violations of quarantine and lockdown orders. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 15 Apr 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement, Militarization

Type: practice

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Fiji

Arrests in Enforcement of Quarantine and Deployment of Military

Hundreds of people have been arrested and charged for breaching laws and regulations on self-isolation, quarantine and movement restrictions. Fiji has also deployed military officers in order to support the government's response to the pandemic. Civil society activists have raised concerns regarding the pattern of widespread arrests in enforcement of lockdown measures and the lack of transparency around potential instances of the use of excessive force. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 21 Apr 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement, Militarization

Type: practice

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Guatemala

Decrees No. 5 and 6 on the Declaration of Public Calamity

Decree No. 5 declares a "state of public calamity" under Article 183 of Guatemala's Constitution, on account of the coronavirus. Under the decree, constitutional freedoms including freedom of movement and the right to peaceful assembly are suspended. The decree prohibits events of any size, as well any social, cultural, and sports activities. Decree No. 6 amends the restrictions to prohibit movement between 4:00pm until 4:00am for one week. The order calls upon the Guatemalan Army to support enforcement of the lockdown. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 21 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency, Movement, Militarization

Type: order

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Hungary

Government Decree No. 484/2020. (XI. 10.) on the Second Phase of Protective Measures to be Applied in the Event of a State of Danger

The Decree introduces a blanket ban on assemblies in public spaces, establishes a curfew between 8pm and 5am, and imposes heavy fines for violations up to 1,400 EUR (500,000 HUF) for participants of banned protests. The Decrees also allows the military to take part in patrols and monitor compliance with the emergency measures. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 10 Nov 2020 In effect through 11 December 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement, Militarization

Type: order

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Indonesia

Regulation of the Minister of Health of the Republic of Indonesia, Number 9 of 2020

This order empowers sub-national leaders of regions impacted by COVID-19 to impose mandatory school and work vacations, restrictions on religious activities, restrictions on activities in public places or facilities, restrictions on social and cultural activities, and restrictions on public transportation. This order also activates the military for combatting COVID-19 domestically.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 3 Apr 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement, Militarization

Type: regulation

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Jamaica

Quarantine Measures

Initially, restrictions were imposed on movement of people in and out of the seven-and-eight Miles area of Bull Bay. The Jamaica Constabulary Force and the Jamacia Defense Force were both deployed in enforcement of the quarantine. Subsequently, the government issued an order on 17 March 2020 that all non-essential work in both the public and private sectors was to be done from home. Markets were restricted to operating between 6am and 2pm. This order also restricted gathering size to 20 persons and closed bars, night clubs, and other recreational facilities. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 14 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement, Militarization

Type: order

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Jordan

Armed Forces Deploy in Anticipation of Lockdown

The Jordanian armed forces deployed soldiers to all governorates in preparation for a nationwide 48-hour total lockdown. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 7 Oct 2020

Issue(s): Militarization

Type: practice

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Kazakhstan

Decree No. 285 Declaring a State of Emergency

The decree declares a "state of emergency" for thirty days, on account of the coronavirus pandemic. Among other things, the decree suspends public events, closes the border, and introduces quarantine measures with the participation of relevant military departments.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 16 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency, Movement, Militarization

Type: order

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Kuwait

Weekly Announcement of the Council of Ministers, March 21

Kuwait imposed a nationwide 11- hour curfew from 5 p.m. to 4 a.m. The national guard was ordered to assist the police in enforcing the lockdown. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 22 Mar 2020 Extended and expanded on 6 April 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement, Militarization

Type: order

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Laos

Order No. 06/PM on the Reinforcement of Measures for the Containment, Prevention, and Full Response to the COVID-19 Pandemic

The Order imposes general restrictions on movement outside the home and on inter-regional travel. The Order prohibits public gatherings of more than 10 persons and "strictly prohibit[s] the advertisement of, release, forward of any fake news via any media platform that can cause misunderstanding, panic and create negative impact on society." An agency is tasked with surveillance responsibilities to that end. The Order also indicates that the military will be involved in the enforcement of lockdown measures. Updates on restrictions and extensions are available here

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 31 Mar 2020 Extended through 15 September 2021

Issue(s): Assembly, Disinformation, Surveillance, Press Freedom, Expression, Movement, Militarization

Type: law

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Lebanon

Decision No. 54/2020 Imposing a Curfew

The decision, issued under the "state of general mobilization" declared on March 15, prohibits individuals from moving or driving from 7pm to 5am. The Law on National Defense authorizes the military and security forces to control transportation during a state of general mobilization.

القرار رقم 54 لسنة 2020 بشأن فرض حظر التجول

 Ø§Ù„قرار الصادر بموجب "حالة التعبئة العامة" المعلن في 15 مارس يحظر على الأفراد التنقل أو قيادة السيارات من الساعة السابعة مساءً إلى الساعة الخامسة صباحاً. يفوض قانون الدفاع الوطني القوات العسكرية والأمنية بالسيطرة على وسائل النقل أثناء حالة التعبئة العامة.

(

See primary source or citation here

)

Introduced 26 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Movement, Militarization

Type: order

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Liberia

State of Emergency

President Weah declares a "state of emergency" for three weeks, renewable until the threat posed by COVID-19 subsides. During this period, residents may only leave home for essential journeys, which should be restricted to local communities and be limited to a single person per household for a maximum of one hour. The order tasks the Chief of Staff of the Armed Forces of Liberia and the Chairman of the National Joint Security with enforcing this stay-home policy. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 10 Apr 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency, Movement, Militarization

Type: order

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Madagascar

Decree No. 2020-359, Proclaiming the State of Health Emergency Throughout the Territory of the Republic

The Presidential order declares a state of emergency for fifteen days. The decree delegates control of movement of persons and vehicles to the Prime Minister. The decree also grants emergency powers to several ministers, including the Minister of National Defense, the Minister of Posts, Telecommunications and Digital Development, and the Secretary of State at the Ministry of National Defense in charge of the Gendarmerie. The state of emergency declaration was subsequently renewed every two weeks, through October 2020. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 21 Mar 2020 Extended through October 2020

Issue(s): Emergency, Movement, Militarization

Type: order

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Malawi

Public Health (Corona Virus Prevention, Containment and Management) Rules

The Minister of Health imposes a nationwide lockdown that prohibits all individual movement, with limited exceptions. Individuals in need of an essential service outside of their locality are required to obtain a permit from their local council. All gatherings of more than ten people are suspended. The Malawi Defence Force, the Malawi Police Service and the Department of Immigration and Citizenship Services will be deployed to ensure strict compliance with these measures. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 8 Apr 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement, Militarization

Type: regulation

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Nepal

Intimidation and Harassment of Journalists Reporting on COVID-19

There have been ongoing threats and attacks against journalists by government actors in Nepal for their reporting on the COVID-19 pandemic.  Police have detained reporters for the act of reporting during lockdown on multiple occasions. In at least some cases, the relevant reporters were covering the impact of the pandemic on Nepali society and the government’s handling thereof.  Public health workers have threatened a journalist for reporting on the smuggling of medical supplies. One reporter was beaten by soldiers for photographing a lockdown checkpoint.  A parliamentarian threatened a bureau chief for reporting that the parliamentarian’s wife had violated lockdown restrictions. Additionally, a leader of an opposition party was at one point phoned and threatened by a politician after reporting that the politician had not cooperated in quarantining someone suspected of carrying the virus. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 3 Jul 2020

Issue(s): Press Freedom, Expression, Access to Information, Militarization

Type: practice

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Nepal

Arrest of Peaceful Protesters and Use of Excessive Force

At least ten peaceful protesters demanding better testing and quarantine facilities for returning migrant workers were arrested for violation of lockdown orders. Police have responded to protests with force, using water cannons, batons and tear gas to disperse protesters. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 13 Jun 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Expression, Movement, Militarization

Type: practice

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Nigeria

Police Brutality in Enforcing Lockdown

On April 15, the Nigerian National Human Rights Commission reported that the Nigerian Correctional Service, comprising police and army officers, had killed at least 18 civilians during lockdown enforcement. The Commission also reported that it had received 105 petitions from the families of those killed. By the time the report was issued, the number of deaths caused by security forces exceeded the number of deaths caused by coronavirus. The NHRC subsequently established a panel to investigate the brutality. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 15 Apr 2020

Issue(s): Movement, Militarization

Type: practice

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Pakistan

Ministry Order Deploying Military Forces

The Ministry of Interior order authorizes the deployment of Pakistan Army troops "in connection with the prevailing situation related to the spread of COVID-19 and matters ancillary thereto."


Introduced 23 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Militarization

Type: order

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Palestine

Emergency Order No. 1 of 2020

The decision, issued by the Prime Minister pursuant to his emergency powers, among other things restricts individuals' movement among governorates; prohibits gatherings of people including meetings, workshops, conferences, and demonstrations; and closes educational facilities and houses of worship. The decision also prohibits officials from making "any statement" to the press without permission from the Prime Minister. The decision generally prohibits all individuals from "dealing with any rumors or untrustworthy information, and the transferring and broadcasting thereof," and indicates that individuals should obtain information "from official sources only." The Prime Minister's decision orders all national security forces to ensure the decision's implementation, while protecting individuals' rights and freedoms.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 6 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Disinformation, Press Freedom, Expression, Access to Information, Movement, Militarization

Type: order

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Papua New Guinea

National Pandemic Act

The National Pandemic Act restricts they following rights in the face of public health emergencies: the liberty of persons, the freedom from arbitrary search and entry, the freedom of expression, the freedom of assembly and association, the right to privacy, the right to freedom of information, and the right to freedom of movement. The Act was explicitly passed as a non-emergency law, meaning that its provisions do not expire with the end of the COVID-19 emergency. The Act affords power to declare and to revoke a "Public Health Emergency" to the Head of State, "acting on advice." The Act enables the Head of State to appoint the Controller, who has the power to impose measures such as forced medical observations and domestic movement restrictions. The Act empowers the Head of State to involve the Defence Force in the Controller's activities.  This Act was passed quickly through the parliament without adequate consultation of civil society, and was met with significant opposition due to the risks that it poses to human rights and its failure to include certain Constitutional protections (such as limiting the potential duration of an emergency delcaration to two months). The Act was invoked in early August 2020, and then the declaration of a Public Health Emergency was revoked on September 3, 2020. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 16 Jun 2020

Issue(s): Association, Assembly, Press Freedom, Expression, Access to Information, Movement, Militarization

Type: law

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Papua New Guinea

Emergency Defence Force COVID-19 Bill, 2020

This Act orders the Defence Force to cooperate with the Emergency Controller as needed during the national emergency. The Defence Force is required to be responsive to the orders and directions of the Emergency Controller. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 30 Mar 2019

Issue(s): Militarization

Type: law

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Papua New Guinea

State of Emergency

The State of Emergency was originally declared by the Prime Minister in a statement given on March 22, for period of 14 days. The declaration allowed the Commissioner of Police to "assume control" of the emergency situation and to call upon the military to "ensure lawful order, control and response to SOE control measures." The order indicated that during the 14-day period, there was to be no public transportation and no movement from one province to another. Workplaces and educational institutions were closed. The Prime Minister released a statement on March 23 with an additional State of Emergency provision that "spreading false rumors and organising public gatherings will be charged appropriately."

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 22 Mar 2020 Extended through 2 June 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Disinformation, Emergency, Press Freedom, Expression, Movement, Militarization

Type: order

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Philippines

Proclamation No. 929 Declaring a State of Calamity

The executive proclamation declares a nationwide "state of calamity" under Section 15(2) of the Constiution, due to the coronavirus, for six months unless lifted or extended as the circumstances may warrant." The proclamation imposes an enhanced community quarantine throughout the island of Luzon, which includes the capital Manila, from March 17 to April 13. It also directs all law enforcement agencies, "with support from the Armed Forces," to take "all necessary measures" to ensure order in affected areas.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 16 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Emergency, Movement, Militarization

Type: order

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Philippines

Inter-Agency Task Force for the Management of Emerging Infectious Diseases, Resolution No. 11

The order imposes a variety of community quarantine measures on the Metro Manila area. The order calls upon the Armed Forces of the Philippines to ensure the effective and orderly implementation of the lockdown measures. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 12 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Movement, Militarization

Type: order

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Philippines

Police Ordered to Arrest Mask Violators

In a pre-recorded public address, President Duterte told police to arrest and detain Filipinos who are improperly using face mask in a bid to “protect the public” against COVID-19.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 6 May 2021

Issue(s): Militarization

Type: practice

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Poland

Order No. 180 Regarding Use of the Military to Provide Assistance to the Police

As a result of the increase in the number of COVID-19 cases, the military Gendarmerie will assist the police in maintaining security and public order from October 28 until the date of cancellation of the State of Epidemic. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 26 Oct 2020

Issue(s): Militarization

Type: order

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Portugal

Decree No. 8/2020

The Decree establishes a state of emergency for 15 days, renewable by the government every 15 days. The Decree limits movement on public roads and in public spaces between 11pm and 5am on weekdays and 1pm and 5am on weekends. Exceptions are made for essential travel, as defined by the Decree (including traveling for work, health reasons, buying groceries or medical products, assisting vulnerable people, force majeure, etc.). The Decree also allows for the measurements of body temperature, performed by non-invasive means, in order to control of access to the workplace, to public services or institutions, educational establishments and commercial, cultural or sports spaces, means of transport, in residential structures, health establishments, prisons or educational centers. Security forces and services are responsible for supervising compliance with the provisions of the Decree.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 8 Nov 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement, Militarization

Type: order

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Romania

Military Ordinance no. 3/2020 on Measures to Prevent the Spread of COVID-19

This order by the Minister of the Interior prohibits non-essential travel outside homes. Extra restrictions are placed on people over age 65, though these restrictions do not apply midday, and they permit those over 65 to travel outside time restrictions for "professional interests" and for "agricultural activities." All persons entering the country are required to isolate at home. Local authorities are instructed to keep a database of homeless persons. The order imposes various restrictions on flights and sea vessels crossing national border. The order also expands the scope of responsibilities of the Ministry of Defense by increasing collaboration between the Ministry of Defense, the Ministry of the Interior and border police, and by involving the Ministry of Defense in maintaining domestic public order. The order further indicates that "national security institutions will design communication systems and computer applications, necessary for the Ministry of Internal Affairs, Ministry of Health and local authorities to communicate in real time and permanently with persons quarantined or isolated at home." Additionally, the order indicates that Romanian Police, the Romanian Gendarmerie and the local police are empowered to enforce the stay-at-home order, and it criminalizes non-compliance with the stay-at-home order. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 24 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Surveillance, Privacy, Movement, Militarization

Type: order

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Romania

Military Ordinance no. 2/2020 on Measures to Prevent the Spread of COVID-19

This order prohibits gatherings of more than three people who are not cohabitating, and it imposes restrictions on movement outside homes between 10:00 pm and 6:00 am. The order empowers the Romanian Police, the Romanian Gendarmerie, and the local police to take appropriate actions to enforce the order. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 21 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement, Militarization

Type: order

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Romania

Military Ordinance no. 1/2020 on Measures to Prevent the Spread of COVID-19

This order closes restaurants and suspends cultural, scientific, artistic, religious, sports, entertainment or gambling, spa treatment and personal care activities. It prohibits events being held in public places with more than 100 people, and events hosting 100 people have to meet spacing requirements. The order also indicates that individuals who are placed in quarantine may not leave their homes without permission from the relevant authorities, and the order empowers the Romanian Police, the Romanian Gendarmerie, and the local police to take appropriate actions to enforce the order. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 18 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Movement, Militarization

Type: order

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Sierra Leone

State of Emergency

The president declares a "state of emergency" for one year. The state of emergency includes deployement of the armed forces and police across the country to enforce compliance with all public health directives. (See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 25 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Emergency, Militarization

Type: order

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Sri Lanka

Generalized Repression in Response to Pandemic

The Defense Ministry, which was appointed to lead the government's response to COVID-19, has arrested over 66,000 people for alleged curfew violations. Incidents of repression of dissent doubled in May, including beatings, arbitrary arrests, surveillance, death threats and hacking of electronic devices. According to Human Rights Watch, Sri Lanka’s police are increasingly killing and abusing people under cover of the COVID-19 pandemic measures.

The Ministry has sought assistance from intelligence agencies, rather than health services, in contact tracing, creating concern among civil society groups. There have been reports of intelligence agents interfering with civil society organizations attempting to service citizens' needs, and of intelligence agents visiting the homes of and making calls to organizations' members. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 8 Aug 2020 Updated 8 August 2021

Issue(s): Association, Surveillance, Privacy, Movement, Militarization

Type: practice

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Venezuela

Detention of Migrant Workers and Others Returning Home

Upon arriving home from other countries in Latin America, low-income Venezuelans,  including thousands of migrant workers, have been held under military guard in crowded "confinement centers" for weeks or months, with limited food, water, or masks. Some have been forced to take coronavirus tests and treated with unproven medications, including drugs identified by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and the W.H.O. as having dangerous side effects. By contrast, wealthier Venezuelans arriving in the country can pay a fee to skip the confinement and continue home. The National Armed Forces have referred to those who try to evade the government's border controls as "trocheros" ("bioterrorists"), and encouraged Venezuelans to report them to authorities.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 19 Aug 2020

Issue(s): Discrimination, Movement, Militarization

Type: practice

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Zimbabwe

SI 2020-082 Public Health (COVID-19 Prevention, Containment and Treatment) (Amendment) Regulations, 2020 (No. 1)

Under the amended regulations, the prohibition on gatherings is extended to any gathering of two or more people. The amendments also alter the regulations issued in relation to COVID to include as "enforcement officers" (previously police and municipal police) members of the military.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 23 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Militarization

Type: regulation

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