COVID-19 Civic Freedom Tracker
Keep Civic Space Healthy
This tracker monitors government responses to the pandemic that affect civic freedoms and human rights, focusing on emergency laws. For information about our methodology, click here.
For more information and analysis by region, click here.
The COVID-19 Civic Freedom Tracker is a collaborative effort by the ICNL, ECNL, and our global network of partners, with generous research support from the UN Special Rapporteur on the promotion and protection of human rights and fundamental freedoms while countering terrorism, Fionnuala D. Ní Aoláin. This is an ongoing effort, and we welcome you to email us at firstname.lastname@example.org and email@example.com to share additional resources.
Amendments to Emergency Law 162/1958
The amendments expand the powers of the president and military prosecution during a declared state of emergency. Under the amended Emergency Law, powers available to the president now include the power to: ban private and public gatherings in addition to protests; shut down schools and universities; suspend operations in the private and public sector; and subject anyone returning from outside the country to quarantine. The amendments also allow the president to give military prosecutors preliminary investigation authority over any crimes. Egypt has been in a continuous state of emergency since April 2017, and has repeatedly extended the state of emergency for three-month periods, most recently in January, April, July, and October 2020.
ØªØ¹Ø¯ÙŠÙ„Ø§Øª Ø¹Ù„Ù‰ Ù‚Ø§Ù†ÙˆÙ† Ø§Ù„Ø·ÙˆØ§Ø±Ø¦ Ø±Ù‚Ù… 162 Ù„Ø³Ù†Ø© 1958
ØªÙˆØ³Ø¹ Ø§Ù„ØªØ¹Ø¯ÙŠÙ„Ø§Øª Ù…Ù† Ø³Ù„Ø·Ø§Øª Ø§Ù„Ø±Ø¦ÙŠØ³ ÙˆÙ†Ø·Ø§Ù‚ Ø§Ù„Ù…ØØ§ÙƒÙ…Ø§Øª Ø§Ù„Ø¹Ø³ÙƒØ±ÙŠØ© Ø®Ù„Ø§Ù„ Ø¥Ø¹Ù„Ø§Ù† ØØ§Ù„Ø© Ø§Ù„Ø·ÙˆØ§Ø±Ø¦. Ø¨Ù…ÙˆØ¬Ø¨ Ù‚Ø§Ù†ÙˆÙ† Ø§Ù„Ø·ÙˆØ§Ø±Ø¦ Ø§Ù„Ù…Ø¹Ø¯Ù„ØŒ ÙØ¥Ù† Ø§Ù„Ø³Ù„Ø·Ø§Øª Ø§Ù„Ù…ØªØ§ØØ© Ù„Ù„Ø±Ø¦ÙŠØ³ Ø§Ù„Ø¢Ù† ØªØ´Ù…Ù„ ØØ¸Ø± Ø§Ù„ØªØ¬Ù…Ø¹Ø§Øª Ø§Ù„Ø®Ø§ØµØ© ÙˆØ§Ù„Ø¹Ø§Ù…Ø© Ø¨Ø§Ù„Ø¥Ø¶Ø§ÙØ© Ø¥Ù„Ù‰ Ø§Ù„Ø§ØØªØ¬Ø§Ø¬Ø§ØªØŒ Ø¥ØºÙ„Ø§Ù‚ Ø§Ù„Ù…Ø¯Ø§Ø±Ø³ ÙˆØ§Ù„Ø¬Ø§Ù…Ø¹Ø§ØªØŒ ÙˆÙˆÙ‚Ù Ø§Ù„Ø¹Ù…Ù„ ÙÙŠ Ø§Ù„Ù‚Ø·Ø§Ø¹ÙŠÙ† Ø§Ù„Ø®Ø§Øµ ÙˆØ§Ù„Ø¹Ø§Ù…ØŒ ÙˆØ¥Ø®Ø¶Ø§Ø¹ Ø£ÙŠ Ø´Ø®Øµ ÙŠØ¹ÙˆØ¯ Ù…Ù† Ø®Ø§Ø±Ø¬ Ø§Ù„Ø¨Ù„Ø§Ø¯ Ù„Ù„ØØ¬Ø± Ø§Ù„ØµØÙŠ. Ø£ÙŠØ¶Ø§Ù‹ØŒ ØªØªÙŠØ Ø§Ù„ØªØ¹Ø¯ÙŠÙ„Ø§Øª Ù„Ù„Ø±Ø¦ÙŠØ³ Ù…Ù†Ø Ø£Ø¹Ø¶Ø§Ø¡ Ø§Ù„Ù†ÙŠØ§Ø¨Ø© Ø§Ù„Ø¹Ø§Ù…Ø© Ø§Ù„Ø¹Ø³ÙƒØ±ÙŠØ© Ø³Ù„Ø·Ø© Ø§Ù„ØªØÙ‚ÙŠÙ‚ Ø§Ù„Ø£ÙˆÙ„ÙŠØ© ÙÙŠ Ø£ÙŠ Ø¬Ø±Ø§Ø¦Ù…. ØªØ´Ù‡Ø¯ Ù…ØµØ± ØØ§Ù„Ø© Ø·ÙˆØ§Ø±Ø¦ Ù…Ø³ØªÙ…Ø±Ø© Ù…Ù†Ø° Ø£Ø¨Ø±ÙŠÙ„ 2017ØŒ ÙˆÙ…Ø¤Ø®Ø±Ø§Ù‹ ØªÙ… ØªÙ…Ø¯ÙŠØ¯ ØØ§Ù„Ø© Ø§Ù„Ø·ÙˆØ§Ø±Ø¦ Ù„Ù…Ø¯Ø© Ø«Ù„Ø§Ø«Ø© Ø£Ø´Ù‡Ø± Ø£Ø®Ø±Ù‰ Ø¨Ø¯Ø£Øª ÙÙŠ 26 Ø§ÙƒØªÙˆØ¨Ø±.(See primary source or citation here)
Introduced 8 May 2020
Issue(s): Assembly, Emergency, Militarization
State of Emergency
The presidential decree declares a "state of emergency" for three months, under Article 154 of Egypt's Constitution. Egypt has been in a near-continuous state of emergency since April 2017, however the most recent declaration cites the "critical security and health situation" as grounds for extension. The declaration reinforces the authority of the armed forces and police to maintain security and save the lives of citizens, and provides that the state may impose restrictions on individuals' movement. The decree also states that violations of emergency orders will be punished with imprisonment.
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Introduced 28 Apr 2020
Issue(s): Emergency, Movement, Militarization
Ban on Public Religious Gatherings
The government bans all gatherings, public iftars, fast-breaking meals, and collective social activities for the holy month of Ramadan.
ØØ¸Ø± Ø§Ù„ØªØ¬Ù…Ø¹Ø§Øª Ø§Ù„Ø¯ÙŠÙ†ÙŠØ© Ø§Ù„Ø¹Ø§Ù…Ø©
Ø§Ù„ØÙƒÙˆÙ…Ø© ØªØØ¸Ø± ÙƒÙ„ Ø§Ù„ØªØ¬Ù…Ø¹Ø§Øª ÙˆÙ…ÙˆØ§Ø¦Ø¯ Ø§Ù„Ø¥ÙØ·Ø§Ø± Ø§Ù„Ø¹Ø§Ù…Ø© ÙˆØ§Ù„ÙˆØ¬Ø¨Ø§Øª Ø§Ù„Ø³Ø±ÙŠØ¹Ø© ÙˆØ§Ù„Ø£Ù†Ø´Ø·Ø© Ø§Ù„Ø§Ø¬ØªÙ…Ø§Ø¹ÙŠØ© Ø§Ù„Ø¬Ù…Ø§Ø¹ÙŠØ© Ø®Ù„Ø§Ù„ Ø´Ù‡Ø± Ø±Ù…Ø¶Ø§Ù† Ø§Ù„Ù…Ø¨Ø§Ø±Ùƒ.(See primary source or citation here)
Introduced 7 Apr 2020
Nationwide Curfew and Ban of Public Gatherings
The government's measures impose a curfew from 8pm to 6am, and bans public religious gatherings during Ramadan. Those who do not abide by the measures face fines of up to 4,000 Egyptian pounds ($255) or prison.
ØØ¸Ø± ØªØ¬ÙˆÙ„ ÙÙŠ Ø¬Ù…ÙŠØ¹ Ø£Ù†ØØ§Ø¡ Ø§Ù„Ø¨Ù„Ø§Ø¯ ÙˆØØ¸Ø± Ø§Ù„ØªØ¬Ù…Ø¹Ø§Øª Ø§Ù„Ø¹Ø§Ù…Ø©
ØªÙØ±Ø¶ Ø§Ù„ØªØ¯Ø§Ø¨ÙŠØ± Ø§Ù„ØÙƒÙˆÙ…ÙŠØ© ØØ¸Ø± Ø§Ù„ØªØ¬ÙˆÙ„ Ù…Ù† Ø§Ù„Ø³Ø§Ø¹Ø© Ø§Ù„Ø«Ø§Ù…Ù†Ø© Ù…Ø³Ø§Ø¡Ø§Ù‹ ØØªÙ‰ Ø§Ù„Ø³Ø§Ø¹Ø© Ø§Ù„Ø³Ø§Ø¯Ø³Ø© ØµØ¨Ø§ØØ§Ù‹ØŒ ÙˆØªØØ¸Ø± Ø§Ù„ØªØ¬Ù…Ø¹Ø§Øª Ø§Ù„Ø¯ÙŠÙ†ÙŠØ© Ø§Ù„Ø¹Ø§Ù…Ø© Ø®Ù„Ø§Ù„ Ø´Ù‡Ø± Ø±Ù…Ø¶Ø§Ù†. ÙŠÙØ¹Ø§Ù‚Ø¨ ÙƒÙ„ Ù…Ù† Ù„Ø§ ÙŠÙ„ØªØ²Ù… Ø¨Ù‡Ø°Ù‡ Ø§Ù„ØªØ¯Ø§Ø¨ÙŠØ± Ø¨ØºØ±Ø§Ù…Ø§Øª ØªØµÙ„ Ø¥Ù„Ù‰ 4,000 Ø¬Ù†ÙŠÙ‡ Ù…ØµØ±ÙŠ (255 Ø¯ÙˆÙ„Ø§Ø± Ø£Ù…Ø±ÙŠÙƒÙŠ) Ø£Ùˆ Ø¨Ø§Ù„Ø³Ø¬Ù†.(See primary source or citation here)
Introduced 24 Mar 2020 On 14 September 2020 the Supreme Council for Corona Crisis Management announced relaxation of some of the restrictions on public gatherings, including permission for tourism gatherings, funerals, cultural exhibitions, meetings and conferences, certain sport and recreational activities, and childcare centers, all under certain specified conditions.
Issue(s): Assembly, Movement
Intimidation and Arrest of Healthcare Workers Discussing COVID-19 Crisis
Between the February outbreak of COVID-19 in Egypt and early July, Egypt arrested at least ten doctors and six journalists. Authorities have also instructed health workers not to discuss the health crisis with the press. The Supreme Council for Media Regulation issued a series of announcements, including on March 10, April 21, and June 16, each of which threatens legal action against journalists or media outlets who might depict negative aspects of the government's response to the COVID-19 crisis.(See primary source or citation here)
Introduced 6 Jul 2020
Issue(s): Disinformation, Press Freedom, Expression, Access to Information
Supreme Council for Media RegulationÂ Limits Access to Online News
The Supreme Council for Media Regulation has blocked or limited access to dozens of news websites and social media accounts for allegedly spreading false information about the coronavirus. The SCMR has not made public the targets of the blocking nor the allegedly false information.
Ø§Ù„Ù…Ø¬Ù„Ø³ Ø§Ù„Ø£Ø¹Ù„Ù‰ Ù„ØªÙ†Ø¸ÙŠÙ… Ø§Ù„Ø¥Ø¹Ù„Ø§Ù… ÙŠÙ‚ÙŠØ¯ Ø§Ù„ÙˆØµÙˆÙ„ Ø¥Ù„Ù‰ Ø§Ù„Ø£Ø®Ø¨Ø§Ø± Ø¹Ù„Ù‰ Ø´Ø¨ÙƒØ© Ø§Ù„Ø¥Ù†ØªØ±Ù†Øª
Ù‚Ø§Ù… Ø§Ù„Ù…Ø¬Ù„Ø³ Ø§Ù„Ø£Ø¹Ù„Ù‰ Ù„ØªÙ†Ø¸ÙŠÙ… Ø§Ù„Ø¥Ø¹Ù„Ø§Ù… Ø¨ØØ¸Ø± Ø£Ùˆ ØªÙ‚ÙŠÙŠØ¯ Ø§Ù„ÙˆØµÙˆÙ„ Ø¥Ù„Ù‰ Ø¹Ø´Ø±Ø§Øª Ø§Ù„Ù…ÙˆØ§Ù‚Ø¹ Ø§Ù„Ø¥Ø®Ø¨Ø§Ø±ÙŠØ© ÙˆØØ³Ø§Ø¨Ø§Øª ÙˆØ³Ø§Ø¦Ù„ Ø§Ù„ØªÙˆØ§ØµÙ„ Ø§Ù„Ø§Ø¬ØªÙ…Ø§Ø¹ÙŠ Ø¨ØØ¬Ø© Ø¶Ù„ÙˆØ¹Ù‡Ø§ ÙÙŠ Ù†Ø´Ø± Ù…Ø¹Ù„ÙˆÙ…Ø§Øª ÙƒØ§Ø°Ø¨Ø© ØÙˆÙ„ ÙÙŠØ±ÙˆØ³ ÙƒÙˆØ±ÙˆÙ†Ø§ Ø§Ù„Ù…Ø³ØªØ¬Ø¯. Ù„Ù… ÙŠÙ‚Ù… Ø§Ù„Ù…Ø¬Ù„Ø³ Ø§Ù„Ø£Ø¹Ù„Ù‰ Ù„ØªÙ†Ø¸ÙŠÙ… Ø§Ù„Ø¥Ø¹Ù„Ø§Ù… Ø¨Ù†Ø´Ø± Ø£Ù‡Ø¯Ø§Ù Ø§Ù„ØØ¸Ø± ÙˆÙ„Ø§ Ø§Ù„Ù…Ø¹Ù„ÙˆÙ…Ø§Øª Ø§Ù„ÙƒØ§Ø°Ø¨Ø© Ø§Ù„Ù…Ø²Ø¹ÙˆÙ…Ø©.(See primary source or citation here)
Introduced 3 Apr 2020
Issue(s): Disinformation, Expression