Download PDF Version
Last updated 8 May 2013
Update: President Enrique Peña Nieto took office on December 1, 2012. Observers believe that a major reform of Mexican tax law is likely in Peña Nieto's first three months in office. The tax reform is expected to include provisions that govern CSOs receiving preferential tax treatment and their donors.
Mexico has a long tradition of charitable organizations and in the last twenty years new organizations have expanded to include fields like environmental and human rights.
In 2004, the Federal Law for the Promotion of Activities Undertaken by Civil Society Organizations (“The Law on Promotion”) was enacted in order to provide a legal framework at the Federal Government level for non-profit organizations, and a mechanism for the participation of nonprofit organizations in the social development of Mexico. This legislation opened the possibility for greater Government/CSO collaboration with mutual responsibility and transparency.
|Organizational Forms||Civil Associations (ACs)||Private Assistance Institutions (IAPs)||Authorized Donees (ADs)|
|Registration Body||Public Registry of Property and the Federal Taxpayers Registry. To be eligible to receive government funds, an organization must be listed in the Registry of Civil Society Organizations (CLUNI)||Private Assistance Board, Public Registry of Property, and the Federal Taxpayers Registry. To be eligible to receive government funds, an organization must be listed in the Registry of Civil Society Organizations||Authorized Donees may be organizations formed as ACs or IAPs. They must receive special authorization from the Servicio de Administracion Tributaria (SAT).|
|Barriers to Entry||None||None||Complicated and lengthy registration and compliance procedures.|
|Barriers to Activities||None||None|
|Barriers to Speech and/or Advocacy||None||None|
|Barriers to International Contact||None||None|
|Barriers to Resources||None||None|
|Population||112,468,855 (July 2010 est.)|
|Type of Government||Federal Republic|
|Life Expectancy at Birth||Male: 73.45 years
Female: 79.22 years (2010 est.)
|Literacy Rate||Male: 86.9%
Female: 85.3% (2005 Census)
|Religious Groups||Roman Catholic: 76.5%; Protestant: 6.3% (Pentecostal: 1.4%; Jehova's Witnesses: 1.1%; other: 3.8%); other: 0.3%; unspecified: 13.8%; none: 3.1% (2000 census)|
|Ethnic Groups||Mestizo (Amerindian-Spanish): 60%; Amerindian or predominantly Amerindian: 30%; white: 9%; other: 1%|
|GDP per capita||$13,800 (2010 est.)|
Source: The World Factbook. Washington, DC: Central Intelligence Agency, 2010.
|Ranking Body||Rank||Ranking Scale
(best – worst possible)
|UN Human Development Index||57 (2011)||1 – 169|
|World Bank Rule of Law Index||33.6 (2010)||100 – 0|
|World Bank Voice & Accountability Index||52.1 (2010)||100 – 0|
|Transparency International||100 (2011)||1 – 178|
|Freedom House: Freedom in the World||Status: Partly Free
Political Rights: 3
Civil Liberties: 3
|Free/Partly Free/Not Free
1 – 7
1 – 7
|Foreign Policy: Failed States Index
||98 (2012)||177 – 1|
International and Regional Human Rights Agreements
|Key International Agreements||Ratification*||Year|
|International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR)||Yes||1981|
|Optional Protocol to ICCPR (ICCPR-OP1)||Yes||2002|
|International Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights (ICESCR)||Yes||1981|
|Optional Protocol to ICESCR (OP-ICESCR)||No||--|
|International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination (ICERD)||Yes||1975|
|Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW)||Yes||1981|
|Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women||Yes||2002|
|Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC)||Yes||1990|
|International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of their Families (ICRMW)||Yes||1999|
|Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD)||Yes||2007|
|American Convention on Human Rights||Yes||1981|
|Additional Protocol to the Convention on Human Rights in the Area of Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights "Protocol of San Salvador"||Yes||1996|
* Category includes ratification, accession, or succession to the treaty
Relevant provisions of the Constitution of Mexico that relate to civil society:
Article 1. Every person in the United Mexican States shall enjoy the guarantees granted by this Constitution, which cannot be restricted or suspended except in such cases and under such conditions as are herein provided
Article 4. No person can be prevented from engaging in the profession, industrial or commercial pursuit, or occupation of his choice, provided it is lawful. The exercise of this liberty shall only be forbidden by judicial order when the rights of third parties are infringed, or by administrative order, issued in the manner provided by law, when the rights of society are violated. No one may be deprived of the fruits of his labor except by judicial decision.
The law in each state shall determine the professions which may be practiced only with a degree, and set forth the requirements for obtaining it and the authorities empowered to issue it.
Article 6. The expression of ideas shall not be subject to any judicial or administrative investigation, unless it offends good morals, infringes the rights of others, incites to crime, or disturbs the public order.
Article 7. Freedom of writing and publishing writings on any subject is inviolable. No law or authority may establish censorship, require bonds from authors or printers, or restrict the freedom of printing, which shall be limited only by the respect due to private life, morals, and public peace. Under no circumstances may a printing press be sequestrated as the instrument of the offense.
The organic laws shall contain whatever provisions may be necessary to prevent the imprisonment of the vendors, newsboys, workmen, and other employees of the establishment publishing the work denounced, under pretext of a denunciation of offenses of the press, unless their guilt is previously established.
Article 8. Public officials and employees shall respect the exercise of the right of petition, provided it is made in writing and in a peaceful and respectful manner; but this right may only be exercised in political matters by citizens of the Republic.
Every petition shall be replied to in writing by the official to whom it is addressed, and said official is bound to inform the petitioner of the decision taken within a brief period.
Article 9. The right to assemble or associate peaceably for any lawful purpose cannot be restricted; but only citizens of the Republic may do so to take part in the political affairs of the country. No armed deliberative meeting is authorized.
No meeting or assembly shall be deemed unlawful which has for its object the petitioning of any authority or the presentation of a protest against any act; nor may it be dissolved, unless insults be proffered against said authority or violence is resorted to, or threats are used to intimidate or compel such authority to render a favorable decision.
Article 11. Everyone has the right to enter and leave the Republic, to travel through its territory and to change his residence without necessity of a letter of security, passport, safe-conduct or any other similar requirement. The exercise of this right shall be subordinated to the powers of the judiciary, in cases of civil or criminal liability, and to those of the administrative authorities insofar as concerns the limitations imposed by the laws regarding emigration, immigration and public health of the country, or in regard to undesirable aliens resident in the country.
Article 16. No one shall be molested in his person, family, domicile, papers, or possessions except by virtue of a written order of the competent authority stating the legal grounds and justification for the action taken. No order of arrest or detention shall be issued against any person other than by the competent judicial authority, and unless same is preceded by a charge, accusation, or complaint for a credible party or by other evidence indicating the probable guilt of the accused; in cases of flagrante delicto, any person may arrest the offender and his accomplices, turning them over without delay to the nearest authorities. Only in urgent cases instituted by the public attorney without previous complaint or indictment and when there is no judicial authority available, may the administrative authorities, on their strictest accountability, order the detention of an accused person, turning him over immediately to the judicial authorities. Every search warrant, which can be issued only by judicial authority and which must be in writing, shall specify the place to be searched, the person or persons to be arrested, and the objects sought, the proceedings to be limited thereto; at the conclusion of which a detailed statement shall be drawn up in the presence of two witnesses proposed by the occupant of the place searched, or by the official making the search in his absence or should he refuse to do so.
Administrative officials may enter private homes for the sole purpose of ascertaining whether the sanitary and police regulations have been complied with; and may demand to be shown the books and documents required to prove compliance with fiscal rulings, in which latter cases they must abide by the provisions of the respective laws and be subject to the formalities prescribed for cases of search
Article 24. Every man is free to pursue the religious belief that best suits him, and to practice its ceremonies, devotions or cults, as long as they do not constitute a crime. Congress cannot dictate laws that establish or abolish any given religion. Ordinarily, all religious acts will be practiced in temples, and those that extraordinarily are practiced outside temples must adhere to law.
II. Religious institutions known as churches, regardless of creed, may in no case acquire, hold, or administer real property or hold mortgages thereon; such property held at present either directly or through an intermediary shall revert to the Nation, any person whosoever being authorized to denounce any property so held.
Presumptive evidence shall be sufficient to declare the denunciation well founded.
Places of public worship are the property of the Nation, as represented by the Federal Government, which shall determine which of them may continue to be devoted to their present purposes. Bishoprics, rectories, seminaries, asylums, and schools belonging to religious orders, convents, or any other buildings built or intended for the administration, propagation, or teaching of a religious creed shall at once become the property of the Nation by inherent right, to be used exclusively for the public services of the Federal or State Governments, within their respective jurisdictions. All places of public worship hereafter erected shall be the property of the Nation.
III. Public or private charitable institutions for the rendering of assistance to the needy, for scientific research, the diffusion of knowledge, mutual aid to members, or for any other lawful purpose, may not acquire more real property than actually needed for their purpose and immediately and directly devoted thereto; but they may acquire, hold, or administer mortgages on real property provided the term thereof does not exceed ten years. Under no circumstances may institutions of this kind be under the patronage, direction, administration, charge, or supervision of religious orders or institutions, or of ministers of any religious sect or of their followers, even though the former or the latter may not be in active service.
National Laws and Regulations Affecting Sector
Within a federal structure, there are relevant federal and state laws and regulations affecting CSOs:
Constitution of Mexico
Ley de Asistencia Social
Ley Federal del Trabajo
Ley General de Desarrollo Social
Ley General de Educación
Ley General de Títulos y Operaciones de Crédito (LGTOC)
Ley de Inversión Extranjera
Regulation regarding the Promotion Law
Ley Federal de Fomento a las Actividades Realizadas por Organizaciones de la Sociedad Civil (Federal
Law for the Promotion of Activities Undertaken by Civil Society Organizations)
Reglamento de la Ley Federal de Fomento a las Actividades Realizadas por Organizaciones de la Sociedad Civil
Ley del Impuesto Sobre la Renta (LISR)
Ley del Impuesto al Valor Agregado (LIVA, or, in English, VAT)
Reglamento de la Ley del Impuesto Sobre la Renta (RLISR)
Ley del Impuesto Empresarial a Tasa Única (LIETU)
Código Civil (CC) del Estado de: Aguascalientes, Baja California, Baja California Sur, Campeche, Chiapas, Chihuahua, Coahuila, Colima, Distrito Federal, Durango, estado de México, Guanajuato, Guerrero, Jalisco, Michoacán, Morelos, Nayarit, Nuevo León, Oaxaca, Puebla, San Luis Potosí, Sinaloa, Sonora, Tabasco, Tamaulipas, Tlaxcala, Querétaro, Veracruz, Quintana Roo, Yucatán, Zacatecas.
Código Administrativo del Estado de Chihuahua
Ley de Desarrollo Social para el Distrito Federal
Ley de Instituciones de Asistencia Privada para el Distrito Federal (LIAPDF)
Ley de Instituciones de Asistencia Privada del Estado de México (LIAP México)
Ley de Asistencia Social y Privada para el Estado de Quintana Roo
Ley de Instituciones de Beneficencia para el Estado de Baja California (LIBP BC)
Ley de Instituciones Beneficencia Privada del Estado de Nuevo León
Ley de Instituciones de Asistencia Privada del Estado de Campeche
Ley de Instituciones de Asistencia Privada para el Estado de Guerrero
Ley de Instituciones de Asistencia Privada del Estado de Michoacán
Ley de Instituciones de Beneficencia Privada para el Estado Libre y Soberano de Puebla (LIBP Puebla)
Ley de Instituciones de Asistencia, Promoción Humana y Desarrollo Social Privadas del Estado de Oaxaca (Decreto 312 Oaxaca)
Ley de la Junta de Asistencia Privada del Estado de Chihuahua
Ley para el Fomento y Regulación de las Instituciones de Asistencia Privada del Estado de Querétaro
Ley sobre Fundaciones y Asociaciones de Beneficencia Privada para el Estado de Durango
Reglamento para las Instituciones de Asistencia Privada del Estado de Sonora
Ley de Fomento a las Actividades de Desarrollo Social de las Organizaciones Civiles para el Distrito Federal (LFADF)
Ley de Fomento a las Actividades de Bienestar y Desarrollo social para el Estado de Baja California
Ley de Fomento a las Actividades de las Organizaciones de la Sociedad Civil en el Estado de Tamaulipas
Ley de Fomento a las Actividades realizadas por las Organizaciones de la Sociedad Civil en el Estado de Zacatecas
Pending NGO Legislative / Regulatory Initiatives
President Enrique Peña Nieto took office on December 1, 2012. Observers believe that a major reform of Mexican tax law is likely in Peña Nieto’s first three months in office. The tax reform is expected to include provisions that govern CSOs receiving preferential tax treatment and their donors.
The Law for the Protection of Human Rights Defenders and Journalists was presented to the plenary session of the Senate on March 16, 2012. The law provides for the establishment of a mechanism of prevention and protection to guarantee the life, integrity, liberty and security of human rights defenders and journalists against the increased risk faced when exercising their duties.
There is an effort to reform the Federal Law on Promotion by expanding the category of eligible organizations to include those dedicated to the promotion and protection of consumer rights; and to reinforcing the role of the Advisory Council that represents CSO organizations at the Government Promotion Commission created by the Law on Promotion.
There are two main legal organizational forms to establish a non-profit organization in Mexico: Civil Associations (ACs) and Private Assistance Institutions (IAPs). According to the Civil Code, an AC is formed by two or more persons who associate to perform a common purpose which is not primarily economic in character. While an IAP is created to perform charitable services with private assets according to State Laws on Private Assistance, foundations may take the form of ACs or IAPs. There are other social self-benefit organizations such as cooperatives, neighborhood groups, labor unions, and chambers of commerce that are regulated by corresponding laws.
IAPs are registered with and supervised by the Private Assistance Board, an official body.
IAPs and ACs must register their bylaws with the Public Registry of Property and the Federal Taxpayers Registry.
To be eligible to receive government funds, an organization must be listed in the “Registry of Civil Society Organizations” (CLUNI) created by the Law on Promotion.
Public Benefit Status
ACs may be established for the public benefit, this includes activities such as human rights, environment, alleviation of poverty, scientific or technological research, and grant making organizations, as well as for the benefit of organization’s members such as sports. However, not all organizations engaged in public benefit activities are eligible for tax benefits or to receive government funds.
In Mexico, nonprofit organizations must apply and obtain the approval from tax authorities on a case by case basis to be eligible for income tax exemption and authorization to receive tax-deductible donations according to the Income Tax Law, the Flat Rate Business Tax Law, and other provisions derived from these laws. An organization with authorized donee status may also be exempt from import taxes.
Also, as mentioned, certain organizations are eligible to receive government funds if they are registered with the Registry of Civil Society Organizations.
Organizations that either receive tax benefits or are eligible to receive government funding must, among other requirements, set forth in an irrevocable provision of the organization's statutes that no profits will be distributed among its members, the organization will not engage in political activities, and upon the organization's dissolution, any surpluses will be transferred to another organization with the same status.
There are different types of benefits.
a) Tax Exempt Organizations
Organizations that are income tax exempt include: trade unions; industrial and business chambers; farmers or forestry associations; professional associations; scientific or technological research associations; arts and educational institutions; associations organized for political, sports, or religious ends.
b) Authorized Donee Status
Organizations dedicated to charitable purposes, culture, environmental, education, scientific or technological activities, human rights, health, grant scholarships, make grants to other authorized donees may apply to be tax exempt, and for authorization to receive tax deductible donations.
c) Recipients of Government Funding
In order to be eligible to receive government funding, organizations must register with the Registry of Civil Society Organizations. Among other requirements, organizations must engage in activities such as: charitable purposes, environment, support for the creation and strengthening of civil society, human rights, education, health, consumer rights, or sports.
Barriers to Entry
Unless a group of persons engage in illegal activities, there are no sanctions or penalties to carry out their activities through an unregistered organization.
However the laws provide for certain formalities to establish a CSO as a legal entity and these can be very cumbersome. Bylaws should be notarized and registered by a Public Notary. The founding member(s) of an organization may be Mexican individuals or legally incorporated entities. If a foreigner is among the founding members, the bylaws must include a provision stating that any founding foreigner shall be considered Mexican with respect to such participation, and that such foreigner agrees not to seek the protection of its government under penalty, in case of breaching said agreement, of forfeiting such interest or participation in favor of the Mexican Nation.
There is no minimum number of founders required or amount of assets to establish an AC. In the case of an IAP, the amount of assets required is according to the discretion of the Board of Assistance. The government does not deny the establishment of a CSO but may withhold public benefit status. In the case of a foreign CSO, the organization may apply as a Mexican organization according to Mexican laws or open a representative office with the previously discussed stipulations.
Barriers to Operational Activity
Other than those mentioned, there are no constraints on the establishment process. ACs are autonomous in their internal self-governance while IAPs are subject to significant supervision by the Private Assistance Board. The Board must approve all operating activities of IAPs including budgets, programming, the appointment of board members, meetings, and the acquisition of assets.
However, One topic worth mentioning is the burdensome of reporting requirements that tends to inhibit the activity of nonprofit organizations at the federal as well as the state level: a number of reports have to be filed such as government funding reports, fiscal reports to the federal government as well as the local government: monthly, annual, transparency, social security reports, audits, information for the Transparency web page, reports to the Private Assistance Board (for IAPs), reports to the government where an organization receives public funds, reports to the ministry of the field of activities, like the Education Ministry, reports to the Labor Ministry, reports to the Ministry of Social Development where an organization is registered with the Registry of Social Development, and reports to federal and state tax authorities.
Sanctions vary according to the law violated, but include the suspension of activities. CSOs are generally not subject to government harassment but are often not provided adequate protection by the government in the face of threats and violence from others.
Barriers to Speech / Advocacy
There is no restriction on criticizing the Government or advocacy unless activities are contrary to law or public order. The right of petition is constitutionally protected. However, organizations with authorized donee status or those that receive government funding may not engage in either propaganda activities in support of candidates for public office or political activities that influence legislation unless given explicit authorization.
Barriers to International Contact
There are no restrictions on contact or cooperation with sectors within the country or abroad unless contrary to law or public order.
The government does not impose restrictions on participating in networks or on accessing the Internet.
Barriers to Resources
There are no restrictions on foreign funding. In fact, there is a 1994 Mexico-US Tax Treaty that encourages cross-border donations to Mexican organizations by allowing these donations to be deducted by persons and corporations from U.S. taxable income.
In December 2009, The House of Representatives approved a provision that will permit CSOs to engage in commercial/ business/economic activities, and exempt from taxes up 10% of their income. Income from economic activities over 10% of an organization’s income will be subject to taxation.
This measure has been controversial because a significant number of CSOs rely on economic activities to financially sustain themselves, and this new provision will cause them to pay 30% tax on revenue earned above the 10% exemption. The provision has also caused great confusion among CSOs and the professionals that advise them on fiscal matters because there has been no guidance issued by the SAT about how to determine related or unrelated activities.
On May 26, 2010 a Presidential Decree was issued that provided authorized donees with a “tax credit” equal to the amount of income tax that they would normally owe on income generated from “unrelated” economic activities that exceeds 10% of their total income for one year. In October 2011, the tax credit was extended through 2013. Authorized donees, however, must calculate the amount that would be owed in order to take advantage of the tax credit. As previously mentioned, this determination is not easily undertaken due to the lack of guidance by the Servicio de Administración Tributaria (SAT).
|UN Universal Periodic Review Reports||UPR Mexico
Compilation of UN information
Summary of stakeholders' information
Report of the Working Group
Decision on the Outcome
Draft Report on the eighth session of the Human Rights Council
|Reports of UN Special Rapporteurs||Mexico|
|USIG (United States International Grantmaking) Country Notes||USIG: Mexico|
|U.S. State Department||2010 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Mexico|
|Failed States Index Reports||Foreign Policy: Failed States Index 2012|
|IMF Country Reports||Mexico and the IMF|
|International Commission of Jurists||Not available|
|International Center for Not-for-Profit Law Online Library||Mexico|
While we aim to maintain information that is as current as possible, we realize that situations can rapidly change. If you are aware of any additional information or inaccuracies on this page, please keep us informed; write to ICNL at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Mexico must strengthen its protection of human rights, reduce use of military – UN expert (May 2013)
A United Nations independent expert urged the Mexican Government to strengthen the national institutions that protect human rights and reduce the involvement of the military in policing to reduce the use of force in the country. “There seems to be wide agreement among various levels of government and civil society that the long-term solution to the problem of violence in Mexico lies in establishing a strong law enforcement system compliant with international standards surrounding the right to life,” the Special Rapporteur on extrajudicial, summary or arbitrary executions, Christoph Heyns, said at the end of a visit to the country.
Six Mexican journalists killed in 2012 (February 2013)
2012 was a deadly year for journalists and netizens in countries where telling the truth can get you killed. In the highest toll since Reporters Without Borders has kept track, 90 journalists, six media assistants and 47 netizens and citizen journalists were killed worldwide last year. Syria and Somalia led the list, with 18 deaths each, followed by Pakistan with 10 and Mexico with six.
Consultative body for the Protection of Journalists and Human Rights Defenders created (October 2012)
The Interior Secretariat (Segob) announced the names of the 17 members of the First Consultative Council of the Mechanism for the Protection of Human Rights Defenders and Journalists, which includes eight Human Rights Defenders, seven Journalists, and two Academics. Their election was held last Friday with the participation of representatives from 51 organizations. The event was coordinated by the Comisión Nacional de Derechos Humanos (CNDH) and the Mexico Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, and was carried out under the rules of transitional Article VI of the Law for the Protection of Human Rights Defenders and Journalists.
NGOs request police reform in municipalities (October 2012)
The Congress of Union must approve the reforms necessary to improve the performance of police forces across Mexico, according to several NGOs, including the Observatorio Nacional Ciudadano por la Seguridad, la Justicia y la Legalidad and Fundación SOS. According to Alejandro Martí, President of Fundación SOS, it is necessary to standardize certain provisions because, for instance, police in the Federal District earn around 25,000 Mexican Pesos, whereas police in other localities earn less than 6,000 Mexican Pesos. Other complaints include the levels of corruption among police officers in certain localities, where there is infiltration by criminal elements.
NGOs ask Peña Nieto to review anti-crime policies (September 2012)
Various NGOs asked President-elect Enrique Peña Nieto to revise the Federal Government’s crime fighting strategy. In particular, the NGOs requested that local governments be given more authority to combat crime. The problem according to Edna Jaime, from México Evalúa, is that when the Federal Government intervenes where local governments are weak it reduces the incentives in the local community to strengthen their local institutions.
Law to protect human rights defenders and journalists in effect (July 2012)
Mexico’s new Law for the Protection of Human Rights Defenders and Journalists (Ley para la Protección de Personas Defensoras de Derechos Humanos y Periodistas) took effect on June 26 after the Ministry of the Interior (Secretaría de Gobernación, Segob) published the law in its official gazette (Diario Oficial de la Federación), and following President Felipe Calderón’s signing of the bill on June 22. The Executive branch has a maximum of six months to issue regulations to put the law into practice. The new law is intended to protect the lives of journalists and human rights defenders, perhaps most importantly by establishing mechanisms to evacuate or temporarily remove, provide body guards for, and protect the property of such individuals in danger given their line of work.
Mexicans willing to exchange human rights for safety (July 2012)
Mexican President-elect Enrique Peña Nieto has said he would like to refocus the war on drugs from the upper echelon of the cartels to the street level criminals, a policy some say could pit human rights abuses against increased safety in a country plagued by years of violence. "With human rights questions already prevalent in Mexico, this strategy will likely lead to more human rights complaints and abuses," according to Manuel Zamora, Ph.D, Assistant Professor, Center for Security Studies Angelo State University, Texas.
Law for the Protection of Human Rights Defenders and Journalists presented to Senate (March 2012)
The Law for the Protection of Human Rights Defenders and Journalists was presented to the plenary session of the Senate on March 16. The Act provides for the establishment of a mechanism of prevention and protection to guarantee the life, integrity, liberty and security of human rights defenders and journalists against the increased risk faced when exercising their duties. The initiative is the result of collaboration between more than 200 civil society organizations and representatives of the legislature who worked for 25 sessions over four months to draft the Act. According to the latest report published by the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights between 2006 and 2010 at least 61 people human rights defenders were killed in the country.
Human rights and civil society Bishop Samuel Ruiz dies at 86 (January 2011)
Mexico: Juarez residents fight for safe public spaces (October 2010)
Mexican NGOs, hard up and under threat (August 2010)
In Mexico, rights groups march to protest activist's slaying (January 2010)
US State Department should insist on rights compliance (September 2009)
Human rights in Mexico's drug war (August 2009)