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Draft Constitution

1
Draft dated 2 December 2013 of the Constitution of the Arab Republic of Egypt
Prepared pursuant to Article 29 of the Constitutional Declaration dated 8 July 2013
Unofficial translation prepared by International IDEA ( www.idea.int )

The Arab Republic of Egypt
Draft Constitution
2013

New Constitutional Document
After Amending the Suspended 2012 Constitution

2
Draft dated 2 December 2013 of the Constitution of the Arab Republic of Egypt
Prepared pursuant to Article 29 of the Constitutional Declaration dated 8 July 2013
Unofficial translation prepared by International IDEA ( www.idea.int )

Table of Contents

Preamble ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. ……….. 9
Chapter One: The State ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. ……………….. 12
Article 1 Nature of the Republic ………………………….. ………………………….. …………………………. 12
Article 2 Islam, Principles of Islamic Sharia ………………………….. ………………………….. …………… 12
Article 3 Christian and Jewish religious affairs ………………………….. ………………………….. ……… 12
Article 4 Sovereignty ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. …………….. 12
Article 5 Political system ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. ……….. 12
Article 6 Citizenship ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. ……………… 13
Chapter Two: Basic Components of Societ y………………………….. ………………………….. ………………….. 13
Section One: Social Components ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. … 13
Article 7 Al-Azhar ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. …………………. 13
Art icle 8 Social solidarity ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. ……….. 13
Article 9 Equal opportunity ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. ……. 13
Article 10 Family as the basis of society ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………… 13
Article 11 The place of women, motherhood and childhood ………………………….. ………………… 14
Article 12 Right to work, forced labor ………………………….. ………………………….. …………………… 14
Article 13 Worker Rights ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. …………. 14
Article 14 State employment ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. …… 14
Article 15 Right to strike ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. …………. 14
Article 16 Martyrs and wounded of the revolution ………………………….. ………………………….. …. 14
Article 17 Social security services ………………………….. ………………………….. …………………………. 15
Article 18 Health care ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. …………….. 15
Article 19 Education ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. ……………….. 16
Article 20 Technical education, professional training ………………………….. ………………………….. 16
Article 21 Academic independence ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………. 16
Article 22 Teachers ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………… 16
Article 23 Scientific res earch ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. …… 17
Article 24 Arabic language, religious education and national history ………………………….. …….. 17
Article 25 Illiteracy ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. …………………. 17
Article26 Civil titles ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. ……………….. 17
Section Two: Economic Components ………………………….. ………………………….. ……………………….. 17
Article 27 Economic syst em ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. …….. 17
Article 28 Production and service based economy activity ………………………….. …………………… 18
Article 29 Agriculture ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. ……………… 18
Article 30 Fisheries ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. …………………. 18
Article 31 Information Space Security ………………………….. ………………………….. …………………… 18
Article 32 Natural resources ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. ……. 18
Article 33 Ownership ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. ……………… 19
Article 34 Public Property ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. ……….. 19
Article 35 Private property ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. ……… 19
Article 36 Private sector’s social responsibility ………………………….. ………………………….. ………. 19
Article 37 Cooperative Property ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. . 19

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Draft dated 2 December 2013 of the Constitution of the Arab Republic of Egypt
Prepared pursuant to Article 29 of the Constitutional Declaration dated 8 July 2013
Unofficial translation prepared by International IDEA ( www.idea.int )
Article 38 Taxation ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. …………………. 20
Article 39 Savings ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. …………………… 20
Article 40 Confiscation of property ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………. 20
Article 41 Housing ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………….. 20
Article 42 Workers’ share in management ………………………….. ………………………….. …………….. 20
Article 43 Suez Canal ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. ……………… 21
Article 44 The Nile ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………….. 21
Article 45 Seas, Beaches, lakes, waterways, mineral water and natural reserves ………………… 21
Article 46 Environment ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. …………… 21
Section Three: Cultural Components ………………………….. ………………………….. ……………………….. 22
Article 47 Cultural identity ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. ………. 22
Article 48 Right to culture ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. ……….. 22
Article 49 Monuments ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. ……………. 22
Article 50 Material and moral civilizational and cultural heritage ………………………….. …………. 22
Chapter Three: Public Rights, Freedoms and Duties ………………………….. ………………………….. ……….. 22
Article 51 Human dignity ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. ………… 22
Article 52 Torture ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. …………………… 23
Article 53 Equality in public rights and duties ………………………….. ………………………….. ………… 23
Article 54 Personal freedom ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. ……. 23
Article 55 Due process ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. ……………. 23
Article 56 Supe rvision of prisons ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. 24
Article 57 Private life ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………. 24
Article 58 Inviolability of homes ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. . 24
Article 59 Right to safety ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. ………… 24
Article 60 Inviolability of the human body ………………………….. ………………………….. …………….. 25
Article 61 Tissue and organ do nation ………………………….. ………………………….. ……………………. 25
Article 62 Freedom of movement ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………… 25
Article 63 Forced migration ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. …….. 25
Article 64 Freedom of belief ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. ……. 25
Article 65 Freedom of thought ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. … 25
Article 66 Freedom of research ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. .. 26
Article 67 Artistic and literary creation ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………….. 26
Article 68 Access to information and official documents ………………………….. ……………………… 26
Article 69 Intellectual property rights ………………………….. ………………………….. …………………… 26
Article 70 Freedom of the press ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. . 26
Article 71 Freedom of publi cation ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………… 27
Article 72 Independence of press institutions ………………………….. ………………………….. ………… 27
Article 73 Freedom of House ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. …… 27
Article 74 Freedom to form political parties ………………………….. ………………………….. ………….. 27
Article 75 Right to establish associations ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………. 27
Article 76 Right to form syndicates ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………. 28
Article 77 Trade unions ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. …………… 28
Article 78 Housing ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………….. 28
Article 79 Food ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………. 29
Article 80 Rights of the child ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. ……. 29
Article 81 Rights of the disabled ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. . 29
Article 82 Youth ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. …………………….. 30

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Draft dated 2 December 2013 of the Constitution of the Arab Republic of Egypt
Prepared pursuant to Article 29 of the Constitutional Declaration dated 8 July 2013
Unofficial translation prepared by International IDEA ( www.idea.int )
Article 83 The elderly ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. ……………… 30
Article 84 Sports ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. …………………….. 30
Article 85 Right to address public authorities ………………………….. ………………………….. ………… 30
Article 86 Duty to safeguard national security ………………………….. ………………………….. ……….. 30
Article 87 Citizen participation in public life ………………………….. ………………………….. …………… 30
Article 88 Egyptians living abroad ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………… 31
Article 89 Slavery, op pression, trafficking ………………………….. ………………………….. ……………… 31
Article 90 Charitable Endowment ………………………….. ………………………….. …………………………. 31
Article 91 Asylum ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. …………………… 31
Article 92 Limitations clause ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. ……. 31
Article 93 International agreements and conventions ………………………….. …………………………. 32
Chapter Four: Rule of L aw ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. ……………. 33
Article 94 Rule of law ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. ……………… 33
Article 95 Punishment ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. ……………. 33
Article 96 Due process ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. ……………. 33
Article 97 Right to litigate ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. ……….. 33
Article 98 Right to defense ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. ……… 33
Article 99 Violation of personal freedom ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………. 34
Article 100 Implementation of court decisions ………………………….. ………………………….. ………… 34
Chapter Five: The Ruling System ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. ……. 35
Section One: Legislative Authority (House of Representatives) ………………………….. …………………. 35
Article 101 Mandate ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………… 35
Article 102 Composition ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. …………… 35
Article 103 Nature of Membership ………………………….. ………………………….. …………………………. 35
Article 104 Oath ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………. 35
Article 105 Remuneration ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. …………. 36
Article 106 Term ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. ……………………… 36
Article 107 Validit y of Membership ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………… 36
Article 108 Vacancy ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. …………………. 36
Article 109 Restrictions on economic activity, financial disclosure ………………………….. ………….. 36
Article 110 Revoking membership ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. 37
Article 111 Resignation of members ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………. 37
Articl e 112 Opinions of members ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. . 37
Article 113 Criminal action against members ………………………….. ………………………….. …………… 37
Article 114 Seat ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. ……………………….. 37
Article 115 Ordinary session ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. ……… 37
Article 116 Extraordinary session ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. . 38
Article 117 Speaker, deputy speakers ………………………….. ………………………….. …………………….. 38
Article 118 Rules of procedure ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. ….. 38
Article 119 Internal order ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. …………. 38
Article 120 Public sessions ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. ………… 38
Article 121 Quorum and voting ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. …. 39
Article 122 Proposing bills ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. ………… 39
Article 123 Presidential veto ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. ……… 39
Article 124 State budget ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. …………… 40
Article 125 Final accou nt ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. ………….. 40
Article 126 Collection and disbursement of public funds ………………………….. ……………………….. 40

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Draft dated 2 December 2013 of the Constitution of the Arab Republic of Egypt
Prepared pursuant to Article 29 of the Constitutional Declaration dated 8 July 2013
Unofficial translation prepared by International IDEA ( www.idea.int )
Article 127 Executive authority ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. …. 40
Article 128 Salaries, pensions, indemnities, subsidies, and bonuses ………………………….. ……….. 41
Article 129 Submitting questions ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. .. 41
Article 130 Addressing interrogations ………………………….. ………………………….. …………………….. 41
Article 131 Withdrawal of confidence ………………………….. ………………………….. …………………….. 41
Article 132 Discussion of public issues ………………………….. ………………………….. ……………………. 42
Article 133 Discussion of public issues by members ………………………….. ………………………….. …. 42
Article 134 Urgent briefing or statements ………………………….. ………………………….. ……………….. 42
Article 135 Fact -finding ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. …………….. 42
Article 136 Attendance of sessions by the prime minister, his deputies,
ministers and their deputies ………………………….. ………………………….. …………………. 42
Article 137 Dissolution of the House of Representatives ………………………….. ……………………….. 43
Article 138 Submitting proposals and complaints ………………………….. ………………………….. …….. 43
Section Two: Executive Authority ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. . 44
Subsection One: The President of the Republic ………………………….. ………………………….. ………. 44
Article 13 9 Mandate ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………… 44
Article 140 Term, election, prohibition on partisan positions ………………………….. …………………. 44
Article 141 Conditions for candidacy ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………. 44
Article 142 Conditions for candidacy ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………. 44
Article 143 Election ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………….. 44
Article 14 4 Oath ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………. 45
Article 145 Remuneration ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. …………. 45
Article 146 Government formation ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………… 45
Article 147 Governmental exemption ………………………….. ………………………….. …………………….. 46
Article 148 Delegation of authorities ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………. 46
Article 149 Convening of government ………………………….. ………………………….. …………………….. 46
Article 150 The state’s general policy ………………………….. ………………………….. ……………………… 46
Article 151 Foreign relations ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. ……… 46
Article 152 The president and the armed forces ………………………….. ………………………….. ………. 47
Article 153 Appointment of civil and military personnel and diplomats ………………………….. …… 47
Article 154 State of emergency ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. …. 47
Article 155 Pardon and amnesty ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. .. 47
Article 156 Decrees that have the force of law ………………………….. ………………………….. ………… 48
Article 157 Referendum ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. ……………. 48
Article 158 Resignation ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. …………….. 48
Article 159 Pro secution ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. …………….. 48
Article 160 Vacancy ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. …………………. 49
Article 161 Withdrawal of confidence ………………………….. ………………………….. …………………….. 49
Article 162 Priority of presidential elections ………………………….. ………………………….. ……………. 49
Subsection Two: The Government ………………………….. ………………………….. ……………………….. 50
Article 163 Composition, Prime Mi nister’s mandate ………………………….. ………………………….. … 50
Article 164 Conditions for candidacy ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………. 50
Article 165 Oath ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………. 50
Article 166 Remuneration ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. …………. 50
Article 167 Governmental mandate ………………………….. ………………………….. ……………………….. 51
Article 168 Ministerial mandate ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. … 51
Article 169 Statements before the House of Representatives ………………………….. ………………… 51

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Draft dated 2 December 2013 of the Constitution of the Arab Republic of Egypt
Prepared pursuant to Article 29 of the Constitutional Declaration dated 8 July 2013
Unofficial translation prepared by International IDEA ( www.idea.int )
Article 170 Regulations to enforce laws ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………….. 51
Article 171 Regulations to create and organize public utilities ………………………….. ……………….. 52
Article 172 Disciplinary regulations ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………… 52
Article 173 Investigation and trial ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. . 52
Article 174 Resignation ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. …………….. 52
Subsection Three: Local Administration ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………… 52
Article 175 Administrative units ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. … 52
Article 176 Empowerment of administrative units ………………………….. ………………………….. …… 53
Article 177 Needs of local units ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. …. 53
Article 178 Finances of local units ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. 53
Article 179 Selection of governors and head s of local units ………………………….. …………………… 53
Article 180 Election of local councils ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………. 53
Article 181 Local council decisions ………………………….. ………………………….. …………………………. 54
Article 182 Budgets and final accounts of local councils ………………………….. ………………………… 54
Article 183 Dissolution of local councils ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………….. 54
Section Three: The Judicial Authority ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………. 54
Subsection One: General Provisions ………………………….. ………………………….. …………………….. 54
Article 184 The judiciary ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. …………… 54
Article 185 Judicial bodies ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. ………… 54
Article 186 Judicial independence ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. 54
Ar ticle 187 Public sessions ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. ………… 55
Subsection Two: The Judiciary and Public Prosecution ………………………….. …………………………. 55
Article 188 Mandate ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………… 55
Article 189 Public prosecution ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. …… 55
Subsection Three: The State Council ………………………….. ………………………….. …………………….. 55
Article 190 Mandate ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………… 55
Section Four: The Supreme Constitutional Court ………………………….. ………………………….. ……….. 56
Article 191 Independence, seat, budget, General Assembly ………………………….. …………………… 56
Article 192 Jurisdiction ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. …………….. 56
Article 193 Composition ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. …………… 56
Article 194 Pre sident and vice -presidents ………………………….. ………………………….. ……………….. 56
Article 195 Publication of rulings and decisions ………………………….. ………………………….. ……….. 57
Section Five: Judicial Bodies ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. ………. 57
Article 196 State Cases Authority ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. . 57
Article 197 Administrative Prosecution ………………………….. ………………………….. …………………… 57
Section Six: The Legal Profession ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. … 57
Article 198 Guarantees, prohibition against arrest ………………………….. ………………………….. …… 57
Section Seven: Aides to the Judicia ry ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………. 58
Article 199 Judicial experts, forensic medicine experts, and members of
the notary public ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. …….. 58
Section Eight: The Armed For ces and the Police Force ………………………….. ………………………….. … 58
Subsection One: The Armed Forces ………………………….. ………………………….. ……………………… 58
Article 200 Mandate ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………… 58
Article 201 Commander in Chief of the armed forces ………………………….. ………………………….. .. 58
Article 202 Public mobilization, administrative disputes ………………………….. ……………………….. 58
Subsection Two: The National Defense Council ………………………….. ………………………….. ………. 59
Article 203 Composition, mandate ………………………….. ………………………….. …………………………. 59

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Draft dated 2 December 2013 of the Constitution of the Arab Republic of Egypt
Prepared pursuant to Article 29 of the Constitutional Declaration dated 8 July 2013
Unofficial translation prepared by International IDEA ( www.idea.int )
Subsection Three: The Military Judi ciary ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………. 59
Article 204 Definition, mandate, military trial of civilians ………………………….. ………………………. 59
Subsection Four: The National Security Council ………………………….. ………………………….. ……… 60
Article 205 Composition, mandate ………………………….. ………………………….. …………………………. 60
Subsection Five: The Police Force ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………… 60
Article 206 Mandate ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………… 60
Article 207 Supreme Police Council ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………… 60
Section Nine: The National Elections Commission ………………………….. ………………………….. ……… 61
Article 208 Mandate ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………… 61
Article 209 Structure, composition ………………………….. ………………………….. …………………………. 61
Article 210 Adm inistering voting and counting of votes ………………………….. ………………………… 61
Section Ten: The National Media Council ………………………….. ………………………….. …………………. 62
Article 211 Mandate, composition ………………………….. ………………………….. …………………………. 62
Article 212 National Press and Media Association ………………………….. ………………………….. ……. 62
Article 213 National Press and Media Association ………………………….. ………………………….. ……. 62
Section Eleven: National Councils, Independent Bodies and Regulatory Agencies ……………………… 63
Subsection One: National Councils ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………. 63
Article 214 National Councils ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. …….. 63
Subsection Two: Independent bodies and regulatory agencies ………………………….. ………………. 63
Article 2 15 Independent bodies and regulatory agencies ………………………….. ………………………. 63
Article 216 Creation of each independent body or regulatory agency ………………………….. …….. 63
Article 2 17 Reporting by independent bodies and regulatory agencies ………………………….. …… 64
Article 218 Fighting corruption ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. ….. 64
Article 219 Central Auditing Or ganization ………………………….. ………………………….. ……………….. 64
Article 220 Central Bank ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. …………… 64
Article 221 Financial Supervisory Authority ………………………….. ………………………….. …………….. 64
Chapter Six: General and Transitional Provisions ………………………….. ………………………….. ………….. 65
Section One: General Provisions ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. … 65
Article 222 Capi tal ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. ……………………. 65
Article 223 Flag ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. ……………………….. 65
Article 224 Legal continuity ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. ………. 65
Artic le 225 Publication of laws in the Official Gazette ………………………….. ………………………….. . 65
Article 226 Amendment ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. ……………. 65
Article 227 Constitution and Preamble ………………………….. ………………………….. …………………… 66
Section Two: Transitional Provisions ………………………….. ………………………….. ……………………….. 66
Article 228 High Electoral Committee, Presidential Election Committee ………………………….. …. 66
Article 229 Election of the House of Representatives ………………………….. ………………………….. .. 66
Article 230 Procedures for parliamentary and presidential elections ………………………….. ………. 66
Article 231 Beginning of the presidential term ………………………….. ………………………….. ………… 67
Article 232 The interim president ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. . 67
Article 233 Vacancy of the office of the interim president ………………………….. …………………….. 67
Article 234 Minister of defense ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. …. 67
Article 235 Building and renovat ing churches ………………………….. ………………………….. ………….. 67
Article 236 Economic and urban development of border and underprivileged areas …………….. 67
Article 237 War on terrorism ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. …….. 68
Article 228 Government expenditure on education ………………………….. ………………………….. ….. 68
Article 239 Delegating judges, members of judicial bodies ………………………….. ……………………. 68

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Draft dated 2 December 2013 of the Constitution of the Arab Republic of Egypt
Prepared pursuant to Article 29 of the Constitutional Declaration dated 8 July 2013
Unofficial translation prepared by International IDEA ( www.idea.int )
Article 240 Rulings of criminal courts ………………………….. ………………………….. ……………………… 68
Article 241 Transitional justice ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. ….. 68
Article 242 Local administration ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. … 69
Article 243 Workers and farmers representation in parliament ………………………….. ……………… 69
Article 244 Representation f or youth, Christians, disabled persons, etc. ………………………….. …. 69
Article 245 Employees of the Shoura Council ………………………….. ………………………….. …………… 69
Article 246 Constitutional Declar ations ………………………….. ………………………….. …………………… 69
Article 247 Entry into force ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. ……….. 69

* * *

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Draft dated 2 December 2013 of the Constitution of the Arab Republic of Egypt
Prepared pursuant to Article 29 of the Constitutional Declaration dated 8 July 2013
Unofficial translation prepared by International IDEA ( www.idea.int )

In the Name of God , Most Gracious, Most Merciful
Preamble
This is Our Constitution
Egypt i s the gift of the Nile and the gift of Egyptians to humanity.
Blessed with a unique location and history, the Arab nation of Egypt is the heart of the whole world. It is
the meeting point of its civilizations and cultures and the crossroad s of its maritime transportation a nd
communications. It is the tip of Africa on the Mediterranean and the estuary of its greatest river: the
Nile.
This is Egypt, an immortal homeland to Egyptians, and a message of peace and love to all peoples.
In the beginning of history, the dawn of hum an conscience rose and shone forth in the hearts of our
great ancestors , uniting their good intention to build the first central state that regulated and organized
the life of Egyptians on the banks of the Nile. It is where they created the most amazing wo nders of
civilization, and where their hearts looked up to the heavens before earth knew the three revealed
religions.
Egypt is the cradle of religions and the banner of glory of the revealed religions.
On its land, Moses grew up , the light of God appear ed, and the message descended on Mount Sinai.
On its land, Egyptians welcomed Virgin Mary and her baby and offered up thousands of martyrs in
defense of the Church of Jesus.
When the Seal of the M essenger s Mohamed (Peace and Blessings Be Upon Him) was se nt to all mankind
to perfect the sublime morals, our hearts and minds were opened to the light of Islam. We were the
best soldiers on Earth to fight for the cause of God, and we disseminated t he message of truth and
religious sciences across the world.
Th is is Egypt; a homeland that we live in as much as it lives in us.
In the modern age, minds were enlightened, humanity became mature, and nations and people s
progressed on the path of science, raising the banners of freedom and equality. Mohamed Ali found ed
the modern Egyptian stat e with a national army as its pillar. Refaa, the son of Al -Azhar, prayed that the
homeland become “a place of common happiness for its people. ” We, Egyptians, strived to keep up with
the pace of development, and offered up martyr s and made sacrifices in several uprisings and
revolutions until our patriotic army delivered victory to the sweeping popular will in the “Jan 25 – June
30” Revolution that called for bread , freedom and human dignity within a framework of social justice,
and brought back the homeland’s free will.
This revolution is but an extension to a process of national struggle whose brightest symbols were
Ahmed Oraby, Mostafa Kamel, and Mohamed Farid. It was the capstone of two great revolutions in our
modern history:

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Draft dated 2 December 2013 of the Constitution of the Arab Republic of Egypt
Prepared pursuant to Article 29 of the Constitutional Declaration dated 8 July 2013
Unofficial translation prepared by International IDEA ( www.idea.int )
The 1919 revolution that had rid Egypt and the Egyptians of the British guardianship, and had
established the principle of citizenship and equality between the people of the same country. Its leader,
Saad Zaghloul, and his successor, Mosfata El -Nahhas, w alked the path of democracy, asserting that
“Truth is above power and the nation is above the government”. During this revolution, Talaat Harb laid
down the cornerstone of the national economy.
The July 23, 1952 revolution that was led by the leader Gamal Abdel Nasser and was embraced by the
popular will achiev ed the dream of generations for evacuation and independence . As a result, Egypt
affirmed its Arab allegiance, opened up to its African continent and Muslim world, supported liberation
movements acros s continents, and took firm steps on the path of development and social justice.
This revolution represents an extension of the revolutionary march of Egyptian patriotism , and supports
the strong bond between the Egy ptian people and their patriotic army t hat bore the trust and
responsibility of protecting the homeland. Thanks to it, we achieved victory in our greatest battles
including driving off the 1956 Tripartite Aggression and the glorious victory of October that granted
President Sadat a special plac e in our recent history.
Compared to major revolutions in the history of mankind, the Jan 25 – June 30 Revolution is a unique
revolution, because of the heavy popular participation involved — which was estimated to be in the tens
of millions — and the si gnificant role of youth who aspire to a bright er future, the masses who
transcended class and ideolog y to reach out to more expansive patriotic and human horizons, the
manner in which the people’s army protected the popular will and the blessings granted t o it by Al-
Azhar and the patriotic church. It is also unique because of its peacefulness and ambition to achieve
freedom and social justice together.
This revolution is a sign and a good omen. It is a sign of a past that is still present and a good omen o f a
future to which all humanity aspires.
The world has almost forgotten ab out an age that was torn by conflicts of interest between the east and
the west , and the north and the south; an age where disputes and wars erupted between classes and
peoples, wh ere risks grew, threatening the existence of mankind and life on Eart h, which God created
for us. Humanity hopes to move from the age of maturity to the age of wisdom to build a new world
where truth and justice prevail, and where freedoms and human right s are protected. We, Egyptians,
believe that our revolution is an opportunity to return to help write a new history for mankind.
We believe that we are capable of u sing the past as an inspiration, stirring up the present, and making
our way to the future. We are capable of developing this homeland that develops us.
We believe that every citizen is entitled to live in this homeland in safety and security, and that every
citizen is entitled to a today and a tomorrow.
We believe in democracy as a path, a fu ture, and a way of life; in political multiplicity; and in the
peaceful transfer of power. We affirm the right of the people to make their future. They, alone, are the
source of authorit y. Freedom, human dignity, and social justice are a right of every cit izen. Sovereignty
in a sovereign homeland belongs to us and future generations.
We are now drafting a Constitution that embodies the dream of generations of a prosperous united
society and of a fair state that achieves the aspirations of today and tomorro w for individuals and
society.

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Prepared pursuant to Article 29 of the Constitutional Declaration dated 8 July 2013
Unofficial translation prepared by International IDEA ( www.idea.int )
We are now drafting a Constitution that completes building a modern democratic state with a civil
government.
We are draft ing a Constitution that closes the door for any corruption or tyranny, heals the wounds of
the past f rom the time of the old Eloquent Peasant to the victims of negligence and the martyrs of the
revolution in our time, and r elieves our people of the injustice they have suffered from for long.
We are drafting a Constitution that affirms that the principles of Islamic Sharia are the principle source
of legislation, and that the reference for interpretation thereof is the relevant texts in the collected
rulings of the Supreme Constitutional Court. 1
We are draft ing a Constitution that paves the way to the futu re for us, and which is in line with the
Universal Declaration of Human Rights , which we took part in the drafting of and approved.
We are draft ing a Constitution that maintains our freedom and protects the nation against every threat
against it or against our national unity.
We are drafting a Constitution that achieves equality between us in rights and duties with no
discrimination.
We are the citizens. We are the Egyptian people, sovereigns in a sovereign homeland. This is our will and
this is the Const itution of our revolution.
This is our Constitution .
* * *
1 The rulings are deposited in the official records.

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Prepared pursuant to Article 29 of the Constitutional Declaration dated 8 July 2013
Unofficial translation prepared by International IDEA ( www.idea.int )

Chapter One: The State
Article 1 Nature of the Republic 2
The Arab Republic of Egypt is a sovereign state, united and indivisible, where nothing is dispensable, and
its system is democratic rep ublic based on citizenship and the rule of law .
Egypt is part of the Arab nation and enhances its integration and unity. It is part of the Muslim world,
belongs to the African continent, is proud of its Asian dimension, and contributes to building human
civilization.
Article 2 Islam, Principles of Islamic Sharia
Islam is the religion of the state and Arabic is its official language. The principles of Islamic Sharia are the
principle source of legislation.
Article 3 Christian and Jewish religious affairs
The principles of the laws of Egyptian Christians and Jews are the main source of laws regulating their
personal status, religious affairs, and selection of spiritual leaders.
Article 4 Sovereignty
Sovereignty belongs to the people alone , wh ich exercise s it and protect s it. They are the source of
power. They safeguard their national unity , which is based on the principle of equality , justice and equal
opportunity between citizens , as provided in this Constitution .
Article 5 Political system
The political system is based on political and partisan multiplicity , the peaceful transfer of power , the
separation and balance of powers, autho rity going with responsibility , and respec t for human rights and
freedoms, as set out in the Constitution .
2 Titles for each article have been included by International IDEA in this translation solely for ease of reference. The
article titles are not to be attributed to the drafters and should not be used to inform interpretation. Chapter and
section titles were translated from the original text .

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Prepared pursuant to Article 29 of the Constitutional Declaration dated 8 July 2013
Unofficial translation prepared by International IDEA ( www.idea.int )
Article 6 Citize nship
Citizenship is a right to anyone born to an Egyptian fathe r or an Egyptian mother. Being legally
recognized and obtaining official papers proving his personal data is a right guaranteed and organized by
law.
Requirements for acquiring citizenship a re specified by law.

Chapter Two : Basic Components of Society
Section One : Social Components
Article 7 Al-Azhar
Al-Azhar is an independent scientific Islamic institution, with exclusive competence over its own affairs.
It is the main authority for relig ious sciences , and Islamic affairs. It is responsible for preaching Islam and
disseminating the religious sciences and the Arabic language in Egypt and the world.
The state shall provide enough financial allocations to achieve its purposes.
Al-Azhar’s Gr and Sheikh is independent and cannot be dismissed. The method of appointing the Grand
Sheikh from among the members of the Council of Senior Scholars is to be determined by law.
Article 8 Social solidarity
Society is based on social solidarity.
The stat e commits to achieving social justice, providing the mean s to achieve social solidarity to ensure a
decent life for all citizens, in the manner organized by law.
Article 9 Equal opportunity
The state ensures equal opportunity for all citizens without dis crimination.
Article 10 Family as the basis of society
Family is the basis of society and is based on religion, morality, and patriotism. The state protects its
cohesion and stability, and the consolidation of its values.

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Prepared pursuant to Article 29 of the Constitutional Declaration dated 8 July 2013
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Article 11 The place of women, motherhood and childhood
The state commits to achieving equality between women and men in all civil, political, econom ic, social,
and cultural rights in accordance with the provisions of this Constitution .
The state commits to taking the necessary measur es to ensure appropriate representation of wo men in
the houses of parliament , in the manner specified by law. It grants women the right to hold public posts
and hig h management posts in the state, and to appointment in judicial bodies and entities without
discrimination.
The state commits to the protection of women against all forms of violence, and ensures women
empowerment to reconcile the duties of a woman toward her family and her work requirements .
The state ensures care and protection and care for mo therhood and chil dhood, and for breadwinning,
and elderly women, and women most in need .
Article 12 Right to work, forced labor
Work is a right, a duty, and an honor guaranteed by the state. There can be no forced labor except in
accordance with the law and for the purpose of performing a public service for a defined period o f time
and in return for a fair wage , without prejudice to the basic rights of those assigned to the work.
Article 13 Worker Rights
The state commits to protecting worker rights, an d works on building balanced work relationships
between the two sides of the production process. It ensures means for collective negotiations and works
on protecting workers against the risks of work, ensures that conditions for professional security, safe ty
and health are met , and prohibits arbitrary dismissal. All the foregoing is as organized by law.
Article 14 State employment
Public posts are a right for citizens on the basis of merit, with no fav oritism or mediation. Public posts
are an assignment i n service of the people. The state ensures the rights and protection of civil servants,
and that they shall perform their duties in service of the interests of the people . They may not be
dismissed outside of disciplinar y action except in those situations set out by law.
Article 15 Right to strike
Striking peacefully is a right which is organized by law.
Article 16 Martyrs and wounded of the revolution
The state commits to honoring the martyrs of the nation , caring for the wounded of the revolution,
elder ly war veterans, the wounded, and families of th ose missing in war, as well as their equals, and the

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wounded in security operations, their wives, children and parents. It works on providing them with job
opportunities. The foregoing will be organized by la w.
The state encourages the contribution of civil society to achieving these objectives.
Article 17 Social security services
The state provides social security services.
All citizens who have no access to the social security system have the rig ht to soci al security to ensure a
decent life , if they are unable to support themselves and their families in the event of inca pacity to
work, old age or unemployment.
The state works to provide appropriate pensions to small farmers, agricultural workers , hunters and
informal labor in accordance with the law.
Insurance and pension funds are private and enjoy all forms of protection afforded to public funds.
Together with their returns , they are a right of their beneficiaries. They shall be invested in a safe
manner and managed by an independent entity , in accordance with the law .
The state guarantees funds for insurance and pensions.
Article 18 Health care
Every citizen is entitled to health and to comprehensive health care with quality criteria. The state
guaran tees to maintain and support public health facilities that provide health services to the people ,
and work on enhancing their efficiency and their fair geographical distribution .
The state commits to allocate a percentage of government expenditure that is no less than 3% of Gross
Domestic Product (GDP) to health. The percentage will gradually increase to reach global rate s.
The state commits to the establishme nt of a comprehensive health care system for all Egyptians
covering all diseases. The contributio n of citizens to its subscriptions or their exemption there from is
based on their income rates .
Denying any form of medical treatment to any human in emergency or life -threatening situations is a
crime.
The state commits to improving the conditions of phy sicians, nursing staff, and health sector workers,
and achieving equity for them.
All health facilities and health related products, materials, and health -related means of advertisement
are subject to state oversight . The state encourages the participatio n of the private and public sectors in
providing health care services as per the law.

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Prepared pursuant to Article 29 of the Constitutional Declaration dated 8 July 2013
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Article 19 Education
Every citizen has the right to education with the aim of building the Egyptian character, maintaining
national identity, planting the roots of sci entific thinking, developing talents, promoting innovation and
establishing civilization al and spiritual values and the concepts of citizenship, tolerance and non –
discrimination . The state commits to uphold its aims in education curricula and methods, and to provide
education in accordance with global quality criteria.
Education is obligatory until the end of the secondary stage or its equivalent. The state grants free
education in different stages in state educational institutions as per the law.
The sta te commits to allocating a percentage of government spending that is no less than 4% of the GDP
for education . It will gradually increase this until it reaches global rates.
The state oversees education to ensure that all public and private schools and in stitutes abide by its
educational policies.
Article 20 Technical education, professional training
The state commits to encourage and develop technical education and professional training and expand
all types thereof in accordance with global quality crit eria, in keeping with the needs of the labor
market.
Article 2 1 Academic independence
The state guarantees the independence of universities, scientific and linguistic academies. It commits to
providing university education in accordance with global quality criteria, and to developing free
university education in state universities and institutes as per the law .
The state allocates a percentage of the government expenditure that is no less than 2% of Gross
National Product (GNP). It will gradually increase until it reaches global rates.
The state works on encouraging the establishment of non -profit public universities . The state
guarantees the quality of education in private and public universities , their commitment to global
quality criteria, preparing thei r educational and research cadres, and allocating a sufficient percentage
of its returns to develop the educational and research process.
Article 22 Teachers
Teachers and members of the teaching staff and their assistants are the main pillar of educatio n. The
state guarantees the development of their academic competencies and professional skills, and care for
their financial and moral rights in order to ensure the quality of education and achiev e its objectives.

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Prepared pursuant to Article 29 of the Constitutional Declaration dated 8 July 2013
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Article 23 Scientific research
The state grants the freedom of s cientifi c research and encourag es its institutions as a means to
achieving national sovereignty, and building a knowledge economy. The state sponsors researchers and
inventors, and allocates a percentage of government expenditures t hat is no less than 1% of Gross
National Product to scientific research. It will gradually increase until it reaches global rates.
The state commits to p rovide effective means of contribution for the private and public sectors and the
contribution of expa triate Egyptians to the development of scientific research.
Article 24 Arabic language, religious education and national history
The Arabic language, religious education, and national history in all its stages are core subjects of pre –
university public a nd private education. Universities are committed to teaching human rights, and
professional morals and ethics relating to various academic disciplines.
Article 25 Illiteracy
The state commits to developing a comprehensive plan to eradicate alphabetical a nd digital illiteracy for
all citizens from all age groups. It commits to developing implementation mechanisms with the
participation of civil society institutions according to a specific timeline.
Article26 Civil titles
The institution of civil titles i s prohibited.

Section Two : Economic Components
Article 27 Economic system
The economic system aims at achieving prosperity in the country through sustainable development and
social justice to guarantee an increase in the real growth rate of the national e conomy, raising the
standard of living, increasing job opportunities, reducing unemployment rates and eliminat ing poverty.
The economic sys tem is committed to the criteria of transparency and governance, supporting
competitiveness, e ncouraging investment, achieving balanced growth with regards to geography, sector
and the environment; preventing monopol istic practices, taking into account the financial and
commercial balance and a fair tax system; regulating market mechanisms; guaranteei ng different types
of ownership ; and achieving balance between the interests of different parties to maintain the rights of
workers and protect consumers.
The economic system is socially committed to ensuring equal opportunities and a fair distribution of
development return s, to reducing the gaps between incomes by setting a minimum wage and pension

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to ensure a decent life, and setting a maximum wage in state agencies for whoever works for a wage as
per the law.
Article 28 Production and service based economy activity
Econ omic production, service -based and information -based activities are key components of the
national economy. The state commits to protecting them, increasing their competiveness, providing an
environment that attracts investment, and works on increasing pro duction, encouraging export s, and
regulating import s.
The state gives special attention to small and medium enterprises in all fields . It works on regulating and
training the informal sector.
Article 29 Agriculture
Agriculture is a basic component of the national economy.
The state commits to protecting and increasing land under cultivation , and incriminating encroachments
thereon . It works on developing the countryside, raising the standard of living of its inhabitants and
protecting it from agricultural risks, and works on developing agricultural and animal production, and
encouraging industries based thereon.
The state commits to providing the requirements of agricultural and animal production and buying basic
agricultu ral crops at appropriate prices to achieve a profit margin for farmers in agreement with
agricultural unions , syndicates and agricultural associations . The state also commits to the allocation of a
percentage of reclaimed lands to small farmers and youth graduates , and to the protection o f farmers
and agricultural workers against exploitation . All the foregoing will take place in the manner organized
by law.
Article 30 Fisheries
The state commits to protecting fisheries, protecting and supporting fishermen, and empowering them
to carry o ut their work without causing damages to eco -systems, in the manner organized by law.
Article 31 Information Space Security
The security of information space is an integral part of the system of national economy and security. The
state commits to taking t he necessary measures to preserve it in the manner organized by law.
Article 32 Natural resources
Natural resources belong to the people. The state commits to preserving such resources, to their sound
exploitation, to preventing their depletion, and to t ake into consideration th e rights of future
generations to them.

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The state commits to making the best use of renewable energy resources, motivating investment, and
encouraging relevant scientific research. The state works on encouraging the manufacture of raw
materials, and increasing their added value according to economic feasibility.
Disposing of the state’s public property is forbidden. G ranting the right to exploit natural resources or a
concession to a public utility shall take place by law for a per iod not exceeding 30 years.
Granting the right to exploit quarries and small mines and salterns, or granting a concession to a public
utility shall take place for a period not exceeding 30 years based on a law.
The law sets the provisions for disposing o f state private property, and the rules and procedures
regulating such .
Article 33 Ownership
The state protects ownership, which is three types: Public ownership, private ownership, and
cooperative ownership.
Article 34 Public Property
Public property i s inviolable and may not be infringed upon . It is the duty of every citizen to protect it in
accordance with the law.
Article 35 Private property
Private property is protected. The right to inherit property is guaranteed. Private property may not be
sequ estrated except in cases specified by law, and by a court order. Ownership of property may not be
confiscated except for the public good and with just compen sation that is paid in advance as per the
law.
Article 36 Private sector’s social responsibility
The state encourages the private sector to perform its social responsibility in serving the national
econo my and society.
Article 37 Cooperative Property
Cooperative property is protected. The state cares for cooperative s, and the law guarantees its
prot ection and support, and ensures its independence.
It cannot be dissolved, nor its boards, except by court order.

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Prepared pursuant to Article 29 of the Constitutional Declaration dated 8 July 2013
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Article 38 Taxation
The taxation system and other public levies aim to develop state resources, and achiev e social justice
and economi c devel opment.
Public taxes cannot be established, modified, or cancelled except by law. There can be no exemptions
except in cases prescribed by law. It is prohibited to require anyone to pay additional taxes or fees
except within the limits of the law.
When i mposing taxes, it must be taken into account that the tax system has multiple sources. The taxes
imposed on the incomes of individuals are progressive multi -tier taxes that according to their tax
capacity. The tax system ensures the promotion of heavy labo r industries, and incentivizing their role in
economic, social, and cultural development.
The state commits to the development of the tax system, and adoption of modern systems to achieve
efficiency, ease and accuracy in tax collection. The law specifie s the methods and tools to collect taxes,
fees, and any other sovereign returns, and what is deposited in the state treasury.
Paying taxes is a duty, and tax evasion is a crime.
Arti cle 39 Savings
Saving is a national duty that is protected and encourage d by the state. The state safeguards savings in
accordance with the law.
Article 40 Confiscation of property
Public confiscation of property is prohibited.
Private confiscation is prohibited except based on a court judgment.
Article 41 Housing
The state commits to the implementation of a housing program that aims at achieving balance between
population growth rates and the resources available, maximizing investment in human energy, and
improving its features, within the frame work of achieving sustainable development.
Article 42 Workers’ share in management
Workers have a share in the mana gement of projects and their profits . They are committed to
developing production and implementing the plan in their production units as per the law. Maintaining
the too ls of production is a national duty.
Workers’ representatives on the boards of public sector units are 50 percent of the number of elected
members. Their representation on the boards of public business sector companies takes place in
accordance with the l aw.

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The law regulates the representation of small farmers and small craftsmen that is no less than 80 per
cent of the boards of directors of agricultural , industrial and trade cooperatives.
Article 43 Suez Canal
The state commits to protecting , develop ing and maintaining the Suez Canal as an international
waterway that it own s. It is also committed to the development of the canal sector as a significant
economic pillar.
Article 44 The Nile
The state commits to protecting the Nile River, maintaining Eg ypt’s historic rights thereto , rationalizing
and maximizing its benefits, not wasting its water or polluting it . The state commits to protecting its
mineral water, to adopting methods appropriate to achieve water safety, and to supporting scientific
resear ch in this field.
Every citizen has the right to enjoy the Nile River. It is prohibited to encroach upon it or to harm the
river environment . The state guarantees to remove e ncroachments thereon . The foregoing is regulated
by law.
Article 45 Seas, Beache s, lakes, waterways, mineral water and natural reserves
The state commits to protecting its seas, beaches, lakes, waterways, miner al water, and natural
reserves.
It is prohibited to encroach upon, pollute, or use them in a manner that contradicts their na ture. Every
citizen has the right to enjoy them as regulated by law. The state also commits to the protection and
development of green space in urban areas; the protection of plants, livestock and fisheries ; the
protection of endangered species; and the pr evention of cruelty to animals. All the foregoing takes place
as regulated by law.
Article 46 Environment
Every individual has the right to live in a healthy, sound and balanced environment. Its protection is a
national duty. The state is committed to ta king the necessary measures to preserve it, avoid harming it,
rationally use its natural resources to ensure that sustainable development is achieved , and guarantee
the rights of future generations thereto.

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Section Three: Cultural Components
Article 47 Cultural identity
The state is committed to protecting Egyptian cultural identity with its diverse civilization al origins.
Article 48 Right to culture
Culture is a right of every citizen that is guaranteed by the state. The state is committed to support it
and provide all types of cultural materials to the different groups of people without discrimination based
on financial capacity, geographical location, or anything else. The state gives special attention to remote
areas and the groups most in need.
Th e state encourages translation from and to Arabic.
Article 49 Monuments
The state commit s to protecting and preserving antiquities and their areas, and to maintaining them,
renovating them, work ing to retrieve those that have been taken, and organizing a nd su pervising
excavations thereof .
It is prohibited to give away any of them as gifts or exchange them.
Attacks upon them and trafficking in them is a crime for which there is no statute of limitation s.
Articl e 50 Material and mo ral civilization al and cu ltural heritage
Egypt’s material and moral civilization al and cultural heritage of all types and from all of the Pharaonic,
Coptic, Islamic, and modern periods are a national and human heritage that the state commits to
protect and maintain. The same appli es to the modern architectural, litera ry and artistic cultural stock .
Any attack thereon is a crime punishable by law. The state gives special attention to maintain the
components of cultur al diversity .

Chapter Three : Public Rights, Freedoms and Duties
Article 51 Human dignity
Dignity is a right for every person that may not be infringed upon . The state shall respect, guarantee and
protect it.

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Article 52 Torture
All forms of torture are a crime with no statute of limitations.
Article 53 Equality in pu blic rights and duties
Citizens are equal before the law, possess equal rights and public duties, and may not be discriminated
against on the basis of religion, belief , sex , origin , race , color, language, disability, social class , political or
geographica l affiliation, or for any other reason.

Discrimination and incitement t o hate are crime s punishable by law.

The state shall tak e all necessary measures to eliminate all forms of discrimination, and the law shall
regulate the establishment of an indepen dent commission for this purpose.
Article 54 Personal freedom
Personal freedom is a natural right which is safegua rded and cannot be infringed upon . Except in cases
of in flagrante delicto , c itizens may only be apprehended, searched, arrested, or have the ir freedoms
restricted by a causal judicial warrant necessitated by an investigation.

All those whose freedoms have been restricted shall be immediately informed of the causes therefor ,
notified of their rights in writing, be allowed to immediately conta ct their family and lawyer, and be
brought before the investigating authorit y within twenty -four hours of their freedoms having been
restricted.

Questioning of the person may only begin once his lawyer is pr esent. If he has no lawyer , a lawyer will
be ap pointed for him . Those with disabilities shall be provided all necessary aid, according to procedures
stipulated in the law.

Tho se who have their freedom restricted and others possess the right of recourse before the judiciary .
Judgment must be rendered within a week from such recourse , otherwise the petitioner shall be
immediately released .

The law shall regulate preventive detention, its duration , causes , and which cases are eligible for
compensation that the state shall discharge for preventative det ention or for execution of a penalty that
had been executed by virtue of a judgment that is overruled by a final judgment.

In all cases, the accused may be brought to criminal trial for crimes that he may be detained for only in
the presence of a n authori zed or appointed lawyer.
Article 55 Due process
All those who are apprehended , detained or have their freedom restricted shall be treated in a way that
preserves their dignity. They may not be tortured, terrorized, or coerced. They m ay not be physically or

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mentally harmed, or arrested and confined in designated locations that are appropriate according to
humanitarian and health sta ndards. The state shall provid e means of access for those with disabilities.

Any violation of the above is a crime and the p erpetrator shall be punis hed under the law.

The accused possess es the right to remain silent. Any statement that is proven to have been given by
the detaine e under pressure of any of that which is stated above, or the threat of such, shall be
considered null and void.
Article 56 Supervision of prisons
Prison is a house for reform and rehabilitation .

Prisons and detention centers shall be subject to judicial oversight. All that which violates the dignity of
the person and or e ndangers his health is for bidden.

The law shall regulate the provisions to reform and rehabilitat e those who have been convicted, and to
facilitate a decent life once they are released.
Article 57 Private life
Private life is inviolable , safeguard ed and may not be infringed upo n.

Telegraph, postal, and electronic correspondence , telephone calls, and other forms of communication
are inviolable , their confidentiality is guaranteed and they may only be confiscated, examined or
monitored by causal judicial order, for a limited per iod of time, and in cases specified by the law.

The state shall protect the rights of citizens to use all forms of public means of communication, which
may not be arbitrarily disrupted, stopped or withheld from citizens, as regulated by the law.

Articl e 58 Inviolability of homes
Homes are inviolable . Except in cases of danger, or if a call for help is made, they may not be entered ,
searched, monitored or wiretapped except by causal judicial warrant specif ying the place, time and
purpose thereof . All o f the above is to be conducted in cases specified by the law, and in the manner
prescribed. Upon entering or searching homes, t hose inside shall be notified and informed of the
warrant issued in this regard.
Article 59 Right to safety
Every person has the right to a secure life. The state shall provide security and reassurance for citizens,
and all those residing within its territory.

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Article 60 Inviolability of the human body
The human body is inviolable . Any assault, defilement or mutilation thereof is a crime punishable by law.
Organ t rafficking is forbidden, and no medical or scientific experiment may be performed thereon
without the documented free consent of the subject, according to the established principles of the
medical field as regulated by l aw.
Article 61 Tissue and organ donation
Donation of tis sues and organs is a gift of life. Every human has the right to donate his body organs
during his lifetime or after his death by virtue of a documented consent or will. The state commits to the
esta blishment of a mechanism to regulate the rules for organ donation and transplant in accordance
with the law.
Article 62 Freedom of movement
Freedom of movement, residence and emigration is guaranteed .

No citizen may be expelled from state territory or banned from returning there to.

No citizen may be banned from l eaving state territory placed under h ouse arrest or banned from
residing in a certain area except by a causal judicial order for a specified period of time, and in cases
specified by the law.
Article 63 Forced migration
All forms of a rbitrary forced migration of citizens are forbidden . Violations of such are a crime without a
statute of limitations.
Article 64 Freedom of belief
Freedom of belief is absolute .

The freedom of practicing reli gious rituals and establishing places of worship for the followers of
revealed religions is a right organized by law.
Article 65 Freedom of thought
Freedom of thought and opinion is guaranteed.

All individuals have the right to express their opinion th rough speech, writing, imagery, or any other
means of expression and publication.

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Article 66 Freedom of research
Freedom of scientific research is guaranteed . The state shall sponsor researchers and inventors and
protect and work to apply their innovatio ns.
Article 67 Artistic and literary creation
Freedom of artistic and literary creation is guaranteed. The state shall undertake to promote art and
literature, sponsor creators and protect their creations , and provid e the necessary means of
encouragemen t to achieve this end.

No lawsuits may be initiated or filed to suspend or confiscate any artistic, literary, or intellectual work ,
or against their creators except through the public prosecution. No punishments of custodial sanction
may be imposed for c rimes committed because of the public nature of the artistic, literal or intellectual
product . The law shall specify the penalties for c rimes related to the in citement of violence,
discrimination between citizens, or impugning the honor of individuals.

In such cases, the court may force the sentenced to pay punitive compensation to the party aggrieved
by the crime, in addition to the original compensations due to him for the damages it caused him. All the
foregoing takes place in accordance with the law.
Article 68 Access to information and official documents
Information, data, statistics and official documents are owned by th e people. Disclosure thereof from
various sources is a right guaranteed by the state to all citizens. The state shall provide and m ake them
available to citizens with transparency. The law shall organize rules for obtaining such, rules of
availability and confidentiality , rules for depositing and preserving such , and lodging complaints against
refusals to grant access thereto. The la w shall specify penalties for withholding information or
deliberately providing false information.

State institutions shall deposit official documents with the National Library and Archives once they are
no longer in use . They shall also protect them, se cure them from loss or damage, and restore and
digitize them using all modern means and instruments , as per the law .
Article 69 Intellectual property rights
The state shall protect all types of intellectual property in all fields, and shall establish a s pecialized body
to uphold the rights of Egyptians and their legal protection, as regulated by law.
Article 70 Freedom of the press
Freedom of press and printing , along with paper, visual, audio and digital distribution is guaranteed.
Egyptians — whether natural or legal persons, public or private — have the right to own and issue
newspapers and establish visual, audio and digital media outlets.

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Newspapers may be issued onc e notification is given as regulated by law. The law shall regulate
ownership a nd establishment procedures for visual and radio broadcast stations in addition to online
newspapers .
Article 71 Freedom of publication
It is prohibited to censor, confiscate, suspend or shut down Egyptian newspapers and media outlets in
any way . Excepti on may be made for limited censorship in time of war or general mobiliza tion.

No custodial sanction shall be imposed for crimes committed by way of publication or the public nature
thereof . Punishments for crimes connected with incitement to violence or discrimination amongst
citizens , or impugning the honor of individuals are specified by law.
Article 72 Independence of press institutions
The state shall ensure the independence of all press institutions and owned media outlets , in a way t hat
ensures th eir neutrality and expressing all opinions, political and intellectual trends and social interests;
and guarantees equality and equal opportunity in addressing public opinion.
Article 73 Freedom of House
Citizens have the right to organize public meeting s, marches , demonstrations and all forms of peaceful
protest, while not carrying weapons of any type , upon providing notification as regulated by law.

The right to peaceful , private meetings is guaranteed, without the need for prior notification. Securit y
forces may not to attend, monitor or eavesdrop on such gatherings.

Article 74 Freedom to form political parties
Citizens have the right to form political parties by notification as regulated by the law. No political
activity may be exercised or politi cal parties formed on the basis of religion, or discrimination based on
sex , origin , sect or geographic location, nor may any activity be practiced that is hostile to democrac y,
secret ive , or which possess es a military or quasi -military nature.

Parties may only dissolved by a judicial ruling.
Article 75 Right to establish associations
Citizens have the right to form non -governmental organizations and institutions on a democratic basis ,
which shall acquire legal personality upon notification.

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They shal l be allowed to engage in act ivities freely . Administrative agencies shall not inter fere in the
affairs of such organizations, dissolve them, their board of directors, or their board of t rustees except by
a judicial ruling .

The establishment or continuat ion of non -governmental organizations and institutions whose structure
and activities are operated and conducted in secret , or which possess a mil itary or quasi -military
character are forbidden, as regulated by law.
Article 76 Right to form syndicates
Th e establishment of federation s and syndicates on a democratic basis is a right guaranteed by law.
Such federations and syndicates will possess legal personality , be able to practice their activities freely ,
contribute to improving the skills of its members , defend their rights and protect their interests.

The state guarantees the independence of all federations and syndicates. The boards of directors
thereof may only dissolved by a judicial ruling .

Syndicates may not be established within government al bodies.
Article 77 Trade unions
The law shall regulate the establishment and administration of professional syndicates on a democratic
basis, guarantee their independence, and specify their resources and the way members are recorded
and held accountable for their behavior while performing their professional activities, according to
ethical codes of moral and profess ional conduct.

No profession may establish more than one syndicate. Receivership may not be imposed nor may
administrative bodies intervene in the affairs of such syndicates, a nd their boards of directors may only
be dissolved by a judicial ruling . All l egislation pertaining to a given profession shall be submitted to the
relevant syndicate for consultation.
Article 78 Housing
The state guara ntees citizens the right to decent, safe and healthy housing, in a way that preserves
human dignity and achieves social justice.

The state shall draft a national housing plan that upholds environmental particularity, and guarantees
the contribution of pe rsonal and collaborative initiatives in its implementation. The state shall also
regulate the use of state lands and provide them with basic facilities, as part of a comprehensive urban
planning framework for cities and villages and a population distributi on strategy. This must be done in a
way that serves the public interest, improves the quality of life for citizens and preserves the rights of
future generations.

The state shall draft a comprehensive, national plan to address the problem of informal are as that
includes providing infrastructure and facilities and improving quality of life and public health. The state

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Unofficial translation prepared by International IDEA ( www.idea.int )
shall also guarantee the provision of necessary resources to implement the plan within a specified time
frame.
Article 79 Food
Each citize n has the right to healthy, sufficient amounts of food and clean water. The state shall provide
food resources to all citizens. It also ensures food sovereignty in a sustainable manner, and guarantees
the protection of agricultural biological diversity and types of local plants to preserve the rights of
generations.
Article 80 Rights of the child
A child is considered to be anyone who has not reached 18 years of age . Children have the right to be
named and possess identification papers, have access to free compulsory vaccinations, health and family
care or an alternative, basic nutrition, safe shelter , religious education , and emotional and cognitive
development.

The state guarantees the rights of children who have disabilities, and ensures their rehabili tation and
incorporation into society.

The state shall care for children and protect them from all forms of v iolence, abuse, mistreatment and
commercial and sexual exploitation.

Every child is entitled to early education in a childhood center until the age of six. It is prohibited to
employ children before they reach the age of having completed their primary education, a nd it is
prohibited to employ them in jobs that expose them to risk.

The state shall establish a judicial system for child victims an d witnesses. No child may be held criminally
responsible or detained except in accord ance with the law and the time frame specified therein . Legal
aid shall be provided to children, and they shall be detained in appropriate locations separate from adult
de tention centers.

The state shall work to achieve children’s best interest in all measures taken with regards to them.
Article 81 Rights of the disabled
The state shall guarantee the health, economic, soci al, cultural, entertainment, sporting and educat ion
rights of dwarves and people with disabilities . The state shall provide work opportunities for such
individuals, and allocate a percentage of these opportunities to them, in addition to equipping public
utilities and their surrounding environment. The state guarantees their right to exercise political rig hts,
and their integration with other citizens in order to achieve the principles of equality, justice and equal
opportunities.

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Prepared pursuant to Article 29 of the Constitutional Declaration dated 8 July 2013
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Article 82 Youth
The state guarantees the care of youth and young childr en, in addition to helping them discover their
talents and developing their cultural, scientific, psychological, creative and physical abilities,
encouraging them to engage in group and volunteer activity and enabling them to take part in public
life.

Ar ticle 83 The elderly
The state shall guarantee the health, economic, soci al, cultural and entertainment rights of the elderly,
provide them with appropriate pensions to ensure them a decent standard of living, and empower them
to participate in public lif e. The state shall take into account the needs of the elderly while planning
public utilities. It also encourages civil society organizations to participate in caring for the elderly.

All the foregoing takes place as organized by law.
Article 84 Sports
The state guarantees the right of everyone to practice physical sports . State institutions and society shall
work to discover and sponsor gifted athletes and take necessary measures to encourage the practice of
sport,.

The law shall regulate the affairs of sports and civil sports bodies in accordance with international
standards , and how to settle sporting disputes.
Article 85 Right to address public authorities
Each individual has the right to address public authorities in writing and in signature. No address shall be
made in the name of groups except for legal persons.
Article 86 Duty to safeguard national security
Preservation of national security is a duty , and the commitment of all to uphold such is a national
responsibility ensured by law . Defense of the nation and protecting its land is an honor and sacred duty.
Military service is mandatory according to the law.
Article 87 Citizen participation in public life
The participation of citizen s in public life is a national duty. Every citizen has the right to vote, run in
elections, and express their opinion in referendums. The law shall regulate the exercise of these rights .
Performance of these duties may be exempted in cases specified by the law.

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The state shall enter the name of every citizen in the voter registration database without request from
the ci tizen himself, once the citizen meets voting requirements . The state shall also purge this database
periodically in accordance with the law. The state guarantees the safety , neutrality and fairnes s of
referendum and election procedures. The use of public funds, government agencies , public facilities,
places of worship, business sector establishments and non -governmental organizations and institutions
for political pur poses and electioneering is for bidden.
Article 88 Egyptians living abroad
The state shall protect the interests of Egyptians living abroad, protect them, guarantee their rights and
freedoms, enable them to perform their public duties towards the state and society, and engage them in
the nation’s development.

The law shall regulate their participation in elections and referendums in a way consistent with their
particular circumstances, without being restricted by the provisions o n voting, counting of ballots and
announcing of results set forth in this Constitution . This shall be done with the granting of guarantees
that ensure the fairness and neutrality of the election and referendum process.
Article 89 Slavery, oppression, trafficking
Slavery and all forms of oppression and forced exploitation against humans are forbidden, as is sex
trafficking and other forms of human trafficking, all of which are punishable by law.
Article 90 Charitable Endowment
The state shall encourage the charitable endowment system to establish and sponsor scientific, cultural,
health, and social institutions and others and to ensure their independence. Its affairs shall be managed
in accordance with the conditions set by the person who created the endowment. This will be regulated
by law.
Article 91 Asylum
The state shall grant political asylum to any foreigner who ha s been persecuted for defending the
interests of peoples, human rights, peac e or justice.

Extradition of political refugees is forbidden. All of t he above is according to the law.
Article 9 2 Limitations clause
Rights and freedoms of individ ual citizens may not be suspended or reduced .

No law that regulate s the exercise of rights and freedoms may restrict them in such a way as infringes
upon their essence and foundation .

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Article 93 Intern ational agreements and conventions
The state is committed to the agreements, covenants, and international conventions of human rights
that were ratified by Egypt. They have the force of law after publication in accordance with the specified
circumstances.

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Prepared pursuant to Article 29 of the Constitutional Declaration dated 8 July 2013
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Chapter Four : Rule of Law
Article 94 Rule of law
The rule of law is the basis of govern ance in the state.

The state is subject to the law, while the independence , immunity and impartiality of the judiciary are
essential guarantees for the protection of rights and freedoms.
Article 95 Punishment
Penalties are personal. Crime s and penalties may only be based on the law, and penalt ies may only be
inflicted by a judicial ruling . Penalties may only be inflicted for acts committed subsequent to the date
on which the law enters into effect.
Article 96 Due process
The accused is innocent until proven guilty in a fair court of law, which provides guarantees for him to
defend himself.

The law shall regulate the appeal of felony sentences.

The stat e shal l provide protection to the victims, witnesses , accused and informants as necessary and in
accordance with the law.
Article 97 Right to litigate
Litigation is a safeguarded right guaranteed to all. The state shall bring together the litigating p arties,
and work towards speedy judgment in cases . It is forbidden to g rant any act or administrative decision
immunity from judicial oversight. Individual s may only be tried before their natural judge. Extraordinary
courts are forbidden.
Article 98 Right to defen se
The right of defense either in person or by proxy is guaranteed. The independence of lawyers and the
protection of their rights are ensured as a guarantee for the right of defense.

For those who are financially incapable , the law guarantees the means to resort to justice and defend
their rights.

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Article 99 Violation of personal freedom
Any assault on the personal freedoms or sanctity of the life of citizens, along with other general rights
and freedoms guaranteed by the Constitution and the law, is a crime with no statute of limitations for
both civil and criminal proceedings. The injured party may file a criminal suit directly .

The state guarantees just compensation for those who have been assaulted. The National Council for
Human Rights shall inf orm the prosecutor ‘s office of any violation of these rights, and also possesses the
right to enter into a n ancillary civil lawsuit on the side of the injured party at its request. This is as
specified within the law.
Article 100 Implementation of court d ecisions
Court decisions shall be issued and implemented in the name of the people. The state guarantees the
means of implementing them as regulated by the law. Refraining from implementing or impeding
implementation by the competent public servants is a crime that is punishable by law. The prevailing
party in such a case may file a criminal suit directly with the competent court. Upon the request of the
prevailing party, the public prosecution must raise criminal proceedings against the public servant who
refrained from implementing the decision or impeded it.

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Prepared pursuant to Article 29 of the Constitutional Declaration dated 8 July 2013
Unofficial translation prepared by International IDEA ( www.idea.int )

Chapter Five : The Ruling System
Section One : Legislative Authority (House of Representatives)
Article 101 Mandate
The House of Representatives is entrusted with legislative authority, and wit h approving the general
policy of the state, the general plan of economic and social development and the state budget. It
exercises oversight over the actions of the executive authority. All the foregoing takes place as set out
by the Constitution .
Articl e 102 Composition
The House of Representatives is composed of no less than four hundred and fifty members elected by
direct, secret public balloting.

A candidate for the membership of the House must be an Egyptian citizen, enjoying civil and political
rights, a holder of at least a certificate of basic education, and no younger than 25 years old on the day
that candidacy registration is opened.
Other requirements of nomination, the electoral system, and the division of electoral districts are
defined by law, taking into account fair representation of population and governorates and equal
representation of voters. The majoritarian system, proportional list, or a mixed system of any ratio may
be used.
The President of the Republic may appoint a number of members that does not exceed 5%. The method
of their nomination is to be specified by law.
Article 103 Nature of Membership
A member of the House of Representatives devotes himself to the tasks of membership and his post is
kept in accordance with the la w.
Article 104 Oath
Prior to the start of his tenure, a member of the House of Representatives takes the following oath : “I
swear by Almighty God to loyally uphold the republican system, to respect the Constitution and the law,
to fully look after the int erests of the people, and to safeguard the independence and territorial integrity
of the nation .”

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Article 105 Remuneration
Members shall receive a remuneration defined by law. In the event that the remuneration is modified ,
the modification does not come into effect until the legislative term following the one when it was
adopted begins.
Article 106 Term
The term of membership in the House of Representatives is five calendar years, commencing from the
date of its first session.
Elections for a new House are held during the 60 days preceding the end its term.
Article 107 Validity of Membership
The Court of Cassation has jurisdiction over the validity of membership of members of the House of
Representatives. Challenges shall be submitted to the Court with in a period not exceeding 30 days from
date on which the final election results are announced. A verdict must be passed within 60 days from
the date on which the challenge i s filed.
In the event a membership is deemed invalid, it becomes void from the dat e on which the verdict is
reported to the House.
Article 108 Vacancy
If a House of Representatives member’s seat becomes vacant at least six months before the end of his
term, the vacant position must be filled in accordance with the law within 60 days f rom the date on
which the vacancy is first reported by the House.
Article 109 Restrictions on economic activity, financial disclosure
No House of Representatives member may, throughout his tenure, whether in person or through an
intermediary, purchase o r rent any piece of state property, or any public -law legal persons , public sector
companies, or the public business sector. Nor is he allowed to lease , sell or barter with the state any
part of his own property, nor conclude a contract with the state as v endors, suppliers, contractors or
others. Any such actions shall be deemed void.
A member must submit a financial disclosure upon taking office, upon leaving it and at the end of every
year.
If, because of or in relation to his membership, he should rece ive cash or in -kind gifts, ownership thereof
reverts to the state treasury.
The foregoing is organized by law.

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Article 110 Revoking membership
The membership of any member may only be revoked if a member has lost trust, status or any of the
conditions f or membership on the basis of which he was elected, or if the duties of membership have
been violated.
The d ecision to revoke membership is issued by a two -thirds majority of the members of the House of
Representatives.
Article 111 Resignation of members
The House of Representatives accepts the resignation of its members, which must be submitted in
writing, and to be accepted must not be submitted after the House has started procedures to revoke
membership against the resigning member.
Article 112 Opini ons of members
A House of Representatives member cannot be held accountable for any opinions he expresses relating
to his work in the House or its committees.
Article 113 Criminal action against members
It is prohibited, except in cases of in flagrante delicto , to take criminal action, according to articles of
felonies and misdemeanors , against a member without prior permission from the House of
Representatives. If not in session, permission must be granted by the House of Representatives’ Bureau,
and t he House must be notified of the decision as soon as it is in session.
In all cases, if a request for permission to take legal action against a member does not receive a
response within 30 days, the permission is to be considered granted.
Article 114 Sea t
The seat of the House of Representatives is in Cairo.
However, in exceptional circumstances, the House may hold meetings elsewhere, at the request of the
President of the Republic or one -third of the House’s members.
Any meetings of the House that do not conform with the foregoing are invalid, including any decisions
that may have been passed.
Article 115 Ordinary session
The President of the Republic convokes the House of Representatives for its ordinary annual session
before the first Thursday of O ctober. If such convocation is not made, the House is required by the
Constitution to meet on said day.

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The ordinary session continues for at least nine months. The President of the Republic brings the annual
session to a close with the approval of the Ho use only after the state’s general budget has been
adopted.
Article 116 Extraordinary session
It is possible for the House of Representatives to be called to an extraordinary meeting to look into an
urgent matter based on a request by the President of th e Republic, or upon a request signed by at least
10 members from the House.
Article 117 Speaker, deputy speakers
The House of Representatives elects, in the first meeting of its regular annual session, a speaker and two
deputy speakers for the full legisl ative term. If either seat becomes vacant, th e House elects a
replacement. The House’s rules of procedure set out the rules and procedures of election. If any of them
violate the commitments of his post, one -third of the members of the House may make a req uest to
relieve him of his post. The decision is issued by a two -thirds majority of members.
In all cases, neither the speaker nor any of the two deputies may be elected for more than two
consecutive legislative terms.
Article 118 Rules of procedure
Th e House of Representatives establishes its own rules of procedure regulating its work, the manner of
practicing its functions, and maintaining order therein . The rules of procedure are issued by virtue of a
law.
Article 119 Internal order
The House of Repr esentatives maintains its internal order, a responsibility that is assumed by the
Speaker of the House .
Article 120 Public sessions
The sessions of the House of Representatives are held in public.
The House may hold a closed session based on a request b y the President of the Republic, the Speaker
of the House, or at least 20 of its members. The House will decide by majority whether the debate in
question takes place in a public or a closed session.

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Article 121 Quorum and voting
The meetings of the House and the resolutions it passes are not considered valid unless attended by the
majority of its members.
In cases other than those requiring a special majority, resolutions are adopted based on an absolute
majority of the members present. In case of a tie of vote, the matter in deliberation is considered
rejected.
Laws are approved by an absolute majority of the attendees, provided that they constitute no less than
one third of the members of the House.
Laws complementing the Constitution are issued base d on the approval of two thirds of the members of
the House. Laws regulating the presidential, parliamentary, and local elections, political parties, the
judiciary, and judicial bodies, and those organizing the rights and duties stipulated in the Constitut ion
are deemed complementary to it.
Article 122 Proposing bills
The President of the Republic, the Cabinet , and every member of the House of Representatives has the
right to propose laws.
Every bill presented by the government or by one -tenth of the mem bers of the House is referred to a
specialized committee of the House to study and submit a report about it to the House. The committee
may seek the opinion of experts on the matter .
No bill presented by a member can be referred to the special committee be fore being permitted by the
proposals committee and approved by the House. If the proposals committee refuses a bill, it must give
a reason for its decision.
Any bill or proposed law rejected by the House may not be presented again during the same legisla tive
term.
Article 123 President ial veto
The President of the Republic has the right to issue or object to laws.
If the President of the Republic objects to a draft law approved by the House of Representatives, it must
be referred back to the House withi n 30 days of the House’s being notified thereof . If the draft law is not
referred back to the House within this period, it is considered a law and is issued.
If it is referred back to the House within the aforementioned period, and is approved again by a majority
of two -thirds of its members, it is considered a law and is issued.

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Article 124 State budget
The state budget includes all of its revenue and expenditure without exception. The draft budget is
submitted to the House of Representatives at least 9 0 days before the beginning of the fiscal year. It is
not considered in effect unless approved thereby, and it is put to vote on a chapter -by -chapter basis.
The House may modify the expenditures in the draft budget law, except those proposed to honor a
sp ecific state liability.
Should the modification result in an increase in total expenditure, the House shall reach an agreement
with the government on the means to secure revenue resources to achieve a balance between them.
The budget is issued in a law, w hich may include modification to any existing law to the extent necessary
to realize such balance.
In all cases, the budget law may not include any text that incurs new burdens on citizens.
The specifics of the fiscal year, the method of budget preparati on, the provisions of the budgets of
institutions, public bodies, and their accounts are defined by law.
The approval of the House of Representatives is necessary for the transfer of any funds from one
chapter of the budget to another, as well as for any expenditure not included therein or in excess of its
estimates. The approval is issued in a law.
Article 125 Final account
The final account of the state budget is submitted to the House of Representatives within a period not
exceeding 6 months from the end of the fiscal year. The annual report of the Central Auditing
Organization and the latter’s observations on the final account must be submitted therewith .
The final account of the state budget is put to vote on a chapter -by -chapter basis and is issued by law.
The House has the right to request from the Central Auditing Organization a ny additional data or other
reports.
Article 126 Collection and disbursement of public funds
The basic rules for collection of public funds and the procedure for their di sbursement are regulated by
the law.
Article 127 Executive authority
The executive authority may not contract a loan, obtain fund ing , or commit itself to a project that is not
listed in the approved state budget entailing expenditure from the state treasu ry for a subsequent
period, except with the approval of the House of Representatives.

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Article 128 Salaries, pensions, indemnities, subsidies, and bonuses
The rules governing salaries, pensions, indemnities, subsidies, and bonuses taken from the state
trea sury are regulated by law, as are the cases for exception from such rules, and the authorities in
charge of their application.
Article 129 Submitting questions
Every member of the House of Representatives may submit questions to the Prime Minister, to on e of
his deputies, to a minister, or their deputies on any matter that falls under their mandate. It is obligatory
for them to respond to these questions during the same term.

The member may withdraw his question at any time. A question may not be convert ed into an
interpellation in the same session.
Ar ticle 130 Addressing interrogations
Every member of the House of Representatives may address interpellations to the Prime Minister, to the
Prime Minister’s deputies, to ministers, or to their deputies in re lation to matters that fall under their
mandate.

Debate on an interpellation takes place at least seven days and no more than 60 days after its
submission, except in cases of urgency as decided by the House and with the government’s consent.
Article 131 Withdrawal of confidence
The House of Representatives may decide to withdraw its confidence from the Prime Minister, a deputy
of the Prime Minister, ministers, or their deputies.

A motion of no confidence may be submitted only after an interpellation , u pon proposal by at least one –
tenth of the members of the House of Representatives. The House issues its decision after debating the
interpellation . A withdrawal of confidence requires a majority of members.

In all cases, a no confidence motion may not be made in connection with an issue that ha s already been
decided upon in the same term.

If the House decides to withdraw confidence from the Prime Minister, one of his deputies, a minister, or
their deputies and the government has announced its solidarity with him before the vote, then that
government is obliged to offer its resignation. If the no confidence resolution concerns a certain
member of the government, that member is obliged to resign his office.

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Article 132 Discussion of public issues
Any 20 me mbers of the House of Representatives at least may request the discussion of a public issue to
obtain clarification on the government’s policy in its regard.
Article 133 Discussion of public issues by members
Any member of the House of Representatives ma y propose to the Prime Minister, one of his deputies,
any minister, or their deputies the discussion of a public issue.
Article 134 Urgent briefing or statements
Every member of the House of Representatives may request an urgent briefing or a statement f rom the
Prime Minister, the Prime Minister’s deputies, any minister, or his deputies in relation to urgent matters
of public importance.
Article 135 Fact -finding
The House of Representatives may form a special committee or entrust one of its existing com mittees to
examine a public matter, or the activities of any administrative department , public agency or public
enterprise, for the purpose of fact -finding regarding a specific issue and informing the House of
Representatives of the actual financial, admin istrative or economic status, for conducting investigations
into a past activity , or for any other purpose ; the House decides on the appropriate course of action.

In order to carry out its mission, such a committee would be entitled to collect the evidenc e it deems
necessary and to summon individuals to give statements . All bodies shall respond to the committee ‘s
requests and place at its disposal all the documents, evidence, or anything otherwise required.

In all cases, every member of the House of Repre sentatives is entitl ed to obtain any data or information
pertaining to undertaking his work at the House from the executive authority.
Article 136 Attendance of sessions by the prime minister, his deputies, ministers and their
deputies
The Prime Minister, his deputies, ministers and their deputies may attend the sessions of either the
House of Representatives or of any of their committees. Their attendance is obligatory if requested by
the House . They may be assisted by high -ranking officials of their choi ce.

They are to be heard whenever they request to speak. They must answer questions pertaining to issues
that are in discussion, but cannot vote when votes are taken.

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Article 137 Dissolution of the House of Representatives
The President of the Republic may not dissolve the House of Representativ es except when necessary by
a causa l decision and following a public referendum. The House of Representatives may not be dissolved
for the same cause for which the previous House was dissolved.

The President of t he Republic must issue a decision to suspend parliamentary sessions and hold a
referendum on dissolution within no more than 2 0 days. If voters agree by a majority of valid votes , the
President of the Republic issues the decision of dissolution, and calls for early parliamentary elections to
take place within no more than 30 days from the date of the decision ‘s issuance. The new House
convenes within the 10 days following the announcement of the referendum results.
Article 138 Submitting proposals and com plaints
Citizens may submit written proposals to the House of Representatives regarding public issues. Citizens
may also submit complaints to the House of Representatives to be referred to the relevant ministers. If
the House request s it , the minister m us t provide clarification s, and the citizen who submitted the
complaint is to be informed of the result.

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Section Two: Executive Authority
Subsection One : The President of the Republic
Article 139 Mandate
The President of the Republic is the head of stat e and head of the executive branch of government. He
def ends the interests of the people , safeguards the independence , territorial integrity and safety of the
nation , and abides by the provisions of the Constitution and carries out his responsibilities in the manne r
prescribed therein .
Article 140 Term , election, prohibition on partisan positions
The President of the Republic is elected for a period of four calendar years, commencing on the day the
term of his predecessor ends. The President may only be re elected once.

The procedures for electing the President of the Republic begin at least 120 days before the end of the
presidential term. The result is to be announced at least 30 days before the end of term.

The President of the Republic may not hold any partisan position for the duration of the presidency.
Article 141 Conditions for candidacy
A presidential candidate must be an Egyptian born to Egyptian parents, and neither he, his parents or his
spouse may have held other citizenship . He must have civi l and political rights, must have performed the
military service or have been exempted therefrom by law, and cannot be younger than 40 years on the
day that candidacy registration is opened . Other requirements for candidacy are set out by law.
Article 142 Conditions for candidacy
To be accepted as a candidate for the presidency , candidates must receive the recommendation of at
least 20 elected members of the House of Representatives , or endorsements from at least 25,000
citizens who have the right to vote, in at least 15 governorates, with a minimum of 1,000 endorsements
from each governorate.

In all cases, no one can endorse more than one candidate. This is organized by law.
Article 143 Election
The President of the Republic is elected by direct secret ballot, with an absolute majority of valid votes.
The procedures for electing the President of the Republic are regulated by law.

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Article 144 Oath
Before assuming the functions of the presidential office , the President of the Republic takes the
following o ath before the House of Representatives : “I swear by Almighty God to loyally uphold the
republican system, to respect the Constitution and the law, to fully uphold the interests of the people
and to safeguard the independence and territorial integrity of t he nation .”

In case of the absence of the House of Representatives , the oath is to be taken before the General
Assembly of the Supreme Constitutional Court.
Article 145 Remuneration
The salary of the President of the R epublic is stipulated by law. The President cannot receive any other
salary or remuneration. No modification to the salary may come into effect during the presidential term
during which it is approved . The president may not engage throughout the presidential term, whether in
person or thro ugh an intermediary, in an independent profession or commercial , financial or industrial
activity, nor is the President allowed to buy or rent any piece of state property, public -law legal persons
or public sector companies, nor lease , sell or barter with the state any part of his own property, nor
conclude a contract with the state as vendor, supplier , contractor or other as set out by law. Any such
actions shall be considered null and void.

The President must submit a financial disclosure upon taking of fice, upon leaving it, and at the end of
each year. The disclosure is to be published in the Official Gazette.

Throughout the presidential term, the President of the Republic may not award himself any orders,
badges or medals.

If because of or in relat ion to the presidential post, the President receives, in person or through an
intermediary, cash or in -kind gifts, ownership thereof reverts to the state treasury.
Article 146 Government formation
The President of the Republ ic assigns a Prime Minister to form the government and present his program
to the House of Representatives . If his government does not obtain the confidence of the majority of the
members of the House of Representati ves within no more 3 0 days, the President appoints a Prime
Minister bas ed on the nomination of the party or the coalition that hold s a plurality of seats in the
House of Representatives. If his government fails to win the confidence of the majority of the members
of the House of Representatives within 30 days , the House is de emed dissolved, and the President of the
Republic calls for the elections of a new House of Representatives within 60 days from the date the
dissolution is announced.

In all cases, the sum of the periods set forth in this Article shall not exceed 6 0 days.

In the event that the House of Representatives is dissolved, the Prime Minister presents the government
and its program to the new House of Representatives at its first session.

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In the event that the government is chosen from the party or the coalition that holds a plurality of seats
at the House of Representatives, the President of the Republic may, in consultation with the Prime
Minister, choose the Ministers of Justice, Interior, and Defense.
Article 147 Governmental exemption
The President of the R epublic may exempt the government from carrying out it s tasks, provided that the
House of Representatives ap proves of such with a majority .

The President of the Republic may conduct a cabinet reshuffle after consultation with the Prime
Minister and the a pproval of the House of Representatives with an absolute majority of attendees that
is no less than one third of its members.
Article 148 Delegation of authorities
The President of the Republic may delegate some of his authorities to the Prime Minister, his deputies,
the ministers, or the governors. None of them may delegate others . This will be organized by law .
Article 149 Convening of government
The Pr esident of the Republic may call the government to meeting to discuss important matters, and
preside s over the meetings that he attends.
Article 150 The state ’s general policy
The President of the Republic, jointly wit h the Cabinet, sets the general p olicy of the state and oversees
its implementation as set out by the Constitution .

The President of t he Republic may deliver a statement on the state’s general policy before the House of
Representatives at the opening of its regular session.

The President may make other statements or convey other messages to the House .
Article 151 Foreign relations
Th e President of the Republic represents the state in foreign relations and concludes treaties and ratifies
them after the approval of the House of Representatives . They shall acquire the force of law upon
promulgation in accordance with the provisions of th e Constitution .

With regards to any treaty of peace and alliance, and treaties related to the rights of sovereignty, voters
must be called for a referendum, and they are not to be ratified before the announcement of their
approval in the referendum.

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In all cases, no treaty may be concluded which is contrary to the provisions of the Constitution or which
leads to concession of state territories.
Article 152 The president and the armed forces
The President of the Republic is the Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces. The President cannot
declare war, or send the armed forces to combat outside state territory, except after consultation with
the National Defense Council and the approval of the House of Representatives with a two -thirds
majority of its membe rs.

If the House of Representatives is dissolved, the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces (SCAF) must be
consulted and the approval of the Cabinet and National Defense Council must be obtained.
Article 153 Appointment of civil and military personnel and diplomats
The President of the Republic appoints civil and military personnel and diplomatic representatives and
dismisses them, and confirms political representatives to foreign countries and organ izations in
accordance with the law.
Article 154 State of emergency
The President of the Republic declares, after consultation with the Cabinet , a state of emergency in the
manner regulated by law. Such proclamation must be submitted to the House of Representatives within
the following seven days to consider it.

If the declaration takes place when the House of Representatives is not in regular session, a session is
called immediately in order to consider the declaration.

In all cases, the declaration of a state of emergency must be approved by a majority of m embers of the
House of Representatives . The declaration is for a specified period not exceeding three months, which
can only be extended by another similar period upon the appr oval of two -thirds of House members. In
the event the House of Representatives is dissolved, the matter is submitted to the new House in its first
session.

The House of Representatives cannot be dissolved while a state of emergency is in force .
Article 155 Pardon and amnesty
The President of the Republic may issue a pardon or mitiga te a sentence after consulting with the
Cabinet .

General amnesty may only be granted in a law, which is ratified by a majority of members of the House
of Representatives .

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Article 156 Decrees that have the force of law
In the event that the House of Rep resentatives is not in session, and where there is a requirement for
urgent measures that cannot be delayed, the President of the Republic convenes the House for an
emergency session to present the matter to it. In absence of the House of Representatives, the
President of the Republic may issue decrees that have the force of law , provided that t hese decrees are
then presented to the House of Representatives , discussed and approved within 15 days from the date
the new House convenes. If such decrees are not presented to the House and discussed, or if they are
presented but not approved, their legality is revoked retroactively, without the need to issue a decision
to that effect, unless the House affirms their validity for the previous period, or chooses to se ttle the
consequent effects.
Article 157 Referendum
The President of the Republic may call for a referendum on issues relating to the supreme interests of
the country without prejudice to the provisions of the Constitution .

If the call for a referendum relates to more than one issue, the people must vote on each individual
issue.
Article 158 Resignation
The President of the Republic may submit his resignation to the House of Representatives. If the House
is dissolved, he submits it to the General Ass embly of the Supreme Constitutional Court.
Article 159 Prosecution
A charge of violating the provisions of the Constitution , high treason or any other felony against the
President of the Republic is to be based on a motion signed by at least a majority of the members of the
House of Representatives . An impeachment is to be issued only by a two -thirds majority of the members
of the House of Representatives and after an investigation to be carried out by the Prosecutor General.
If there is a n impediment , he is to be replaced by one of his assistants.

As soon as an impeachment decision has been issued, the President of the Republic ceases all work; this
is treated as a temporary impediment preventing the President from carrying out presidential duties
until a verdict is reached in the case .

The President of the Republic is tried before a special court headed by the president of the Supreme
Judicial Council, and with the membership of the most senior deput y of the president of the Supreme
Constitutional Court , the most senior deputy of the president of the State Council, and the two most
senior presidents of the Court of Appeals; the prosecution to be carried out before such co urt by the
Prosecutor General. If a n impediment exists for any of the foregoing indi viduals, they are replaced by
order of seniority. The court verdicts are irrevocable and not subject to challenge.

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The law organizes the investigation and the trial procedures. In the case of conviction, the President of
the Republic is relieved of his p ost, without prejudice to other penalties.
Article 160 Vacancy
If on account of a temporary impediment , the President of the Republic is rendered unable to carry out
the presidential functions, the Prime Minister acts in his place.

If the Presidential o ffice becomes vacant, due to resignation, death, permanent disability to work or any
other reason, the House of Representatives announces the vacancy of the office. If the vacancy occurs
for any other reason, the House announces it with a two -thirds majori ty. The House notifies the National
Elections Commission , t he Speaker of the House of Representatives temporarily assumes presidential
powers .

In the event the House of Representatives is dissolved, the General Assembly of the Supreme
Constitutional Court and its chairman replace the House of Representatives and its Speaker.

In all cases, a new president must be elected during a period not exceeding 90 days from the date the
office bec ome s vacant. In such a case, t he presidential term commences as of the date the result of
elections is announced.

The interim President is not allowed to run for this office, request any amendment to the Const itution,
dissolve the House of Representatives or dismiss the government.
Article 161 Withdrawal of confidence
The House of Representatives m ay propose to withdraw confidence from the President of the Republic
and hold early presidential elections upon a causal motion signed by at least a majority of the members
of the House of Representatives and the approval of two -thirds of its members. The motion may only be
submitted once for the same cause during the presidential term.

Upon the approval of the proposal to withdraw confidence , the matter of withdrawing confidence from
the President of the Republic and holding ear ly presidential elections is to be put to public referendum
by the Prime Minister . If the majority approves the decision to withdraw confidence, t he President of
the Republic is to be relieved from his post, the office of the President of the Republic is t o be deemed
vacant, and early presidential elections are to be held within 60 days from the date the referendum
results are announced. If the result of the referendum is refusal, the House of Representatives is to be
deemed dissolved, and the President of the Republic is to call for electing a new House of
Representatives within 30 days of the date of dissolution.
Article 162 Priority of presidential elections
If the vacancy of the presidential office occurs at the same time that a referendum or the elect ion of the
House of Representatives is being held, the presidential elections are given priority. The existing
parliament continues in place until the completion of the presidential elections.

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Subsection Two : The Government
Article 163 Composition, Prime Minister’s mandate
The government is the supreme executive and administrative body of the state and it consists of the
Prime Minister, the Prime Minister’s deputies, the ministers, and their deputies.

The Prime Minister heads the government, oversees i ts work, and directs it in the performance of its
functions.
Article 164 Conditions for candidacy
A person appointed to the position of Prime Minister or any other position in the government must be
an Egyptian citizen of Egyptian parents , and he and his spouse may not have held the citizenship of any
other country, must enjoy civil and political rights, must have performed the military service or have
been exempted therefrom , and must be at least 35 years old at the time of appointment.

Anyone appointed as a member of the government is required to be an Egyptian, enjoying his civil and
political rights, have performed the military service or have been exempted therefrom , and to be at
least 30 years old at the time of appointment.

It is prohibited to ho ld a position in the government in addition to membership in the House of
Representatives. If a member of the House is appointed to the govern ment, his place in the House
becomes vacant as of the date of this appointment.
Article 165 Oath
Before assuming their duties, the Prime Minister and members of government take the following oath
before the President of the Republic: “I swear by Almighty God to loyally uphold the republican system,
to respect the Constitution and the law, to fully uphold the interes ts of the people and to safeguard the
independence , territorial integrity and safety of the nation .”
Article 166 Remuneration
The salary of the Prime Minister and members of government are stipulated by law. They cannot receive
any other salary or remunera tion, nor engage throughout the term of their posts, whether in person or
through an intermediary, in independent professions, or commercial, financial or industrial activities .
Nor are they allowed to buy or rent any piece of state property, public -law le gal persons or public sector
companies, nor lease , sell or barter any of their property with the state, nor conclude a contract with
the state as vendors, suppliers, contractors or others as set out by law. Any such actions are deemed
null and void.

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The Prime Minister and members of government must submit a financial disclosure upon taking office,
upon leaving it and at the end of each year. The disclosure is to be published in the Official Gazette.

If, because of or in relation to their posts, they sh ould receive cash or in -kind gifts, ownership thereof
reverts to the state treasury. The foregoing is organized by law.
Article 167 Governmental mandate
The government exercises the following functions in particular:

1. Collaborate with the President of t he Republic in setting the public policy of the state and
overseeing its implementation.
2. Maintain the security of the nation , and protect the rights of citizens and the interests of the
state.
3. Direct, coordinate and follow up on the work of the ministries and their affiliated public bodies
and organizations.
4. Prepare draft laws and decrees.
5. Issue administrative decisions in accordance with the law, and monitor their implementation.
6. Prepare the draft general plan of the state.
7. Prepare the draft annual state budget law.
8. Contract and grant loans in accordance with the provisions of the Constitution.
9. Implement laws.
Article 168 Ministerial mandate
The minister draws up his ministry’s general policy, supervises its implementation and offers guidance
and oversi ght , in collaboration with the competent bodies and within the framework of the state’s
public policy.
Higher management posts in every ministry include a permanent undersecretary to ensure achieving
institutional stability and increasing the level of eff iciency in the implementation of its policy.
Article 169 Statements before the House of Representatives
A member of government may make a statement before the House of Representatives, or one of its
committees, concerning any matters within their mandate .

The House or the committee may discuss such a statement and convey its position regarding it.
Article 170 Regulations to enforce laws
The Prime Minister issues necessary regulations for the enforcement of laws, in such a manner that does
not involve an y disruption, modification, or exemption from their enforcement, and has the right to vest

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others with the authority to issue them, unless the law designates who should issue the necessary
regulations for its own implementation.
Article 171 Regulations to create and organize public utilities
The Prime Minister issues the regulations necessary for the creation and organization of public utilities
and interests upon the approval of the government.
Article 172 Disciplinary regulations
The Prime Minister is sues disciplinary regulations upon the approval of the government.
Article 173 Investigation and trial
The Prime Minister and members of the government are subject to the general rules organizing
investigation and trial procedures, if they commit crimes while exercising the functions of their posts or
because of them . The end of their term of service does not preclude the start or resumption of
prosecution.

In case of a charge of high treason against any member of the government, the provi sions stipulat ed in
article 15 9 of the Constitution apply.
Article 174 Resignation
If the Prime Minister offers his resignation, the letter of resignation must be presented to the President
of the Republic. If a minister offers his resignation, it must be presented to the Prime Minister.

Subsection Three: Local Administration
Article 175 Administrative units
The state is divided into local administrative units that have legal personality. They include
governorates, cities and villages. Other administrative units tha t have legal personality may be
established, if the public interest requires such.

When establishing or abolishing local units or amending their boundaries , economic and social
conditio ns shall be taken into account. The foregoing is organized by law.

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Article 176 Empowerment of administrative units
The state ensures support for administrative, financial, and economic decentralization. The law
organizes empowering administrative units in providing, improving, and managing public utilities well,
and defi nes the timeline for transferring powers and budgets to the local administration units.
Article 177 Needs of local units
The state guarantees that it will satisfy the local units’ needs in terms of scientific, technical,
administrative and financial assi stance, and ensures the equitable distribution of facilities, services and
resources, and works to bring development levels in these units to a common standard and achieve
social justice between these units. This will be organized by law.
Article 178 Fina nces of local units
Local units have independent financial budgets.

Local units’ resources include , in addition to the resources allocated to them by the state, original and
additional taxes and fees of a local nature. The unit follows the same rules an d procedures in the
collection of public funds as followed by the state.

The foregoing is regulated by law.
Article 179 Selection of governors and heads of local units
The law regulates the manner in which governors and heads of other local administrativ e units are
selected, and defines their mandate.
Article 180 Election of local councils
Every local unit elects a local council by direct, secret ballot for a term of four years. A candidate must
be no younger than 21 years old. The law regulates other co nditions for candidacy and procedures of
election, provided that one quarter of the seats are allocated to youth under 35 years old, one quarter is
allocated for women, workers and farmers are represented by no less than 50 percent of the total
number of s eats, and these percentages include a proper representation of Christ ians and people with
disability.

Local councils are responsible for developing and implemen ting the development plan, monitoring t he
activity’s different aspects, exercising the tools o f monitoring the executive authority such as propos als ,
and submitting questions, briefing motions , interpellations and others, and withdrawing confidence
from the heads of local units, in the manner organized by law.

The law defines the mandate of other local councils, their financial sources , guarantees of its members,
and their independence.

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Article 181 Local council decisions
Local council decisions that are issued within th e council’s mandate are final. They are not subject to
interference from the executive authority, except to prevent the council from overstepping these limits,
or causing damage to the public interest or the interests of other local councils.

Any dispute over the jurisdiction of these local councils in villages, centers or towns is settled by the
governorate -level local council. Disputes over the jurisdiction of governorate -level local councils are
dealt with as a matter of urgency by the General Assembly of the Legal Opinion and Legislation
Departments of the State Council. The foregoing is organized by law.
Article 182 Budgets and final accounts of local councils
Every local council is in charge of its own budget and final accounts, in the manner organized by law.
Article 183 Dissolution of local councils
It is prohibited to dissolve local councils as part of a comprehensive administrative procedure.

The manner to dissolve and reelect them is organized by law.

Section Three: The Judicial Authority
Subsection One: General Provisions
Article 184 The judiciary
The judiciar y is independent. It is vested in the courts of justice of different types and degrees, which
issue their judgments in accordance with the law. Its powers are defined by law. Interference in judicial
affairs or in proceedings is a crime to which no statute of limitations may be applied.
Article 185 Judicial bodies
All judicial bodies administer their own affairs. Each has an independent budget, whose items are all
discussed by the Ho use of Representatives . After approving each budget, it is incorporated in the state
budget as a single figure, and their opinion is consulted on the draft laws governing their affairs.
Article 186 Judicial independence
Judges are independent, cannot be dismissed, are subject to no other authority but the law, and are
equal in rights and duties. The conditions and procedures for their appointment, secondment,
delegation and retirement are regulated by the law. It also regulates their disciplinary accountability.

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They may not be fully or partly delegated except to bodies and t o perform tasks that are identified by
law, provided that all the foregoing maintains the independence and impartiality of the judiciary and
judges and prevents conflicts of interest. The rights, duties and guarantees granted to them are
specified by law.
Article 187 Public sessions
Court sessions are public, unless, for reasons of public order or morals, the court deems them
confidential. In all cases, the verdict is given in an open session.

Subsection Two: The Judiciary and Public Prosecution
Article 188 Mandate
The judiciary adjudicates all disputes and crimes except for matters over which another judicial body is
competent . Only the judiciary settles any disputes relating to the affairs of its members, and its affairs
are managed by a higher council whose structure and mandate are organized by law.
Article 189 Public prosecution
The public prosecution is an integral part o f the judiciary. It is responsible for investigating, pressing
charges and prosecuting all criminal cases except what is exempted by law. The law establishes the
public prosecution’s other competencies.

Public prosecution is carried out by a Prosecutor General who is selected by the Supreme Judicial
Council from among the Deputies to the President of the Court of Cassation, the Pre sidents of the Court
of Appeals or the Assistant Prosecutor Generals, by virtue of a presidential decree for a period of four
years, or for the period remaining until retirement age, whichever comes first, and only once during a
judge’s career.

Subsectio n Three: The State Council
Article 190 Mandate
The State Council is an independent judicial body that is exclusively competent to adjudicat e in
administrative disputes, disciplinary cases and appeals, and disputes pertaining to its decisions. It also
sol ely competent to issue opinions o n the legal issues of bodies to be determined by law, review and
draft bills and resolutions of a legislative character, and review draft contracts to which the state or any
public entity is a party. Other competencies are to be determined by law.

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Section Four: The Supreme Constitutional Court
Article 191 Independence, seat, budget, General Assembly
The Supreme Constitutional Court is an independent judicial body. It is based in Cairo. If necessary, it
may convene anywher e else in the country with the approval of the Court’s General Assembly. It has an
independent budget whose items are all discussed by the Ho use of Representatives . After it is approved ,
it is incorporated in the state budget as a single figure. The Court’ s General Assembly is responsible for
governing the Court’s affairs and is consulted on the draft laws related to the Court’s affairs.
Article 192 Jurisdiction
The Supreme Constitutional Court is exclusively competent to decide on the constitutionality of laws
and regulations, interpre t legislative texts, and adjudicate in disputes pertaining to the affairs of its
me mbers, in disputes between j udicial bodies and entiti es that have judicial mandate, in disputes
pertaining to the implementation of two fin al contradictory rulings , one of which is issued by any judicial
body or an agency with judicial mandate and the other issued by another body, and in dispute s
pertaining to the implementation of its rulings and decisions.

The law defines the Court’s othe r competencies and regulates the procedures that are to be followed
before the Court.
Article 193 Composition
The Court is made up of a president and a sufficient number of deputies to the president .

The Commissioners Authority of the Supreme Constituti onal Court is composed of a president and a
sufficient number of presidents in the authority, advisors and assistant advisors.

The General Assembly chooses the Court’s President from among the most senior three vice -presidents
of the court. It also choos es the vice -presidents and the members of its Commissioners Authority, who
are appointed by a decree from the President of the Republic. The foregoing takes place in the manner
defined by the law.
Article 194 President and vice -presidents
The President a nd the vice -presidents of the Supreme Constitutional Court, and the head and members
of its Commissioners Authority are independent, cannot be dismissed, and are subject to no other
authority but the law. The law sets out the conditions that they must meet . The Court is responsible for
their disciplinary accountability as set out by law. They are entitled to all the rights , duties and
guarantees granted to other members of the judiciary.

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Article 195 Publication of rulings and decisions
The Official Gazette publishes the rulings and decisions issued by the Supreme Constitutional Court.
They are binding to everyone and to all state authorities. They enjoy absolute authenticity in their
regard .

The effects of a decision that a legislative text is unconstitut ional are organized by law.

Section Five: Judicial Bodies
Article 196 State Cases Authority
The State Cases Authority is an independent judicial body. It undertakes the legal representation of the
state in lawsuits and disputes to which the state is party. It may propose settling of disputes at any stage
of litigation in accordance with the law. It also conducts technical supervisio n the cases undertaken by
the departments of legal affairs at th e state’s administrative body. It authors the draft cont racts referred
to it by administrative bodies and to which the state is party. The foregoing is organized by law.

Its other competencies are defined by law. Its members have all of the securities, rights and duties
assigned to other members of the judici ary. Their disciplinary accountability is organized by law.
Article 197 Administrative Prosecution
The Administrative Prosecution is an independent judicial body. It investigates financial and
administrative irregularities, and those referred to it. Rega rding these irregularities, i t has the authorities
vested in the administration body to inflict disciplinary penalties. Challenging its decisions takes place
before the competent disciplinary court at the State Council. It also initiates and conducts proce edings
and disciplinary appeals before the State Council courts in accordance with the law. All the foregoing is
organized by law.

Other competencies are defined by law. Its members share securities, rights and duties assigned to
other members of the jud iciary. Their disciplinary accountability is organized by law.

Section Six: The Legal Profession
Article 198 Guarantees, prohibition against arrest
The legal profession is a n independent profession. It participates with the judiciary in achieving just ice
and the rule of law, and ensuring the right to defense . It is pr acticed independently by lawyers, and
lawyers of public sector and public busines s sector agencies and companies. While undertaking the right

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of defense before courts, all lawyers enjoy the guarantees and protection granted to them by law, which
also apply to them before investigation and trial authorities . E xcept in case s of flagrante delicto,
arresting or detaining lawyers while exercising their right of defense is prohibited . The foregoi ng is
organized by law.

Section Seven: Aides to the Judiciary
Ar ticle 199 Judicial experts, forensic medicine experts, and members of the notary public
Judicial experts, forensic medicine experts, and notary public s undertake their work independently. The
law ensures the necessary guarantees and protection for them to perform their work , as organized by
law.

Section Eight: The Armed Forces and the Police Force
Subsection One : The Armed Forces
Article 200 Mandate
The armed forces belong to the people . Their duty is to protect the country, and preserve its security
and territories. The state is exclusively mandated to establish armed forces. No individual, entity,
organization or group is allowed to create military or para -military structures, groups o r organizations.

The armed forces have a Supreme Council as regulated by law.
Article 201 Commander in Chief of the armed forces
The Minister of Defense is the Commander in Chief of the Armed Forces, appointed from among its
officers.
Article 202 Publi c mobilization, administrative disputes
The law regulates public mobilization and defines the conditions of service, promotion and retirement in
the armed forces.

The judicial committees for officers and personnel of the armed forces are exclusively comp etent for
adjudicating in all administrative disputes pertaining to decisions affecting them. The law regulates the
rules and procedures for challenging the decisions of these committees.

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Subsection Two: The National Defense Council
Article 203 Composit ion, mandate
A National Defense Council is established, presided over by the President of the Republic and including
in its membership the Prime Minister, the Speaker of the House of Representatives, the Minister of
Defense, the Minister of Foreign Affair s, the Minister of Finance, the Minister of Interior, the Chief of the
General Intelligence Service, the Chief of Staff of the armed forces, the Commanders of the Navy, the Air
Forces and Air Defense, the Chief of Operations for the armed forces and the He ad of Military
Intelligence.

The Council is responsible for looking into matters pertaining to the methods of ensuring the safety and
security of the country, for discussing the armed forces’ budget, which is incorporate d as a single figure
in the state b udget. Its opinion must be sought in relation to draft laws on the armed forces.

Its other competencies are defined by law.

When discussing the budget, the head of the financial affairs department of the armed forces and the
heads of the Planning and B udgeting Committee and the National Security Committee at the House of
Representatives shall be included

The President of the Republic may invite whoever is seen as having relevant expertise to attend the
Council’s meetings without having their votes coun ted.

Subsection Three: The Military Judiciary
Article 204 Definition, mandate, military trial of civilians
The Military Judiciary is an independent judiciary that adjudicates exclusively in all crimes related to th e
armed forces, its officers, person nel, and their equals, and in the crimes committed by general
intelligence personnel during and because of the service.

Civilians cannot stand trial before military courts except for crimes that represent a direct assault against
military facilities, mil itary barracks, or whatever falls under their authority ; stipulated military or border
zones; its equipment, vehicles, weapons, ammuniti on, documents, military secrets, public funds or
military factories; crimes related to conscription; or crimes that repr esent a direct assault against its
officers or personnel because of the performance of their duties .

The law defines such crimes and determines the other competencies of the Military Judiciary.

Members of the Military Judiciary are autonomous and cannot be dismissed. They share the securities,
rights and duties stipulated for members of other judiciaries.

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Subsection Four: The National Security Council
Article 205 Composition, mandate
The National Security Council is established. It is presided over b y the President of the Republic and
includes in its membership the Prime Minister, the Speaker of the House of Representatives, the
Minister of Defense, the Minister of Interior, the Minister of Foreign Affairs, the Minister of Finance, the
Minister of Jus tice, the Minister of Health, the Chief of the General Intelligence Services, and the Heads
of the Committees of Defense and National S ecurity in the House of Representatives .

The Council adopts strategies for establishing security in the country and fac ing disasters and crises of all
kinds, takes necessary measures to contain them, identifies sources of threat to Egyptian national
security, whether at home or abroad, and undertakes necessary actions to address them on the official
and popular levels.

Th e Council may invite whoever is seen as being of relevant expertise to attend its meetings without
having their votes counted.

Other competencies and regulations are defined by law.

Subsection Five: The Police Force
Article 206 Mandate
The police forc e is a statutory civil body that is in the service of the people. Its loyalty is to the people. It
ensures safety and security to citizens, preserves public order and morality. It is committed to undertake
the duties imposed on it by the Constitution and t he law, and to respect human rights and basic rights.
The state guarantees that members of the police force perform their duties. Guarantees for that are
organized by law.
Article 207 Supreme Police Council
The Supreme Police Council is composed from amon g the most senior officers of the police force and
the head of the Legal Opinion Department at the State Council. The Council assist s the Minister of
Interior in organizing the police force and managing the affairs of its members. Its other competences
are identified by law. It must be consulted in any laws pertaining to it.

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Section Nine: The National Elections Commission
Article 208 Mandate
The National Elections Commission is exclusively responsible for managing referenda and presidential,
parliamenta ry and local elections, which includes the preparation and update of a database of voters,
proposal and division of constituencies, setting regulations for and overseeing electoral campaigns,
funding , electoral expenditure declaration thereof, and managing the procedures for out -of-country
voting by expatriate Egyptians, and other procedures, up to the announcements of results.

The foregoing is regulated by law.
Article 209 Structure , composition
The National Elections Commission is administered by a boa rd made up of 10 members selected equally
from among the vice -presidents of the Court of Cassation, the presidents of the Courts of Appeal, the
vice -president of the State Council, the State Affairs and Administrative Prosec ution, who are to be
selected by the Supreme Judicial Council and special councils of the aforementioned judicial bodies
depending on the circumstances, provided that they are not members in them. They are appointed by
decree from the President of the Re public. They are selected to exclu sively work at the Commission for
one term of at least six years. The Commission’s presidency belongs to its most senior member from the
Court of Cas sation.

Half of the members of the council are replaced every three years.

The Commission may refer to p ublic figures, specialists , and those deemed to have relevant expertise in
the field of elections. They do not have the right to vote.

The Commission has a permanent executive body. The law determines its compo sition, system of
operation , and the rights, duties and securities of its m embers to achieve their neutrality, independence
and integrity .
Article 210 Administering voting and counting of votes
Voting and counting of votes in referenda and elections run by the Commission is administered by its
affi liated members under the overall supervision of the Board. It may use the help of members of
judicial bodies.

The voting and counting of votes in elections and referenda in the 10 years following the date on which
this Constitution comes to effect are to be overseen by members of judicial bodies and entities in the
manner set out in the law.

The Supreme Administrative Court adjudicates challenges against the Commission’s decisions pertaining
to referenda, presidential and parliamentary elections, and thei r results. Challenges against local
elections are to be filed before the Administrative Court. Dates to file challenges against these decisions

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are specified by law, provided that challenges are finally adjudicated within ten days from the date of
filing t hem.

Section Ten : The National Media Council
Article 211 Mandate, composition
The National Media Council is an independent entity t hat has a legal personality, enjoys technical,
financial and administrative independence, and has an independent budget.

The Council is regulates the affairs of radio, television, and printed and digital press, among others.

The Council is responsible for guaranteeing and protecting the freedom of press and media stipulated in
the Constitution ; safeguarding its independe nce, neutrality, plurality and diversity, preventing
monopol istic practices ; monitoring the legality of the sources of funding of press and media institutions;
and establishing the controls and regulations necessary to ensure the commitment of press and me dia
outlets to adhere to professional and ethical standards, and national security needs as set out by law.

The law determines the composition of the Council, its system of operation , and stipulates the
conditions of employment for its staff.

The Counc il is to be consulted on bills and regulations related to its field of operation.
Article 212 National Press and Media Association
The National Press and Media Association is independent, manages state -owned press and media
institutions, and undertakes th e development of them and their assets, and ensures their development,
independence, neutrality and their adherence to sensible professional, administrative and economic
standards.

The composition of the association, its system of operation , and the condi tions of employment of its
staff are specified by law.

It is to be consulted about bills and regulations pertaining to its field of operation.
Article 213 National Press and Media Association
The National Press and Media Association is independent, mana ges state -owned television, radio and
digital media outlets, and undertakes the development of them and their assets, and ensures their
development, independence, neutrality and their adherence to sensible professional, administrative and
economic standard s.

The composition of the association, its system of operation , and the conditions of employment for its
staff are specified by law.

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It is to be consulted about bills and regulations pertaining to its field of operation.

Section Eleven : National Cou ncils, Independent Bodies and Regulatory Agencies
Subsection One: National Councils
Article 214 National Councils
The law specifies independent national councils including the National Council for Human Rights, the
National Council for Women, the National Council for Childhood and Motherhood, and the National
Council for Persons with Disability. The law sets out their structures, mandates, and guarantees for the
independence and neutrality of their members. They have the right to report to the public autho rities
any violations pertaining to their fields of work.
These councils have legal personalities and enjoy technical, financial, and administrative independence.
They are to be consulted with regards to draft laws and regulations pertaining to their affa irs and fields
of work.

Subsection Two: Independent bodies and regulatory agencies
Article 215 Independent bodies and regulatory agencies
Independent bodies and regulatory agencies are identified by law. These bodies and agencies have legal
personality, and technical, financial and administrative independence, and are consulted about draft
laws and regulations that relate to their fields of operation. These bodies and agencies include the
Central Bank, the Egyptian Financial Supervisory Authority, the Ce ntral Auditing Organization, and the
Administrative Control Authority.
Article 216 Creation of each independent body or regulatory agency
For the creation of each independent body or regulatory agency, a law is issued defining its
competencies, regulating its work and stipulating guarantees for its independence and the necessary
protection for its employees and the rest of their conditions, to ensure their neutrality and
independence.

The President of the Republic appoints the heads of independent bodies and regulatory agencies upon
the approval of the House of Representatives with a majority of its members , for a period of four years,
renewabl e once. They cannot be relieved from their posts except in cases specified by law. T he same
prohibitions apply to them that apply to ministers.

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Article 217 Reporting by independent bodies and regulatory agencies
Independent bodies and regulatory agencies present annual reports to th e President of the Republic,
the House of Representatives and the Prime Minister at their time of issuance.

The House of Representatives considers such reports and takes appropriate action within a period not
exceeding four months from the date of receipt. The reports are presented for public opinion.

Independent bodies and r egulatory a gencies notify the appropriate investigative authorities of any
evidence of violations or crimes they may discover. They must take the necessary measures with regards
to these reports within a specified period of time. The foregoing is regulated by law.
Ar ticle 218 Fighting corruption
The state is committed to fighting corruption, and the competent control bodies and organizations are
identified by law.

Competent oversight bodies and org anizations commit to coordinate with one another in combating
corrupt ion, enhancing the values of integrity and transparency in order to ensure sound performance of
public functions , preserv e public funds, and develop and following up on the national strategy to fight
corruption in collaboration with other competent control bodies and organizations, in the manner
organized by law.
Article 219 Central Auditing Organization
The Central Auditing Organization is responsible for monitoring the funds of the st ate, public legal
personalities and other bodies to be identified by la w; for the implementation of the state budget and
independent budgets; and for reviewing its final accounts.
Article 220 Central Bank
The Central Bank is responsible for developing and overseeing the implementation of monetary, credit,
and banking polices , and for monitoring banks. It is exclusively entitled to issue banknotes . It maintains
the safety of the monetary and banking system, and the stability of prices within the frame work of the
state ‘s general pol itical economic policy, in the manner organize d by law.

Article 221 Financial Supervisory Authority
The Egyptian Financial Supervisory Authority is responsible for monitoring and supervising markets and
non -banking financial tools including capital markets, futures exchanges, insurance activities, real estate
funding, financial leasing, and factoring and securitization, in the manner organized by law.

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Chapter Six: General and Transitional Provisions

Section One: General Provisions
Article 222 Capital
Cairo is the capital of the Arab Republic o f Egypt.
Article 223 Flag
The national flag of the Arab Republic of Egypt consists of three colors black, white, and red with the
eagle of Saladin in golden yellow. The emblem, decorations, insignia, seal and the national anthem are
defined by law.

Desecr ation of the Egyptian flag is a crime punishable by law.
Article 224 Legal continuity
All of the provisions stipulated by laws and regulations prior to the proclamation of this Constitution
remain valid and in force. They may not be amended or repealed e xcept in accordance with the
regulations and procedures prescribed in the Constitution.

The state commits to issuing laws implementing the provisions of this Constitution .
Article 225 Publication of laws in the Official Gazette
Laws are published in the Official Gazette within 15 days from the date of their issuance, to be effective
30 days from the day following the date of publication, unless the law specifies a different date.

Provisions of the laws apply only from the date of their entry into force. However, with the approval of a
two -thirds majority of the members of House of Representatives , provisions to the contrary may be
made in articles pertaining to non -crimi nal and non -tax -related matters .
Article 226 Amendment
The amendment of one or more of the Constitution articles may be requested by the President of the
Republic or one -fifth of the members of the House of Representatives. The request specifies the articles
to be amended and the reasons for the amendments.

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In all cases, the House of R epresentatives will debate the request within 30 days from the date of its
receipt. The House issues its decision to accept the request in whole or in part by a majority of its
members.

If the request is rejected, the same amendments may not be requested again before the next legislative
term.

If the amendment request is approved by the House, it discusses the text of the articles to be amended
within 60 days from the date of approval. If approved by a two -thirds majority of the House’s members,
the ame ndment is put to public referendum within 30 days from the date of approval. The amendment
is effective from the date on which the referendum’s result and the approval of a valid majority of the
participants in the referendum are announced.

In all cases, texts pertaining to the principles of freedom and equality stipulated in this Constitution may
not be amended, unless the amendment brings more guarantees.
Article 227 Constitution and Preamble
The Constitution and its preamble and texts are a well -knit fabric that is non -divisible. Its provisions
constitute one coherent unit.

Section Two: Transitional Provisions
Article 228 High Electoral Committee, Presidential Election Committee
The High Electoral Committee and the Presidential Election Committee e xisting at the time this
Constitution comes into force shall undertake the full supervision of the first parliamentary and
presidential elections following the date it came into effect. The funds of the two committees revert to
the National Electoral Commi ssion, as soon as the latter is formed.
Article 229 Election of the House of Representatives
The election of the House of Representatives following the date on which this Constitution comes into
effect shall take place in accordance with the provisions of Article 102.
Article 230 Procedures for parliamentary and presidential elections
Procedures for the electio n of the President of the Republic or the House of Representatives shall take
place in the manner regulated by law, provided that they begin withi n no less than 30 days and no more
than 9 0 days of this Constitution coming into effect.

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In all cases, the next electoral procedures shall begin within a period not exceeding six months as of the
date the Constitution comes into effect .
Article 231 Begin ning of the presidential term
The presidential term following the adoption of this Constitution begins as of the date that the final
result of the elections is announced.
Article 232 The interim president
The Interim President of the Republic continues t o exercise the presidential powers stipulated in the
Constitution until the elected President of the Republic takes the constitutional oath.
Article 233 Vacancy of the office of the interim president
If on account of a temporary impediment , the Interim P resident of the Republic is rendered unable to
exercise his powers, the Prime Minister acts in his place.

If the Interim Presidential office becomes vacant, due to resignation, death, permanent inability to work
or any other reason, the most senior Vice -President of the Supreme Constitutional Court replaces him.
Article 234 Minister of defense
The Minister of Defense is appointed upon the approval of the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces .
The provisions of this article shall remain in force for two ful l presidential terms starting from the date
on which this Constitution comes into effect.
Article 235 Building and renovating churches
In its first legislative term after this Constitution comes into effect , the House of Representatives shall
issue a law to organize building and renovating churches, guaranteeing Christians the freedom to
practice their religious rituals.
Article 236 Economic and urban development of border and under privileged areas
The state shall develop and implement a plan for the co mprehensive economic and urban development
of border and underprivileged areas, including Upper Egypt, Sinai, Matrouh, and Nubia. This is to be
achieved by the participation of the residents of these areas in the development projects and the
priority in be nefiting from them, taking into account the cultural and environmental pa tterns of the local
community , within ten years from the date that this Constitution comes into effect , in the manner
organized by law.

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The state works on developing and implementin g projects to bring back the residents of Nubia to their
original areas and develop them within 10 years in the manner organized by law.
Article 237 War on terrorism
The state commits to fighting all types and f orms of terrorism and tracking its sources of funding within
a specific time frame in light of the threat in represents to the nation and citizens, with guarantees for
public rights and freedoms.

The law organizes the provisions and procedures of fighting terrorism, and fair compensation for the
damages resulting from it and because of it.
Article 228 Government expenditure on education
The state shall gradually implement its commitment to the allocation of the minimum government
expenditure rates on education, higher education, health and scie ntific research that are stipulated i n
this Constitution as of the date that it comes into effect . It shall be fully committed to it in the state
budget of the fiscal year 2016/2017.

The state commits to providing compulsory education until the completio n of the secondary stage in a
gradual manner to be completed in school year 2016/2017.
Article 239 Delegating judges, members of judicial bodies
The House of Representatives issues a law organizing the rules for delegating judges and members of
judicial bodies and entities to ensure cancelling full and partial delegation to non -judicial bodies or
committees with judicial competence, or for managing justice affairs or overseeing elections, within a
period not exceeding five years from the date on which thi s Constitution comes into effect.
Article 240 Rulings of criminal courts
The state ensures providing financial and h uman capacities pertaining to appealing the rulings issue d by
criminal courts within 10 years from the date this Constitution comes into e ffect . The foregoing is
organized by law.
Article 241 Transitional justice
In its first session after the enforcement of this Constitution , the House of Representatives commits to
issuing a transitional justice law that ensures revealing the truth, accou ntability, proposing frameworks
for national reconcilia tion, and compensating victims, in accordance with international standards.

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Article 242 Local administration
The existing local administration system continues to be used until the system stipulated in the
Constitution is gradually implemented within five ye ars of its date of entry into force without prejudice
to article 180 of this Constitution .
Article 243 Workers and farmers representation in parliament
The state grants workers and farmers approp riate representation in the first House of Representatives
to be elected after this Constitution is adopted, in the manner specified by law.
Article 244 Representation for youth, Christians, disabled persons, etc.
The state grants youth, Christians, perso ns with disability and expatriate Egyptians appropriate
representation in the first House of Representatives to be elected after this Constitution is adopted, in
the manner specified by law.
Article 245 Employees of the Shoura Council
The employees of the Shoura Council who are still serving on the date that this Constitution is adopted
are transferred to the House of Representatives while keeping the same degrees and seniorities they
occupied on that date. Their salaries, allowances, remunerations, and th e rest of their financial rights
granted to them in a person al capacity are kept. All funds of the Shoura Council revert to the House of
Representatives.
Article 246 Constitutional Declarations
The Constitutional Declaration issued on the 5th of July 201 3, the Constitutional Declaration issued on
the 8 th of July 2013 , and any constitutional texts or provisions mentioned in the Constitution issued on
2012 but not covered by this constitutional document are hereby repealed as of the date that it comes
into effect . However , their consequent effects remain in force.
Article 247 Entry into force
This Constitution comes into effect on the date that it is announced that the people have approved it in
a referendum through a majority of valid votes of the partic ipants .

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