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- Year: 2004
- Country: Myanmar
- Language: English
- Document Type: Domestic Law or Regulation
- Topic: Advocacy and Public Policy Activities,New Media
The Union of Myanmar
The State Peace and Development Council
The Electronic Transactions Law
( The State Peace and Development Council Law No. 5/2004 )
The 12th Waxing of Kason 1366 M.E.
(30th April, 2004)
The State Peace and Development Council hereby enacts the following Law:
Title and Definition
1. This Law shall be called the Electronic Transactions Law.
2. The following expressions contained in this Law shall have the meanings given hereunder:-
(a) Information includes data, texts, images, sounds, codes, computer programmes, software and
(b) Electronic record means a record generated, sent, received or stored by means of electronic,
magnetic, optical or any other similar technologies in an information system or for transmission from
one information system to another;
(c) Electronic data message means an information generated, sent, received or stored by means of
electronic, optical or any other similar technologies, including electronic data interchange, fax, e-mail,
telegraph, telex and telecopy.
(d) Computer means a device capable of receiving, transmitting, storing, processing or retrieving
information and records, using arithmetic and logical means by manipulation of electronic, magnetic,
optical or any other similar technologies;
(e) Computer network means the network system of the interconnection of computers through use of
satellite or by any other technologies;
(f) Electronic signature means any symbol or mark arranged personally or on his behalf by electronic
technology or any other similar technologies to verify the authenticity of the source of the electronic
record and the absence of amendment or substitution;
(g) Certification authority means a person or an organization that has been granted a licence by the
Control Board under this Law for services in respect of the electronic signature;
(h) Certificate means the certificate issued to a subscriber by the certification authority as an electronic
data message or other record identifying the relation between the signer of an electronic signature and
the electronic data message;
(i) Originator means a person by whom or on whose behalf the electronic record or electronic data
message purports to have been created, generated or sent. This expression does not include a person
acting as an intermediary with respect to electronic record or electronic data message;
(j) Addressee means a person who is intended by the originator to receive the electronic record or
electronic data message. This expression does not include a person acting as an intermediary with
respect to electronic record or electronic data message;
(k) Subscriber means a person who is by any technologies identified as an authentic signer of an
electronic signature in the certificate;
(1) Central Body means the Central Body of Electronic Transactions formed under this Law;
(m) Ministry means the Ministry of Communications, Posts and Telegraphs;
(n) Control Board means the Electronic Transactions Control Board formed under this Law.
3. The aims of this Law are as follows:-
(a) to support with electronic transactions technology in building a modern, developed nation;
(b) to obtain more opportunities for all-round development of sectors including human resources,
economic, social and educational sector by electronic transactions technologies;
(c) to recognize the authenticity and integrity of electronic record and electronic data message and give
legal protection thereof in matters of internal and external transactions, making use of computer
(d) to enable transmitting, receiving and storing local and foreign information simultaneously, making
use of electronic transactions technologies;
(e) to enable communicating and co-operating effectively and speedily with international organizations,
regional organizations, foreign countries, local and foreign government departments and organizations,
private organizations and persons, making use of computer network.
4. (a) The provisions contained in this Law shall apply to any kind of electronic record and electronic
data message used in the context of commercial and non-commercial activities including domestic and
international dealings, transactions, arrangements, agreements,contracts and exchanges and storage of
(b) This Law shall apply to any person who commits any offence actionable under this Law within the
country or from inside of the country to outside of the country, or from outside of the country to inside
of the country by making use of the electronic transactions technology.
5. The provisions contained in this Law shall not apply to the following matters:
(a) “Will” defined in sub-section (h) of section 2 of the Succession Act;
(b) Negotiable instrument” defined in section 13 of the Negotiable Instruments Act;
(c) “Trust” defined in section 3 of the Trusts Act;
(d) Power of Attorney” granted under the Powers of Attorney Act;
(e) Documents relating to title;
(f) Instruments prescribed in any existing law to be registered;
(g) Matters exempted by the Ministry by issuing notification, with the approval of the Government.
Formation of the Central Body of Electronic
Transactions and Functions and Duties thereof
6. The Government: –
(a) shall form the Central Body of Electronic Transactions for enabling the implementation of the aims
of this Law, comprising the Minister for the Ministry of Communications, Posts and Telegraphs as the
Chairman and persons from the relevant ministries, government departments and organizations and
technicians as members;
(b) may, in forming the Central Body, determine the Vice-Chairman, Secretary and Joint Secretary and
assign duties thereof:
(c) may reorganize the Central Body as may be necessary.
7. The functions and duties of the Central Body are as follows: –
(a) laying down plans for application step by step of electronic transactions technologies extensively in
building the modern, developed nation;
(b) laying down and implementing programmes for enriching experience and knowledge on electronic
transactions technologies and readiness in globalization process;
(c) carrying out activities to be in conformity with the policies relating to electronic transactions
technologies, legal affairs and specifications to enable communicating, co-operating and dealing
effectively and speedily, with international organizations, regional organizations, foreign countries and
local and foreign organizations;
(d) communicating and co-operating with international organizations, regional organizations, foreign
countries, local and foreign organizations on matters relating to electronic transactions technologies;
(e) forming the Control Board and supervising and guiding thereof;
(f) forming the necessary working committees and stipulating functions and duties thereof for enabling
the implementation of their functions and duties successfully.
8. The Central Body may, if necessary, assign any of its functions and duties to an appropriate
government department and organization or person.
Formation of the Electronic Transactions Control Board and Functions and Powers thereof
9. The Central Body:
(a) shall, for the purposes of this Law, form the Electronic Transactions Control Board comprising
suitable persons and experts for enabling the supervision of the activities of the electronic transactions.
(b) may reorganize the Control Board as may be necessary.
10. The Control Board shall exercise and carry out the following functions and powers under the
guidance of the Central Body:
(a) issuing licence to enable performing as a certification authority and refusing to issue the same;
(b) specifying the manner in which dealings shall be conducted between the certification authority and
(c) specifying the terms and conditions and standards subject to which the certification authority shall
conduct its business and the detailed data to be recorded in the accounts to be maintained by it;
(d) specifying the qualifications and experience that employees of the certification authority should
(e) settling disputes relating to interests which arise between the certification authority and the
(f) facilitating the establishment of any electronic system by a certification authority either solely or
jointly with other certification authority and regulation of such system;
(g) maintaining a database containing the disclosure record by certification authority of particulars that
shall be accessible to the public;
(h) reproducing, copying or extracting, if necessary, of records, accounts, data and documents stored by
a certification authority and examining thereof
(i) having access to and inspecting and checking the operation of any computer system and any
associated apparatus or material which it has reasonable cause to suspect is or has been in use in
connection with any offence under this Law;
(j) exposing and acquiring any necessary identification document from any person with respect to any
offence contained in this Law;
(k) examining and supervising the activities of the certification authority;
(l) investigating as may be necessary to scrutinize whether this Law and rules, procedures,
notifications, orders and directives issued under this Law are abided by or not;
(m) recognizing any foreign certification authority in accordance with the stipulations;
(n) submitting its activities to the Central Body in accordance with the stipulations;
(o) performing other functions and duties as are assigned by the Central Body and the Ministry from
time to time.
11. The Control Board may, if necessary, assign any of its functions and duties to a body after forming
it or to an expert, with the approval of the Central Body.
12. Any person or organization from inside or outside of the country desirous of performing service as
a certification authority shall apply to the Control Board to obtain the licence in accordance with the
13. The Control Board may, after scrutinizing the licence application under section 12, issue the licence
to the person or organization by prescribing the terms and conditions or refuse to issue the same.
14. The certification authority shall:
(a) utilize the trustworthy system so as not to cause intrusion and misuse of computer hardware,
software and procedures of computer;
(b) prescribe a reasonable level of reliability in its services which are reasonably suited to the
performance of intended functions;
(c) carry out the secrecy and privacy of the electronic signatures in accordance with the security
(d) observe the specified standards;
(e) mention the detailed facts of electronic transactions certificate;
(f) disclose its service that can be provided with respect to issuance of certificate;
(g) disclose facts that may materially and adversely affect reliability, or responsibility or guaranty of a
certificate that is issued or its ability to perform its services;
(h) in the event of occurrences that may materially and adversely affect due to conditions permitted in
the certificate or failure in the computer system:
(i) notify the person who may foreseeably be affected, by any possible means;
(ii) act in accordance with procedures governing such an occurrence specified in its certification
(i) comply with the regulations and duties prescribed by the Control Board from time to time.
15. (a) The certification authority who obtains a licence issued under section 13 shall, on submitting a
proposal to obtain a permit under the Myanmar Citizens Investment Law or Union of Myanmar
Foreign Investment Law, apply to the Myanmar Investment Commission together with the licence
issued by the Control Board.
(b) The Myanmar Investment Commission may, with respect to application under sub-section (a), seek
the remark of the Control Board, if necessary.
16. (a) Any person, desirous of performing as a subscriber, shall apply to the certification authority to
obtain the certificate in accordance with the stipulations.
(b) The certification authority may, after scrutinizing the application under sub-section (a), issue the
certificate by prescribing conditions or refuse to issue the same.
17. The subscriber shall: –
(a) when using valid signature by decryption of the electronic signature, take care so that such
decryption may not be used by others unlawfully;
(b) in using the certificate issued for electronic signature during the period granted, take care to be
completely accurate and correct with respect to facts relevant to him or facts that are to be inserted;
(c) if the secrecy of decryption of the electronic signature has been compromised or is in a situation
where compromise may possibly occur, inform the persons who are related to his electronic signature
as arranged by the certification authority or by any suitable arrangement without delay.
18. The subscriber shall be responsible for the consequences of the loss and damage to be caused by his
failure to comply with the provisions of section 17.
Electronic Record, Electronic Data Message and
19. (a) Matters prescribed to be reduced to writing or to be signed under any existing law may be made
by electronic record, electronic data message or electronic signature.
(b) The electronic record, electronic data message or electronic signature made under sub-section
(a) shall be lawful as if they were made under the relevant law.
20. The originator and the addressee shall, in accordance with the stipulated means, perform the
sending, receiving or storing of electronic record, electronic data message or electronic signature.
However, if there is a specific agreement between them, it may be performed in accordance with the
means of such agreement.
Contracts made by Electronic Technology
21. In making contracts unless otherwise agreed by the parties, offer acceptance of offer and other
requirements may be made by electronic technology.
22. The electronic record and electronic data message shall be deemed to be that of the originator if it
was sent by the originator himself or by a person who had the authority to act on behalf of the
originator or by an information system programmed by or on behalf of the originator to operate
23. An addressee is entitled to regard an information electronic record or electronic data message as
being that of the originator if it conforms to any of the following points and to act on that assumption:
(a) sending in accordance with the procedure previously agreed between the originator and the
(b) receiving by the addressee data message which resulted from the action of a person who has
relationship with the originator or who has the authority to act on behalf of the originator and sending
by a procedure used by the originator.
24. On or before sending of the electronic record or electronic data message, the originator and the
(a) may acknowledge the receipt by any of the following procedures:
(i) communicating by the addressee himself or automated or by any other means;
(ii) any conduct sufficient to indicate to the originator that addressee has received it;
(b) may enter into specific agreement in respect of the acknowledgement of receipt.
(a) the originator has stated that electronic record or the electronic data message is conditional on
receipt of the acknowledgement of the electronic data message or electronic record, it shall be treated
as though it had never been sent until the acknowledgement is received;
(b) the originator has not stated that electronic record or the electronic data message is conditional on
receipt of acknowledgement and the acknowledgement has not been received by the originator within
the time specified or agreed or if no time has been specified or agreed within a reasonable time, the
originator may give notice to the addressee stating that no acknowledgement has been received.
26. Unless otherwise agreed between the originator and the addressee in respect of dispatch and receipt
of an electronic record or electronic data message:
(a) dispatch of it occurs when it enters information system outside the control of the originator or his
(b) the time of receipt of it is as follows:
(i) the time when it enters the designated information system;
(ii) if an information system which is not designated is used, the time when it is retrieved by the
(iii) if no information system has been designated, the time when it enters an information system of the
27. (a) Unless otherwise agreed between the originator and the addressee the place of business of the
originator shall be deemed to be the dispatching place and the place of business of the addressee shall
be deemed to be the receiving place.
(b) If the originator and the addressee conduct business in more than one place, the principal place of
business shall be deemed to be the permanent address. If there is no place of business, their place of
permanent residence shall be deemed to be the permanent address, and if it is a corporate body, the
place where it has been incorporated and established legally shall be deemed to be the permanent
Taking Administrative Action
28. The Control Board may, if the certification authority violates any condition of the licence or is
convicted for the commission of any offence under this Law, pass any of the following administrative
(a) imposing a penalty as stipulated;
(b) suspending the licence subject to a time limit;
(c) cancelling the licence.
29. The certification authority may, if the subscriber violates any condition contained in the certificate
or is convicted for the commission of any offence under this Law, pass any of the administrative orders:
(a) suspending the certificate subject to a time limit;
(b) cancelling the certificate.
Application for Revision and Appeal
30. (a) A person dissatisfied with any order or decision made by the certification authority in respect of
the refusal of issuing certificate, suspension of the certificate subject to a time limit or cancellation of
the certificate may apply for revision to the Control Board within 30 days from the date of passing such
order or decision;
(b) The Control Board may confirm, revise or set aside the order or decision made by the certification
31. (a) A person dissatisfied with any order or decision made by the Control Board in respect of the
refusal of issuing certificate, imposing a penalty as stipulated, suspension of licence subject to a time
limit or cancellation of the licence or with any order or decision made under sub-section (b) of section
30 may file an appeal to the Central Body within 60 days from the date of passing such order or
(b) The Central Body may confirm, revise or set aside the order or decision made by the Control Board.
32. The decision made by the Central Body under sub-section (b) of section 31 shall be the final and
Offences and Penalties
33. Whoever commits any of the following acts by using electronic transactions technology shall, on
conviction be punished with imprisonment for a term which may extend from a minimum of 7 years to
a maximum of 15 years and may also be liable to a fine:
(a) doing any act detrimental to the security of the State or prevalence of law and order or community
peace and tranquillity or national solidarity or national economy or national culture.
(b) receiving or sending and distributing any information relating to secrets of the security of the State
or prevalence of law and order or community peace and tranquillity or national solidarity or national
economy or national culture.
34. Whoever commits any of the following acts shall, on conviction be punished with imprisonment for
a term which may extend to 5 years or with fine or with both:
(a) sending, hacking, modifying, altering, destroying, stealing, or causing loss and damage to the
electronic record, electronic data message, or the whole or part of the computer programme
(b) intercepting of any communication within the computer network, using or giving access to any
person of any fact in any communication without permission of the originator and the addressee;
(c) communicating to any other person directly or indirectly with a security number, password or
electronic signature of any person without permission or consent of such person;
(d) creating, modifying or altering of information or distributing of information created, modified or
altered by electronic technology to be detrimental to the interest of or to lower the dignity of any
organization or any person.
35. Any certification authority or any of his officer or employee who violates any of the prohibitions
contained in the order issued by the Control Board shall, on conviction be punished with imprisonment
for a term which may extend to 3 years or with fine or with both.
36. Whoever violates any of the prohibitions contained in the rules, notifications and orders issued
under this Law shall, on convition be punished with imprisonment for a term which may extend to 1
year or with fine or with both.
37. Whoever commits any of the following acts shall, on conviction be punished with imprisonment for
a term which may extend to 1 year or with fine or with both:-
(a) knowingly misrepresents to the certification authority his identity or authorisation in applying for a
certificate or in submitting for suspension or cancellation of a certificate;
(b) obstructing or impeding or assaulting the Central Body and body or person assigned duty by it or
the Control Board and body or person assigned duty by it which performs the functions and duties in
accordance with this Law or failing to comply with the demand to perform in accordance with this
38. Whoever attempts to commit any offence of this Law or conspires amounting to an offence or abets
the commission of an offence shall be punished with the punishment provided for such offence in this
39. The government departments and organizations shall recognize the transaction of electronic record
or electronic data message as lawful for the following matters:
(a) submitting, accepting or retention of documents;
(b) issuing permit, licence or approval;
(c) claiming the required payment, paying, receiving and issuing a receipt therefor.
40. The persons making use of electronic transactions may determine the required type and level of
security of electronic record and electronic data message and may select, use and implement the
methods which accord with their requirement.
41. The Ministry shall determine the tenure of licence, licence fees and renewal fees of tenure of
licence in respect of business licence to enable performance as the certification authority.
42. The Control Board has the right to recover the fees and fines to be received under this Law from the
defaulter as if they were arrears of land revenue.
43. The Ministry:-
(a) may prescribe and allow remuneration to the members of the Central Body, who are not government
(b) shall arrange to carry out the functions of the office of Central Body and shall also bear the
44. In prosecuting under this Law, prior sanction of the Central Body shall be obtained.
45. Any offence contained in this Law is cognizable by the Myanmar Police Force.
46. If an exhibit involved in any offence prosecuted under this Law is not easily producible before the
Court, such exhibit needs not be produced before the Court. However, a report with other relevant
documentary evidence as to the manner cf custody of the same may be submitted. Such submission
shall be deemed as if it were a submission of the exhibit before the Court and the relevant Court may
dispose of the same in accordance with Law.
47. The expression “experts” referred to in section 45 of the Evidence Act shall be deemed to include
the Control Board, the body or person assigned duty by it or the certification authority.
48. Information, electronic record, electronic data message, electronic signature or other documents
communicated between the originator and the addressee shall not be denied legal effect, validity or
enforceability solely on the ground of being made through electronic technology.
49. No suit or prosecution shall lie against the Central Body and body or person assigned duty by it or
the Control Board and body or person assigned duty by it or the certification authority for duties and
functions done in good faith in pursuance of this Law.
50. The Ministry may, with the approval of the Government, issue a notification if necessary, to clarify
the definition of any technical terms of this Law.
51. Notwithstanding anything contained in any existing law, the provisions contained in this Law shall
prevail over the provisions not in conformity with or contradicting any provisions contained in this
52. In implementing the provisions of this Law:-
(a) the Ministry may, with the approval of the Government, issue necessary rules and procedures;
(b) the Central Body and the Ministry may issue necessary notifications, orders and directives and the
Control Board may issue necessary directives.
( Sd.) Than Shwe
The State Peace and Development Council