COVID-19 Civic Freedom Tracker

Keep Civic Space Healthy

This tracker monitors government responses to the pandemic that affect civic freedoms and human rights, focusing on emergency laws. For information about our methodology, click here.

For more information and analysis by region, click here.

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The COVID-19 Civic Freedom Tracker is a collaborative effort by the ICNL, ECNL, and our global network of partners, with generous research support from the UN Special Rapporteur on the promotion and protection of human rights and fundamental freedoms while countering terrorism, Fionnuala D. Ní Aoláin. This is an ongoing effort, and we welcome you to email us at epage@icnl.org and simona@ecnl.org to share additional resources.


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Angola

Decree No. 82/20 on a State of Exception to Prevent and Control the Covid-19 Pandemic

The presidential decree declares a nationwide "state of exception." The decree grants the government power to limit individuals' freedom of movement and assembly, requisition private property, and forcibly confine people deemed likely to transmit COVID-19.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 27 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency, Movement

Type: order

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Argentina

Decree No. 260 Declaring a Public Health Emergency

Declares a one-year "public health emergency" under Law No. 27,541, due to the pandemic.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 12 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Emergency

Type: order

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Armenia

No. 298-N Declaring a State of Emergency

The decree declares a "state of emergency" to respond to the novel coronavirus, and provides for the suspension of certain constitutional rights and freedoms, including freedom of movement and freedom of peaceful assembly. The decree prohibits public gatherings of more than 20 persons. The decree also provides that any dissemination of information, including online, that refers to the coronavirus or activities carried out by health authorities, may only refer to information provided by a special emergency office under the Prime Minister of Armenia.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 16 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency, Expression, Access to Information, Movement

Type: order

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Australia

State of Disaster Lockdown Order

On August 2, the Premier of Victoria announced a State of Disaster in regional Victoria. Movement restrictions were imposed on the region, prohibiting residents from leaving their homes for any reason other than shopping for food and essential items, care and caregiving, daily exercise, work and study that could not be done from home, or personal safety. 

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 2 Aug 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency, Movement

Type: order

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Australia

Direction under Section 16 of the Public Health Act 1997

The order declares a "state of emergency" in Tasmania and among other things prohibits all gatherings of three or more people, with limited exceptions, in order to combat the spread of Covid-19.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 30 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency

Type: order

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Australia

Biosecurity (Human Biosecurity Emergency) (Human Coronavirus with Pandemic Potential) Declaration 2020

The Governor-General declares a "human biosecurity emergency," on account of the coronavirus. The declaration gives the Minister for Health expansive powers to issue directions and set requirements in order to combat the outbreak. The declaration was issued under Article 475 of the Biosecurity Act 2015, the first time these powers under the Act have been used.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 18 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Emergency

Type: order

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Australia

State of Emergency

The Premier and Minister of Health declare a 4-week "state of emergency" in the state of Victoria, to combat Covid-19.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 16 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Emergency

Type: order

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Australia

State of Emergency

The Minister of Emergency Services declares a "state of emergency" in Western Australia, on account of Covid-19.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 15 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Emergency

Type: order

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Australia

State of Public Health Emergency

The Premier of Queensland declares a "public health emergency."

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 29 Jan 2020

Issue(s): Emergency

Type: order

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Belgium

State of Emergency

The federal government declares a "state of emergency" on account of the coronavirus, and bans gatherings of more than two people.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 12 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency

Type: order

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Belize

State of Emergency

The prime minister declares a national "state of emergency" on account of the coronavirus pandemic. The state of emergency will be in place from April 1 through April 30.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 30 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Emergency

Type: order

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Bolivia

Decree No. 4196 Declaring a State of Emergency

The decree declares a "national health emergency" and quarantine throughout Bolivia, due to the presence of the coronavirus. The decree imposes a curfew from 5pm to 5am, with limited exceptions for law enforcement, health workers, and other essential service providers. The decree prohibits all gatherings of people, with no exceptions, and closes Bolivia's borders.


Introduced 17 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Emergency, Movement

Type: order

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Bosnia and Herzegovina

State of Disaster

The Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina declared a "state of natural disaster" over the new coronavirus, to enable coordination of emergency activities between its two autonomous regions.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 17 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Emergency

Type: order

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Bosnia and Herzegovina

State of Emergency

The order declares a "state of emergency" in Republic of Srpska.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 4 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Emergency

Type: order

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Botswana

State of Emergency

President Masisi announces a "state of emergency" under Section 17 of the Constitution of Botswana. The state of emergency is effective from midnight on April 2 until further notice.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 31 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Emergency

Type: order

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Botswana

No. 30 of 2020 on Public Health (Declaration of Public Health Emergency)

The order declares a "public health emergency," and among other things suspends gatherings of more than 100 people.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 20 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency

Type: order

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Brazil

State of Emergency

Declares a national "state of emergency" on account of the coronavirus pandemic.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 20 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Emergency

Type: order

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Bulgaria

Law on Measures and Actions in the State of Emergency

The law among other things prohibits non-essential travel within and outside the country, in order to combat the spread of coronavirus. The law also provides that if individuals violate their quarantine, their mobile phone data may be subject to surveillance. As originally proposed, the law included criminal sanctions for spreading false information about contagious diseases, however this provision was removed before the law's adoption.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 23 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Emergency, Surveillance, Privacy, Movement

Type: law

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Bulgaria

State of Emergency

The parliamentary decision declares a "state of emergency" for one month, on account of the coronavirus.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 13 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Emergency

Type: law

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Burkina Faso

State of Sanitary Emergency

The Burkinabe ministerial board declares a "state of sanitary emergency," per Article 66 of Law No. 23/94 on the Public Health Code, and imposes a quarantine in numerous cities where cases of coronavirus have been confirmed as of March 27. It is unclear how long the quarantine will remain in effect. These new measures have been implemented amid a nationwide overnight curfew, ongoing between 7pm to 5am local time since March 21, until further notice.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 27 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Emergency, Movement

Type: law

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Cambodia

Law on National Management in the State of Emergency

The law provides the government with broad new powers during a state of emergency. These include: banning meetings and gatherings; restricting people from leaving their homes; mobilizing military forces; surveilling telecommunications "by any means"; banning or restricting news media that may harm "national security" or create confusion about the state of emergency; and other measures that are "suitable and necessary" to respond to the emergency. "Obstructing" the state's response to the emergency, or noncompliance with the response in a way that creates "public chaos," is punishable by up to 5 years in jail and a fine of up to 5 million riels ($1,200). Organizations found culpable of these offenses may be fined up to 1 billion riels ($247,000).

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 10 Apr 2020

Issue(s): Association, Assembly, Emergency, Surveillance, Press Freedom, Expression, Privacy, Access to Information, Movement, Militarization

Type: law

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Canada

Declaration of an Emergency to Protect the Public

The executive order by the government of Ontario declares an emergency under Section 7.0.1(1) the Emergency Management and Civil Protection Act. Among other things, the order prohibits gatherings of 50 or more people.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 27 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency

Type: order

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Cape Verde

State of Emergency and Curfew

The government declares a nationwide "state of emergency" until April 17, on account of the coronavirus. Measures to be taken include instructing all individuals to remain at home with limited exceptions for essential activities and health care.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 1 Apr 2020

Issue(s): Emergency, Movement

Type: order

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Chad

Decree No. 379/PR/2020

The decree announces a state of emergency in select provinces of Chad. The decree empowers local civil and military authorities to prohibit the movement of people and vehicles; to establish protection zones where people are "regulated"; to temporarily close performance halls, bars and meeting areas; to ban meetings "likely to provoke disturbances of public order"; to order nightly home searches; to collect all weapons; to take all measures to ensure control of the press and publications of all types of radio and television broadcasts; and to make arrests. Per the order, this expansion of local authorities' powers ends with the end of the state of emergency.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 26 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency, Press Freedom, Expression, Privacy, Access to Information, Movement, Militarization

Type: order

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Chile

State of Catastrophe

The decree provides for the "constitutional exception" of a "state of catastrophe" for three months, due to the coronavirus. The decree allows the President to take further measures including imposing restrictions on gatherings in public spaces, establishing quarantines or curfews, and limiting individuals' movement. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 18 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency, Movement
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Colombia

State of Health Emergency

The government decrees a "health emergency" to contain the spread of coronavirus. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 12 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Emergency
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Costa Rica

Executive Decree No. 42227 Declaring a State of Emergency

The executive decree declares a "state of emergency" in response to the coronavirus pandemic. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 16 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Emergency
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Cote d'Ivoire

State of Emergency

The president declares a "state of emergency," and imposes curfews and internal travel restrictions on account of the coronavirus. Authorities imposed a nationwide curfew with immediate effect between 11pm and 5am local time and banned all non-essential travel between Abidjan, where most COVID-19 cases are reported, and the rest of the country. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 23 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency, Movement
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Czech Republic

No. 215 on the Adoption of an Emergency Measure

The decree declares a "state of emergency" for one month under Constitutional Act No. 110/1998, on account of the coronavirus. It prohibits non-essential or work-related travel and orders individuals to remain home and limit contact with others to the extent possible. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 12 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Emergency, Movement
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Democratic Republic of Congo

State of Health Emergency

The presidential decree institutes a one-month "state of health emergency," and a 30-day lockdown and curfew from 8 p.m. to 5 a.m. local time. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 31 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Emergency, Movement
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Democratic Republic of Congo

Order No. 20/014 Proclaiming a State of Health Emergency to Face the Covid-19 Pandemic

The initial presidential order declares a "state of health emergency" for a period of thirty days. The order bans travel from Kinshasa to provinces, and vice versa. The order also bans gatherings of more than twenty people. Residents are asked to stay home and only to travel as strictly necessary. Religious and sporting services are suspended, and certain public places are closed. The unilateral nature of the order prompted political pushback, and subsequent extensions of the order were subjected to parliamentary approval. 

(See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 24 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency, Movement
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Dominican Republic

Decree 134-20 Declaing a State of Emergency

The decree declares a "state of emergency" for the entire national territory on account of the Covid-19 pandemic, and provides for the government to impose restrictions on individuals' freedom of movement, assembly, and association. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 19 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Emergency
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Ecuador

No. 1017 Declaring a State of Exception

The decree declares a "state of exception" to respond to the covid-19 pandemic. The decree suspends certain individual rights under the constitution, including the right to association and assembly. The decree also provides for governmental authority to use digital tools to surveil individuals under mandatory isolation or quarantine.

(See primary source or citation here)


Introduced 16 Mar 2020

Issue(s): Association, Assembly, Emergency, Surveillance, Privacy

Type: order

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Egypt

Amendments to Emergency Law 162/1958

The amendments expand the powers of the president and military prosecution during a declared state of emergency. Under the amended Emergency Law, powers available to the president now include the power to: ban private and public gatherings in addition to protests; shut down schools and universities; suspend operations in the private and public sector; and subject anyone returning from outside the country to quarantine. The amendments also allow the president to give military prosecutors preliminary investigation authority over any crimes. Egypt has been in a continuous state of emergency since April 2017, and most recently extended the state of emergency for another three months beginning January 27.

تعديلات على قانون الطوارئ رقم 162 لسنة 1958

 توسع التعديلات من سلطات الرئيس ونطاق المحاكمات العسكرية خلال إعلان حالة الطوارئ. بموجب قانون الطوارئ المعدل، فإن السلطات المتاحة للرئيس الآن تشمل حظر التجمعات الخاصة والعامة بالإضافة إلى الاحتجاجات، إغلاق المدارس والجامعات، ووقف العمل في القطاعين الخاص والعام، وإخضاع أي شخص يعود من خارج البلاد للحجر الصحي. أيضاً، تتيح التعديلات للرئيس منح أعضاء النيابة العامة العسكرية سلطة التحقيق الأولية في أي جرائم. تشهد مصر حالة طوارئ مستمرة منذ أبريل 2017، ومؤخراً تم تمديد حالة الطوارئ لمدة ثلاثة أشهر أخرى بدأت في 27 يناير.

(See primary source or citation here)

Type: law
Date Introduced: 8 May 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency, Militarization
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Egypt

State of Emergency

The presidential decree declares a "state of emergency" for three months, under Article 154 of Egypt's Constitution. Egypt has been in a near-continuous state of emergency since April 2017, however the most recent declaration cites the "critical security and health situation" as grounds for extension. The declaration reinforces the authority of the armed forces and police to maintain security and save the lives of citizens, and provides that the state may impose restrictions on individuals' movement. The decree also states that violations of emergency orders will be punished with imprisonment.

حالة الطوارئ

 ينص المرسوم الرئاسي على إعلان "حالة الطوارئ" لمدة ثلاثة أشهر، بموجب المادة 154 من الدستور المصري. تشهد مصر حالة طوارئ شبه مستمرة منذ أبريل 2017، لكن الإعلان الأخير يشير إلى "الوضع الأمني والصحي الحرج" كأسباب للتمديد. يعزز الإعلان سلطة القوات المسلحة والشرطة في الحفاظ على الأمن وإنقاذ حياة المواطنين، وينص على أنه يجوز للدولة فرض قيود على تنقل الأفراد. ينص المرسوم أيضاً على عقوبة السجن على أي انتهاكات لقرارات الطوارئ.

Type: order
Date Introduced: 28 Apr 2020
Issue(s): Emergency, Movement, Militarization
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El Salvador

Decree No. 593 Declaring a State of Emergency

Declares a one-month "state of emergency" due to the Covid-19 pandemic. The measures include allowing for restrictions on individuals' travel and movement within the country, as well as bans on public gatherings. The decree also suspends all administrative and judicial functions deemed non-essential, such as operations for access to public information. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 14 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency, Access to Information, Movement
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Estonia

Declaration of an Emergency Situation on the Administrative Territory of the Republic of Estonia

Declares an "emergency situation" under Article 87(8) of the Constitution, on account of the pandemic spread of coronavirus. The declaration is in effect until May 1 unless extended or revoked. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 13 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Emergency
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Eswatini

State of Emergency

The King proclaims a "national emergency" on March 17 and a ban on all public and private gatherings of over 50 people. The Ministry of Home Affairs will also create a "control management system" for refugees and asylum seekers. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 17 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency
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Ethiopia

State of Emergency

The Regional Council in Tigray declares a State of Emergency on account of the coronavirus. The order prohibits travel within the state, and bans large gatherings. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: law
Date Introduced: 26 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency, Movement
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Ethiopia

State of Emergency

The Government of Ethiopia declares a nationwide "state of emergency" under Article 93 of the Constitution. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 8 Apr 2020
Issue(s): Emergency
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Finland

Declaration of Exceptional Circumstances

The government declares "exceptional circumstances" to address the coronavirus. "Exceptional circumstances" are defined in Finland's Emergency Powers Act and the State of Defence Act, and allow for the government to activate extraordinary powers. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 16 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Emergency
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France

Emergency Law No. 2020-290 to Address the Covid-19 Epidemic

The law establishes a "state of health emergency" for two months, under Article 38 of the Constitution, in order to address the Covid-19 epidemic. The state of health emergency allows the Prime Minister to issue decrees restricting individuals' freedom of movement and assembly, and to take "any other regulatory measure" necessary to address the health crisis. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: law
Date Introduced: 22 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency, Movement
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Gabon

Law No. 001/2020 Amending and Supplementing Certain Provisions of Law No. 11/90 on the State of Emergency

As approved by the National Assembly and Senate, the law defines expanded powers afforded to the Minister of the Interior during a State of Emergency. The order authorizes the Minister of the Interior to impose an array of movement restrictions and containment measures.  

(See primary source or citation here)

Type: law
Date Introduced: 25 Apr 2020
Issue(s): Emergency, Movement
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Gabon

Decree Number 00100/PR/PM, Declaring a State of Emergency in the Gabonese Republic

The President of the Republic of Gabon declared a "state of emergency" after consultation with legislative bodies. The state of emergency authorizes the government to take any restrictive measures required to address the COVID-19 pandemic. Following the declaration of the state of emergency, various prohibitions on movement were imposed throughout the country, including a full lockdown in Libreville. Businesses, religious institutions, and schools were closed, and gatherings over 10 people were banned. Refusal to comply with lockdown restrictions was made a criminal offense. 

(See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 10 Apr 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency, Movement
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Gambia

State of Emergency

The President declares a 21-day state of "public emergency" on account of the coronavirus pandemic. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 18 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Emergency
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Georgia

No. 1 on the Declaration of Emergency

The decree declares a one-month "state of emergency" throughout Georgia to counter the global coronavirus pandemic. Among other things, the decree allows Georgian authorities to restrict any kind of assembly of persons; restrict movement and travel; and establish rules of isolation and quarantine for which individuals and legal entities shall be held liable. Per the decree, failure to comply with the state of emergency will result in a fine; repeat offences will result in imprisonment for up to three years. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 21 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency, Movement
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Ghana

Imposition of Restrictions Act of 2020

The Act allows the President to take measures that restrict individuals' fundamental freedoms, per Article 21(4) of the Constitution, to respond to the coronavirus pandemic. The Act allows for a three-month period during which restrictions may be imposed in case of an emergency, in the interest of public health and safety, after which the restrictions may be renewed for one month at a time.

(See primary source or citation here)
Type: law
Date Introduced: 21 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Emergency
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Ghana

Measures Taken to Combat the Coronavirus Pandemic

The president orders a 30-day ban on all public gatherings, and directs the Attorney General to submit to Parliament emergency legislation under Article 21 of the Constitution. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 15 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency
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Grenada

Emergency Powers (COVID 19) Regulations No. 3

The regulations impose a two-week curfew, confining all persons to their homes except for essential purposes during limited hours. All individuals in isolation must download a mobile surveillance application. Persons shall report their own or any observed flu-like symptoms affecting others to local police. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: regulation
Date Introduced: 6 Apr 2020
Issue(s): Emergency, Surveillance, Privacy, Movement
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Guatemala

No. 5 on the Declaration of Public Calamity

The decree declares a "state of public calamity" under Article 183 of Guatemala's Constitution, on account of the coronavirus. Under the decree, constitutional freedoms including freedom of movement and the right to peaceful assembly are suspended. The decree prohibits events of any size, as well any social, cultural, and sports activities. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 21 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency, Movement
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Guinea

State of Emergency

The president announces a 30-day nationwide "state of emergency" due to the spread of the coronavirus. A nationwide curfew will be in place from 9pm to 5am beginning March 30, and gatherings of over 20 people are prohibited for 14 days (renewable). (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 27 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency, Movement
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Guinea-Bissau

State of Emergency

The government has declared a nationwide "state of emergency" and introduced restrictive measures to prevent further spread of the virus, including the closure of all land and sea borders and commercial air links. Public transport has also been suspended, while only essential shops remain open, including food and medical stores. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 2 Apr 2020
Issue(s): Emergency
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Haiti

State of Emergency

The government declares a state of emergency over the coronavirus outbreak, closing Haiti's borders and imposing a nationwide curfew. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 19 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Emergency, Movement
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Honduras

PCM 021-2020 on Emergency Measures

The emergency decree suspends numerous constitutional guarantees, including freedom of expression, association, assembly, and movement, and provides for emergency measures to address the spread of the coronavirus. These include a prohibition on public or private gatherings of any size, and limitations on individuals' movement. The decree provides that any individual who violates the restrictions on movement shall be arrested. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 15 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Association, Assembly, Emergency, Movement
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Honduras

PCM 005-2020 Declaring a State of Health Emergency

The decree declares a "state of health emergency," due to the coronavirus. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 10 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Emergency
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Hungary

Law Terminating the "State of Danger"

The law calls on the government to terminate the "state of danger" instituted under Decree 40/2020 of March 11, in accordance with Article 54(3) of Hungary's Fundamental Law, and withdrawal of the Law on Protection Against The Coronavirus. Article 54(3) of the Fundamental Law requires the termination of a "special legal order" if the conditions for it no longer exist. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: law
Date Introduced: 18 Jun 2020
Issue(s): Emergency
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Hungary

Law on Transitional Rules and Health Preparedness related to the Cessation of the State of Danger

The law introduces measures related to the revocation of the "state of danger" in Hungary. However, the law expands the powers of the government during another exceptional state, by authorizing the government to issue wide-ranging decrees without parliamentary approval during a “state of medical crisis.” During such a state, the law authorizes the government to suspend existing laws and restrict fundamental rights such as freedom of movement and assembly. The government may declare a “state of medical crisis” unilaterally, based on the recommendation of a government-appointed medical officer; the “state of medical crisis” can last up to six months and may be renewed by government decree. According to critics, the law gives the government expansive leeway to rule with minimal judicial and parliamentary scrutiny for an indefinite period.

(See primary source or citation here)

Type: law
Date Introduced: 17 Jun 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency, Movement
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Hungary

Law on Protection Against the Coronavirus

The law extends the government's emergency powers, and suspends elections during that time. Under the law, the government may effectively rule by decree, for an indefinite period of time, without being bound by current laws. The law also punishes anyone who “distorts” or publishes “false” information on the pandemic with five years in jail.

The law was withdrawn as of 18 June 2020, along with the termination of the "state of danger." (See primary source or citation here)

Type: law
Date Introduced: 30 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Disinformation, Emergency, Press Freedom, Elections, Expression
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Hungary

State of Danger

The government declares a national "state of danger" to counter the consequences of the Covid-19 epidemic. The "state of danger" is a special state of emergency regulated by Hungary's constitution.

The declaration was withdrawn as of 18 June 2020. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 11 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Emergency
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Indonesia

Presidential Decree No. 11 of 2020 Declaring a Public Health Emergency

The decree declares the COVID-19 pandemic to be a "public health emergency," in accordance with the provisions of the law and regulations of Indonesia. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 31 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Emergency
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Ireland

Health (Preservation and Protection and other Emergency Measures in the Public Interest) Act 2020

The law authorizes the government to take certain measures in response to the coronavirus, including banning mass gatherings; allowing health officials to detain individuals suspected of carrying COVID19 who are unlikely or unwilling to self-isolate; and allowing the government to restrict movement of people to certain areas. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: law
Date Introduced: 21 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency, Movement
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Italy

State of Emergency

Declaring a "state of emergency" on account of the coronavirus. The state of emergency is in effect for 180 days. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 31 Jan 2020
Issue(s): Emergency
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Jamaica

State of Emergency

The government has activated the Emergency Powers Act, the Disaster Risk Management Act, and the Public Health Act, and declared that the entire country is a disaster area. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 13 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Emergency
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Japan

State of Emergency

The Prime Minister declares a "state of emergency" in Tokyo and six other major metropolitan areas, under Article 32 of the Act on Special Measures. The declaration does not impose restrictions on movement, but allows governors to request that individuals remain home and recommend to organizers that they cancel events. Violators are not subject to penalty unless they fail to comply with orders related to storing and shipping medical supplies. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 7 Apr 2020
Issue(s): Emergency
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Jordan

State of Emergency

The decree declares a "state of emergency" under Art. 124 of Jordan's Constitution, on account of the coronavirus pandemic, and activates emergency provisions of Defense Law 13 of 1992. According to the decree and the Defense Law, the Prime Minister is charged with enacting measures to respond to the emergency. He has authority to suspend certain individual rights, including freedom of movement and expression.

إرادة ملكية بتفعيل العمل بقانون الدفاع بسبب حالة الطوارئ الصحية

 قرار ينص على إعلان العمل بقانون الدفاع بموجب المادة 124 من الدستور الأردني بسبب جائحة فيروس كورونا المستجد، وينطوي على تفعيل أحكام الطوارئ الواردة في قانون الدفاع رقم 13 لسنة 1992. بموجب القرار وقانون الدفاع، فإن رئيس الوزراء مكلف بسن تدابير للاستجابة لحالة الطوارئ، ويتمتع بسلطة تعليق بعض الحقوق والحريات الفردية مثل حرية التنقل والتعبير. 

(See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 17 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Emergency, Expression, Movement
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Kazakhstan

Decree No. 285 Declaring a State of Emergency

The decree declares a "state of emergency" for thirty days, on account of the coronavirus pandemic. Among other things, the decree suspends public events, closes the border, and introduces quarantine measures with the participation of relevant military departments.

(See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 16 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency, Movement, Militarization
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Kyrgyzstan

State of Emergency

The order establishes a "state of emergency" for thirty days throughout the Kyrgyz Republic, due to the coronavirus. All public gatherings including rallies, demonstrations, and strikes, are prohibited. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: law
Date Introduced: 22 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency
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Latvia

No. 103 on the Declaration of Emergency Situation

The order establishes an "emergency situation" throughout Latvia for one month, on account of the coronavirus. All public gatherings for meetings, marches, and rallies, as well as for religious or cultural purposes are prohibited, regardless of the number of participants. The order prohibits border crossings by air, rail, and road with limited exceptions. The order provides for administrative and criminal penalties to be applied in case of violations. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 13 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Emergency, Movement
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Lebanon

State of General Mobilization

The government announces a "state of general mobilization" under by Article 2 of Legislative Decree No. 102/1983 (Law on National Defense), on account of the health emergency caused by Covid-19. The decision stipulates that people should stay at home until March 29 (later extended until April 26), and refrain from leaving except for essential reasons. The decree also prohibits all gatherings in all private and public places.

حالة التعبئة العامة

 الحكومة تعلن عن "حالة التعبئة العامة" بموجب المادة 2 من المرسوم التشريعي رقم 102 لسنة 1983 (قانون الدفاع الوطني)، بسبب الطوارئ الصحية الناشئة عن فيروس كورونا المستجد. ينص القرار على وجوب بقاء الأشخاص في منازلهم حتى 29 مارس (تم تمديده لاحقاً حتى 26 أبريل)، والامتناع عن مغادرتها إلا لأسباب جوهرية. يحظر القرار أيضاً جميع التجمعات في جميع الأماكن الخاصة والعامة.

(See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 15 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency, Movement
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Lesotho

Declaration of COVID-19 State of Emergency Order 26 of 2020

The Prime Minister declares a national "state of emergency" and orders a nationwide lockdown, beginning March 30. All social gatherings are prohibited except for funerals where not more than 50 people are expected to attend. The decree also provides that members of the press must "refrain from publishing fake news." (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 18 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Disinformation, Emergency, Press Freedom, Expression, Access to Information, Movement
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Liberia

State of Emergency

President Weah declares a "state of emergency" for three weeks, renewable until the threat posed by COVID-19 subsides. During this period, residents may only leave home for essential journeys, which should be restricted to local communities and be limited to a single person per household for a maximum of one hour. The order tasks the Chief of Staff of the Armed Forces of Liberia and the Chairman of the National Joint Security with enforcing this stay-home policy. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 10 Apr 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency, Movement, Militarization
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Liberia

Declaration of National Health Emergency

The Minister of Health declares a "national health emergency" on account of the coronavirus, and among other things bans all gatherings of more than 10 people. Individuals are required to report those who show signs of COVID-19 to the health and security authorities. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 21 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency, Privacy
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Lithuania

State of Emergency

The government declares a "state of emergency" to coordinate its response to the coronavirus. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 26 Feb 2020
Issue(s): Emergency
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Luxembourg

State of Crisis

The order from the Grand Duke declares a "state of crisis" in accordance with Article 32(4) of the Constitution, among other things imposes strict limitations on individuals' movement, and provides for a fine of 145 Euroes in case of violation. The state of crisis is in place for 10 days, unless extended by the Chamber of Deputies, by a two-thirds majority. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 18 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Emergency, Movement
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Malawi

State of Disaster

The order establishes a one-month "state of disaster" due to the coronavirus. Among other things, the order prohibits gatherings of more than 100 individuals. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 20 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency
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Moldova

Parliamentary Decision on the Declaration of State of Emergency

The parliamentary decision declares a "state of emergency," under Article 66 of the Constitution, on account of the coronavirus. Among other things, the declaration provides for a prohibition on meetings, public demonstrations, and other mass events; coordination of mass media related to the crisis; and introduction of "special rules" for telecommunications during the crisis. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: law
Date Introduced: 17 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency, Press Freedom, Expression, Access to Information
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Moldova

Parliament Decision No. 55 Declaring a State of Emergency

The parliamentary decision declares a "state of emergency" for 60 days. The state of emergency allows the Commission for Exceptional Situations of the Republic of Moldova to issue provisions relating to movement within country, the prohibition of public events and assemblies, and the coordination of media activities, among other things. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: law
Date Introduced: 17 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Emergency
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Morocco

Decree No. 2-20-293 Declaring a Health Emergency

The government declares a nationwide "state of health emergency" from March 20 until April 20, unless renewed. The order prohibits the movement of any person outside his home, except in cases of extreme necessity, and prohibits any meeting or gathering of groups of people for any reason.

مرسوم رقم 2-20-293 بشأن إعلان حالة الطوارئ الصحية

 الحكومة تعلن "حالة الطوارئ الصحية" في جميع أنحاء البلاد للفترة من 20 مارس حتى 20 أبريل، ما لم يتم تجديدها. يحظر القرار تنقل أي شخص خارج منزله إلا في حالات الضرورة القصوى، ويحظر أي اجتماع أو تجمع لمجموعات من الناس لأي سبب من الأسباب.

(See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 24 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency, Movement
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Morocco

Decree No. 2-20-292 on Special Provisions for a State of Health Emergency

The decree enables the government to declare a "state of health emergency" and take exceptional measures to stop the spread of disease. Anyone who contravenes the decree that declares a health emergency, or incites others to contravene the decree through speech or threat uttered in a public place or meeting, written or printed materials, photos, posters, audiovisual or electronic communications, or any other means can be imprisoned one to three months or be fined 300 to 1,300 dirhams ($30-$130).

 

مرسوم رقم 2-20-292 بشأن الأحكام الخاصة لحالة الطوارئ الصحية

 يمنح المرسوم الحكومة سلطة إعلان "حالة الطوارئ الصحية" واتخاذ تدابير استثنائية لوقف انتشار المرض.يعاقب المرسوم  أي شخص يخالف بنوده ، أو يحرض الآخرين على مخالفته   من خلال الخطاب أو التهديد الصادر في مكان عام أو في اجتماع عام أو مواد مكتوبة أو مطبوعة أو صور أو ملصقات أو اتصالات سمعية بصرية أو إلكترونية أو أي وسيلة أخرى بالسجن من شهر إلى ثلاثة أشهر أو بغرامة تتراوح بين 300 و 1,300 درهم (30130 دولار أمريكي).

 

 

(See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 23 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Disinformation, Emergency, Expression
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Mozambique

State of Emergency

The presidential decree declares a 30-day "state of emergency," along with a Stage 3 level of emergency to contain the spread of the coronavirus outbreak. Public and private gatherings are prohibited, while entertainment establishments and schools are been closed until further notice.

(See primary source or citation here)
Type: order
Date Introduced: 30 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency
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Namibia

Proclamation No. 7 Declaring a State of Emergency

The proclamation institutes a national "state of emergency" under Article 26(5) of the Namibian Constitution, on account of the coronavirus pandemic. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 18 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Emergency
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Netherlands

Decision 1666478-203555-PG on Regional Emergencies

The central government’s decision orders all regions of the Netherlands to adopt emergency decrees, under the law on public health. The regional decrees must limit public gatherings, defined as groups of three or more people who are not maintaining 1.5 meters of distance between them. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 23 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency
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Netherlands

Emergency COVID-19 Safety Ordinance for Amsterdam-Amstelland Region

The emergency ordinance prohibits organizing or participating in meetings, through June 1, to combat the spread of Covid-19. The ordinance provides exceptions including for governmental meetings, funerals and weddings, and religious meetings, as long as participants maintain 1.5 meters of distance among one another. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: regulation
Date Introduced: 2 Apr 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency
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New Zealand

State of Emergency

The government declares a "state of national emergency" under the Civil Defence Emergency Management Act 2002, due to COVID-19. The state of national emergency applies to all of New Zealand, including all offshore islands, and must be renewed every 7 days. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 25 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Emergency
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Niger

Ministerial Communique No. 12/CM/2020 Declaring a State of Emergency

The decree by the Council of Ministers declares a nationwide "state of emergency," that among other provisions includes an overnight curfew in the city of Niamey, effective March 28. The curfew will be in effect for a two-week period between the hours of 7pm and 6am local time. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 27 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Emergency, Movement
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North Macedonia

State of Emergency

The presidential order establishes a one-month "state of emergency" due to the coronavirus. The order is issued under Article 125 of the Constitution, as the parliament was unable to convene. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 18 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Emergency
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Norway

Corona Act

The temporary law is an enabling act that gives the Government the authority to supplement or depart from existing law as needed to respond to the coronavirus pandemic. The Parliament must be notified and retains some power to block such moves. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: law
Date Introduced: 21 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Emergency
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Palestine

Announcement of State of Emergency and Initial Imposition of Restrictions

President Mahmoud Abbas declares a state of emergency in all of the Palestinian territories for thirty days on account of the coronavirus. The declaration affords the Prime Minster all necessary powers and indicates that competent authorities should take "all necessary measures" to combat the virus. 

(See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 5 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Emergency
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Panama

Resolution No. 11 Declaring a National State of Emergency and Other Provisions

Declaring a "state of emergency" on account of the coronavirus. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 13 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Emergency
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Paraguay

Law No. 6524 Declaring a State of Emergency

The law declares a nationwide "state of emergency" and establishes administrative, labor, corporate, and financial measures to deal with the covid-19 pandemic. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: law
Date Introduced: 26 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Emergency
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Paraguay

Decree No. 3456 on a State of Sanitary Emergency

The President declares a "state of sanitary emergency" pursuant to his powers under a 1980 statute. The order authorizes the Ministry of Public Health and Social Welfare to provide "general preventative isolation" for the protection of public health. The order indicates that executive branch ministries must adopt "all necessary measures" to mitigate the spread of COVID-19. 

(See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 16 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Emergency
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Peru

No. 044-2020-PCM Declaring a State of Emergency

The decree declares a "state of emergency" on account of the coronavirus pandemic. The decree suspends individual rights under the Constitution of Peru, including the right to peacefully assemble, the right to freedom of movement, and the requirement that the government must have a warrant before it may arrest someone. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 15 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency, Movement
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Philippines

Proclamation No. 929 Declaring a State of Calamity

The executive proclamation declares a nationwide "state of calamity" under Section 15(2) of the Constiution, due to the coronavirus, for six months unless lifted or extended “as the circumstances may warrant." The proclamation imposes an enhanced community quarantine throughout the island of Luzon, which includes the capital Manila, from March 17 to April 13. It also directs all law enforcement agencies, "with support from the Armed Forces," to take "all necessary measures" to ensure order in affected areas. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 16 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Emergency, Movement, Militarization
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Philippines

Proclamation No. 922 Declaring a State of Public Health Emergency

The proclamation declares a "state of public health emergency" under section 15(2) of the Constitution, and authorizes deployment of the Philippine National Police and other law enforcement agencies to provide assistance in addressing Covid-19. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 8 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Emergency
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Portugal

Decree No. 2-A of 2020 Declaring a State of Emergency

The presidential decree declares a state of emergency to limit the spread of the coronavirus. The measures include significant restrictions on movement throughout the country, and a prohibition on public gatherings. The decree is in place for an initial two weeks, and can be extended. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 18 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency, Movement
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Romania

No. 195 on the Establishment of a State of Emergency in the Territory of Romania

The decree declares a "state of emergency" on account of the coronavirus pandemic. According to the decree, the following rights may be restricted during a state of emergency: freedom of movement, freedom of assembly, privacy, education, private property, and the right to strike. Additionally, the decree provides that the National Authority for Administrative and Regulatory Communications has powers to make "reasoned decisions" to censor online transmission of information related to COVID-19. 

(See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 16 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Disinformation, Emergency, Press Freedom, Expression, Privacy, Access to Information, Movement
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Samoa

State of Emergency

The decree establishes a "state of emergency" and closes Samoa's borders. Public gatherings are restricted to no more than five people. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 21 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency
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Senegal

No. 2020-830 Proclaiming a State of Emergency

The presidential decree proclaims a national "state of emergency." Among other things the proclamation imposes curfews and empowers administrative officials to ban public gatherings, close public spaces, and limit travel between different regions. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 23 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency, Movement
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Serbia

State of Emergency

The decree, issued under Article 200(5) of the Constitution, declares a "state of emergency" throughout Serbia on account of the coronavirus. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 15 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Emergency
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Sierra Leone

State of Emergency

The president declares a "state of emergency" for one year. The state of emergency includes deployement of the armed forces and police across the country to enforce compliance with all public health directives. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 25 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Emergency, Militarization
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Slovakia

State of Emergency

The government declares a state of emergency in relation to the coronavirus pandemic. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 12 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Emergency
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South Africa

State of Disaster

The declaration establishes a "state of disaster" under section 27(2) of the Disaster Management Act No. 57 of 2002, due to the coronavirus. The declaration includes a ban on public gatherings of more than 100 people, as well as border and internal travel restrictions. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 15 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency
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Spain

Decree No. 463/2020, Declaring a State of Alarm to Manage the Health Crisis Caused by Covid-19

The royal decree institutes a 15-day nationwide "state of alarm," due to the coronavirus pandemic. Among other measures, the decree limits individual movement to certain essential activities (procuring food or medical care), suspends operation of non-essential businesses, and centralizes control of health services and other critical government functions. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 19 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Emergency, Movement
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Suriname

State of Emergency

The government act declares an exceptional emergency status in connection with the COVID-19 pandemic, under Article 72(c) of the Constitution. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 9 Apr 2020
Issue(s): Emergency
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Togo

Declaration of National Health Emergency and Curfew

In his address, the president declares a three-month nationwide "health emergency," and a six-month period of exceptional lawmaking authority under Article 86 of the Constitution. A nationwide curfew will also be in place between 7pm and 6am, beginning April 2. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 1 Apr 2020
Issue(s): Emergency, Movement
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Tonga

State of Emergency

The government declares a "state of emergency," to prevent the spread of COVID-19. During the state of emergency, foreign nationals are banned from entering Tonga, and Tongan nationals must be quarantined for 14-days upon arrival. Public gatherings are restricted to a maximum of 20 people, and all concerts, sports events, funerals, weddings, and birthdays are banned. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 20 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency
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Ukraine

Declaring an Emergency Situation

The Cabinet of Ministers introduces a 30-day "emergency situation regime" throughout Ukraine. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 25 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Emergency
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United Kingdom

Coronavirus Act 2020

The Act gives UK authorities emergency powers to address the coronavirus pandemic, including the power to detain individuals deemed “potentially infectious" and put them in isolation facilities. Individuals who fail to comply may be subject to a £1,000 fine. The Act also enables the government to restrict public events and other gatherings to prevent or otherwise control the spread of coronavirus. Under the Act, surveillance warrants may be in place for up to twelve days before they must be reviewed by judicial authorities, up from the current three days. The Act must be renewed by parliament every six months. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: law
Date Introduced: 26 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency, Surveillance, Privacy, Movement
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United States

Executive Order 2020-67 (COVID-19)

The Governor of Michigan declared a state of emergency under the Emergency Management Act on March 10, 2020. Under the Act, both houses of the legislature must approve a request to extend the state of emergency, otherwise it expires after 28 days. While both houses agreed to extend the emergency until April 30, they did not agree to extend it further. In response, on April 29, the Governor declared the emergency over, but she then declared a new emergency under the Emergency Management Act one minute later on the same day, thus triggering a new, 28-day period in which the emergency is in effect, but does not require legislative approval. 

(See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 29 Apr 2020
Issue(s): Emergency
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United States

States of Emergency in All 50 States

As of April 7, 2020, all 50 U.S. states have declared a "state of emergency" in response to COVID-19. 42 states have issued orders urging residents to stay at home. Several of the remaining states have stay at home orders in parts of the state. Washington State was the first to declare a state of emergency on March 2, 2020. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 7 Apr 2020
Issue(s): Emergency, Movement
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United States

Proclamation on Declaring a National Emergency Concerning the Novel Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Outbreak

Declares that the Covid-19 outbreak constitutes a "national emergency." (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 13 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Emergency
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Venezuela

Decree No. 4.161 Declaring a State of Alarm

The presidential decree declares a nationwide "state of alarm" for thirty days, renewable for one month at a time. Among other things, the decree prohibits public gatherings and authorizes the competent authorities to take "all necessary measures" to enforce orders related to quarantine and isolation. (See primary source or citation here)

Type: order
Date Introduced: 13 Mar 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency
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