Report on Laws and Regulations Governing Civil Society Organizations in Ethiopia

Confronting the Challenges to Democracy in the 21 st Century
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Defending Civil Society

Report on Laws and R egulations
Governing Civil Society Organizations

Prepared by:
Debebe Hailegebriel

General Framework
The Ethiopian legal system generally adheres to the civil law tradition , though there are some areas
influenced by the common law tradition. Ethiopia is a fed eral country divided into nine regional states
and two chartered cities administered by the Federal Government. Parallel to the F ederal Government,
Regional States also have legislative, executive , and judicial powers. The Constitution of the Federal
Democ ratic Republic of Ethiopia (FDRE) accords Regional States residual power , wherein all powers not
expressly assigned to the Federal Government or concurrently to the Federal Government and the
States are reserved to the States. 1 Article 51 of the FDRE Const itution , which defines the power of the
Federal Government , does not give the Federal government exclusive power over the administration of
civil society organizations ( CSO s) in the country. The power of the Federal Government is in fact
restricted to the regula tion of CSOs working in the two chartered cities —Addis Ababa and D ire-Dawa. 2

General Constitutional Framework
One third of the c onstitutional provisions are devoted to human rights , including those of individuals
and group s. The Constitution gua rantees freedom of expression, association , and assembly , which are
crucial for the operation of active CSOs in a democratic system. Specifically, Article 31 of the FDRE
Constitution provides that “ [E]very person has the right to freedom of association for any cause or
purpose . Organizations formed, in violation of appropriate laws, or to illegally subvert the constitutional
order, or which promote such activities are prohibited” (emphasis added) .

The Constitution guarantee s freedom of association for “eve ry person ” regardless of nationality, race,
color , et c. In addition, the Constitution guarantees freedom of association irrespective of the cause or
purpose for which the association is established or standing. Indeed , it should be noted that Article 31 o f
the FDRE Constitution enjoins only the positive freedom to associate , without explicitly stating the
negative freedom not to associate. In other words, the Constitution does not give explicit protection to
individuals to be not forced to join a certain a ssociation.

The FDRE Constitution prescribes two permissible grounds for state interference and limitation of
freedom of association , including the formation of an association in violation of the “appropriate law”
and establishment with the intent of ille gally subvert ing the constitutional order. The first ground of
limitation —“in violation of the appropriate law” —is too wide and open to subjective interpretation. The
provision should have explicitly stated under what grounds the appropriate law can limit freedom.

Types of Organizations
1 Article 50 and following of the Constitution of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia; Proclamation No.
1/1995 2 Contrary to this Constitutional restriction, however, the new CSOs Proclamation enacted by the Federal
Government include s charities or societies that operate in more than one regional state or whose members are
from more than one regional state, and Foreign Charities and Ethiopian Resident Charities and Societies , even if
they operate only in one regional state .

Recently, the Federal Government of Ethiopia adopted one of the most controversial proclamation s in
the country , the Charities and Societies Proclamation (CSP) dealing with the formation and operation of
CSOs. 3 This law di vided CSOs into two broad categories known as “Charity ” and “Society. ” Under the
previous practice, the registering authority divided CSOs into the categories of development, advocacy,
religious , and professional associations. Nevertheless, t he new law env isages three forms of legal
establishment of charities or societies , which may vary depending on their place of registration, source
of income, composition of members’ nationality , and place of residence. The three forms of association
include :4

1. “Ethiopia n Charities” or “Ethiopian Societies” are Charities or Societies formed under the
laws of Ethiopia and whose members are Ethiopians, generate income from Ethiopia , and are
wholly controlled by Ethiopians. However, they may be deemed Ethiopian Charities or
Ethiopian Societies if no more than 10 percent of their are funds received from foreign
2. “Ethiopian Residents Charities” or “Ethiopian Residents Societies ” are Charities or Societies
that are formed under the laws of Ethiopia and consist of members dwell ing in Ethiopia , and
who receive more than 10 percent of their funds from foreign sources;
3. “Foreign Charities” are Charities that are formed under the laws of foreign countries , or
consist of members who are foreign nationals , or are controlled by fo reign nationals , or
receive funds from foreign country sources .

CSOs can be established for the benefit of third parties and classified as “ Charity ,” or for the benefit of
their members , and classified as a “Society ” or for the benefit of both their members and third parties ,
and classified as “Charitable Society .” Article 14 of the CSP list s the types of charitable activities in which
CSOs may or may not take part. The law implicitly restricts organizations categorized as “ Ethiopian
Residents ” or “Foreign ” from taking part in advocacy activities , such as advancement of human rights,
gender equality, the rights of child ren and disabled persons, and the efficiency of the justice system.

The Agency may also refus e to register a Charity or Society on the ground s that “the proposed Charity or
Society is likely to be used for unlawful purposes or for purposes prejudicial to public peace, welfare or
good order in Ethiopia .”5 The proclamation further provide s that the Agency may refuse registration if
the name under which the proposed Charity or Society is to be registered is considered to be contrary to
public morality or is illegal .

Registration as a Voluntary vs. Mandatory Requirement
3 The Proclamation is cited as “Charities and Societies Proclamation (CSP) No. 621/2009 . This law came into effect
as of 13 February 2009. 4 See Art. 2 (2, 3and 4) of the CSP 5 See Art 69(2) of the CSP .

The law makes registration a mandatory prerequisite to form ing an association, and thus “ any Charity or
Society shall apply for registration within three month of its formation .”6 Failure to register within the
prescribed period shall be ground s for cessation of the formed Charity or Society.

Registration or Incorporation Requirements
The law puts no explicit restriction s on who can be founders of a C harity or Society , and the re is no
limitation on the number of founders. Accordingly, n atural or legal persons can establish an assoc iation
of their choice , whether a charity or society. 7 However, there is an implied inference from the reading
of Article 57 (6) that a society that has a federal character and nomenclature should have members from
at least five Regional States. Th is mean s, in effect , that the law is attempting to determine the number
and composition of the founders.

The power of licensing, registering , and supervising CSOs is given to a special Agency established as a
separate legal entity , but accountable to the Ministr y of Justice , which is in turn accountable to the
Council of Ministers. Therefore, the administration of CSOs falls under the executive branch .

Concerning registration formalities, the application for CSO registration include s particulars , such as the
goa ls, objectives , and activities of the CSO . The form prepared by the Agency must be accompanied by:

1. A copy of the rules of the Charity or the Society and , where applicable , document ation of the
act of constituting a Charitable Trust or Charitable Endowmen t;
2. Other similar documents and duly completed forms as the Agency may require.

CSO Registry
Article 71 of the CSP deals with Register of CSOs and instructs the Agency to keep a regist ry of Charities
and Societies. However, this provision fails to specify whether the registry would be accessible to the
general public or any interested person. The Agency is also mandated to publish the list of Charities and
Societies registered, suspended, or cancelled.

Foreign Organizations
In addition to the above requir ements, Charities that are established abroad shall present:

1. Duly authenticated certificate of registration showing the CSO’s establishment in its country of
2. Proof of the decision of its competent organ to operate in Ethiopia;
3. A letter of recommen dation from the Embassy of the country in which the Charity is
incorporated , or in the absence of such by a competent government office in that country;
4. A letter of recommendation from the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Federal Democratic
Republic of E thiopia;
6 See Art. 64 of the CSP . 7 Charities or Societies can establish a consortium to coordinate their activities. See Articles 15 (3) and 55 (2) of the

5. Power of attorney of the CSO’s representative in Ethiopia .

The law also provides for a registration fee determine d by a regulation of the Ministers of Council .

The Agency is required to register the applicant and issue a certificate of legal p ersonality within 30 days
from the date of application. If the Agency does not issue a certificate of legal personality , or does not
make known that it will not do so , the applicant may apply to the Board 8 no later than 45 days from the
da te of application . Article 104 of the CSP provides that the decision of the Board is final on the
administrative level , and only organizations classified as Ethiopian Charit ies or Societ ies have the right to
a judicial appeal of the decision of the Board. Ethiopian Residen t or Foreign CSOs do not have the right
to lodge an appeal of the decision of the Board. 9

Registration may be denied on one of the following specific grounds :

1. The rules of the proposed Charity or Society do not comply with the necessary conditions set by
the proclamation;
2. The proposed Charity or Society is likely to be used for unlawful purposes or for purposes
prejudicial to public peace, welfare , or good order in Ethiopia;
3. The application for registration does not comply with the provisions of this law;
4. The name under which the proposed Charity or Society is to be registered resembles the name
of another Charity or Society , or any other institution , or is contrary to public morality , or is
5. The nomenclature of the Charity or Society is countrywi de and the composition of its members
or its work place do es not show the representation of at least five Regional States .

However, the law fails to put an obligation on the Agency to provide a written communication on the
refusal of a registration.

The following are significant constraints on the registration/incorporation process that should be
considered :

1. The requirement imposed on CSOs having federal character or nomenclature to have members
from or a work place in at least five Regions ;
2. The restrict ion on CSOs in the formation stage to not raise fund s of more than 50,000 Ethiopian
Birr ; and
3. The additional requirement imposed on foreign organizations to produce letter s of
recommendation from Ethiopian embassies and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs .

8 The Board is an administrative body in the Agency that is accountable to the Ministry of Justice. It has 7
members, 5 from government and 2 from civil society , and all are appointed by the Government. See Articles 8 & 9
of the CSP . 9 See Article 104 of the CSP

Regulatory Authorities
The law has mandated the following supervisory organs to overse e the administration and operation of
CSOs :

1. Ministry of Justice , as the Agency accountable to the Ministry ;
2. Charities and Societies Agen cy, a special organ established to administer the registration,
operation and dissolution of Charities and Societies ;
3. Charity and Society Board, established under the Agency , consist ing of 7 members nominated by
the government, including two from the civil society ; and
4. Sector Administrators , having a supervisory and advisory role in the administration of CSOs .

Internal Governance
In principle, the law recognizes the rights of CSOs to determine the ir own structure. 10 Nevertheless,
there are some provisions that require CSOs to a dopt certain forms of structure. For example :

1. Charitable Endowment s and Charitable Institution s must have a board of management,
manager , and a uditor within their structure ;
2. Charitable Trust s should have a trustee manager, a trustee treasurer , and a trustee auditor ;
3. Soci eties and Charitable Societies must have a general assembly, executive committee , and an
internal a uditor .

The law further provides the power and responsibilities of the different organs in the administration of
the org anization.

There are various provisions that allow or call for the interference of the Agency in the internal affairs of
the organization. Societ ies must notify the Agency , in writing , of the time and place of any meeting of
the General Assembly of a Society no later than seven working days prior to such a meeting .11 No Charity
or Society may employ expatriates unless a work permit is granted in accordance with the relevant law.
The Agency may order the appropriate organ of the Charity or Society to re move an officer who falls
short of any of the requirements set forth under Article 7 0 of the CSP and to assign another person as an
officer . In addition, Article 70 identifies individuals who cannot be assigned as officers of Charities or
Societies , includ ing:

1. Convict s of a crime that involves fraud or other crimes that involve dishonest acts;
2. Convict s of any crime whose punishment result s in the depriv ation of her/his civil rights , which
have not yet been restored; and
3. Individuals outside Ethiopia whose absence impedes the proper administration of the Charity or
10 See Article 59 of the CSP . 11 See Article 86 of the CSP .


More over , t he Agency may, upon the request of one or more members or officers of the Society ,
convene the meeting of the General Assembly through the Chairperson or on its own. The Agenc y may,
where appropriate, nominate a Chairperson of the General Assembly. 12 The Agency may also suspend an
officer responsible for misconduct or mismanagement of the administration of the Charity or Society
and order the appropriate organ of the Charity or Society to assign another person. 13

CSO s are generally required to submit s tatements of accounts , annual activity reports , and bank
account s. The statement of account (accounting record) must show all sums of money received and
expended by the C harity or Society on a day -to-day basis , the context in which the receipt s and
expenditure s took place , and a record of the assets and liabilities of the Charity or Society. The annual
statement of accounts shall be prepared in accordance with standard s set by a Certified Auditor . It
should also be noted that Charities and Societies may not receive anonymous donations , and shall at all
times keep records clearly indicat ing the identity of donors. 14 Charities and Ethiopian Resident Societies
shall prepare an d transmit to the Agency an annual report on the major activities carried out and
relevant information regarding the Charity. Ethiopian Societies are not required to submit annual
activity reports. CSOs are to report to the Agency annually and upon request concerning all bank
accounts of the Charity or Society with necessary particulars. Charities and Societies whose annual flow s
of funds do not exceed Birr 50,000 may choose to prepare a statement indicating receipts and payments
as a statement of assets an d liabilities . The law also exempt s organizations whose annual income is less
than Birr 100,000 from being examined by Certified Auditors. Finally, CSOs that are engag e in income –
generating activities are expected to keep books of income -generating activi ties separate from books of
account .

State Enforcement and Sanctions
The CSP contains enforcement mechanisms for violation of its provisions consist ing of both
administrative and judicial measures. Any person who violates the provisions of th e proclamatio n may
be punish ed in accordance with the provisions of the criminal code , and in addition :

1. Any Charity or Society fail ing to keep its book of accounts ; to record money received, its source ,
and the amount expended ; to preserve any accounting records for a t least five years from the
end of its financial year , will be punishable with a fine of no less than Birr 20,000 and not
exceeding Birr 50,000 .
2. Any Charity or Society that , in violation of Article 79 , fails to submit to the Agency an annual
statement of a ccount prepared in accordance with acceptable standards , fails to prepare the
statements of receipts, payments and assets and send the same to the Agency , or does not
preserve any statements of accounts and related documents for at least five years from th e end
12 See Article 61 of the CSP . 13 See Article 91 of the CSP . 14 See Article 77 of th e CSP .

of its financial year will be punishable with a fine of not less than Birr 10,000 and not exceeding
Birr 20,000.
3. Any Charity or Society that , in violation of Article 84 , fails to report annually or upon request its
bank accounts with the necessary pa rticulars will be fine d not less than Birr 50,000 and not
exceeding Birr 100,000.
4. Any Charity or Society that , in violation of Article 90 , allocate s less than 70 percent of its
expenses in the budget year for the implementation of its purposes and not more than 30
percent for its administrative activities shall be punishable with a fine of not less than Birr 5,000
and not exceeding Birr 10,000.
5. Any officer, employee or person who participates in criminal acts stated under sub article (2) of
this article sha ll be punis hed with a fine of not less than Birr 10,000 and not exceeding Birr
20,000 or imprisonment of not less than five years and not exceeding ten years or both.

One should recall that it is only Ethiopian Charities or Societies that have the right t o a judicial appeal
the decision of the Agency, and thus Ethiopian Residents or Foreign CSOs do not have such rights.

Dissolution, Winding Up, and Liquidation of Assets
A Charity or Society can decide on its dissolution according to its own rules. In addi tion, CSOs of any type
may be dissolved involuntarily by the Agency in any one of the following cases :

1. The Agency cancels or suspends the license of the Charity or Society in accordance with Article
93 of the proclamation; or
2. The Charity or Society has be come insolvent.

The following are grounds for suspension of an organization :

1. Failing to comply with the Agency’s orders to amend a rule of the organization or correct
another fault ;
2. Submitting falsified accounts or reports to the Agency ;
3. Contravening the provisions of th e proclamation or regulations and directives issued there –
under or orders of the Agency or its own rules ; or
4. Fail ing to provide the Agency with information required by the Proclamation .

On the other hand, the license of any Charity or Soc iety can be cancelled if :

1. The registration of the organization has been procured by fraud or misrepresentation ;
2. The organization has been used for unlawful purposes or for purposes prejudicial to public
peace, welfare , or security ;
3. The organization fails to rectify the causes for suspension within the time limit set by the
Agency ;
4. The organization fails to renew its license ; or

5. The organization commits a crime by violating the provisions of the criminal code or that of the
Proclamation .

The dissolution o f Ethiopian Charities and Societies may be effected by a decision of the Federal High
Court , whereas the dissolution of Ethiopian Residents Charity or Society or Foreign Charity shall be
effected by the decision of the Agency , with no judicial r ecourse. Dissolution has the following effects :

1. The property of the organization will be liquidat ed ;
2. After settling all debts and liabilities of the organization, the remaining property will be given to
a Charity or Society with a similar purpose , or to any Charity or Society by the order of the
Agency ;
3. A Charity or Society that is being dissolved may not perform activities other than those
necessary for its liquidation without the authorization of the Agency .

General Powers
Once legally registe red, CSOs have legal personality and thus enjoy the general rights and powers of
juridical entities , such as ownership of property or entering into contracts . However, though not
provided by the CSP , the Civil Code requires foreigners to have special permi ssion from the Government
to own immovable property in Ethiopia. 15

Expressive / Advocacy / Public Policy Activities
Advocacy activities are considered “political activities ,”16 which are allowed only for Ethiopians and
Ethiopian organizations that can mob ilize more than 90 percent of their income from local source s.
Article 14 (5) of the CSP lists those activities that are reserved only for Ethiopian Charities :

1. The advancement of human and democratic rights;
2. The promotion of equality of nations, nationali ties and peoples and that of gender and
3. The promotion of the rights of the disabled and children’s rights;
4. The promotion of conflict resolution and reconciliation; and
5. The promotion of the efficiency of justice a nd law enforcement services.

Comm unication and Cooperation
One of the strengths of the CSP is that it clearly provides for the rights of Charities and Societies to
establish consortiums that coordinate their activities. 17 The law permits CSOs to engage in income –
generating activities with the following conditions : the activity must be approved by the Agency ; the
activity must be incidental to the achievement of the purposes of the organization ; and the profits must
15 Article 548 of the Civil Code of Ethiopia 16 The Prime Minister and, subsequently, the drafters of the CSP , argued that activities dealing with rights of
individuals are political activities, and hence only citizens can work on these issues. 17 See Articles 15(3) and 55 (2) of the CSP .

be used only to further the activities of the organization. 18 The registrati on and licensing requirements
shall be determined in accordance with other law applicable to business organizations.

Seeking / Securing Funding
One of the most contentious provisions in the CSP is the provision dealing with access to foreign fund s.
CSOs o pting to be registered as Ethiopian are not allowed to receive more than 10 percent of their fund s
from foreign source s.19 There is no law binding the Government to fund the activities of CSOs , though
there are some CSOs that work closely and with the supp ort of the Government. 20

The Proclamation does not specify which taxes CSOs are required to pay. Article 103 of the CSP states
that CSOs may engage in income -generating activities , but are subject to laws concerning registration
and licensin g requirements for activities related to trade, investment , or any profit -making activities.
Income from grants, donations , and membership fees are not subject to tax . CSOs generally pay
different taxes when buying services and goods. 21

CSOs working on se rvice delivery and relief activities may be exempt from some form s of taxes , such as
custom s duties on imported items . Similarly, CSOs working with the financial support of international
organizations like USAID may also be exempt from value -added taxes (V AT) due to agreement s between
the U .S. and Ethiopian governments. The Income Tax Proclamation considers donation s to CSOs from
business organizations or individuals to be non -deductible expense s,22 and provides limits on expenses
for administrative and core business of CSOs. Accordingly, no Charity or Society can allocate less than
70 percent of the expenses in the budget year for the implementation of its purposes , and can not
exceed 30 percent for its administrative activities .23

Priority Issues
The following can be identified as the highest priority legal issues confronting CSOs in Ethiopia :

18 There is a discrepancy between the English version and the Amharic version which is the ruling version. The
Amharic version adds another requirement which is not in the English version. According to the Amharic ver sion
CSOs are also required to prove that the income generating activities are related to their main activities. 19 See Article 2(2) of the CSP . 20 Women and youth associations are among those organizations which the government is encouraging and
working to gether. 21 CSOs working on service delivery and relief activities may have exemption from some form of taxes like custom
duties on imported items, and CSOs working with the financial support of international organizations like USAID
may also have exemption from VAT because of the agreement between the US and the Ethiopian Governments. 22 See Art .21 (1) (n) of the Income Tax Proclamation No. 286/2002. This Proclamation provided that the Council of
Ministers may by regulations allow donations or gifts donated for public use to be deducted. However, the Council
has not issue d the said regulation so far. 23 See Articles 2 (14) and 89(1) of the CSP. The law defines administrative costs as “those costs incurred for
emoluments, allowances, benefits, purchasing goo ds and services, travelling and entertainment necessary for the
administrative activities of a Charity or society .”

1. Access to foreign fund s: the restriction on Ethiopian CSOs that forbids access to more than 10
percent of income from foreign source s should be resci nded, as most of the CSOs in the country
are foreign -fund dependent .
2. Restriction s on activities : the restriction imposed on organizations d eriving their fund s from
foreign source s to not participate in advocacy activities , such as advancement of human rig hts,
women, child and disabled persons’ right s, conflict resolution , and the efficiency of the justice
system , is against the Constitution , which guarantee s the rights of “everyone” to associate for
any lawful “ cause or purpose .”
3. Denial of access to justic e: The Proclamation, against the Constitution and the ICCPR to which
Ethiopia is a party, denies the right of CSOs established in the form of Ethiopian Residents or
Foreign Charities to have access to judicial recourse or appeal of administrative decisions .
4. Membership : Article 31 of the Constitution does not require any qualification on membership
while guaranteeing freedom of association. The CSP, however, requires organizations to meet
certain criteria in relation to membership composition. Article 58 of the CSP states that where
“the Society has Federal character and nomenclature, its work place and composition of the
members shall show the representation of at least five Regional States .” Failure to observe this
requirement may lead to refusal of regist ration as stated under Article 71(5) of the CSP , which
reads , “[the] Agency shall refuse to register a Charity or Society where the nomenclature of the
Charity or Society is countrywide and the composition of its members or its workplace do not
show the re presentation of at least five regional states .”
5. Branch Offices or Work Places : As stated above, organizations that have federal character and
nomenclature are required to represent at least five Regional States in their workplace . In other
words , these org anizations must show that they are operating in at least five Regional States.
The law defines “place of work” as “the place where a person's records and books of account
are kept or the place where a person conducts work .”Accordingly, organizations may no t have
branch offices per se , but are required to operate in five Regional States from their
6. Administrative Cost vs. Operational Cost : Article 90 of the CSP provides for the regulation of
administrative and operational costs. This provision reads; “Any Charity or Society shall allocate
not less than 70 percent of the expenses in the budget year for the implementation of its
purposes and an amount not exceeding 30 percent for its administrative activities .” In tandem
with Article 2 (14) of th e same Proclamation ,24 this provision places organizations in a
challenging situation regarding the administ ration of their costs. The definition given to
“administrative cost” is very vague and circular. Second, the definition of expenses , classified as
“administrative costs ,” is too broad , incorporating expenses that were previously considered to
be operational costs.

24 Administrative costs shall mean those costs incurred for emoluments, allowances, benefits, purchasing goods
and services, travelling and e ntertainment necessary for the administrative activities of a Charity or Society.

Government rationale
The Government ’s rationale for the enactment of this law can be found in the law itself and other
relevant documents .25 These include the following objectives: 26

1. To ensure that citizens’ right to association is enshrined in the Constitution of the Federal
Democratic Republic of Ethiopia ;
2. To aid and facilitate the role of Charities and Societies in the overall development of Ethiopian
peoples ;
3. To provide varieties of measures to be taken against CSOs in case of fault ;
4. To ensure the accountability, transparency and consistency of CSOs and their objectives to the
public ;
5. To provide legal basis for the relationship between CS Os and Sector Administrators , which did
not exist before ; and
6. To determine the amount of money CSOs may spend for administrative purposes and project
activities (core objectives) .

Strategic Response
There are two broad, strategic ways to defen d CSOs from the Proclamation . One dictates that the
current law be improved by:

1. Challenging the constitutionality of the law both at the national and international levels ;
2. Engag ing in comprehensive legal advocacy activities to the improve of the law ;
3. Continuing dial ogue between CSOs and the international community and the Government to
improve the law ;
4. Establish ing a strong system o f monitoring the impact of the new legislation, and us ing findings
for advocacy activities ;
5. Organizing c omprehensive public outreach act ivities on the role and contribution of CSOs in
Ethiopia to economic development and the democratization process to change the public’s
negative perception of them ;
6. Developing coping mechanisms , particularly in domestic resource mobilization ;
7. Ensuring th at members of the international community make use of their leverage in dealing
with the Government, and that their development assistance also includes CSOs and
8. Urging the Government to accept the classification of major aid channels as foreign, including
UN agencies, European Commission (EC), World Bank (WB), etc.

25 See Paragraph 1 and 2 of the Preamble of CSP and the explanatory note prepared by the Ministry of Justice, Pp 5
and 6 as well as the Minute s of the Legal and Administrativ e Affairs Standing Committee’s public debate on the
draft CSP, 24 December 2008, House of Peoples Representatives Assembly Hall . 26 For objectives mentioned under 1 and 2, please see the Preamble of the CSP , whereas the rest are taken from
the Minute of t he Legal and Administrative Affairs of the House of Peoples’ Representatives of Ethiopia , December
24, 2008.

The second broad strategy should focus on supporting Ethiopian CSOs in adapt ing to the legal
environment and continu ing their work , particularly on human rights issues. In this regard , capacity –
building training is crucial.