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Constitution

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C HAD _1960

C
OUNTRY N AME : REPUBLIC OF CHAD
YEAR : 1960

EVENT TYPE : N EW
D
ATE D RAFTED : N OT SPECIFIED
D ATE PROMULGATED : 11/28/1960
D ATE IN FORCE : N OT SPECIFIED
D ATE OF M OST RECENT AMENDMENT : N OT APPLICABLE
T
RANSLATOR : FRED DE ALBUQUERQUE
T
RANSLATION D ATE : N OT SPECIFIED
SOURCE LANGUAGE : FRENCH
TARGET LANGUAGE : ENGLISH
S
OURCE : REVUE JURIDIQUE ET POLITIQUE
PUBLISHER : LIBRAIRIE G ENERALE DE D ROIT ET DE JURISPRUDENCE
D ATE OF PUBLICATION OR ACCESS : 2011
P
UBLICATION YEAR : N OT SPECIFIED
P
UBLICATION LOCATION : PARIS

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C ONSTITUTION OF THE R EPUBLIC OF C HAD
N
OVEMBER 28, 1960

Constitutional Law N. 18-60 on 28 November 1960 (1)
The Legislative Assembly deliberated and adopted;
The Head of State, President of the Council of Mini sters,
promulgated the Constitutional Law which reads as f ollows:

Preamble
The people of Chad declare their commitment to the
principles of democracy and human rights as they ha ve
been defined by the Declaration of the Rights of Ma n
and Citizens of 1789, by the Universal Declaration of
1948, and as guaranteed by the present Constitution .

The fundamental principles of the constitutional
organization of the Republic of Chad are:
Defense of human rights and public freedoms in the
same ideal of democratic justice;
Establishment of a true democracy, founded on the
system of separation of three powers: legislative,
executive and judicial.
The people of Chad affirm their willingness to coop erate
in peace and friendship with all people who share t heir
ideal of justice, freedom, equality, fraternity and human
solidarity.
First Title
State and Sovereignty

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Article 1. The State of Chad is an independent and soverei gn
Republic.
The national emblem is the tricolor flag, blue, yel low, and red, in
vertical stripes.
The national anthem is determined by law.
The motto of the Republic is: Unity – Work – Progres s.

The official language is French.
Article 2. The Republic of Chad is one and indivisible, se cular,
democratic and social.
Its principle is the government of the people by th e people and for
the people.
Article 3. Sovereignty belongs to the people. No section o f the
people or any individual may assume its exercise.
Article 4. The people exercise their sovereignty through t heir
representatives and by way of referendum. Condition s of use for
referendum shall be determined by law.
The Supreme Court shall ensure the regularity of op erations of
referendum and announce the results.
Article 5. Suffrage is universal, equal and secret. The el ectorate is
defined by law.
Article 6. The rights of citizens are guaranteed by the co nstitution.
They are inalienable and inviolable. They are based upon the
principles of freedom, humanity and equality which are the
essential expression of democratic government.
Accordingly:

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No one shall be arrested or detained except for in accordance
with legislative requirements and the command of th e lawful
authority.
The domicile of any person residing in the territor y of the
Republic is inviolable. It not permitted to enter t hem except
for in the forms and cases provided for by law.
Oppression of a fraction of the people by another i s
proclaimed anti-constitutional and illegal.
The Republic guarantees to all equality before the law without
distinction of race, religion or origin. Each perso n may profess
their religion freely and receives equal protection from the
state for the exercise of their religion.
Any specific propaganda of racial or ethnic charact er and any
manifestation of racial discrimination are punishab le by law.

Citizens have the right to freely associate, petiti on and
express their thoughts. The exercise of these right s is only
limited by the rights and freedoms of others and pu blic
safety.
The press is free, regardless of its mode of expres sion.
Conditions for exercise of the freedom of the press are
determined by law.
Public education is secular. It is taught in French . A particular
place is made for the teaching of Arabic. Primary, secondary
and technical education taught in institutions by t he
government of the Republic is free.
Equality of all citizens is proclaimed for access t o public
employment, without any preferential reason other t han merit.

Any distinction of birth, class or caste is abolish ed.

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Freedom of employment is guaranteed under the laws of
society. The right to work, medical assistance and assistance
to abandoned children, the disabled and the elderly without
resources, are guaranteed by the Constitution.
The equality of citizens before taxation with every one’s
contribution to public charges in proportion to his abilities
and his financial assets.
Citizens are free to form political parties and gro ups to add
more effectively to the expression of universal suf frage.

Article 7. Political parties and groups contribute to the exercise of
suffrage; they form and exercise their activities f reely under the
condition of respecting the principles of national sovereignty,
democracy and the laws of the Republic.
Title II
The Head of State and Government
Article 8. The Head of State is the Head of Government.

He is responsible for the National Assembly under t he conditions
and following the procedure provided for in Article s 45, 46 and 47
hereafter.
Article 9. The National Assembly shall meet as of right fo r its first
working day following the fifteenth day after his el ection.

The agenda includes as of right the appointment of his office and
that of the Head of State, Head of Government.
The Head of State is elected by the National Assemb ly. The election
is acquired in the first ballot by a majority of tw o thirds of the
members of the Assembly, on the second ballot by a majority of
three fifths of the members of the Assembly, and on the third ballot
at the absolute majority of the members of the Asse mbly.

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Article 10. If within a period of 20 days commencing on th e first
ballot the National Assembly cannot appoint the Hea d of State, it is
automatically dissolved. It shall then proceed as p rovided for
hereafter in Article 49.
Article 11. Once appointed, the Head of State appoints the
members of Government, defines their duties and app ears before
the National Assembly with his Government.
The Head of State may transfer members from the Cou ncil of
Ministers to the Government and set about the metho d for their
replacement. The decree terminating the functions o f a minister and
appointing his successor shall be forwarded to the National
Assembly.
Article 12. The Head of State presides over the Council of Ministers.
He is the head of all government departments. He is the head of the
military. He appoints all civil and military positi ons for the State. He
has regulatory power. He ensures the maintenance of public order
and security of persons and property.
The Head of State accredits ambassadors and envoys to foreign
powers; foreign ambassadors and envoys are accredit ed to him.

The Head of State may delegate certain powers to me mbers of the
Government. His acts are countersigned by the Minis ters concerned.

Article 13. The Council of Ministers shall deliberate on t he general
policy of the State, legislative bills, regulatory ordinances and
decrees as well as on the nomination by decree for senior positions
of the State whose listing is established by law.
Article 14. The functions of members of Government are
incompatible with any public office or with the exe rcise of any
professional activity contrary to the interests of the State, under
conditions determined by law.
Article 15. Once the institutions of the Republic, the ind ependence
of the Nation, the integrity of its territory or th e performance of its

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international commitments is threatened in a seriou s and
immediate way, the Head of State may administer exc eptional
measures to the Council of Ministers as required by the
circumstances after official consultation with the President of the
National Assembly.
He informs the nation.
The National Assembly shall meet as of right.
Article 16. The Head of State has the right to pardon.

Article 17. Bills, orders and decrees can be examined for regulatory
review by the Supreme Court before being submitted to the Council
of Ministers.
Title III
The National Assembly
Article 18. Parliament is constituted by a single assembly , called
“National Assembly”, whose members carry the title of deputy.

Article 19. The National Assembly enacts laws, taxes, desi gnates
the Head of State and monitors his actions.
Article 20. Deputies to the National Assembly are elected by direct
universal suffrage.
The term of the legislature is five years.
The law shall determine the number of members of th e National
Assembly, the conditions of eligibility, the rules of ineligibility and
incompatibility, the terms of the ballot, the condi tions under which
it is necessary to hold new elections in case of va cancy of seats of
deputies.
Article 21. In case of dispute the Supreme Court gives fin al ruling
on eligibility of candidates and the validity of el ections for the
National Assembly.

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Article 22. The National Assembly shall meet in full each year in
two ordinary sessions.
Except for the anticipatory closing by the Assembly itself by a vote
of the majority of its members, the session ends au tomatically sixty
days after the first meeting.
The first session begins on the first Tuesday of Ap ril.

The second session, called “Budget Session”, opens the last Tuesday
of October.
The opening of the session is adjourned until the n ext day if the
day is a holiday.
Article 23. The National Assembly is convened in special s ession by
the Head of State or by its President, or when it r eceives a written
request by a majority of deputies composing the Ass embly.

The restricted agenda of the session is specified i n the notice of its
convening.
The session ends when the agenda is realized and no later than 15
days after the first meeting.
The Head of State alone may convene the Assembly be fore the end
of the month following the end of the previous sess ion.

Article 24. The President of the Assemble and officers of
government are elected for one year. They are eligi ble for re-
election.
Article 25. The minutes of all hearings shall be published in the
Official Journal.

Article 26. All provisions necessary for the functioning o f the
National Assembly which are not mentioned in this C onstitution
shall be fixed by the Rules of Procedure of the Ass embly.

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Article 27. Each deputy is a representative of the Nation as a whole.

Any imperative mandate is null.
The deputies’ right to vote is personal. However, t he delegation of a
vote is permitted when a deputy is absent because o f illness, for the
execution of a mandate or order entrusted to him by the
Government or the Assembly, or to fulfill his milit ary obligations.
No person may receive a ballot for more than one vo te delegation.

Article 28. The deputies of the National Assembly shall en joy
parliamentary immunity.
Deputies cannot be prosecuted, investigated, arrest ed, detained or
judged for the votes cast in the exercise of their functions.

Deputies cannot, for the duration of sessions, be p rosecuted or
arrested in criminal or correctional matters withou t authorization
from the Assembly, except in cases of flagrante del icto.

Deputies cannot be arrested, outside of sessions wi thout the
authorization of the Assembly, except in cases of f lagrante delicto,
authorized prosecution or final conviction.
Article 29. Deputies receive compensation for their functi ons the
composition of which is fixed by law.
Title IV
Relations between the Assembly and the Government
Article 30. The law is a deliberation of the National Asse mbly, duly
promulgated.
The law determines the rules concerning:
Citizenship, civil rights and the fundamental guara ntees
accorded to citizens for the exercise of public lib erties, the

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obligations imposed by national defense to citizens on their
person and their property;
Nationality, the state and capacity of people, the regulations
of property, matrimonial affairs, inheritance and l iberality;

The determination of crimes and misdemeanors, and t he
penalties that apply to them, criminal proceedings, amnesty;

The organization of courts, the status of magistrat es;

Civil proceedings;
The rate and manner of collection of taxes of any ki nd, the
issue of currency;
The regulation of property and real rights;
The electoral system of the National Assembly and l ocal
Assemblies;
The fundamental rights afforded to public officials and the
general status of civil service;
The creation of public institutions;

The law also determines fundamental principles of: The general organization of the administration and national
defense;
The free administration of territorial authorities, their
responsibilities and resources;
Education;
Labor laws, unionization and social institutions;
The disposition and management of the domain of the State;

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Interior navigation of waterways and air transporta tion;

Mutuality and savings;
The organization of production;
The prison system;

Financial laws determine the revenues and expenditu res of the
State.
“Plans” are laws designed to determine the objectiv es of economic
and social action of the State.
The provisions of this article may be specified or supplemented by
an organic law.
Article 31. The declaration of war is authorized by the Na tional
Assembly.
A state of siege or state of emergency is decreed b y the Council of
Ministers.
The provisions of this article may be specified or supplemented by
an organic law.
Article 32. Other matters which are in the area of the law have a
regulatory character.
Legislative texts concerning these matters set fort h before this
Constitution was put into force may be changed by d ecree after
review by the Supreme Court.
Article 33. The Head of State may, for the execution of hi s duties,
ask the National Assembly for permission to distribu te orders, for a
limited period of time, for measures which are norm ally in the
domain of the law.

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The orders are taken by the Council of Ministers. T hey shall come
into force from their own publication, but shall la pse if the
ratification is not laid before the National Assemb ly before the fixed
date.
At the expiration of the period mentioned in the fi rst paragraph of
this article, the ordinances may be modified only b y the law in their
provisions which are of legislative nature.
Article 34. Proposals and amendments which are beyond the scope
of the law are inadmissible. The inadmissibility is pronounced by
the President of the National Assembly.
In case of dispute, the Supreme Court, brought by t he Head of State
or by the President of the National Assembly, decid es within a
period of eight days.
Article 35. Proposals and amendments filed by deputies are not
admissible where their adoption would cause a reduc tion in public
resources, or the creation or inflation of a public office, unless they
are accompanied by a proposal to increase revenue o r savings
equivalently.
Article 36. The laws which the Constitution confers as org anic laws
are passed and amended by a majority vote of two th irds of the
deputies composing the National Assembly.
Organic laws can be promulgated only after declarat ion by the
Supreme Court of their conformity to the Constituti on.

Article 37. Members of the Government have access to the
Assembly. The Head of State and Ministers shall be received and
heard by the Assembly and its committees upon their request. They
may be assisted by Government commissioners appoint ed by them.

Article 38. Legislative initiative belongs jointly to the Head of State
and the deputies of the National Assembly.

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Article 39. Deputies and members of Government have the ri ght of
amendment.
After the opening of discussions, the Government ma y object to the
consideration of any amendment that has not been il lustrated and
described subject to the appropriate committee.
If requested by the Government, the National Assemb ly shall decide
by a single vote on all or part of the text under d iscussion, retaining
only the amendments proposed or accepted by the Gov ernment.

Article 40. The discussion of bills are brought on the tex t
submitted by the Government, the discussion of a pr oposition is
brought by the text submitted by its author.
Article 41. The agenda of the National Assembly gives prio rity to, in
order that has been determined by the Government, t he discussion
of bills filed by the Government and of proposition s accepted by the
Government.
One session per week is reserved with priority to qu estions from
deputies and answers by Government.
Article 42. The National Assembly votes on budget bills ba sed on
conditions provided by an organic law.
The National Assembly receives the draft budget bil l no later than
the eve of the opening of the budgetary session.
The draft budget bill must provide for the necessar y resources to
cover integral expenses.
If the Assembly has not pronounced, before the end of the session,
the provisions of the draft budget bill they can be put into force by
order without prior authorization by the Assembly.
If the bill adopted by the Assembly does not provid e sufficient
revenue to balance spending, the Government must or der, in the
manner described in the previous paragraph, reducti on of credit or

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the creation of new revenue to the extent necessary to obtain
equilibrium.
In the cases provided for in the above two paragrap hs, the
Government shall convene the Assembly in a special session for
ratification within fifteen days.
If the Assembly does not vote on a balanced budget at the end of
the special session, the budget is definitively est ablished as a
government project not subject to ratification.
If the draft budget bill has not been passed in the conditions
provided in the second paragraph of this article an d it has not been
voted on before the close of the session, the Head of State urgently
requests for the National Assembly’s authorization to collect taxes
and open by decree credits related to voting servic es.

The regular session is prolonged for a special sess ion whose length
is at most equal to the delay brought by the Govern ment in the
passing of the budget law. If, at the expiration of the special
session, the balanced budget bill is not adopted, t he procedures
provided for in paragraphs 4, 5, 6 and 7 of this ar ticle shall apply.

Article 43. Laws are promulgated by the Head of State unde r the
countersignature of the Ministers concerned within fifteen days of
their submission to the Government by the President of the National
Assembly.
In the absence of promulgation within this period, it shall be filed
by the President of the National Assembly.
This period is reduced to five days in the case of emergency
declared by the National Assembly.
The Head of State, the President of the National As sembly, and a
number of deputies representing at least one fifth of the members
of the National Assembly may, before the expiration of these
periods, ask the National Assembly for a second deli beration of the

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law or some of its articles. This second deliberati on cannot be
refused.
The same authorities may, in the same periods, summ on the
Supreme Court. This review is called for a period o f fifteen days and
shall serve to decide on the conformity with the Co nstitution of the
laws that are so referred. Referral to the Supreme Court suspends
the period of promulgation.
The Head of State may also, in the same periods, re quest and
obtain the second deliberation in place of the regu lar session
following the session at which the draft of the bil l was adopted in
its first reading.
Voting for this second session is passed by a major ity of two thirds
of the members of the National Assembly.
Article 44. Each year at the opening of the first regular session, the
Head of State delivers an address on the State of t he Nation to the
National Assembly.
Article 45. The Head of State may, after deliberation with the
Council of Ministers, engage the responsibility of the Government
on a general policy statement or the adoption of a bill.

The declaration or bill may be adopted if the Natio nal Assembly
does not declare a censure of the Government by an absolute
majority vote of its members after the expiration o f a period of one
whole day.
Article 46. A motion of censure may also be proposed by at least
one third of the members of the National Assembly. It is deposited
in the office of the National Assembly.
The vote takes place three full days after the depo sit. It is preceded
by a general policy statement made by the Governmen t.

Censorship shall be passed by an absolute majority of the members
of the National Assembly.

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Article 47. When censorship is enacted in the conditions p rovided
for in Articles 45 and 46, the session of the Natio nal Assembly shall
be suspended immediately after announcing the outco me of the
vote.
Within the 48 hours that follow, the Head of State may dissolve the
National Assembly, after consultation with its Pres ident.

In this case, the President of the National Assembl y becomes, ipso
facto, Minister of the State. The renewal of the Na tional Assembly
must take place in thirty days at the minimum and f orty five days at
the maximum.
If at the expiration of the period of 48 hours, as described in the
preceding paragraph, the National Assembly has not been dissolved
in the manner provided for in the same paragraph, t he session
resumes of right and proceeds to the election of th e Head of State
under the conditions provided for in Articles 9 and 10 above.

Article 48. The closing of the regular and special session s shall be
delayed to allow for, if necessary, the application of Articles 45, 46
and 47.
Article 49. The Head of State remains in office with his f ull powers
until the inauguration of his successor. In case of death or
permanent incapacity of the Head of State, determin ed by the
Supreme Court, pending the appointment of his succe ssor, the
ministers undertake the current affairs of the offi ce under the
supervision of one of the ministers as designated f or this purpose
by the Council of Ministers.
Title V
Territorial Authorities
Article 50. The territorial authorities of the state are c reated by law.
The law determines the fundamental principles of th e free
administration of territorial authorities, their re sponsibilities and
resources.

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Title VI
The Economic and Social Council
Article 51. The Economic and Social Council gives its advi ce on
bills, by ordinance or decree, and on legislative p roposals that are
submitted.
Legislation with economic or social programs is sub mitted to the
Council for review.
The Head of State may consult with the Council on a ny problem of
economic or social character.
Economic and Social Council membership and rules of operation
shall be determined by law.
Title VII Judicial Authority

Article 52. Justice is rendered in the territory of the St ate on behalf
of the people.
Article 53. Judges as bound in the exercise of their funct ions have
the authority of the law.
The Head of State is the guarantor of their indepen dence.

He is assisted by the Superior Council of the Magis tracy.

Article 54. The Superior Council of the Magistracy is cons tituted of
the full Assembly of the Supreme Court.
Article 55. Judges are appointed by the Head of State on t he
proposal of the Keeper of the Seals, Minister of Ju stice, after review
from the Superior Council of the Magistracy. These judges are
irremovable.

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Article 56. The Superior Council of the Magistracy studies the
records of grace and sends them forward with its re commendations
to the Head of State.
The Superior Council of the Magistracy is the disci plinary court for
sitting judges.
Article 57. No one shall be arbitrarily detained.

All those accused are presumed innocent until prove n guilty as a
result of a procedure which offers him the opportun ity to defend
himself. The judicial authorities, in guarding indi vidual liberty,
enforce these principles under the conditions presc ribed by law.

Title VIII
The Supreme Court
Article 58. The President of the Supreme Court is appointe d for five
years by the Head of State after being advised by t he President of
the National Assembly.
The Supreme Court also included four personalities known for their
competence in judicial and administrative matters, two selected by
the Head of State with the Council of Ministers, an d two selected by
the President of the National Assembly in meeting w ith his office.

Article 59. The offices of President and member of the Sup reme
Court are incompatible with those of members of Gov ernment or
the National Assembly. Other criteria of ineligibil ity shall be
determined by law.
Article 60. The decisions of the Supreme Court are not sub ject to
appeal. They are binding on all public powers, to a ll courts and all
administrative and judiciary authorities. Any provi sion declared
unconstitutional may not be promulgated.
Article 61. The Supreme Court shall exercise the powers pr ovided
for in Article 4 on matters of referendum, shall gi ve its opinion in
cases falling under Articles 17 and 32, shall act i n accordance with

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Article 21 on the validity of elections to the Nati onal Assembly and
on the eligibility of its members, shall decide on the conformity to
the Constitution of organic laws, laws and internat ional conventions
under conditions provided for in Articles 36, 43 an d 64, shall
decide on the incapacity of the Head of State in th e manner
prescribed in Article 49, shall assume the role of the Superior
Council of the Magistracy, in accordance with Artic les 54 and 55.

The mode of application of this section shall be de termined by
organic law. This law will extend the jurisdiction of the Supreme
Court to other areas than those provided for by thi s Constitution.

Title IX
International Treaties and Agreements
Article 62. The Head of State negotiates, signs and ratifi es
international treaties and agreements.
Article 63. Peace treaties, treaties or agreements relatin g to
international organization, and those which affect in the internal
laws of the State can only be ratified by virtue of law.

Article 64. If the Supreme Court, summoned by the Head of State or
the President of the National Assembly, states that an international
agreement contains a clause contrary to the Constit ution,
authorization to ratify it can intervene only after revision of the
Constitution.
Article 65. Treaties or agreements duly ratified have, in their
application, a higher authority than the laws subje ct, for each
agreement or treaty, to its implementation by the o ther party.

Title X
Amendments
Article 66. The initiation of the revision of the Constitu tion belongs
to the Head of State and the members of the Nationa l Assembly.

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Article 67. To be taken into consideration, the draft or pr oposed
amendment must be voted by a majority of two thirds of the
members of the National Assembly.
Amendment is acquired only after having been approv ed by
referendum unless the draft or proposal in question has been
approved by a majority of two thirds of the members of the
National Assembly. This Article shall apply to the vote of this
Constitution.
Article 68. No procedure of amendment can be committed or
continued if it interferes with the integrity of th e territory.

The republican nature of the Government is not subj ect to revision.

Title XI
The High Court of Justice
Article 69. A High Court of Justice shall be formed wherei n the
proceedings are decided in the manner prescribed in Article 70
hereafter.
The High Court of Justice is composed of deputies e lected by the
National Assembly. It shall elect its President fro m among its
members.
The law determines the number of members, the rules of its
operation and the procedures it follows.
Article 70. The Head of State is not responsible for the a cts
performed in the exercise of his functions and is n ot brought before
the High Court except for the case of high treason.

The High Court is responsible for trying members of the
Government for crimes or misdemeanors committed in the exercise
of their functions, and for judging their accomplic es in cases of
conspiracy against the security of the State.

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Article 71. The impeachment of the Head of State and membe rs of
Government is passed by public vote by a majority o f two thirds of
the deputies of the National Assembly.
Article 72. The High Court is bound by the definition of c rimes and
misdemeanors and the determination of penalties res ulting from
criminal statutes in effect at the time of the proc eedings.

Title XII
Association and Cooperation between States
Article 73. The Republic of Chad may form agreements of
association with other States.
The Republic agrees to create intergovernmental bod ies with these
States with joint management, coordination and free cooperation.

Article 74. These organizations may have, inter alia:

Coordination of monetary, economic and financial po licy;

Establishment of customs unions;
Creation of solidarity funds;
Coordination of plans for developments;
Coordination of foreign policy;
Coordination of means to assure national defense;
Coordination of judiciary organization;
Cooperation in the field of higher education;
Coordination of rules concerning the status of civi l service and
labor law;

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Coordination of transport, communication and
telecommunications.

Title XIII
Transitory Provisions
Article 75. The present Constitution will be promulgated b y the
Head of State, the President of the Council of Mini sters, under the
countersignature of the Ministers, within three day s after its
adoption by the Legislative Assembly.
The session of the Legislative Assembly will expire as soon as this
Constitution is passed. The current Legislative Ass embly will
become the National Assembly. The first term of the National
Assembly is five years from the promulgation of thi s Constitution. It
shall meet as of right on the first Tuesday followi ng the
promulgation of this Constitution. Its agenda will include the
designations of its office.
The Head of State, President of the Council of Mini sters shall be
confirmed, at the date of promulgation of this Cons titution, to the
functions of Head of State and Head of Government.
Article 76. The established authorities in the Republic sh all
continue to exercise their functions and current in stitutions shall be
maintained until the establishment of new instituti ons and
authorities.
Article 77. The legislation and regulations currently in f orce in
Chad shall remain applicable, except for the interv ention of new
texts, as long as they are not contrary to this Con stitution.

Article 78. The provisions necessary for the implementatio n of this
Constitution shall be subject to laws passed by the National
Assembly.
Article 79. This Act shall be enforced as the Constitution of the
Republic of Chad.

CHAD _1960 22
C
OPYRIGHT © 2011 COMPARATIVE CONSTITUTIONS PROJECT .
A
LL RIGHTS RESERVED .
Executed at Fort-Lamy, the 28 November 1960.

Francois Tombalbaye.

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