Skip to main content

Urban Areas and Cities Act

LAWS OF KENYA

T HE U RBAN A REAS AND C ITIES A CT

N O. 13 OF 20 11

Published by the National Council for Law Reporting
with the Authority of the Attorney -General

www.kenyalaw.org

No. 13 Urban Areas and Cities

2
THE URBAN AREAS AND CITIES ACT

No. 13 of 20 11

ARRANGEMENT OF SECTIONS

Section
PART I—PRELIMINARY

1—Short title and commencement .
2—Interpretation.
3—Objects and purposes of the Act .

PART II—CLASSIFICATION AND ESTABLISHMENT OF URBAN
AREAS AND CITIES

4—General classification of urban areas and cities.
5—Criteria for classifying an area as city .
6— Infrastructure in the capital city.
7 —Conferment of city status .
8—Application for Conferment of city status.
9— Conferment of municipal status.
10 — Eligibility for grant of town status .

PART III — GOVERNANCE AND MANAGEMENT OF URBAN
AREAS AND CITIES

11 —Principles of governance and management.
12 — Management of cities and municipalities.
13 — Boards of cities .
14 —Boards of municipalities .
15 — Term of office .
16 — Vacation of office .
17 — Chairperson and vice -chairperson of the Boards.
18—Removal from office .
19 — Filling of vacancy .
20— Functions of the board .
21— Power of boards of cities and municipalities.
22— Citizen Fora .
23— Ordinary and special meetings of a board .
24— Management of information and publicity .
25—Remuneration of members of a board .
26— Committees of a board .
27— Management city county .
28 — City or municipal manager .

Urban Areas and Cities No. 13

3
29 — Appointment of city or municipal manager .
30—Qualific ations for appointment of city or municipal
manager .
31— Governance and management of towns .

PART IV—DELIVERY OF SERVICES

32— Service delivery by a board .
33— Partnership and joint ventures .
34— Service delivery in towns .
35— Objections by resident .

PART V— INTEGRATED DEVELOPMENT PLANNING

36—Objectives of integrated urban areas and city
development planning .
37— Plan to align to county government plans .
38 — Preparation of integrated city or urban development
plans .
39 — Adoption of an integrated devel opment plan .
40—Contents of integrated city and urban area
development plan .
41—Submission of integrated cities and municipal
development plan to the county governor .
42—Annual review of integrated and development plan .

PART VI—FINANCIAL PROVISIONS

43— Funds of a board .
44— Financial year .
45— Annual estimates .
46 — Accounts and audit .
47— Audit report to be laid before board of town
committee.
48 — Display of audited financial statement .
49―Pension Schemes.
PART VII—MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS
50—Disclosure of personal interest by officers .
51— Board to furnish county executive with copies of
proceedings .
52— Protection against personal liability .
53— Regulations .

No. 13 Urban Areas and Cities

4
PART VIII — TRANSITIONAL PROVISIONS
54― Assessment and classification of existing u rban areas
and cities.
55― Rights and liabilities.
56― Existing bye -laws and orders of local authorities.
57― Staff, officers, etc .
58― Existing contracts, etc.
59― Pending actions and proceedings.

SCHEDULES

FIRST SCHEDULE — CLASSIFICATION OF CITIES AND
TOWNS BY SERVICES

SECOND SCHEDULE — RIGHTS OF, AND PARTICIPATION
BY RESIDENTS IN AFFAIRS OF
THEIR CITY OR URBAN AREA

THIRD SCHEDULE — PREPARATION OF AN INTEGRATED
PLAN

Urban Areas and Cities No. 13

5
THE URBAN AREAS AND CITIES ACT

No. 13 of 2011

Date of Assent: 27th August, 2011
Commencement: See Section 1

AN ACT of Parliament to give effect to Article 184 of the
Constitution; to provide for the, classification,
governance and management of urban areas and cities;
to provide for the criteria of establishing urban areas, to
provide for the principle of governance and participation
of residents and for connected purposes

ENACTED by the Parliament of Kenya, as follows —

PART I—PRELIMINARY

Short title and commencement.
1. (1) This Act may be cited as the Urban Areas and
Cities Act, 2011.

(2) Subject to subsection (3), this Act shall come into
operation after the first elections held under the Constitution.

(3) Part VIII of this Act shall come into operation on the
repeal of the Local Government Act (Cap . 265).

Interpretation.
2. (1) In this Act, unless the context otherwise requires —

“board” means the board of a city or municipality
constituted in accordance with section 13 and 14 of this Act;

“Cabinet Secretary” means the Cabinet Secretary
responsible for matters relating to urban areas and cities;

“capital city” means a city conferred with the status of a
capital city under this Act;

No. 13 Urban Areas and Cities

6

“city “means and area conferred with the status of a city
under section 8 of this Act;

“city co unty” means a city which is also a county;

“Citizen Fora” means a forum for citizens organised for
purposes of participating in the affairs of an urban area or a
city under this Act;

“transition period” means the period between the
commencement of this Act and three years after the first
general elections; and

“urban area” means a municipality or a town.

(2) Despite subsection (1), until after the first elections
under the Constitution, references in this Act to the
expression “Cabinet Secretary” shal l be construed to mean
“Minister”.

Objects and purposes of the Act.
3. The objects and purposes of this Act are to establish a
legislative framework for —

(a) classification of areas as urban areas or cities;

(b) governance and management of urban areas and
cities;

(c) participation by the residents in the governance of
urban areas and cities; and

(d) other matters for the attainment of the objects
provided for in paragraphs (a) to (c).

PART II—CLASSIFICATION AND ESTABLISHMENT OF
URBAN AREAS AND CITIE S

General classification of urban areas and cities.
4. An area may be classified as an urban area or city if it
satisfies the criteria set out under this Act or any other
written law.

Urban Areas and Cities No. 13

7
Criteria for classifying an area as city.
5. (1) Subject to subsection (3), an urban area may be
classified as a city under this Act if the urban area satisfies
the following criteria —

(a) has a population of at least five hundred thousand
residents according to the final gazetted results of
the last population census carr ied out by an
institution authorized under any written law,
preceding the grant;

(b) has an integrated urban area or city development
plan in accordance with this Act;

(c) has demonstrable capacity to generate sufficient
revenue to sustain its operation ;

(d) has demonstrable good system and records of
prudent management;

(e) has the capacity to effectively and efficiently deliver
essential services to its residents as provided in the
First Schedule;

(f) has institutionalised active participation by its
residents in the management of its affairs;

(g) has infrastructural facilities, including but not limited
to roads, street lighting, markets and fire stations,
and an adequate capacity for disaster management;
and

(h) has a capacity for functional an d effective waste
disposal.

(2) Nothing in this section may preclude an area from
being conferred with the status of special purpose city under
this Act if it has significant cultural, economic or political
importance.

Management and infrastructure in th e capital city.
6. (1) The capital city of Kenya is Nairobi.

(2) The capital city shall be governed and managed in
the same manner as a county government.

No. 13 Urban Areas and Cities

8

(3) The capital city shall provide infrastructure necessary
to sustain the following —

(a) the seat of the national government;

(b) offices of diplomatic missions;

(c) efficient transport network connecting to rural areas,
towns and other local, regional and international
cities; and

(d) commerce and industry.

(4) The capital city shall decentralise its functions and
the provisions of its services to the extent that it is efficient
and practicable to do so.

(5) Subject to subsection (2), the two levels of
government shall enter into an agreement regarding the
performance of functions and delivery of services by the
capital city.

(6) An agreement entered into under subsection (5) may
provide for —

(a) the administrative structure of the capital city,
subject to the provisions of this Act;

(b) funding of operations and activities of the capital city;

(c) the joint projects to be undertaken by both
governments in the capital city;

(d) dispute resolution mechanisms; and

(e) such other information as the two levels of
government may determine.

Conferment of city status.
7. The President may, on the r esolution of the Senate,
confer the status of a city on a municipality that meets the
criteria set out in section 5, by grant of a charter in the
prescribed form.

Urban Areas and Cities No. 13

9
Application for conferment of city status.
8. (1) The board of a municipality may, upon a
re solution, apply to the county executive committee for
consideration for the conferment of city status.
(2) Where the executive committee approves the
application, the county governor shall constitute an ad hoc
committee to consider the recommendation and a dvise as
appropriate.

(3) The ad hoc committee shall comprise of relevant
professionals in good standing nominate d by the following
institutions ―

(a) the Institution of Surveyors of Kenya;

(b) the Kenya Institute of Planners;

(c) the Architectural Asso ciation of Kenya;

(d) the Law Society of Kenya;

(e) an association of urban areas and cities;

(f) the Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Kenya;
and

(g) the business community.

(4) Where the ad hoc committee under subsection (2)
determines that the municipality under review meets the
requisite criteria for classification as a city, the county
governor shall transmit the recommendation to the county
assembly for approval.

(5) Where the county assembly approves the
recommendation for conferme nt of city status to a
municipality under this section, the clerk of the county
assembly shall transmit the resolution to the senate for
consideration.

(6) Where the senate approves the recommendation, the
clerk of the senate shall forward the resolution to the
President for conferment of city status on the municipality.

No. 13 Urban Areas and Cities

10
Conferment of municipal status.
9. (1) The county governor may, on the resolution of the
county assembly, confer the status of a municipality on a
town that meets the criteria set out in subsection (3), by
grant of a charter in the prescribed form.

(2) The procedure set out under section 8 (1) to (4) shall
apply with necessary modifications to the conferment of
municipal status to a town, except that the conferment shall
be done by the c ounty governor.

(3) A town is eligible for the conferment of municipal
status under this Act if the town satisfies the following
criteria —

(a) has a population of at least two hundred and fifty
thousand residents according to the final gazetted
results of the last population census carried out by an
institution authorized under any written law,
preceding the grant;

(b) has an integrated development plan in accordance
with this Act;

(c) has demonstrable revenue collection or revenue
collection potenti al;

(d) has demonstrable capacity to generate sufficient
revenue to sustain its operations.

(e) has the capacity to effectively and efficiently deliver
essential services to its residents as provided in the
First Schedule ;

(f) has institutionalised active participation by its
residents in the management of its affairs;

(g) has sufficient space for expansion;

(h) has infrastructural facilities, including but not limited
to street lighting, markets and fire stations; and

(i) has a capacity for func tional and effective waste
disposal.

Urban Areas and Cities No. 13

11
Eligibility for grant of a town status.
10. (1) The county governor may, in consultation with
the committee constituted under section 8(2), confer the
status of a town on an area that meets the criteria set out in
subs ection (2).

(2) An area shall be eligible for the grant of the status of
a town under this Act if it has―

(a) a population of at least ten thousand residents
according to the final gazetted results of the latest
population census carried out by an institution
authorized under any written law, preceding the
grant;

(b) demonstrable economic, functional and financial
viability;

(c) the existence of an integrated development plan in
accordance with this Act;

(d) the capacity to effe ctively and efficiently deliver
essential services to its residents as provided in the
First Schedule; and

(e) sufficient space for expansion.

PART III— GOVERNANCE AND MANAGEMENT OF
URBAN AREAS AND CITIES

Principles of governance and management.
11. The governance and management of urban areas
and cities shall be based on the following principles —

(a) recognition and respect for the constitutional status
of county governments;

(b) recognition of the principal and agency relationship
between the boards of urban areas and cities and
their respective county governments including —

(i) the carrying out by a board of such functions as
may be delegated by the county government;

No. 13 Urban Areas and Cities

12
(ii) financial accountability to the county
government; and

(iii) the governanc e by each board for and on behalf
of the county government;

(c) promotion of accountability to the county government
and residents of the urban area or city;

(d) institutionalised active participation by its residents in
the management of the urban area and city affairs;

(e) efficient and effective service delivery; and

(f) clear assignment of functions.

Management of cities and municipalities.
12. (1) The management of a city and municipality shall
be vested in the county government and administere d on its
behalf by —

(a) a board constituted in accordance with section 13 or
14 of this Act;

(b) a manager appointed pursuant to section 28; and

(c) such other staff or officers as a the county public
service may determine.

(2) The board of an area granted the status of a city or
municipality under this Act shall be a body corporate with
perpetual succession and a common seal and shall, in its
corporate name, be capable of —

(a) suing and being sued;

(b) taking, purchasing or otherwise ac quiring, holding,
charging or disposing of movable and immovable
property;

(c) borrowing money or making investments;

(d) entering into contracts; and

(e) doing or performing all other acts or things for the
proper performance of its functions in accord ance

Urban Areas and Cities No. 13

13
with this Act or any other written law which may
lawfully be done or performed by a body corporate.

(3) The governance and management of a city county
shall be in accordance with the law relating to county
governments.

Boards of cities.
13. (1) A bo ard of a city shall consist of not more than
eleven members, six of whom shall be appointed through a
competitive process by the county executive committee, with
the approval of the county assembly.

(2) Of the members referred to in subsection (1), at
lea st five shall be nominated by —

(a) an umbrella body representing professional
associations in the area;

(b) an association representing the private sector in the
area;

(c) a cluster representing registered associations of the
informal sector in the area;

(d) a cluster representing registered neighbourhood
associations in the area; and

(e) an association of urban areas and cities,

and appointed by the county executive committee with the
approval of the county assembly.

(3) The executive committee shall, while appointing
members of the board, ensure gender equity, representation
of persons with disability, youth and marginalised groups.

(4) A person shall not be appointed a member of the
board unless that person―

(a) is a citizen of Kenya;

(b) i s ordinarily resident or has a permanent dwelling in
the city;

No. 13 Urban Areas and Cities

14
(c) carries on business in the city; or

(d) has lived in the city for at least five years.

Boards of Municipalities
14. The provisions of section 13 shall apply with respect
to the board of a municipality except that such board shall
comprise nine members of whom four shall be appointed and
five elected in the prescribed manner.

Term of office.
15. A member of a board shall hold office for a term of
five years, on a part -time basis.

Vacation of office.
16. A member of a board shall cease to hold office if the
member —

(a) is unable to perform the functions of the office by
reason of mental or physical infirmity;

(b) is declared or becomes bankrupt or insolvent;

(c) is convicted of a criminal offence and sentenced to a
term of imprisonment of six months or more;

(d) resigns in writing to the county governor;

(e) without reasonable cause, the member is absent from
three consecutive meetings of the board or
committee within one financial year;

(f) is found guilty of professional misconduct by the
relevant professional body;

(g) is disqualified from holding a public office under the
Constitution;

(h) is convicted of an offence and is sentenced to
imprisonment for a term of six months or more;

(i) in any particular case, the member fails to declare his
or her interest in any matter being considered or to
be considered by the board or committee;

Urban Areas and Cities No. 13

15
(j) engages in any gross misbehaviour or gross
misconduct; or

(k) dies.

Chairper son and vice -chairperson of the Board
17. (1) Subject to subsection (2), there shall be a
chairperson and vice -chairperson for each board.

(2) The chairperson and the vice chairperson shall be
elected by the members of the board from among themselves
during the first meeting of the board, and subsequently
whenever a vacancy arises and shall be of opposite gender.

(4) The chairperson and vice chairperson shall hold office
for a term of five years.

(5) The chairperson shall —

(a) except in the case of a city county, be the head of the
board;

(b) chair meetings of the board;

(c) perform such duties as may be delegated by the
board.

(6) The vice chairperson shall, in the absence of the
chairperson, perform the functions of chairperson and shall
perform such other functions as may be delegated by the
chairperson or the board.

Removal from office.
18. (1) A person may be removed from the office of
chairperson , vice chairperson or a member of the board on
any of the grounds provided under section 16 (a), (b), (c),
(e), (f), (g), (h), (i) and (j).

(a) A person may be removed under subsection (1) —

(b) by the county governor;

(c) by the board, supported by the vote of at least two –
thirds of the members of the board; or

No. 13 Urban Areas and Cities

16

(d) upon petition by the residents o f a city or
municipality.

(3) A resident of a city or municipality may file a writing
petition with a board for the removal of a chairperson or vice
chairperson.

(4) The procedure for the removal or petition for removal
of a chairperson or vice chairperson under subsections (1)
and (2) shall be provided by regulations.

Filling of vacancy.
19. A vacancy in the office of a chairperson, vice
chairperson or a member of the board shall, with necessary
modification, be filled in accordance with sectio n 13 or 17 of
this Act as the case may be.

Functions of a board.
20. (1) Subject to the provisions of this Act a board of a
city or municipality shall —

(a) oversee the affairs of the city or municipality;

(b) develop and adopt policies, plans, strategie s and
programmes, and may set targets for delivery of
services;

(c) formulate and implement an integrated development
plan;

(d) control land use, land sub -division, land development
and zoning by public and private sectors for any
purpose, including indu stry, commerce, markets,
shopping and other employment centres, residential
areas, recreational areas, parks, entertainment,
passenger transport, agriculture, and freight and
transit stations within the framework of the spatial
and master plans for the cit y or municipality as may
be delegated by the county government;

(e) as may be delegated by the county government,
promote and undertake infrastructural development
and services within the city or municipality;

Urban Areas and Cities No. 13

17

(f) develop and manage schemes, including s ite
development in collaboration with the relevant
national and county agencies;

(g) maintain a comprehensive database and information
system of the administration and provide public
access thereto upon payment of a nominal fee to be
determined by the bo ard;

(h) administer and regulate its internal affairs;

(i) implement applicable national and county legislation;

(j) enter into such contracts, partnerships or joint
ventures as it may consider necessary for the
discharge of its functions under this Act or other
written law;

(k) monitor and, where appropriate, regulate city and
municipal services where those services are provided
by service providers other than the board of the city
or municipality;

(l) prepare its budget for approval by the county
executive committee and administer the budget as
approved;

(m ) as may be delegated by the county government,
collect rates, taxes levies, duties, fees and
surcharges on fees;

(n) settle and implement tariff, rates and tax and debt
collection policies as delegated by the county
government;

(o) monitor the impact and effectiveness of any services,
policies, programmes or plans;

(p) establish, implement and monitor performance
management systems;

(q) promote a safe and healthy environment;

(r) facilitat e and regulate public transport; and

No. 13 Urban Areas and Cities

18

(s) perform such other functions as may be delegated to
it by the county government or as may be provided
for by any written law.

(2) The functions performed by the board of a city or
municipality under this Act shall , in the case of a town, be
performed by a committee appointed by the county governor
and approved by the county assembly.

Powers of boards of cities and municipalities.
21. (1) Subject to the Constitution and any other written
law, the board of a city or municipality shall, within its area of
jurisdiction —

(a) exercise executive authority as delegated by the
county executive;

(b) ensure provision of services to its residents;

(c) impose such fees, levies and charges as may be
authorised by the county g overnment for delivery of
services by the municipality or the city;

(d) promote constitutional values and principles;

(e) ensure the implementation and compliance with
policies formulated by both the national and county
government;

(f) make bye -laws or make recommendations for issues
to be included in bye -laws;

(g) ensure participation of the residents in decision
making, its activities and programmes in accordance
with the Schedule to this Act; and

(h) exe rcise such other powers as may be delegated by
the county executive committee.

(2) Notwithstanding any other provision in this Act, the
board of a city or municipality shall exercise such executive
authority as may be delegated by the county executive
committee for the necessary performance of its fu nctions
under this Act.

Urban Areas and Cities No. 13

19

Citizen Fora.
22. (1) Subject to the Second Schedule, residents of a
city, municipality or town may ―

(a) deliberate and make proposals to the relevant bodies
or institutions on —

(i) the provision of services;

(ii) proposed issues for inclusion in county policies
and county legislation;

(iii) proposed national policies and national
legislation;

(iv) the proposed annual budget estimates of the
county and of the national government;

(v) the proposed development plans of the county
and of the national government; and

(vi) any other matter of concern to the citizens;

(b) plan strategies for engaging the various levels and
units of government on matters of concern to
citizens;

(c) monitor the activities of elected and appointed
officials of the urban areas and cities, including
members of the board of an urban area or city; and

(d) receive representations, including feedback on issues
raised by the county citizens, from elected and
appointed officials.

(2) A board sha ll invite petitions and representations
from the Citizen Fora with regard to the administration and
management of the affairs within an urban area or city under
its jurisdiction.

(3) A board shall make recommendations on the manner
in which issues raised at the Citizen Fora, if any, may be
addressed and shall accordingly pass the recommendations to
the manager for implementation.

No. 13 Urban Areas and Cities

20

(4) The manager shall make a report on the decision
made in respect of a petition or presentation made by a
citizen fora and re asons for such decision.

Ordinary and special meetings of a board.
23. (1) A board shall hold its sittings to transact the
business of the board once every three months.

(2) Notwithstanding subsection (1), the chairperson
may, and upon request in writing by at least one -third of the
members of the board shall, convene a special meeting to
transaction any urgent business of the board.

Management of information and publicity.
24. (1) A board shall publish and publicise important
information within its mandate affecting the city or urban
area.

(2) A request for information in the public interest by a
citizen —

(a) shall be addressed to the manager or administrator
or such other person as the board or committee may
for that purpose designate, and may be subject to
the payment of a reasonable fee in instances where
the board or committee incurs an expense in
providing the information; and

(b) may be subject to confidentiality requirements of the
board.

(3) Subject to Article 35 of the Constitution, the board or
committee may decline to give information to an applicant
where —

(a) the request is unreasonable in the circumstances;

(b) the information requested is at a deliberative stage
by the board or committee;

(c) the applicant fails to pay the prescribed fee; or

Urban Areas and Cities No. 13

21
(d) the applicant fails to satisfy any confidentiality
requirements by the board or committee.

(4) The right of acces s to information under Article 35 of
the Constitution shall be limited to the nature and extent
specified under this section.

(5) Every member and employee of the board or
committee shall sign a confidentiality agreement.

(6) The board or committee shal l, in such manner as it
considers appropriate, publish a notice for public information
specifying —

(a) the location of all its offices; and

(b) its address or addresses, telephone numbers and
other means of communication or contact with the
board or comm ittee.

Remuneration of members of a board.
25. The chairperson, vice chairperson and members of a
board shall not receive a salary from the board but shall be
paid such allowances and benefits as the county executive
committee shall, with the approval of the county assembly,
and on the advice of the Salaries and Remuneration
Commission, determine.

Committees of a board.
26. A board may —

(a) establish such committees for any general or special
purpose which, in its opinion, would regulate or
manage its affairs more efficiently and as may be
necessary for the performance of its functions under
this Act;

(b) delegate to such committee such f unctions as are
necessary for the efficient performance of its duties
in respect to the whole or any part of the area under
the jurisdiction of a board; and

(c) include persons who are not members of the board in
any committee .

No. 13 Urban Areas and Cities

22

Management of city county .
27. A city county shall be governed and managed in the
same manner as a county government.

City or municipal manager.
28. There shall be a city or municipal manager for every
city or municipality established under this Act, who shall
implement the de cisions and functions of the board and shall
be answerable to the board.

Appointment of city or municipal manager.
29. A city or municipal manager shall be competitively
recruited and appointed by an institution responsible for
recruiting public servant s in the county.

Qualifications for appointment of city or municipal
manager.
30. (1) Subject to Article 232 of the Constitution, a
person shall qualify to be appointed as city or municipal
manager if the person —

(a) is a citizen of Kenya;

(b) holds a degree from a university recognised in Kenya
or its equivalent; and

(c) has proven experience of not less than five years in
administration or management either in the public or
private sector.

(2) In appointing a manager under subsection (1) the
body responsible for county public service shall ensure―

(a) gender equity;

(b) the inclusion of minorities and marginalised
communities; and

(c) the person satisfies the requirements of Chapter six
of the Constitution.

Urban Areas and Cities No. 13

23
Governance and management of towns.
31. (1) An area granted the status of a town under this
Act shall not be a body corporate.

(2) There shall be an administrator for every town
established under this Act .

(3) The administrator of a town shall perform such
functions as the committee appo inted under section 20 (2)
may determine.

(4) Section 29 and 30 of this Act shall apply to the
appointment of an administrator.

PART IV—DELIVERY OF SERVICES

Service delivery by a board.
32. (1) Subject to Article 187 (2) (a) of the Constitution,
a board shall, on behalf of the county government, deliver
such services as may be specified under this Act or any other
national or county legislation.

(2) Subject to Article 176 (2) of the Constitu tion, a city
or municipal board may, if it considers it necessary, establish
operational sectors and service delivery entities, with the
approval of the county executive committee, for the efficient
carrying out of its functions and the delivery of the ser vices
within its area of jurisdiction.

(3) Subject to the provisions of this section, a county
assembly may legislate on the set up and establishment of
service delivery entities.

Partnership and joint ventures.
33. (1) A board may, in consultation with the county
governor and with the approval of the county assembly, enter
into partnership with a utility company either within or
outside the county or internationally for the provision of social
infrastructural services.

(2) For efficient service delivery , cities and municipalities
may jointly provide cross -city and cross -municipality services
and may, in that regard jointly finance the services.

No. 13 Urban Areas and Cities

24
(3) A board may, where it is of the opinion that a
private sector entity is best able to provide a service, and
with the approval of the county assembly, contract a private
entity for purposes of delivering the services within its area of
jurisdiction.

(4) Where a board decides to contract a private entity
for the delivery of services, it shall do so in accordance with
the Public Procurement and Disposal Act, 2005 (No. 3 of
2005 ).

Service delivery in towns.
34. The provisions of this Part shall, with nec essary
modifications, apply in the case of the delivery of services in
towns by the town committee.

Objections by residents.
35. A resident may object to any partnership or joint
venture under section 33 in accordance with the regulations
made under thi s Act.

PART V—INTEGRATED DEVELOPMENT PLANNING

Objectives of integrated urban areas and city
development planning.
36. (1) Every city and municipality established under
this Act shall operate within the framework of integrated
development planning which shall —

(a) give effect to the development of urban areas and
cities as required by this Act and any other written
law;

(b) strive to achieve the objects of devolved government
as set out in Article 174 of the Constitution;

(c) contribute to the protecti on and promotion of the
fundamental rights and freedoms contained in
Chapter Four of the Constitution and the progressive
realization of the socio -economic rights;

(d) be the basis for —
(i) the preparation of environmental management
plans;

Urban Areas and Cities No. 13

25

(ii) the preparation of valuation rolls for property
taxation;

(iii) provision of physical and social infrastructure
and transportation;

(iv) preparation of annual strategic plans for a city
or municipality;

(v) disaster preparedness and response;

(vi) overall delivery of service including provision of
water, electricity, health, telecommunications
and solid waste management; and

(vii) the preparation of a geographic information
system for a city or municipality;

(e) nurture and promote development of informal
commercial activities in an orderly and sustainable
manner;

(f) provide a framework for regulated urban agriculture;
and

(g) be the basis for development control.

(2) In addition to the objectives set out in subsection
(1), an integrated urban or city development plan shall bind,
guide and inform all planning development and decisions and
ensure comprehensive inclusion of all functions.

(3) A county government shall initiate an urban planning
process for every settlement with a population of at least two
thousand residents.

Plan to align to county government plans.
37. (1) A city or urban area integrated development plan
shall be aligned to the development plans and strategies of
the county governments.

No. 13 Urban Areas and Cities

26
Preparation of integrated city or urban develop ment
plans.
38. A city or urban area shall prepare an integrated city
or urban area municipal development plan in accordance with
the Third Schedule to this Act.

Adoption of an integrated development plan.
39. (1) A board or town committee shall, within the first
year of its election, adopt a single, inclusive strategic plan for
the development of the city or urban area for which it is
responsible.

(2) An integrated development plan adopted by a board
or town committee under subsection (1) may be reviewe d
and amended during the term of the board or committee and
shall remain in force until a new integrated urban area or city
development plan is adopted by the succeeding board or town
committee, but the incoming board or committee shall ensure
that the via ble projects are continued or completed.

(3) A city or urban area shall, within fourteen days of the
adoption of its integrated development plan —

(a) give notice of the adoption of the plan to the public in
such manner as a board or committee may
determi ne;

(b) inform the public that copies of or extracts from the
plan are available for public inspection at specified
places; and

(c) provide a summary of the plan.

Contents of integrated city and urban area
development plan.
40. An integrated urban area or city development plan
shall reflect —

(a) a board’s or committee’s vision for the long term
development of the city or urban area with special
emphasis on the board’s or committee’s most critical
development needs;

Urban Areas and Cities No. 13

27
(b) an assessment of the existing lev el of development in
the city or urban area, including an identification of
communities which do not have access to basic
services;

(c) the determination of any affirmative action measures
to be applied for inclusion of communities referred to
under para graph (b) to access funds from the
equilization funds;

(d) the board’s development priorities and objectives
during its term in office, including its economic
development objectives, community needs and its
determination on the affirmative action in relat ion to
the marginalised groups access to services;

(e) a boa rd’s development strategies which shall be
aligned with any national or county sectoral plans
and planning requirements binding the city or
municipality;

(f) a spatial development framework whi ch shall include
the provision of basic guidelines for land use
management system for the city or municipality;

(g) a board’s operational strategies;

(h) applicable disaster management plans;

(i) a regulated city and municipal agricultural plan;

(j) a financial plan, which shall include budget projection
for at least the next three years; and

(k) the key performance indicators and performance
targets.

Submission of integrated cities and municipal
development plan to the county governor.
41. (1) The ma nager or administrator shall submit to the
executive committee, a copy of the integrated development
plan as adopted by the board or committee within twenty one
days of the adoption or amendment.

(2) The copy of the integrated development plan

No. 13 Urban Areas and Cities

28
submitted to the county executive committee shall be
accompanied by —

(a) a summary of the process of its formulation plan
provided under this Part; and

(b) a statement that the process has been complied with,
together with any explanations that may be
necessary to clarify the statement.

(3) The county executive committee shall, within thirty
days of receipt of a copy of the plan —

(a) consider the integrated development plan and make
recommendations; and

(b) submit the plan to the county assembly for its
approva l.

Annual review of integrated development plan.
42. A city or municipal board shall review its integrated
development plan annually to assess its performance in
accordance with performance management tools set by it
under this Part, and may amend the pla n where it considers it
necessary.

PART VI—FINANCIAL PROVISIONS

Funds of a board.
43. (1) The funds of a board shall consist of —

(a) monies allocated by a county assembly for the
purposes of the management and service delivery of
the board;

(b) monies or assets that may accrue to the board in the
course of the exercise of its powers or the
performance of its functions under this Act; and

(c) all monies or grants from any other legitimate source
provided or donated to the board.

(2) Where an urban are a or city has a joint venture with
another entity, the monies allocated for the joint venture

Urban Areas and Cities No. 13

29
shall be determined by a joint budget.

(3) No payment shall be made out of the funds of a
board or town committee unless it has been provided for in
the approve d annual or revised or supplementary estimates
of expenditure and authorized by a board.

Financial year.
44. The financial year of a board or town committee shall
be the period of twelve months ending on the thirtieth June in
each year.

Annual estimates.
45. (1) Three months before the commencement of each
financial year, a board or town committee shall cause to be
prepared estimates of the revenue and expenditure of a
board or town committee for that year.

(2) The annual estimates shall make provision f or all the
estimated revenue and expenditure of the board for the
financial year to which it relates.

(3) The annual estimates shall be tabled before the
board or town committee for adoption and approval.

(4) The annual estimates approved by the board o r town
committee under subsection (3) shall be submitted to the
county governor for submission to the county assembly for its
approval.

Accounts and audit.
46. (1) The board or town committee shall cause to be
kept all proper books and records of account of its income,
expenditure, assets and liabilities.

(2) Within a period of three months after the end of each
financial year, the board or town committee shall submit to
the County Executive Committee its accounts for that year fo r
transmission to the Au ditor -General together with —

(a) a statement of the income and expenditure of a
board for that year; and

No. 13 Urban Areas and Cities

30
(b) a statement of the assets and liabilities of a board on
the last day of that financial year.

(3) The Auditor -General shall prepare a financial a udit as
required under the Public Audit Act, 2003 (No. 12 of 2003 ) or
its successor and shall forward a copy of the report to the
relevant board and the County Executive Committee in
respect of which the audit report is made .

Audit report to be laid befor e board or town committee.
47. (1) As soon as is practicable, and in any event not
later than thirty days from the date of receipt of the audit
report together with the annual statements and abstracts of
accounts, the manager or administrator shall ―

(a) l ay the documents before the board or town
committee for consideration; and

(b) make them available to any resident of the area
within the jurisdiction of the board, upon application
and payment of the prescribed fee.

(2) Where the manager or the administ rator of a board
fails to table the report as required under this section, that
report shall be laid by any other person authorised by the
county governor.

Display of audited financial statement.
48. The board shall cause its audited annual financial
stat ement to be posted in full in a conspicuous place in the
board’s offices, or in two widely circulated newspapers and,
on the board’s website.

Pension Schemes.
49. All members and officers of a board shall, on the
commencement of this Act, subscribe to an existing pension
scheme approved by the Retirement Benefits Authority.

PART VII—MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS

Disclosure of personal interest by officers.
50. If it comes to the knowledge of an officer employed
by a board that a bargain, contract or arrangement in which
he or she has any direct or indirect pecuniary interest (other

Urban Areas and Cities No. 13

31
than a bargain, contract or arrangement to which he or she is
a party) has been o r is proposed to be made or entered into
by the board, that officer shall as soon as practicable give
notice in writing to the board disclosing the fact that he or
she has interest therein.

Board to furnish county executive with copies of
proceedings.
51. Every board shall furnish the county executive
committee and any other person as the county executive
committee may designate, with certified copies of―

(a) any proceedings or minutes of the board or its
committees within twenty one days after the
confir mation of the minutes;

(b) records of any of its accounts; and

(c) reports, statistics and documents as the county
executive committee may require.

Protection against personal liability.
52. (1) No act, matter or thing done or omitted to be
done by —

(a) the chairperson or vice chairperson of a city or
municipality;

(b) any member of a board or its management or
committee;

(c) any member of staff or other person in the service of
city or municipal board; or

(d) any person acting under the direction o f a board,

shall, if that act, matter or thing was done or omitted to be
done in good faith in the execution of a duty or under
direction, render that member or person personally liable to
any civil action, claim or demand.

(2) Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection (1), a
person who misappropriates, or authorises the use of funds
contrary to existing law or instructions shall be accountable

No. 13 Urban Areas and Cities

32
for any loss arising from that use and shall be required to
make good the loss even if that person has ceased to hold
office.

Regulations.
53. (1) The Cabinet Secretary may make regulations, for
the better carrying out of the provisions of this Act, or for
prescribing anything which is required to be prescribed under
this Act.

(2) Regulations made under this section shall be tabled
before the Senate for approval, and shall not take effect until
such approval is obtained.

PART VIII — TRANSITIONAL PROVISIONS

Assessment and classification of existing urban areas
and cities.
54. (1) Du ring the transition period assessment shall be
undertaken on the existing urban areas and cities in order to
ascertain whether they meet the criteria for classification as
urban areas or cities under this Act, and shall be classified
accordingly.

Rights a nd liabilities.
55. All rights, assets and liabilities accrued in respect of
the properties vested in the local authorities established
under the Local Government Act (Cap. 265) which shall stand
repealed after the first election under the Constitution sha ll
be dealt with as provided by law.

Existing bye -laws and orders of local authorities.
56. All directions, resolutions, orders and authorizations
given by by -laws made, and licenses or permits issued by the
local authorities established, under the Local Government Act
and subsisting or valid immediately before the
commencement of this Act shall be deemed to have been
given, issued or made by the boards established pursuant to
this Act, as the case may be, until their expiry, amendment
or repeal.

Urban Areas and Cities No. 13

33
Staff, officers, etc.
57. (1) Every person who, immediately before the
commencement of this Act was an officer, agent or member
of staff appointed, seconded or otherwise employed by a
local authority shall, on the commencement of this Act be
seconded or otherwise deployed as may be provided by law .

Existing contracts, etc.
58. (1) Any act, matter or thing lawfully done by any
local authority before the commencement of this Act and any
contract, arrangement, agreement, settlement, trust,
bequest, transfer , division, distribution or succession affecting
any service delivery, trade of any form, sale or dealings on
land or any other matter affecting assets, liabilities or
property belonging to any local authority whether moveable,
immoveable or intellectual p roperty shall, unless and until
affected by the operation of this Act, continue in force and be
vested in a body established by law.

Pending actions and proceedings.
59. Any legal right accrued, cause of action commenced
in any court of law or tribunal e stablished under any written
law in force, or any defence, appeal, or reference howsoever
filed by or against any local authority shall continue to be
sustained in the same manner in which they were prior to the
commencement of this Act against a body esta blished by law.

Municipalities of Mombasa and Kisumu.
60. Notwithstanding any other provisions of this Act, the
municipalities of Mombasa and Kisumu existing immediately
before the commencement of this Act shall be deemed to be
cities established under this Act.

No. 13 Urban Areas and Cities

34
SCHEDULES

FIRST SCHEDULE (s. 5)
CLASSIFICATION OF CITIES AND TOWNS BY SERVICES
In classifying an area as a city, municipality or town, regard
shall be had to the ability to provide the following services:

City — (Population at least 500,000)

Planning and Development Control
Traffic Control and Parking
Water and Sanitation
Street Lighting
Outdoor Advertising
Cemeteries and Crematoria
Public Transport
Libraries
Storm Drainage
Ambulance Services
Heath Facilities
Fire Fighting and Disaster Management
Control of Drugs
Sports and Cultural Activities
Electricity and Gas Reticulation
Abattoirs
Refuse Collection
Solid waste management
Air pollution
Child Care Facilities
Pre -Primary Education
Local Distributor Roads
Conference Facilities
Community Centres
Five Star Hotel
Guest Houses
National Hospital
Referral hospital
County Hospital
University
Constituent University Campuses
Polytechnic
Training Institution
National School
County School

Urban Areas and Cities No. 13

35
Stadium
National Stadium
International Airport
Airport
Airstrip
National Theatre
Theatre
Library Service
Administrative Seat
Financial Hub
Diplomatic Hub
Consulate
Museum
Historical Monument
Fire Station
Emergency Postal services
National TV station
National Radio Station
Regional Radio Station
Community Radio
Casinos
Funeral Parlour
Cemetery
Recreati onal Parks
Management of Markets
Marine Water front
Animal control and welfare
Religious Institution

Municipality —(Population at least 250,000)

Planning and Development Control
Traffic Control and Parking
Water and Sanitation
Street Lighting
Outdoor Advertising
Cemeteries and Crematoria
Public Transport
Libraries
Storm Drainage
Ambulance Services
Heath Facilities
Fire Fighting and Disaster Management
Control of Drugs
Sports and Cultural Activiti es

No. 13 Urban Areas and Cities

36
Electricity and Gas Reticulation
Abattoirs
Refuse Collection
Solid waste management
Air noise
Child Care Facilities
Pre -Primary Education
Local Distributor Roads
Conference Facilities
Community Centres
Hotel Homestays
Guest Houses
County Hospital
Constituent University Campuses
Polytechnic
Training Institution
National School
County School
Municipal Stadium
Stadium
Airport
Airstrip
National Theatre
Theatre
Library Service
Administrative Seat
Financial Hub
Museum
Historical Monument
Fire Station
Emergency Preparedness
Postal services
National TV station
National Radio Station
Regional Radio Station
Community Radio
Casinos
Funeral Parlour
Cemetery
Recreational Parks
Management of Markets
Marine Water front
Animal control and welfare
Religious Insti tution
Organised Public Transport

Urban Areas and Cities No. 13

37

Town — (Population at least 10,000)

Street Lighting
Cemeteries and Crematoria
Libraries
Heath Facilities
Sports and Cultural Activities
Abattoirs
Refuse Collection
Solid waste management
Air noise
Child Care Facilities
Pre -Primary Education
Community Centres
Guest Houses
Homestays
Polytechnic
Training Institution
County School
Airstrip
Unclassified roads
Museum
Historical Monument
Postal services
Regional Radio Station
Community Radio
Funeral Parlour
Cemetery
Recreational Parks
Management of Markets
Marine Water front
Animal control and welfare
Religious Institution

No. 13 Urban Areas and Cities

38
SECOND SCHEDULE (s. 22)

RIGHTS OF, AND PARTICIPATION BY RESIDENTS IN AFFAIRS OF
THEIR CITY OR URBAN AREA

Rights and duties of residents.
1. (1) Subject to paragraph (2), residents of a city or
urban area have the right to —

(a) contribute to the decision -making processes of the
city or urban area by submitting written or oral
presentations or complaints to a board or town
co mmittee through the city or municipal manager or
town administrator;

(b) prompt responses to their written or oral
communications;

(c) be informed of decisions of a board, affecting their
rights, property and reasonable expectations;

(d) regular disclosure of the state of affairs of the city or
urban area, including its finances;

(e) demand that the proceedings of a board or
committee and its committees or sub committees
be —

(i) conducted impartially and without prejudice; and

(ii) untainted by personal self -interest;

(f) the use and enjoyment of public facilities; and

(g) have access to services which the city or municipality
provides.

Participation by residents.
2. (1) A city or urban area shall develop a system of
governance th at encourages participation by residents in its
affairs, and shall for that purpose —

Urban Areas and Cities No. 13

39
(a) create appropriate conditions for participation in —

(i) the preparation, implementation and review of
the integrated development plan;

(ii) the establishment, impl ementation and review of
its performance management system;

(iii) the monitoring and review of its performance,
including the outcomes and impact of its
performance;

(iv) the preparation of its budget; and

(v) making of strategic decisions relating to delivery
of service;

(b) contribute to building the capacity of —

(i) the residents to enable them participate in the
affairs of the city or urban area; and

(ii) members of the board or town committee and
staff to foster community participation;

(c) apply its resources, and allocate funds annually as
may be appropriate for the implementation of
paragraphs (a) and (b); and

(d) establish appropriate mechanisms, processes and
procedures for —

(i) the receipt, processing and consideration of
petitions a nd complaints lodged by residents;

(ii) petitions and public comments procedures, when
appropriate;

(iii) notification of public meetings and hearings
organised by a board or town committee;

(iv) consultative sessions with locally recognized
resident or ganisations; and

(v) reporting to the residents.

No. 13 Urban Areas and Cities

40

(2) The provisions of paragraph (1) shall not be
construed as permitting interference with a board’s or town
committee’s right to govern and exercise its functions.

(3) When establishing mechanisms, proce sses and
procedures und er subsection (1), the city or urban area shall
take into account the special needs of —

(a) people who cannot read or write;

(b) people with disabilities;

(c) youth;

(d) gender equity; and

(e) minority and marginalised groups.

THIRD SCHEDULE (s.38)

PREPARATION OF AN INTERGRATED PLAN

In the preparation of the integrated urban area or city
development plan a city or urban area shall provide for —

(a) an assessment of the current social, cultural,
economic a nd environmental situation in its area of
jurisdiction;

(b) a determination of community needs and aligning
them to the requirements of the Constitution;

(c) protection and promotion of the interests and rights
of minorities and marginalized groups and
communities;

(d) a shared vision for its development and that of the
county as a whole;

(e) an audit of available resources, skills and capacities;

(f) prioritization of the identified needs in order of
urgency and long -term importance;

Urban Areas and Cities No. 13

41

(g) integrated frameworks and goals to meet the
identified needs;

(h) strategies to achieve the goals within specific time
frames;

(i) specific implementation programmes and projects to
achieve Intended goals; and

(j) performance management tools to measu re impact
and performance and make appropriate corrections;

(k) linkage, integration and coordination of sector plans;

(l) development control; and

(m) any other necessary matter.

-->