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A Proclamation to Pronounce the Coming Into Effect of the Constitution of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia No. 1

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FEDERAL NEGARIT GAZET A OF THE FEDERAL DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF ETHIOPIA
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ADDIS ABABA – 21 sl
August, 1995
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Dmt Pnce PROCLAMA nON NO. 1/1995
A PROCLAMATION TO PRONOUNCE THE COMING INTO EFFECT OF THE CONSTITUTION OF THE
FEDERAL DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF ETHIOPIA
WHEREAS, the Nations, Nationalities and Peoples of
Ethiopia have, through their elected Representatives, ratified
the Constitution of the Federal Democratic Republic of
Ethiopia, on the 8th day of December, 1994; it is hereby
proclaimed as follows:
1. Short Title
This Proclamation may be cited as the’ ‘Constitution of
the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia
Proclamation No. 1/1995″.
2. Coming into Effect of the Constitution
The Constitution of the Federal Democratic Republic of
Ethiopia has come into full force and effect as of the 21 sl
day of August, 1995.
Effective Date
This Proclamation shall enter into force as of the 21 sl
day
of August, 1995.
Done at Addis Ababa, this 21 st
day of August, 1995.
NEGASO GIDADA (DR.) .
PRESIDENT OF THE FEDERAL DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF ETHIOPIA
t..1..t-A~;Jt”‘, ;JH.1fJ
T””’+”ii’a:;i
Federal Negarit a.p.G.Box 80,001
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O”7it,.., “,. (10″),1 OOD+O~ I PREAMBLE
We, the Nations, Nationalities and Peoples of Ethiopia: Strongly committed, in full and free exercise of our right to
self-detennination, to building a political community foun-
ded on the rule of law and capable of ensuring a lasting peace,
guaranteeing a democratic order, and advancing our
economic and social development;
Firmly convincedthat the fulfilment of this objective requires
full respect of individual and people’_sfundamental freedoms
and rights, ~olive together o~the basis of equality’ and without
any sexual, religious or cultUral discrimination;
Further con vinced that by continuing to live with our rich ,and
proud cultural legacies in territories we have long inhabited,
have, through continuous interaction on various levels and
forms of life,. built up common interests and have also
contributed to the emergence of a common outlook;
Fully cognizant that our common destiny can best be served
by rectifing historically unjust reltionships and by further
promoting our shared interests;
Convinced that to live as one economic community is
necessary in order to create sustainable and mutually suppor-
tive conditions for ensuring respect for our rights and
freedoms and for the collective promotion of our interests;
1””””’~1’t . ODlI;J-~1’i’ ~if~;JwT11 O;J&-
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11..J:1 “hA.I1.’1″” 0″,-, ; Determinedto consolidate, as a lasting legacy, the peace and
the prospect of a democratic order which our struggles and sacrifices have brought about;
n~”1~1«; Ob~/. ‘1m- 0014’1’/):”,’1:”‘-t1T(Df-11.’fP
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Ill. ~;&:CID+1 liUn”* t”+~,,/. II Have therefore adopted, on 8 December 1994 this Cons-
titution through representativeswe haveduly elected for this
purpose as an instrument that,binds us in a mutual commit-‘
ment to fulfill the obj~tives and the principl~s set forth
above.
005A005A005A001100440045005C00560056004C0051004C0044004F0044005A0011004600520050 www.abyssinialaw.com

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Federal Negarit Gazeta – No. I 21 st
August 1995 -Page 3
Ethiopian Territorial Jurisdiction
The territorial jurisdiction of Ethiopia shall comprise the territory of the members of the Federation and its boundaries
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:: CHAPTER ONE
GENERAL PROVISIONS
Article1
Nomenclature of the State
This Constitution establishes a Federal and Democratic State structure. Accordingly, the Ethiopian state. shall be known as The Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia.
Article2
Article 3
The Ethiopian Flag
1. The Ethiopian flag shall consist of green at the top, yellow in the middle and red at the bottom, and shall have a
national emblem at the centre. The three colours shall be
set horizontally in equal dimension.
2. The national emblem on the flag shall reflect the hope of the Nations, Nationalities, Peoples as well as religious
communities of Ethiopia to live together in equality andunity.
3. Members of the Federation may havetheir respective
flags and emblems and shall determine the details thereof
through their respective legislatures.
Article4
National Anthem of Ethiopia
The national anthem of Ethiopia, to be determined by law, shall reflect the ideals of the Constitution, the commitment of
the Peoples of Ethiopia to live together in a democratic ord~r
and of their common destiny.
Article5
Languages
1. All Ethiopian languages shall enjoy equal state recog-
nition.
2. Amharic shall be the working language of the Federal Government.
3. Members of the Federation may by law determine their respective working languages.
Article6
Nationality
1. Any person of either sex shall be an Ethiopian national where both or either parent is Ethiopian.
2. Foreign nationals may acquire Ethiopian nationality.
3. Particulars relating to nationality shall be determined by
law.
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-No.121st
August 1995 – Page 4
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7
Gender Reference
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shall also apply to the feminine gender.
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f001..,P’:”‘i” f’/,eO’/if:” oot!f:” CHAPTER TWO
FUNDAMENTALPIDNCWLESOFTHE CONSTITUTION
Article 8
Sovereignty of the People
1. All sovereign power resides in the Nations, Nationalities and Peoples of Ethiopia.
2. This Constitution is an expression of their sovereignty. 3. Their sovereignty shall be expressed through their represen- tatives elected in accordance with this Constituion and
through their direct democratic participation.
Article9
Supremacy of the Constitution
1. The Constitution is the supreme law ofthe land. Any law, customary practice or a decision of an organ of state or a
public official which contravenes this Constitution shall
be of no effect.
2. All citizens, organs of state, political organizations, other associations as well as their officials have the duty to
ensure observance of the Constitution and to obey it.
3. It is prohibited to assume state power in any manner other than that provided under the Constitution. .
4. All intenational agreements ratified by Ethiopia are an integral part of the law of the land.
Article 10
Human and Democratic Rights
1. Human rights and freedoms, emanating from the nature of mankind, are inviolable and inalienable.
2. Human and democratic rights of citizens and peoples shall be respected.
Article11
Separation of State and Religion
1. State and religion are separate.
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2. There shall be no state religion.
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r- 001..,P’:” O’/,eO’/if:” .,..&;.eIl)A:J> h.e1f19″ :: ‘/.eO’/if:”9″3. The state shall not interfere in religious matters and
0001..,P’:” .,..&;.eIl)A:J> h.e1f19″ :: religion shall not interfere in state affairs.
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12
Conduct and Accountability of Government
1. The conduct of affairs of government shall be transparent.
2. Any public official or an elected representative is accoun- table for any failure in official duties.
3. In case of loss of confidence, the people may recall an elected representative. The particulars of recall shall be
determined by law.
CHAPTER THREE
FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS AND FREEDOMS
Article13
Scope of Application and Interpretation
1. All Federal and State legislative, executive and judicial organs at all levels shall have the responsibility and duty
to respect and enforce the provisions of this Chapter.
2. The fundamental rights and freedoms specified in this Chapter shall be interpreted in a manner conforming to
the principles of the Universal Declaration of Human
Rights, International Covenants on Human Rights and
international instruments adopted by Ethiopia.
PART ONE
HUMAN RIGHTS
Article 14
Rights to life, the Security of .Person and Liberty
Every person has the inviolable and inalienable right to life,
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Article17
Right to Liberty
1. No one shall be deprived of his or her liberty except on such grounds and in accordance with such procedure as
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2. No person may be subjected to arbitrary arrest, and no
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against him.
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15
Right to Life
Every person has the right to life. No person may be deprived
of his life except as a punishment for a serious criminal
offence determined by law.
Article16
The Right ofthe Security ofPerson
Every one has the right to protection against bodily harm.
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18
Prohibition against Inhuman Treatment
1. Everyone has the right to protection against cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.
2. No one shall be held in slavery or servitude. Trafficking in human beings for whatever purpose is prohibited.
3. Noone shall be required to perform forced or compulsQI)’ labour.
4. For the purpose of sub-Article 3 of this Article the phrase “forced or compulsory labour” shall not include:
(a) Any work or service normally required of a person who is under detention in consequence of a lawful
order, or of a person during conditional release fromsuch detention;
(b) In the case of conscientious objectors, any service exacted in lieuof compulsory military service;
(c) Any service exacted in cases of emergency or calamity threatening the life or well-being of the community;
(d) Any economic and social development activity volun- tarily performed by a community within its locality.
Article19
Right of Persons Arrested
1. Persons arrested have the right to be informed promptly, in a language they understand, of the reasons for their
arrest and of any charge against them.
2. Persons, arrested have the right to remain silent. Upon arrest, they have the right to be informed promptly, in a
language they understand, that any statement they make may be used as evidence against them in court.
3. Persons arrested have the right to be brought before a court within 48 hours of their arrest. Such time shall not
include the time reasonably required for the journey from
the place of arrest to the court. On appearing before a
court, they have the right to be given prompt and specific
explanaltion of the reasons for their arrest due to the
alleged crime committed.
4. All persons have an inalienable right to petition the court to order their physical release where the arresting police
officer or the law enforcer fails to bring them before a
court within the prescribed time and to provide reasons
for their arrest. Where the interest of justice requires, the
court may order the arrested person to remain in custodyor, when requested, remand him for a time strictly
required to carry out the necessary investigation. In
determining the additional time necessary for inves-
tigation, the court shall ensure that the responsible law
enforcement authorities carry out the investigation res-
pecing the arrested person’s right to a speedy trial.
005A005A005A001100440045005C00560056004C0051004C0044004F0044005A0011004600520050 www.abyssinialaw.com

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.}>II)”” o””);;:l&r (}l& If. “‘f.tD(}19′” II 5. Persons arrested shall not be compelled to make confes-
sions or admissions which could be used in evidence
against them. Any evidence obtained under coercion shall
not be admissible.
6. Persons arrested have the right to be released on bail. In exceptional circumstances prescribed by law, the court
may deny bail or demand adequate guarantee for the
conditional release of the arrested person.
Article 20
Rights of Persons Accused
1. Accused persons have the right to a public trial by an ordinary court of law within a reasonable time after
having been charged. The court may hear cases in a
closed session only with a view to protecting the right to
privacy of the parties concerned, public morals and
national security.
2. Accused persons have the right to be informed with sufficient particulars of the charge brought against them
and to be given the charge in writing.
3. During proceedings accused persons have the right to be presumed innocent until proved guilty according to law
and not to be compelled to testify against themselves.
4. Accused persons have the right to full access to any evidence presented against them, to examine witnesses
testifying against them, to adduce or to have evidence
produced in their own defence, and to obtain the
attendance of and examination of witnesses on their
behalf before the court.
5. Accused persons have the right to be represented by legal counsel of their choice, and, if they do not have sufficient
means to pay for it and miscarriage of justice would
result, to be provided with legal representation at state
expense.
6. All persons have the right of appeal to the competent court against an order or a judgement of the court which first
heard the case.
7. They have the right to request for the assistance of an interpreter at state expense where the court proceedings
are conducted in a language they do not understand.
Article21
The Rights of Persons Held in Custody and Convicted Prisoners .
1. All persons held in custody and persons imprisoned upon conviction and sentencing have the right to treatments
respecting their human dignity.
2. All persons shall have the opportunity to communicate with, and to be visited by, their spouses or partners, close.
relatives, friends, religious councillors, medical doctors and their legal counsel.
Article22
Non-retroactivity of Criminal Law
1. No one shall be held guilty of any criminal offence on account of any act or omission which did not constitute a
criminal offence at the time when it was committed. Norshall a heavier penalty be imposed on any person than the
one that was applicable at the time when the criminal
offence was committed.
005A005A005A001100440045005C00560056004C0051004C0044004F0044005A0011004600520050 www.abyssinialaw.com

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Article, a law promulgated subsequent to the commission
of the offence shall apply if it is advantageous to the
accused or convicted person.
Article23
Prohibition of Double Jeopardy
No person shall be liable to be tried or punished again for an offence for which he has already been finally convicted or
acquitted in accordance with the criminal law and procedure.
Article24
Right to Honour and Reputation
1. Everyone has the right to respect for his human dignity, reputation and honour.
2. Everyone has the right to the free development of his personality in a manner compatible with the rights ofother citizens.
3. Everyone has the right to recognition everywhere as a person.
Article25
Right to Equality
All persons are equal before the law and are entitled without any discrimination to the equal protection of the law. In this
respect, the law shall guarantee to all persons equal and
effective protection without discrimination on grounds of
race, nation, nationality, or other social origin, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, property, birth
or other status.
Article26
Right to Privacy
1. Everyone has the right to privacy. This right shall include the right not to be subjected to searches of his home,
person or property, or the seizure of any property under /
his personal possession.
2. Everyone has the right to the inviolability of his notes and correspondence including postal letters, and com-munications made by means of telephone, telecom-
munications and electronic devices.
3. Public officials shall respect and protect these rights. No restrictions may be placed on the enjoyment of such
rights except in compelling circumstances and in accor-
dance with specific laws whose purposes shall be the
safeguarding of national security or public peace, the
prevention of crimes or the protection of helath, public
morality or the rights and freedoms of others.
Article27
,
Freedom of Religion, Belief and Opinion
1. Everyone has the right to freedom of thought, conscience
and religion. This right shall include the freedom to hold
or to adopt a religion or belief of his choice, and the
005A005A005A001100440045005C00560056004C0051004C0044004F0044005A0011004600520050 www.abyssinialaw.com

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t.m/,. ~,~-).+l;J°l(1).A IIfTloit ~,~..,.
O+t~ fD?h+
l””’1 oo-n+r Im:PAiA :
0) f~Y.:D?1 9″Cool,.O”71’1lD-9″ OOAh- f+htht
oolf~ 1 : freedom, either individually or in community with others,
and in public or private, to manifest his religion or belief
in worship, observance, practice and teaching.
2. Without prejudice to the provisions of sub-Article 2 of Article 90, believers may establish institutions ofreligious education and administration in order to
propagate and organize their religion.
3. No one shall be subject to coercion or other means which would restrict or prevent his freedom to hold a belief of
his choice.
4. Parents and legal guardians have the right to bring up their children ensuring their religious and moral education in
conformity with their own convictions.
5. Freedom to express or manifest one’s religion or belief may be subject only to such limitations as are prescribed
by law and are necessary to protect public safety, peace,
health, education, public morality or the fundamental
rights and freedoms of others, and to ensure the indepen-
dence of the state from religion.
Article28
Crimes Against Humanity
1. Criminal liability of persons who commit crimes against humanity, so defined by international agreements ratified
by Ethiopia and by other laws of Ethiopia, such as
genocide, summary executions, forcible disappearances or torture shall not be barred by statute of limitation. Such
offences may not be commuted by amnesty or pardon of
the legislature or any other state organ.
2. In the case of persons convicted of any crime stated in sub- Article 1 of this Article and sentenced with the death
penalty, the Head of State may, without prejudice to the
provisions hereinabove, commute the punishment to life
imprisonment.
PART TWO
DEMOCRATIC RIGHTS Article29
Right of Thought, Opinion and Expression
1. Everyone has the right to hold opinions without in- teference.
2. Everyone has the right to freedom of expression without any interference. This right shall include freedom to seek,
receive and impart information and ideas of all kinds,
regardless of frontiers, either orally, in writing or in print,
in the form of art, or through any media of his choice.
3. Freedom of the press and other mass media and freedom of artistic creativity is guaranteed. Freedom of the pressshall specifically include the following elements:
(a) Prohibition of any form of censorship.
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4. In the interest of the free flow of information, ideas and opinions which are essential to the functioning of a
democratic order, the press shall, as an institution, enjoy
legal protection to ensure its operational independence
and its capacity to entertain diverse opinions.
5. Any media financed by or under the control of the State shall be operated in a manner ensuring its capacity to
entertain diversity in the expression of opinion.
6. These rights can be limited only through laws which are guided by the principle that freedom of expression and
information cannot be limited on account of the content
or effect of the point of view expressed. Legal limitations
can be laid down in order to protect the well-being of the
youth, and the honour and reputation of individuals. Any
propaganda for war as well as the public expression of
opinion intended to injure human dignity shall be
prohibited by law.
7. Any citizen who violates any legal limitations on the exercise of these rights may be held liable under the law.
.Article 30
The Right of Assembly, Demonstration and Petition
1. Everyone has the right to assemble and to demonstrate together with others peaceably and unarmed, and to
petition. Appropriate regulations may be made in the
interest of public convenience relating to the location ofopen-air meetings and ‘the route of movement of demons-
trators or, for the protection of democratic rights, public
morality and peace during such a meeting or demons-tration.
2. ,This right does not exempt from liability under laws enacted to protect the well-being of the youth or the
honour and reputation of individulas, and laws
prohibiting any propaganda for war and any publicexpression of opinions intended to injure human dignity.
Article31
Freedom of Association
Every person has the right to freedom of association for any cause or purpose. Organizations formed, in violation of appropriate laws, or to illegally subvert the constitutional
order, or which promote such activities are prohibited.
Article32
Freedom of Movement
1. Any Ethiopian or foreign national lawfully in Ethiopia has, within the national territory, the right to liberty of
movement and freedom to choose his residence, as wellas the freedom to leave the country at any time he wishes
to.
2. Any Ethiopian national has the right to return to his country .
005A005A005A001100440045005C00560056004C0051004C0044004F0044005A0011004600520050 www.abyssinialaw.com

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33
Rights of Nationality
1. No Ethiopian national shall be deprived of his or her Ethiopian nationality against his or her will. Marriage of
an Ethiopian national of either sex to a foreign nationalshall not annul his or her Ethiopian nationality.
2. Every Ethiopian national has the right to the enjoyment of all rights, protection and benefits derived from Ethiopian
nationality as prescribed by law.
3. Any national has the right to change his Ethiopian nati onali ty .
4. Ethiopian nationality may be conferred upon foreigners in accordance with law enacted and procedures established
consistent with international agreements ratified by
Ethiopia.
Article34
Marital, Personal and Family Rights
1. Men and women, without any distinction as to race, nation, nationality or religion, who have attained
marrigeable age as defined by law, have the right to marry
and found a family. They have equal rights while entering
into, during marriage and at the time of divorce. Lawsshall be enacted to ensure the protection of rights and
interests of children at the time of divorce.
2. Marriage shall be entered into only with the free and full consent of the intending spouses.
3. The family is the natural and fundamental unit of society and is entitled to protection by society and the State.
4. In accordance with provisions to be specified by law, a law giving recognition to marriage concluded undersystems of religious or customary laws may be enacted.
5. This Constitution shall not preclude the adjudication of disputes relating to personal and family laws in accor-
dance with reljgious or customary laws, with the consent
of the parties to the dispute. Particulars shall be deter-
mined by law. .
Article 35
Rights ofWomen
1. Women shall; in the enjoyment of rights and protections provided for by this Constitution, have equal right with
men.
2. Women have equal rights with men in marriage as prescribed by this Constitution.
3. The historical legacy of inequality and discrimination suffered by women in Ethiopia taken into account,
women, in order to remedy this legacy, are entitled to
affirmative measures. The purpose of such measures shall
be to provide special attention to women so as to enable
them compete and participate on the basis of equality with men in political, social and economic life as well as
in public and private institutions.
4. The State shall enforce the right of women to eliminate the influences of harmful customs. Laws, customs and
practices that oppress or cause bodily or mental harm to women are prohibited.
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1..9″J;. “‘:l:qo”f h’}~oo(a~1: !n~;r;rA :: (a) Women have the right to maternity leave with full
pay. The duration of maternity leave shall bedetermined bylaw taking into account the nature of
the work, the health of the mother and the well-
being of the child and family.
(b) Maternity leave may, in accordance with the provisions of law, include prenata11eave with fullpay.
Women have the right to full consultation in the
formulation of national development policies, the desig-
ning and execution of projects, and particularly in the
case of projects affecting the interests of women.
7. Women have the right to acquire, administer, control, use and transfer property. In particular, they have equal rights
with men with respect to use, transfer, administration and
control of land. They shall also enjoy equal treatment in the inheritance of property.
8. Women shall havea right to equality in employment,
promotion, pay, and the transfer of pension entitlements.
9. To prevent harm arising from pregnancy and childbirth and in order to safeguard their health, women have the
right of access to family planning education, information
and capacity.
Article36
Rights of Children
1. Every child has the right: (a) To life;
(b) To a name and nationality;
(c) To know and be cared for by his or her parents or legal guardians;
(d) Not to be subject to exploitative practices, neither to be required nor permitted to perform work whichmay be hazardous or harmful to his or her education,
health or well-being;
(e) To be free of corporal punishment or cruel and inhumane treatment in schools and other institutions
responsible for the care of children.
2. In all actions concerning children undertaken by public and private welfare institutions, courts of law, adminis-
trative authorities or legislative bodies, the primary
consideration shall be the best interests of the child.
3. Juvenile offenders admitted to corrective or rehabilitative institutions, and juveniles who become wards of the State
or who are placed in public or private orphanages, shall be
kept separately from adults.
4. Children born out of wedlock shall have the same rights as children born of wedlock.
5. The State shall accord special protection to orphans and shall encourage the establishment of institutions which
ensure and promote their adoption and advance their welfare, and education.
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f”,..,1′:” 011-0:””)lm:J’AIA :1 Article
37
Right of Access to Justice
1. Everyone has the right to bring a justiciable matter to, and to obtain a decision or judgement by, a court of law or anyother competent body with judicial power.
2. The decision or judgement referred to under sub-Article 1
of this Article may also be sought by:
(a) Any association representing the Collective or
individual interest of its members; or
(b) Any group or person who is a member of, or
represents a group with similar interests.
Article38
The Right to Vote and to be Elected
1. Every Ethiopian national, without any discrimination based on colour, race, nation, nationality, sex, language,
religion, political or other opinion or other status, has the
following rights:
(a) To take part in the conduct of public affairs, directly and through freely chosen representatives;
(b) On the attainment of -18 years of age, to vote in accordance with law;
(c) To vote and to be elected at periodic elections to any office at any level of government; elections shall be
by universal and equal suffrage and shall beheld by
secret ballot, guaranteeing the free expression of the
will of the electors.
2. The right of everyone to be a member of his own will in a political organization, labour union, trade organization,
or employers’ or professional association shall be respec-
ted i{he or she meets the special and general requirements stipalated by such organization.
3. Elections to positions of responsibility within any of the organizations referred to under sub-Article 2 of this
Article shall be conducted in a free and democratic
manner.
4. The provisions of sub-Articles 2 and 3 of this Article shall apply to civic organizations which significantly affect the
public interest.
Article39
Rights ofNations, Nationalities, and Peoples
1. Every Nation, Nationality and People in Ethiopia has an unconditional right to self-determination, including the
right to secession.
2. Every Nation, Nationality and People in Ethiopia has the right to speak, to write and to develop its own language;
to express, to develop and to promote its culture; and to
preserve its history.
3. Every Nation, Nationality and People in Ethiopia has the right to a full measure of self-government which includes
the right to establish institutions of government in the
territory that it inhabits and to equitable representation instate and Federal governments.
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– No.1 21stAugust 1995 – Page 15
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fl1:”;f’A :: 7. Every Ethiopian shall have the full right to the immovable
property he builds and to the permanent improvements he
brings about on the land by his labour or capital. This
right shall include the right to alienate, to bequeath, and,
where the right of use expires, to remove his property,
transfer his title, or claim compensation for it. Particulars shall be determined by law.
8. Without prejudice to the right to private property, the government may expropriate private property for public
purposes subject to payment in advance of compensation
commensurate to the value of the property.
Article41
Economic, Social and Cultural Rights
1. Every Ethiopian has the right to engage freely in economic activity and to pursue a livelihood of his choiceanywhere within the national territory.
2. Every Ethiopian has the right to choose his or her means of livelihood, occupation and profession.
3. Every Ethiopian national has the right to equal access to publicly funded social services.
4. The State has the obligation to allocate ever increasing resources to provide to the public health, education and
other social services.
5. The State shall, within available means, allocate resources to provide rehabilitation and assistance to the physically
and mentally disabled, the aged, and to children who are
left without parents or guardian.
6. The State shall pursue policies which aim to expand job opportuniti~s for the unemployed and the poor and shall
accordingly undertake programmes and public works
projects.
7. The State shall undertake all measures necessary to increase opportunities for citizens to find gainful em-
ployment.
8. Ethiopian farmers and pastoralists have the right to receive fair prices for their products, that would lead toimprovement in their conditions of life and to enable
them to obtain an equitable share of the national wealth
commensurate with their contribution. This objective shall guide the State in the formulation of economic ,
social and development policies.
9. The State has the responsibility to protect and preserve historical and cultural legacies, and to contribute to the
promotion of the arts and sports.
1. (a) Article
42
Rights of Labour
Factory and service workers, farmers, farm labourers,
other rural workers and government employees
whose work compatibility allows for it and who are
below a certain level of responsibility, have the right
to form associations to improve their conditions of
employment and economic well-being. This right
includes the right to form trade unions and other
associations to bargain collectively with employers
or other organizations that affect their interests.
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‘ID”,”II”;t. ;J’e”o,/:} ;”‘P.~lD’:: /.T’fll..h
F’C’H (b) Categories of persons referred to in paragraph (a) of
this sub-Article have the right to express grievances,including the right to strike.
(c) Government employees who enjoy the rights provided under paragraphs (a) and (b) of this sub-Article shall be determined by law.
(d) Women workers have the right to equal pay for equal work.
2. Workers have the right to reasonable limitation of working hours, to rest, to leisure, to periodic leaves with
pay, to remuneration for public holidays as well as
healthy and safe work envirpnment.
3. Without prejudice to the rights recognized under sub- Article I of this Article, laws enacted for the implemen-
tation of such rights shall establish procedures for the
formation of trade unions and for the regulation of the
collective bargaining process.
Article43
The Right to Development
I. The Peoples of Ethiopia as a whole, and each Nation, Nationality and People in Ethiopia in particular have the
right to improved living standards and to sustainable
development.
2. Nationals have the right to participate in national development and, in particular, to be consulted with
respect to policies and projects affecting their com-
munity.
3. All international agreements and relations concluded, established or conducted by the State shall protect and
ensure Ethiopia’s right to sustainable development.
4. The basic aim of development activities shall be to enhance the capacity of citizens for developement and to
meet their basic needs.
Article44
Environmental Rights
I. All persons have the right to a clean and healthy environment.
2. All persons who have been displaced or whose livelihoods have been adversely affected as a result of State program-
mes have the right to commensurate monetary or alter-
native means of compensation, including relocation with
adequate State assistance.
CHAPTER FOUR
STATE STRUCTURE
Article 45
Form of’ Government
The Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia shall have a
parliamentarian form of government.
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46
States ofthe Federation
1. The Federal Democratic Republic shaH comprise of States.
2. States shaH be delimited on the basis of the settlement patterns, language, identity and consent of the people
concerned.
Article47
Member States ofthe Federal Democratic Republic
1. Member States of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia are the following:
1) The State of Tigray
2) The State of Mar
3) The State of Amhara
4) The State of Oromia
5) The State of Somalia6) The State of BenshanguUGumuz
7) The State of the Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples
8) The State of the Gambela Peoples
9) The State of the Harari People
Nations, Nationalities and Peoples within the States
enumerated in’sub-Article 1 of this article have the right
to establish, at any time, their own States.
3. The right of any Nation, Nationality or People to form its own state is exercisable under the following procedures:
(a) When the demand for statehood has been approved by a two-thirds majority of the members of the
Council of the Nation, Nationality or People concer-
ned, and the demand is presented in writing to theState Council;
(b) When the Council that received the demand has organized a referendum within one year to be held in
the Nation, Nationality or People that made the demand;
(c) When the demand for statehood is supported by a majority vote in the referendum;
(d) When the State Council will have transferred its powers to the Nation,Nationality or People that
made the demand; and
(e) When the new State created by the referendum without any need for application, directly becomes amember of the Federal Democratic Republic of
Ethiopia.
4. Member States of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia shall have equal rights and powers.
Article48
State Border Changes
1. All State border disputes shall be settled by agreement of the concerned States. Where the concerned States fail to
reach agreement, the l,Iouse of the Federation shall decide such disputes on the basis of settlement patterns and thewishes of the peoples concerned.
2. The House of Federation shall, within a period of two years, render a final decision on a dispute submitted to it
pursuant to sub-Article I of this Art:;:;1e.
005A005A005A001100440045005C00560056004C0051004C0044004F0044005A0011004600520050 www.abyssinialaw.com

‘IX’
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Iitfft ‘i””’ Federal Negarit Gazeta
– No.1 21st
August 1995 – Page 19
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1 f. rf’i” A :1 Article
51
Powers and Functions of the Federal Government
1. It shall protect and defend the Constitution.
2. It shall fonnulate and implement the country’s policies, strategies and plans in respect of overall economic, social
and development matters.
3. It shall establish and implement national standards and basic policy criteria for public health, education, science
and technology as well as for the protection and
preservation of cultural and historical legacies.
4. It shall fonnulate and execute the country’s financial, monetary and foreign investment policies and strategies.
5. It shall enact laws for the utilization and conservation of land and other natural resources, histortical sites and
objects.
6. It shall establish and administer national defence and public security forces as well as a federal police force.
7. It shall administer the National Bank, print and borrow money, mint coins, regulate foreign exchange and money
in circulation; it shall determine by law theconditions and
tenns under which States can borrow money from.. internal sources.
8. It shall fonnulate and implement foreign policy; it shall negotiate and ratify international agreements.
9. It shall be responsible for the development, administration and regulation of air, rail, waterways and sea transport
and major roads linking two or more States, as well as for
postal and telecommunication services.
10. It shall levy taxes and collect duties on revenue sources reserved to the Federal Government; it shall draw up,approve and administer the Federal Government’s bud-
get.
11. It shall detennine and administer the utilization of the waters or rivers and lakes linking two or more States or
crossing the boundaries of the national territorial jurisdic-
tion.
12. It shall regulate inter-State and foreign commerce.
13. It shall administer and expand all federally funded institutions that provide services to two or more States.
14. It shall deploy, at the request of a state administration, Federal defence forces to arrest a deteriorating securitysituation within the requesting State when its authorities
are unable to control it.
15. It shall enact, in order to give practical effect to political rights provided for in this Constituion, all necessary laws
governing political parties and elections.
16. It has the power to declare and to lift national state of emergency and states of emergencies limited to certain
parts of the country.
17. It shall detemine matters relating to nationality.
18. It shall determine and administer all matters relating to immigration, the granting of passports, entry into and exit
from the coutnry, refugees and asylum.
19. It shall patent inventions and protect copyrights.
20. It shall establish unifonn standards of measurement and calendar.
21. It shall enact laws regulating the possession and bearing of anns.
.Article 52
Powers and Functions of States
1. All powers not given expressly to the Federal Government alone, or concurrently to the Federal Government and the
States are reserved to the States.
005A005A005A001100440045005C00560056004C0051004C0044004F0044005A0011004600520050 www.abyssinialaw.com

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II 1IC1I~
Oa…, f,1. ~1;Jt II 2. Consistent with sub-Article 1 of this Article, States shall
have the following powers and functions: ,
(a) To establish a State administration that best advances
self-government, a democratic order based on the
rule of law; to protect and defend the Federal
Constitution;
(b) To enact and execute the State constitution and other laws;
(c) To formulate and execute economic, social and development policies, strategies and plans of theState;
(d) To administer land and other natural resources in accordance with Federal laws;
(e) To levy and collect taxes and duties on revenue sources reserved to the States and to draw up and
administer the State budget;
(t) To enact and enforce laws on the State civil service and their condition of work; in the implementation of
this responsibility it shall ensure that educational;
training and experience requirements for any job,title or position approximate national standards;
(g) To establish and administer a state police force, and to maintain public order and peace within the State;
CHAPTER SIX
THE FEDERAL HOUSES
Article53
The Federal Houses
There shall be two Federal Houses: The House of Peoples’ Representatives and the House of the Federation. .
Part One
The House of Peoples’ Representatives
Article54
Members of the House of Peoples’ Representatives
1. Members of the House of Peoples’ Representatives shall be elected by the People for a term of five years on the
basis of universal suffrage and by direct, free and fair
elections held by secret ballot.
2. Members of the House shall be elected from’candidates in each electoral district by a plurality of the votes cast.Provisions shall be made by law for special representation
for minority Nationalities and Peoples.
3. Members of the House, on the basis of population and special representation of minority Nationalities and
Peoples, shall not exceed 550; of these, minority
Nationalities and Peoples shall have at least 20 seats.Particulars shall be determined by law.
005A005A005A001100440045005C00560056004C0051004C0044004F0044005A0011004600520050 www.abyssinialaw.com

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~o)T’} ICDlfJA :: 4. Members of the House are representatives of the
Ethiopian People as a whole. They are governed by:
(a) The Constitution;
(b) The will of the people; and
(c) Their Conscience.
5. No member of the House may be prosecuted on account of any vote he casts or opinion he expresses in the House, nor
shall any administrative action be taken against any
member on such grounds.
6. No member of the House may be arrested or prosecuted without the permission of the House except in the case of
flagrante delicto
7. A member of the House may, in accordance with law, lose his mandate of representation upon loss of confidence by
the electorate.
Article55
Powers and Functions of the House of Peoples’ Representatives
1. The House of Peoples’ Representatives spall have the power of legislation in all matters assigned by this
Constitution to Federal jurisdiction.
2. Consistent with the provision of sub-Article 1 of this Article, the House of Peoples’ Representatives shall enactspecific laws on the following matters:
(a) Utilization of land and other natural resources, of
rivers and lakes crossing the boundaries of the
national territorial jurisdiction or linking two or moreStates;
(b) Inter-State commerce and foreign trade;
(c) Air, rail, water and sea transport, major roads linking two or more States, postal and telecommunicationserVIces;
(d) Enforcement of the political rights established by the Constitution and electoral laws and procedures;
(e) Nationality, immigration, passport, exit from and entry into the country, the rights of refugees and ofasylum;
(f) Uniform standards of measurement and calendar;
(g) Patents and copyrights;
(h) The possession and bearing of arms.
3. It shall enact a labour code.
4. It shall enact a commercial code.
5. It shall enact a penal code. The States may, however, enact penal laws on matters that are not specifically
covered by Federal penal legislation.
6. It shall enact civil laws which the House of the Federation deems necessary to establish and sustain one economic
community.
005A005A005A001100440045005C00560056004C0051004C0044004F0044005A0011004600520050 www.abyssinialaw.com

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fl”lti:il P’AffJ1 7. It shall detennine the organization of national defence,
public security, and a national police force. If the conduct
of these forces infringes upon human rights and the
nation’s security, it shall carry out investigations and takenecessary measures.
8. In confonnity with Article 93 of the Constitution it shall declare a state of emergency; it shall consider and resolve
on a decree of a state of emergency declared by the
executive.
9. On the basis of a draft law submitted to it by the Council of Ministers it shall proclaim a state of war.
10. It shall approve general policies and strategies of economic, social and development, and fiscal and
monetary policy of the country. It shall. enact laws on
matters relating to the local currency, the administration
of the National Bank, and foreign exchange.
II. It shall levy taxes and duties on revenue sources reserved to the Federal Government, it shall ratify the Federal
budget.
12. It shall ratify international agreements concluded by the Executive.
13. It shall approve the appointment of Federal judges, members of the Council of Minsiters, commissioners, the
Auditor General, and of other officials whose appoint-
ment is required by law to be approved by it.
14. It shall establish a Human Rights Commission and determine by law its powers and functions.
15. It shall establish the institution of the Ombudsman, and select and appoint its members. It shall deermine by law
the powers and functions of the institution.
16. It shall, on its own initiative, request a joint session of the House of the Federation and of the House of Peoples’Representatives to take appropriate measures when State
authorities are unable to arrest violations of human rights
within their jurisdiction. It shall, on the basis of the joint
decision of the House, give directives to the concerned
State authorities.
17. It has the power to call and to question the Prime Minister and other Federal officials and to investigate the Ex-
ecutive’s conduct and discharge of its responsibilities.
18. It shall, at the request of one-third of its members, discuss any matter pertaining to the powers of the executive. It
has, in such cases, the power to take decisions or
measures it deems necessary.
19. It shall elect the Speaker and Deputy Speaker of the House. It shall establish standing and ad hoc committees
as it deems necessary to accomplish its work.
‘Article56
Political Power
l19″hC 11-1: “111””‘1. OD”‘ODAj,
111f I”lti:il 1:C)’::” mf..9″
IA political party, or a coalition of political parties that has the
ffJ9″6- 1:C~””:f f4..1.6-i-1 001″1P’:”fih”l”hL~”‘l. “ilAgreatest number of seats in the House of Peoples’ Represen-
11.6-‘JfAII1.6-‘Jffo ;
.f.OD6-A/f..OD6-i-
” tatives shall form the Executive and lead it.
005A005A005A001100440045005C00560056004C0051004C0044004F0044005A0011004600520050 www.abyssinialaw.com

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57
Adoption of Laws
Laws deliberated upon and passed by the House shall be submitted to the Nation’s President for signature. The
President shall sign a law submitted to him within fifteen days. If the President does not sign the law within fifteen days
it shall take effect without his signature.
Article58
Meetings of the House, Duration of its Term
1. The presence of more than half of the members of the House constitutes a quorum.
2. The annual session of the House shall begin on Monday of the final week of the Ethiopian month of Meskerem and
end on the 30th day of the Ethiopian month of Sene. The
House may adjourn for one month of recess during its annual session.
3. The House of Peoples’ Representatives shall be elected for a term of five years. Elections for a new House shall be
concluded one month prior to the expiry of the House’s
term.
4. The Speaker of the House may call a meeting of the House when it is in recess. The Speaker of the House is also
obliged to call a meeeting of the House at the request of
more than one-half of the members.
5. Meetings of the House shall be public. The House may, however, hold a closed meeting at the request of the
Executive or members of the House if such a request issupported by a decision of more than one-half of the
members of the House.
Article59
Decisions and Rules of Procedure of the House
1. Unless otherwise provided in the Constitution, all decisions of the House shall be by a majority vote of the
members present and voting.
2. The House shall adopt rules and procedures regarding the organization of its work and of its legislative process.
Article 60
Dissolution of the House
1. With the consent of the House, the Prime Minister may cause the dissolution of the House before the expiry of its
term in order to hold new elections.
2. The President may invite political parties to form a coalition government within one week, if the Council of
Ministers of a previous coalition is dissolved because of
the loss of its majority in the House. The House shall be
dissolved and new elections shall be held if the political
parties cannot agree to the continuation of the previous
coalition or to form a new majority coalition.
3. If the House is dissolved pursuant to sub-Article 1 or 2 of this Article, new elections shall be held within six monthsof its dissolution.
4. The new House shall convene within thirty days of the conclusion of the elections.
005A005A005A001100440045005C00560056004C0051004C0044004F0044005A0011004600520050 www.abyssinialaw.com

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~TCT f4>CI1A :: .” CHAPTER EIGHT
THE EXECUTIVE
Article 72
The Powers olthe Executive
l. The highest executive powers of the Federal Government are vested in the Prime Minister and in the Council of
Ministers.
2. The Prime Minister and the Council of Ministers are responsible to the House of Peoples’ Representatives. In
the exercise of State functions, members of the Council of
Ministers are co]]ectively responsible for all decisions
they make as a body.
3. Unless otherwise provided in this Constitution the term of office of the Prime Minister is for the duration of the
mandate of the House of Peoples’ Representatives.
Article73
Appointment olthe Prime Minister
l. The Prime Minister sha]] be elected from among members of the House of Peoples’ Representatives.
2. Power of Government sha]] be assumed by the political partry or a coalition of political parties that constitutes a
majority in the House of Peoples’ Representatives.
Article74
Powers and Functions ol the Prime Minister
l. The Prime Minister is the Chief Executive, the Chairman ofthe Council of Ministers, and the Commander-in-Chief
of the national armed forces.
2. The Prime Minister sha]] submit for approval to the House of Peoples’ Representatives nominees for ministerial
posts from among members of the two Houses or from
among persons who are not members of either House and
possess the required qualifications.
3. He sha]] fo]]ow up and ensure the implementation of laws, policies, directives and other decisions adopted by the
House of Peoples’ Representatives.
He leads the Council of Ministers, coordinates its
activities and acts as its representative.
5. He exercises overa]] supervision over the implementation of policies, regulations, directives and decisions adopted
by the Council of Ministers.
6. He exercises overa]] supervision over the implementation of the country’s foreign policy.
7. He selects and submits for approval to the House of Peoples’ Representatives nominations for posts of Com-missioners, the President and Vice-President of the
Federal Supreme Court and the Auditor General.
8. He supervises the conduct and efficiency of the Federal administration and takes such corrective measures as are
necessary .
He appoints high civilian officials of the Federal
Government other than those referred to in sub-Articles 2
and 3 of this Article.
10. In accordance with law enacted or decision adopted by the House of Peoples’ Representatives, he recommends
to the President nominees for the award of medals, prizes
and gifts.
II.He sha]] submit to the House of Peoples’ Representatives periodic reports on work accomplished by the Executive
as we]] as on its plans and proposals.
005A005A005A001100440045005C00560056004C0051004C0044004F0044005A0011004600520050 www.abyssinialaw.com

‘IX-?i~
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Federal Negarit Gazeta – No.1 21 st
August 1995 – Page 28
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Y.ln:fl !lDflJA II 12. He shall discharge all responsibilities entrusted to him by
this Constitution and other laws.
13. He shall obey and enforce the Constitution.
Article75
Deputy Prime Minister
1. The Deputy Prime Minister shall: (a) Carry out responsibilities which shall be specifically
entrusted to him by the Prime Minister;
(b) Act on behalf of the Prime Minister in his absence.
2. The Deputy Prime Minister shall be responsible to the Prime Minister.
Article76
The Council ofMinisters
1. The Council of Ministers comprises the Prime Minister, the Deputy Prime Minister, Ministers and other members
as may be determined by law. .
2. The Council of Ministers is responsible to the Prime Minister.
3. In all its decisions, the Council of Ministers is responsible to the House of Peoples’ Representatives.
Article77 .
Powers and Functions ofthe Council ofMinisters
1. The Council of Ministers ensures the implementation of laws and decisions adopted by the House of Peoples’
Representatives.
2. It shall decide on the organizational structure of ministries and other organs of government responsible to it; it shall
coordinate their activities and provide leadership.
3. It shall draw up the annual Federal budget and, when approved by the House of Peoples’ Representatives, it
shall implement it.
4. It shall ensure the proper execution of financial and monetary policies of the country; it shall administer the
National Bank, decide on the printing of money and minting of coins, borrow money from domestic and
external sources, and regulate foreign exchange matters.
5. It shall protect patents and copyrights.
6. It shall formulate and implement economic, social and development policies and strategies.
7. It shall provide uniform standards of measurement and calendar.
8. It shall formulate the country’s foreign policy and exercise overall supervision over its implementation.
9. It shall ensure the observance of law and order. 10. It has the power to declare a state of emergency; in doing so, it shall, within the time limit prescribed by the
Constitution, submit the proclamation declaring a state of
emergency for approval’ by the House of Peoples’
Representati ves.
11. It shall submit draft laws to the House of Peoples’ Representatives on any matter falling within its com-
petence, including draft laws on a declaration of war.
12. It shall carry out other responsibilities that may be
entrusted to it by the House of Peoples’ Representativesand the Prime Minister.
13. It shall enact regulations pursuant to powers vested in it by the House of Peoples’ Representatives.
005A005A005A001100440045005C00560056004C0051004C0044004F0044005A0011004600520050 www.abyssinialaw.com

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‘(“~A :: CHAPTER NINE
STRUCTURE AND POWERS OF THE COURTS
Article78
Independence of the Judiciary
1. An independent judiciary is established by this Cons- titution.
2. Supreme Federal judicial authority is vested in the Federal
Supreme Court. The House of Peoples’ Representatives
may, by two-thirds majority vote, establish nationwide.
or in some parts of the country only, the Federal High
Court and First-Instance Courts it deems necessary.
Unless decided in this manner, the jurisdictions of the
Federal High Court and of the First-Instance Courts are hereby delegated to the State courts.
3. States shall establish State Supreme, High and First- Instance Courts. Particulars shall be determined by law.
4. Special or ad hoc courts which take judicial powers aWaY .from the regular courts or institutions legally empowered
to exercise judicial functions and which do not fol1ow
legally prescribed procedures shall not be established.
5. Pursuant to sub-Article 5 of Article 34 the House of Peoples’ Representatives and State Councils can es-
tablish or give official recognition to religious and
customary courts. Religious and customary courts thathad state recognition and functioned prior to the adoption
of the Constitution shall be organized on the basis of
recognition accorded to them by this Constitution.
Article79
Judicial Powers
1. Judicial powers, both at Federal and State levels, are vested in the courts.
2. Courts of any level shall be free from any interference of
influence of any governmental body, government official
or from any other source.
3. Judges shall exercise their functions in full independence and shall be directed solely by the law.
4. No judge shall be removed from his duties before he
reaches the retirement age determined by law except
under the following conditions: (a) When the Judicial Administration Council decides to
remove him for violation of disciplinary rules or on
grounds of gross incompetence or inefficiency; or
(b) When the Judicial Administration Council decides
that a judge can no longer carry out his respon-sibilities on account of illness; and
(c) When the House of Peoples’ Representatives or the
concerned State Council approves by a majority vote
the decisions of the Judicial Administration Counci J.
5. The retirement of judges may not be extended beyond the
retirement age determined by law.
6. The Federal Supreme Court shall draw up and submit to
the House of Peoples’ Representatives for approval the
budget ofthe Federal courts, and upon approval. adminis-
ter the budget.
005A005A005A001100440045005C00560056004C0051004C0044004F0044005A0011004600520050 www.abyssinialaw.com

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11″+~0 fhAt- 9″‘hc 0.”‘” if.ODrf:’}I”‘~’:PA :: 7. Budgets of State courts shall be determined by the
respective State Council. The House of Peoples’
Representatives shall allocate compensatory budgets for
States whose Supreme and High courts concurrently
exercise the jurisdictions of the Federal High Court and
Federal First-Instance Courts.
Article 80
Concurrent Jurisdiction ofCourts
I. The Federal Supreme Court shall have the highest and final judicial power over Federal matters.
2. State Supreme Courts shall have the highest and final judicial power over State matters. They shall also exercise
the jurisdiction of the Federal High Court.
3. Notwithstanding the Provisions of sub-Articles I and 2 of this Article;(a) The Federal Supreme Court has a power of cassation
over any final court decision containing a basic error
of law. Particulars shall be determined by law.
(b) The State Supreme Court has power of cassation
over any final court decision on State matters which
contains a basic error of law. Particulars shall be determined by law.
4. State High Courts shall, in addition to State jurisdiction,
exercise the jurisdiction of the Federal First-Instance
Court.
5. Decisions rendered by a State High Court exercising the jurisdiction of the Federal First-Instance Court areappealable to the State Supreme Court.
6. Decisions rendered by a State Supreme Court on Federal matters are appealable to the Federal Supreme Court.
Article81
Appointment ofJudges
I. The President and Vice-President of the Federal Supreme Court shall, upon recommendation by the Prime Minister,
be appointed by the House of People’s Representatives.
2. Regarding other Federal judges, the Prime Minister shall
submit to the House of Peoples’ Representatives for
appointment candidates selected by the Federal Judicial
Administration Council.
3. The State Council shall, upon recommendation by the
Chief Executive of the State, appoint the President and
Vice-President of the State Supreme Court. State Supreme and High Court judges shall, upon
recommendation by the State Judicial Administration
Council, be appointed by the State Council. The State
Judicial Administration Council, before submitting nominations to the State Council, has the responsibility tosolicit and obtain the views of the Federal Judicial
Administration Council on the nominees and to forward those views along with its recommendations. If the
Federal Judicial Administration Council does not submit
its views within three months, the State Council may
grant the appointments.
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Federal Negarit Gazeta – No.1 21 st
August 1995 – Page 31
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f+Cf1A . ftL+~'” “””‘f1~’e f~C;JAII 5. Judges of State First-Instance Courts shall, upon recom-
mendation by the State Judicial Administration Council,
be appointed by the State Council.
6. Matters of code of professional conduct and discipline as well as transfer of judges of any court shall be determined
by the concerned Judicial Administration Council.
Article82
Structure of the Council of Constitutional Inquiry
1. The Council of Constitutional Inquiry is established by this Constitution.
2. The Council of Constitutional Inquiry shall have eleven members comprising:(a) The President of the Federal Supreme Court, who
shall serve as its President;
(b) The Vice-President of the Federal Supreme Court,
who shall serve as its Vice-President;
(c) Six legal experts, appointed by the President of the
Republic on recommendation by the House of
Peoples’ Representatives, who shall have proven
professional competence and high moral standing;
(d) Three persons designated by the House of the
Federation from among its ~mbers.
3. The Council of Constitutional Inquiry shall establish organizational structure which can ensure expeditious
execution of its responsibilities.
Article83
Interpretation of the Constitution
1. All constitutional disputes shall be decided by the House of the Federation.
2. The House of the Federation shall, within thirty days of receipt, decide a constitutional dispute submitted to it by
the Council of Constitutional Inquiry.
Article84
Powers and Functions of the Council of Constitutional Inquiry
1. The Council of Constitutional Inquiry shall have powers to investigate constitutional disputes. Should the Council,
upon consideration of the matter, find it necessary to
interpret the Constitution, it shall submit its recommen-
dations thereon to the House of the Federation.
2. Where any Federal or State law is contested as being unconstitutional and such a dispute is submitted to it by
any court or interested party, the Council shall consider
the matter and submit it to the House of the Federation for
a final decision.
3. When issues of constitutional interpretation arise in the courts, the Council shall:(a) Remand the case to the concerned court if it finds
there is no need for constitutional interpretation; theinterested party, if dissatisfied with the decision of
the Council, may appeal to the House of the
Federation.
(b) Submit its recommendations to the House of the
Federation for a final decision if it believes there is aneed for constitutional interpretation.
4. The Council shall draft its rules of procedure and sumbit
them to the House ofthe Federation; and implement them
upon approval.
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Jt ‘i l.(J}< foPll}C ~ltt.~:" ht :" :: !l' OI/'}~(J}<'J" fh.tt'iOl/. AOI/.1. ~C'J"}ffht)I1Q(J}<'} f.U,}~:" fOl/!e;;J oPtI''} ht -)' :: Article 89 Economic Objectives 1. Government shall have the duty to formulate policies which ensure that all Ethiopians can benefit from the country's legacy of intellectual and material resources. 2. Government has the duty to ensure that all Ethiopians get equal opportunity to improve their economic conditions and to promote equitable distribution of wealth among them. 3. Government shall take measures to avert any natural and man-made disasters, and, in the event of disasters, to provide timely assistance to the victims. 4. Government shall provide special assistance to Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples least advantaged in economicand social development. 5. Government has the duty to hold, on behalf of the People, land and other natural resources and to deploy them for their common benefit and development. 6. Government shall at all times promote the participation of the People in the formulation of national development policies and programmes; it shall also have the duty to support the initiatives of the People in their development endeavourS. 7. Government shall ensure the participation of women in equality with men in all economic and social develop- ment endeavours. 8. Government shall endeavour to protect and promote the health, welfare and living standards of the working population of the country. Article 90 Social Objectives 1. To the extent the country's resources permit, policies shall aim to provide all Ethiopians access to public health and education, clean water, housing, food and social security. 2. Education shall be provided in a manner that is free from any religious influence, political partisanship or cultural prejudices. Article91 Cultural Objectives 1. Government shall have the duty to support, on the basis of equality, the growth and enrichment of cultures and traditions that are compatible with fundamental rights, human dignity, democratic norms and ideals, and the provisions of the Constitution. 2. Government and all Ethiopian citizens shall have the duty to protect the country's natural endowment, historicalsites and objects. 3. Government shall have the duty, to the extent its resources permit, to support the development of the arts, science and technology. Article92 Environmental Objectives I. Government shall endeavour to ensure that all Ethiopians live in a clean and healthy environment. 2. The design and implementation of programmes and projects of development shall not damage or destroy the environment. 005A005A005A001100440045005C00560056004C0051004C0044004F0044005A0011004600520050 www.abyssinialaw.com 1X' @! t..1..&./: ";J&'-" ;JILtfJ 1 Ilifit% ‘}.,..,
f’ Federal Negarit
Gazeta – No.1 21st
August 1995 – Page 34
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Q’ 3. People have the right to full consultation and to the
expression of views-in the planning and implementation
of environmental policies and projects that affect them
directly.
4. Government and citizens shall have the duty to protect the environment.
CHAPTER ELEVEN
MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS
Article93
Declaration of State of Emergency
1. (a) The Council of Ministers of the Federal Government shall have the power to decree a state of emergency
should an external invasion, a break down of law and
order which endangers the constitutional order and
which cannot be controlled by the regular law
enforcement agencies and personnel, a natural disas- ter, or an epidemic occur.
(b) State executives can decree a State-wide state of
emergency should a natural disaster or an epidemicoccur. Particulars shall be determined in State Cons-
titutions to be promulgated in conformity with this
Constitution.
2. A state of emergency declared in accordance with sub- Article I (a) of this Article:(a) If declared when the House of Peoples’ Represen-
tatives is in session, the decree shall be sumbitted to
the House within forty-eight hours of its declaration.
The decree, if not approved by a two-thirds majorityvote of members of the House of Peoples’ Represen-
tatives, shall be repealed forthwith.
(b) Subject to the required vote of approval set out in (a)
of this sub-Article, the decree declaring a state of
emergency when the House of peoples’ Represen-tatives is not in session shall be submitted to it within
fifteen days of its adoption.
3. A state of emergency decreed by the Co unci I of Ministers, if approved by the House of Peoples’ Representatives,
can remain in effect up to six months. The House of Peoples’ Representatives may, by a two-thirds majorityvote, allow the state of emergency proclamation to be
renewed every four months successively.
4. (a) When a state of emergency is declared, the Council of Ministers shall, in accordance with regulations itissues, have all necessary power to protect the
country’s peace and sovereignty, and to maintain
public security, law and order.
(b) The Council of Ministers shall have the power to
suspend such political and democratic rights con-
tained in this Constitution to the extent necessary to avert the conditions that required the declaration of astate of emergency.
(c) In the exercise of its emergency powers the Council of
Ministers cannot, however, suspend or limit the
rights provided for in Articles 1, 18, 25. and sub-Articles 1 and 2 of Aarticle 39 of this Constitution.

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~mil’l'” II 5. It shall levy and collect taxes on the income of air, rail and
sea transport services.
6. It shall levy and collect taxes on income of houses and properties owned by the Federal Government; it shall fix
rents.
7. It shall determine and collect fees and charges relating to
licenses issued and services rendered by organs of the
Federal Governemnt.
8. It shall levy and collect taxes on monopolies.
9. It shall levy and collect Federal stamp duties.
Article97
State Power ofTaxation
I. States shall levy and collect income taxes on employees of the State and of private enterprises.
. 2. States shall determine and collect fees for land usufrac-
tuary rights.
3. States shall levy and collect taxes on the incomes of private farmers and farmers incorporated in cooperative
associations.
4. States shall levy and collect profit and sales taxes on individual traders carrying out a business within their
territory. States shall levy and collect taxes on income from
transport services rendered on waters within their
territory .
6. They shall levy and collect taxes on income derived from private houses and other properties within the State. They
shall collect rent on houses and other properties they own.
7. States shall levy and collect profit, sales, excise and personal income taxes on income of enterprises owned by
the States.
8. Consistent with the provisions sub-Article 3 of Article 98,
States shall levy and collect taxes on income derived from
mining operations, and royalties and land rentals on such
operations.
9. They shall determine and collect fees and charges relating to licenses issued and services rendered by State organs.
10. They shall fix and collect royalty for use of forest
resources.
Article98
Concurrent Power ofTaxation
1. The Federal Government and the States shall jointly levy and collect profit, sales, excise and personal income taxes
on enterprises they jointly establish.
2. They shall jointly levy and collect taxes on the profits of companies and on dividends due to shareholders.
3. They shall jointly levy and collect taxes on incomes derived from large-scale mining and all petroleum and
gas operations, and royalties on such

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