Most measures restricting basic rights and freedoms during the COVID-19 pandemic have been implemented with circulars. These circulars have not been published in the Official Gazette. They have only been included on the Ministry of Interior’s website as ‘news.’ According to the Constitution, however, fundamental rights and freedoms can only be restricted by law.
Effective from June 6, 2020, all travelers must obtain a QR code via an application called HES for domestic flights and train and ferry travel. Since September 2020, having the code is mandatory in public institutions. Tracking and sharing data via the HES code may lead to violations of privacy and personal data protection, as well as discrimination based on ethnicity, age and gender.
For more details, see the ICNL COVID-19 Civic Freedom Tracker’s entry for Turkey.