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Constitution

Unofficial translat ion

CONSTITUTION OF NEPA L 2015

Constituent Assembly Secretariat
Singha Durbar

UNOFFICIAL TRANSLATI ON BY

Unofficial translat ion

Table of Content
PREAMBLE ________________________________ ______________________________ I
Part 1
Preliminary ________________________________ _______________________________ 1
Part 2
Citizenship ________________________________ _______________________________ 3
Part 3
Fundamental Rights and Duties ________________________________ _______________ 5
Part 4
Directive Pr inciples, Policies and Responsibilities of the State ______________________ 16
Part 5
Rest ructuring of the State and the D istribution of State Power ______________________ 25
Part 6
President and V ice -President ________________________________ ________________ 28
Part 7
Federal Executive ________________________________ _________________________ 31
Part 8
Federal Parliament ________________________________ ________________________ 34
Part 9
Federal Legislative Proc edure ________________________________ _______________ 44
Part -10
Federal Financial Procedure ________________________________ _________________ 48
Part -11
Judiciary ________________________________ ________________________________ 51
Part 12
Attorney General ________________________________ _________________________ 63
Part -13
Provincial Executive ________________________________ _______________________ 66
Part -14
Provincial Legislature ________________________________ ______________________ 71
Part 15
Provincial Legislative Procedure ________________________________ _____________ 78
Part 16
Provincial Financial Procedure ________________________________ _______________ 80
Part – 17
Local Executive ________________________________ __________________________ 83
Part 18
Local Legislature ________________________________ _________________________ 87
Part -19
Local Financial Procedure ________________________________ __________________ 89
Part -20
Interrelationship between the Federation , Provinces and Local level _________________ 90
Part 21
Commission for the Investigation of Abuse of Authority __________________________ 93
Part – 22
Auditor Gener al ________________________________ __________________________ 96

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Part – 23
Public Service Commission ________________________________ _________________ 98
Part -24
Election Commission ________________________________ _____________________ 102
Part – 25
National Human Rights Commission ________________________________ _________ 104
Part 26
National Natural Resources and Fiscal Commission _____________________________ 108
Part 27
Other Commissions ________________________________ ______________________ 111
Part 28
Provision regarding National Secu rity ________________________________ ________ 114
Part 29
Provision relating to Political Parties ________________________________ _________ 122
Part 30
Emergency Powers ________________________________ _______________________ 124
Part 3 1
Amendment of the Constitution ________________________________ _____________ 126
Part 32
Miscellaneous ________________________________ ___________________________ 128
Part 33
Transitional Provisions ________________________________ ____________________ 136
Part 34
Definitions and Interpretations ________________________________ ______________ 142
Part 35
Short T itl e, Commencement and Repeal ________________________________ ______ 144

Schedule – 1
National Flag of Nepal ________________________________ ____________________ 145
Schedule – 2
National Anthem of Nepal ________________________________ _________________ 147
Schedule – 3
Coat of Arms of Nepal ________________________________ ____________________ 148
Schedule – 4
Provinces and Districts within Provinces ________________________________ ______ 149
Schedule 5
List of Federal powers/j urisdiction ________________________________ ___________ 151
Schedule 6
List of Provincial powers/j urisdiction ________________________________ ________ 153
Schedule 7
List of c oncurrent powers/j urisdiction of Federation and Province __________________ 154
Schedule 8
List of powers/j urisdiction of Local Level ________________________________ _____ 155
Schedule 9
List of concurrent p ow ers/jurisdiction of F eder ation , Province and Local level ________ 156

Unofficial translat ion
PREAMBLE
We, the people of Nepal, in exercise of the sovereign powers inherent in us,
Embraci ng the sovereign right of the people and the right to autonomy and self –
rule, by maintaining Nepal’s independence, sovereignty , geographical integrity,
national unity, freedom and dignity,
Remembering the glorious history of historical peoples’ movements and armed
struggles time and again and the sacrifice made by people for national interest,
democracy, progressive change, and r ecognizing the martyrs, the disappeared
citizens and the victims,
Ending all forms of discriminations and oppression created by the feudal,
autocratic, centralized and unitary system,
Embrac ing multi -caste, multi -lingual, multi -cultural and diverse geog raphical
specificities, by ending discriminations relating to class, caste, region, language,
religion and gender discrimination including all forms of racial untouchability, in
order to protect and promote unity in diversity, social and cultural solidari ty,
tolerance and harmonious attitudes, we also express our determination to create
an egalitarian society on the basis of the principles of proportional inclusion and
participation, to ensure equitable economy, prosperity and social justice,
Expressing co mmitment to create the bases of socialism by adopting democratic
norm s and values, including peoples’ competitive multi -party democratic
governance system, civil liberty, fundamental rights, human rights, adult franchise,
periodic elections, complete press freedom and an independent, impartial and
competent judiciary, and the concept of rule of law,
NOW THEREFORE, in order to fulfill the aspirations for perpetual peace, good
governance, development and prosperity through the medium of federal
democratic re publican system of governance , hereby promulgate this C onstitution
through the Constituent Assembly.

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PART 1
Preliminary
1. Const itution as the fundamental law: (1) T his constitution is the
fundamental law of Nepal. All laws inconsistent with this consti tution shall, to
the extent of such inconsistency, be void.
(2) It shall be the duty of every person to uphold this constitution.
2. Sovereignty and state authority: The sovereignty and state authority of
Nepal are vested in Nepali people. The use of whic h shall be as provided for in
this constitution.
3. Nation: Having multi -ethnic, multi -lingual, multi -religious, multi -cultural
characteristics with common aspirations of people living in diverse
geographical regions, and being committed to and united by a bond of
allegiance to national independence, territorial integrity, national interest
and prosperity of Nepal, all the Nepali people collectively constitute the
nation.
4. State of Nepal: (1) Nepal is an independent, indivisible, sovereign, secular,
inclu sive democratic , socialism -oriented federal democratic republican state .
Explanation: For the purpose of this article, ‘secular’ means protection of
religion and culture being practiced since ancient times and religious and
cultural freedom.
(2) The territ ory of Nepal shall comprise:
(a) the territory existing at the commencement of this constitution,
and
(b) such other territory as may be acquired after the commencement
of this constitution.
5. National interest : Independence, sovereignty, territorial int egrity,
nationality, autonomy , self -respect, protection of rights and interests of
Nepali people, protection of boundaries , and economic progress and
prosperity, shall be the fundamental subjects of Nepal’s national interest.
(2) Act and character against national interest shall be punishable by
Federal law .
6. Language of the nation : All the mother tongues spoken in Nepal shall be the
national language.
7. Language of official transaction : (1) The Nepali language written in
Dev anagiri script shall be the language of official business in Nepal.
(2) In addition to Nepali language, a province shall select one or more
national language that is spoken by majority of people in that province

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as the language of official business, as provided for by the provincial
law.
(3) Other matters concerning language shall be as decided by the
Government of Nepal on the recommendation of the Language
Commission.
8. National flag : (1) The national flag of Nepal, consists of two juxtaposed
triangular figures with a crimson colored base and deep blue borders, there
being a white emblem of the crescent moon with eight rays visible out of
sixteen in the upper part and a white emblem of a twelve rayed sun in the
lower part.
(2) The method of drawing the flag and other particul ars relating thereto
shall be as set out in Schedule -1.
9. National anthem , etc .: (1) The national anthem of Nepal shall be as set out in
Schedule -2.
(2) The coat -of -arms of Nepal shall be shall be as set out in Schedule -3.
(3) The Rhododendron Arboreum is the national flower, Crimson is the
national color, the cow is the national animal and the Lophophorus is
the national bird of Nepal.

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PART 2
Citizenship
10. Citizenship not to be denied : (1) No Nepali citizen shall be denied the right
to acquire cit izenship.
(2) There shall be a provision of single federal citizenship with provincial
identity in Nepal .
11. Nepali citizen to be deemed : (1) The persons who have acquired citizenship
of Nepal at the commencement of this Constitution and the persons who are
eligible to acquire citizenship of Nepal under this Part shall be deemed to be
the citizens of Nepal.
(2) The following persons who have their permanent domicile in Nepal shall be
deemed to be citizens of Nepal by descent : –
(a) A person w ho has a cquired the citizenship of Nepal by descent before
the commencement of this constitution.
(b) Any person whose father or mother was a citizen of Nepal at the birth
of such a person .
(3) A child of a citizen who has acquired citizenship of Nepal by birth be fore the
commencement of this Constitution shall, if his/her father and mother both
are the citizens of Nepal, shall be entitled to Nepali citizenship by descent
upon his/her attaining the age of majority.
(4) Every child found in Nepal whereabouts of who se paternity and maternity is
not known shall, until the mother or father is traced, be deemed a citizen of
Nepal by descent.
(5) A person born to a Nepali citizen mother and having his/her domicile in
Nepal but whose father is not traced , shall be conferr ed the Nepali
citizenship by descent.
Provided that in case his/her father is found to be a foreigner, the citizenship of
such a person shall be converted to naturalized citizenship according to the Federal
law .
(6) If a foreign woman married to a Nepa li citizen so wishes, she may acquire
naturalized citizenship of Nepal as provided for in a Federal law .
(7) Notwithstanding anything contained elsewhere in this Article, in case of a
person born to Nepali woman citizen married to a foreign citizen, he/sh e
may acquire naturalized citizenship of Nepal as provided for by a Federal
law if he/she is having the permanent domicile in Nepal and he/she has not
acquired citizenship of the foreign country .

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Provided that if his/her father and mother both are the citi zen of Nepal at the time
of acquisition of the citizenship, he/she, if born in Nepal, may acquire citizenship
by descent.
(8) Except provided for in this Article, Government of Nepal may confer
naturalized citizenship of Nepal according to Federal law .
(9) Government of Nepal may confer honorary citizenship according to
Federal law .
(10) In case any area is annexed into Nepal by merger , the persons having
domicile in such area shall be citizens of Nepal subject to a Federal
law .
12. Citizenship based on Des cent and with Gender Identity : The person who is
entitled to the citizenship of Nepal by descent may obtain the citizenship
certificate of Nepal from name of his/her mother or father along with gender
identity.
13. Acquisition, Requisition and Termination of Citizenship: Other provisions as
to acquisition, requisition and termination of citizenship shall be as provided
for in a Federal law .
14. Non -residential citizenship may be conferred : The person who has acquired
citizenship of a foreign country and res iding in a country other than the
country which is a member of the South Asian Association of Regional
Cooperation (SAARC) and who or whose father or mother, grandfather or
grandmother was a citizen of Nepal by descent or birth and later on has
acquired ci tizenship of the foreign country , may be conferred with the non –
residential citizenship of Nepal entitling him/her to the economic, social and
cultural rights as provided for in a Federal law .
15. Other Provis ions as to Citizenship of Nepal: Re cord shall b e maintained of
each citizen of Nepal along with his/her identity , and other provisions as to
citizensh ip shall be as provided for in the Federal law .

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PART 3
Fundamental Rights and Duties
16 . Right to live with dignity : (1) Each person shall have the rig ht to live with
dignity.
(2) No law shall be made for capital punishment.
17 . Right to Freedom : (1) Except as provided for by law no person shall be
deprived of her/his personal liberty .
(2) Every citizen shall have the following freedom s:
(a) freedom of opinion and expression,
(b) freedom to assemble peacefully and without arms,
(c) freedom to form political party,
(d) freedom to form unions and associations,
(e) freedom to move and reside in any part of Nepal; and
(f) freedom to engage in any occupation or be engaged in
employment, establish and operate industry , trade and business
in any part of Nepal .
Provided that,
(1) Nothing in section (a) shall be deemed to prevent the making of an Act to
impose reasonable restrictions on any act which may und ermine the
nationality, sovereignty, independence and indivisibility of Nepal, or federal
units, or jeopardizes the harmonious relations subsisting among the people
of various caste, ethnicity, religion, or communities, or incites racial
discrimination, or untouchability, or disrespects labor , or any act of
defamation, or contempt of court, or an incitement of offence, or is
contrary to decent public behavior or morality.
(2) Nothing in section (b) shall be deemed to prevent the making of an Act to
impose reasonable restrictions on any act which may undermine the
nationality, sovereignty, independence and indivisibility of Nepal, or
jeopardize the harmonious relations between federal units, or public law
and order situation.
(3) Nothing in section (c ) shall be deemed to prevent the making of an Act to
impose reasonable restrictions on any act which may undermine the
nationality, sovereignty, indivisibility or Nepal, or an act of espionage
against the nation, or disclosing national secrets, or helping foreign state or
organization that may jeopardize Nepal’ security, or an act of treason, or
an act that undermines the harmonious relations subsisting between federal
units, or instigates communal animosity, or jeopardizes the harmonious
relations subsist ing among different caste, ethnicity, religious groups and

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communities, or an act of acquiring or depriving the membership of a
political party only on the grounds of caste, language, religion, community
or gender, or the formation of a political party tha t creates discrimination
against citizens, or an act that incites violence, or is contrary to decent
public behavior .
(4) Nothing in section (d) shall be deemed to prevent the making of an Act to
impose reasonable restrictions on any act which may undermi ne the
nationality, sovereignty, indivisibility or Nepal, or an act of espionage
against the nation, or disclosing national secrets, or helping foreign state or
organization that may jeopardize Nepal’ security, or an act of treason, or
an act that underm ines the harmonious relations subsisting between federal
units, or instigates communal animosity, or jeopardizes the harmonious
relations subsisting among different caste groups , ethnicity, religious groups
and communities, or an incitement of violence, o r an act which is contrary
to public morality.
(5) Nothing in section (e) shall be deemed to prevent the making of an Act to
impose reasonable restrictions on any act which may undermine the interest
of the general public, or the good relations between fed eral units, or the
harmonious relations subsisting among various caste groups, ethnicity,
religious groups or communities, or an act of committing crime or violence,
or inciting such acts.
(6) Nothing in section (f) shall be deemed to prevent the making o f an Act to
impose reasonable restrictions on any act which may undermine the good
relations between federal units, or restricting an act which may have
negative impact on public health, decent behavior and morality, or the
particular industries, trade , bu siness or services which only the state may
engage in, or setting conditions or eligibility to engage in industries, trade,
business , livelihoods or occupation.
18 . Right to equality : (1) All ci tizens shall be equal before law. No person shall
be denied the equal protection of law .
(2) There shall be no discrimination in the application of general laws on the
grounds of origin , religion, race, caste, tribe, sex , physical conditions,
disability , health conditi on , matrimonial status, pregnancy, economic
con dition, language or geographical region, or ideology or any other such
grounds.
(3) The state shall not discriminate among citizens on grounds of origin,
religion, race, caste, tribe, sex , economic condition, language or
geographical region, ideology and such other matters.
Provided that nothing shall be deemed to bar the making of special provisions by
law for the protection, empowerment or advancement of the women lagging
behind socially and culturally, Dalits, Adibasi , Madhesi, Tharus, Muslims, opp ressed
class, backward communities, minorities, marginalized groups, peasants, laborers ,
youths, chi ldren, senior citizens, sexual minorities, persons with disability,
pregnant, incapacitated and the helpless persons , and of the citizens who belong to
back ward regions and financially deprived citizens including the Khas A rya .

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Explanation : With reference to this Part and Part 4, “financially deprived” means
the person having the income less than prescribed in the Federal law .
(4) There shall not be any ge nder discriminations regarding remuneration for
the same work and social security.
(5) There shall be no gender discrimination regarding the right to parental
property with regard to all family members.
19 . Right to communication : (1) T here shall be n o prior censorship of
publications and broadcasting, or information dissemination, or printing of
any news item, editorial, article, feature, or other reading material, or the
use of audio -visual material by any medium, including electronic publication,
br oadcasting and printing.
Provided that nothing shall be deemed to prevent the making of laws to
impose reasonable restriction on any act which may undermine the
nationality, sovereignty, and indivisibility of Nepal, or the good relations
between federal units, or jeopardizes the harmonious relations subsisting
among different caste groups and tribes, or communities, or an act of
treason, or defamation of social dignity of individuals through the publication
and dissemination of false material, or contemp t of court, or material that
incites criminal offence, or an act that is contrary to decent public behavior
and morality, or disrespects labor , or incites untouchability or gender
discriminations.
(2) If there is any broadcasting, publishing or printing, or dissemination of
news, article, editorial, feature, or other material through the medium
of electronic equipment or the use of visuals or audio -visuals, no radio,
television, online publication or any kind of digital or electronic
equipment, or press, or other kind of media outlet, shall be closed,
seized, or their registration cancelled for publishing, or transmitting, or
broadcasting such material.
Pr ovided that nothing in this clause shall be deemed to prevent the making of Acts
to regulate radio, television, online or the use of any other kind of digital or
electronic equipment, printing press or other medium of communication.
(3) No means of communication including the press, electronic broadcasting
and telephone shall be obstructed except in accordance with law.
20 . Right to Justice : (1) No person shall be d etained without being informed of
the ground for such an arrest.
(2) The person who is arrested shall have the right to consult a legal
practitioner of her/his choice and be defended fro m the time of arrest.
The consultations held with the legal practitioner and the advice given
thereon shall remain confidential.
Provided that t his clause shall not apply to a citizen of an enemy state.
Explanation : F or the use of this clause “legal pract itioner” shall mean a person
who has the legal right to represent any person in any court or office .

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(3) Every person who is arrested shall be produced before a judicial
authority within a period of twenty -four hours after such arrest,
excluding the time n ecessary for the journey from the time and place
of arrest to such authority, and the arrested person shall not be
detained in custody beyond the said period except on the order of such
authority.
Provided that this clause shall not apply to a person in preventive detention or to a
citizen of an enemy state.
(4) No person shall be punished for an act which was not punishable by law
when the act was committed, and no person shall be subjected to a
punishment greater than that prescribed by law at the ti me of the
offence.
(5) No person accused of any offence shall be assumed to be an offender
until proven guilty.
(6) No person shall be prosecuted or punished for the same offence in a
court of law more than once.
(7) No person accused of any offence shall be compelled to be a witness
against herself/himself.
(8) Every person undergoing trial shall have the right to be informed about
the proceedings of the trial.
(9) Every person shall be entitled to a fair hearing from an impartial,
independent and compete nt court or judicial authority.
(10) An indigent person shall have the right to free legal aid as provided for
by law.
21 . Right of victim of crime : (1) The victim of crime shall have the right to be
informed about the investigation and proceedings o f the case regarding
his/her victimization.
(2) The victim of crime shall have the right to social rehabilitation and
justice with compensation as provided for by law.
22 . Right against torture: (1) No person in detention shall be subjected to
physical or mental torture, or be treated in a cruel, inhuman or degrading
manner.
(2) Any such act pursuant to clause (1) shall be punishable by law and a
victim of such an act shall have the right to compensation as provided for
by law.

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23 . Right against preventiv e detention : (1) No person shall be held under
preventive detention unless there is sufficient ground to believe that the re
exits an immediate threat to the sovereignty and territorial integrity of Nepal
or public peace and order.
(2) Family member or close relative of the person in preventive detention
pursuant to clause (1) shall have to be immediately informed about
his/her condition as provided for by law.
Provided that this clause shall not be applicable to a citizen of an enemy state.
(3) If an o fficial is found to have held any person under preventive detention
against the law and with malicious intention, such person shall be
entitled for compensation as per the law.
24 . Right against untouchability and discrimination : (1) No person shall be
tre ated with any kind of untouchability or discrimination in any private or
public place on grounds of caste, ethnicity, origin, community, occupation, or
physical condition.
(2) No person belonging to a particular caste or ethnicity shall be prevented
from buying an object or getting services or facilities in the process of
production of such objects or in the distribution or delivery of services,
or no such objects shall be sold to, or facilities or services distributed or
delivered to persons belonging to a particular caste or ethnicity only.
(3) Racial discriminations shall not be encouraged in any way, or there shall
not be any behavioral attitude to exhibit high or low status on grounds of
a particular caste, ethnicity or community, or physical condi tion of a
person, or there shall not be any behavioral attitude that justifies social
discrimination based on caste, ethnicity, or untouchability, or
encouragement for the propagation of attitudes based on caste
superiority and untouchability, or hatred.
(4) There shall not be any racial discrimination in the workplace by indulging
or not indulging in untouchability.
(5) All forms of untouchability or discrimination contrary to this provision
shall be punishable by law as a serious social crime, and the v ictim of
such an act shall have the right to compensation as provided for by law.
25 . Right to property : (1) Every citizen shall, subject to laws, have the right to
acquire, enjoy own, sell, have professional gains, and otherwise utilize, or
dispose of pr operty.
Explanation: For the purpose of this Article, “property” means all type of movable
and immovable property and the word also includes intellectual property.
Provided that the state may impose tax on property and income of a person
according to the norms of progressive tax.
(2 ) The State shall not, except in the public interest, acquire, requisition,
or create any encumbrance on the property of any person.

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Provided that this clause shall not be applicable to property acquired through
illegal means.
(3 ) In the case when the land of a person is acquisitioned by the State
according to clause (2 ), the basis of compensation and the relevant
procedure shall be as prescribed by Act .
(4) The provisions of clauses (2) and (3) shall not obstruct the state in
carrying out land reforms, management and regulation by law in order to
increase the production and productivity of land, modernize the
agriculture and make it professional, environment protection and
managed housing and urban development.
(5) In case th e state has acquired property of any person for public interest
pursuant to clause (3 ), there shall be no hindrance to use such property
for any other public interest, other than the public interest for which it
has been acquired.
26 . Right to religious freedom : (1) Each person shall be free to profess, practice,
and preserve his/her religion according to his/her faith .
(2) Every religious denomination shall, maintaining its independent
existence, have the right to manage and protect its religious place s and
religious trusts in accordance with law.
Provided that it shall not be deemed to have hindered to make law to operate and
protect a religious place or religious trust and to manage trust property and
regulate land management .
(3) While exercising the right as provided for by this Article, no perso n shall
act or make others act in a manner which is contrary to public health,
decency and morality, or behave or act or make others act to disturb
public law and order situation, or convert a person of one r eligion to
another religion, or disturb the religion of other people. Such an act shall
be punishable by law.
27 . Right to information : E very citizen shall have the right to seek information on
any matters of concern to her/him or the public.
Provided t hat nothing shall be deemed to compel any person to provide
information about which confidentiality is to be maintained according to law .
28 . Right to privacy : Except in circumstances provided by law, privacy in relation
to the person, and their residence, property, documents, records, statistics
and correspondence, and their reputation are inviolable.
29 . Right against exploitation : (1) Every person shall have the right against
exploitation.
(2) No person shall be subjected to any kind of exploitation on the basis of
religion, custom, tradition, culture, practices or any other bases.

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(3) No person shall be subjected to human trafficking or bonded labor , and
such an act shall be punishable by law.
(4) No person shall be subjected to forced labor .
Pr ovided that nothing in this clause shall prevent the enactment of a law requiring
citizens to be engaged in compulsory service for public purposes.
(5) Any act contrary to clause (3) and (4) shall be punishable by law and the
victim of such an act shall have the right to compensation from the
perpetrator.
30 . Right regarding clean environment : (1) Each person shall have the right to
live in a healthy and clean environment.
(2) The victim of environmental pollution and degradation shall have the
right to be compens ated by the pollutant as provided for by law.
(3) Provided that this Article shall not be deemed to obstruct the making of
required legal provisions to strike a balance between environment and
development for the use of national development works.
31 . Rig ht to education : (1) Every citizen shall have the right to access to basic
education.
(2) Every citizen shall have the right to compulsory and free basic education,
and free education up to the secondary level.
(3) The physically impaired and citizens who are financi ally poor shall have
the right to free higher education as provided for in law.
(4) The visually impaired person shall have the right to free education with
the medium of brail script .
(5) Every Nepali community living in Nepal shall have the ri ght to acquire
education in its mother tongue up to the secondary level, and the right
to open and run schools and educational institutions as provided for by
law.
32 . Right to language and culture : (1) Each person and community shall have the
right to us e their language.
(2) Every person and community shall have the right to participate in the
cultural life of its community.
(3) Each community living in Nepal shall have the right to preserve and
promote its language, script, culture, cultural civilization and heritage.
33 . Right to employment : (1) Every citizen shall have the right to employment.
Terms and conditions of employment and unemployment benefits shall be as
determined by Federal law .
(2) Every ci tizen shall have the right to select employment.

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34 . Right regarding labor : (1) Every laborer shall have the right to proper work
practices.
Explanation: For the purpose of this Article, ” laborer ” means a worker or laborer who
offers physical or mental work for an employer for remuneration.
(2) Every laborer shall have the right to appropriate remuneration, facilities
and contribution -based social security.
(3) Every laborer shall have the right to form trade union, participate in it,
and organize collective bargaining.
35. Right to health care : (1) Every citizen shall have the right to seek basic
health care services from the state and no citizen shall be deprived of
emergency health care.
(2) Each person shall have the right to be informed about his/her health
condition with regard to health care ser vices.
(3) Each person shall have equal access to health care.
(4) Each citizen shall have the right to access to clean water and hygiene.
36 . Right to food : (1) Each citizen shall have the right to food.
(2) Every citizen shall have the right to be prote cted from a state of
starvation, resulting from lack of food stuffs.
(3) Every citizen shall have the right to food sovereignty as provided for in
law.
37 . Right to housing : (1) Each citizen shall have the right to appropriate housing.
(2) No citizen shall be evicted from the housing owned by him/her, or
encroached on the housing, except in accordance with law.
38 . Right of women : (1) Every woman shall have equal right to lineage without any
gender discriminations.
(2) Every woman shall have the right relat ing to safe motherhood and
reproductive health .
(3) There shall not be any physical, mental, sexual or psychological or any
other kind of violence against women, or any kind of oppression based on
religious, social and cultural tradition, and other prac tices. Such an act
shall be punishable by law and the victim shall have the right to be
compensation as provided for in law.
(4) Women shall have the right to access participate in all state structures
and bodies on the basis of the principle of proporti onal inclusion.
(5) Women shall have the right to special opportunity in the spheres of
edu cation, health, employment and social security on the basis of
positive discrimination.

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(6) Both the spouses shall have equal rights in property and family affairs
39 . Right of children : (1) Each child shall have the right to his/her identity with
the family name, and birth registration.
(2) Every child shall have the right to education, health care nurturing,
appropriate upbringing, sports, recreation and overall personality
development from family and the State.
(3) Every child shall have the right to formative child development, and child
participation.
(4) No child shall be employed in factories, mines, or in any other hazardous
works.
(5) No child shall be su bjected to child marriage, illegal trafficking,
kidnapping, or being held hostage.
(6) No child shall be subjected to recruitment or any kind of use in the army,
police or armed groups, neglected, or used immorally, or abused
physically, mentally, or sexua lly, or exploited through any other means,
in the name of religious or cultural practices.
(7) No child shall be subjected to physical, mental, or any other forms of
torture at home, in school, or in any other places or situations.
(8) Every child shall ha ve the right to child friendly justice.
(9) Children who are helpless, orphaned, physically impaired, victims of
conflict and vulnerable, shall have the right to special protection and
facilities from the State.
(10) Any act contrary to Clause (4), (5), (6 ) and (7) shall be punishable by law,
and children who have suffered from such an act shall have the right to
be compensated by the perpetrator as provided for in law.
40 . Right of Dalits : (1) Dalit shall have the right to participate in all agencies of
the state based on the principle of proportional inclusion. There shall be
special legal provision of empowerment, representation, and participation of
Dalit community for employment in other area also including the public
service.
(2) Provisions of free e ducation with scholarships shall be made for Dalit
students from the primary to higher level of education as provided for in
law. Special provision shall be made in law for Dalits to pursue higher
education in technical and professional subjects.
(3) In or der to provide health care and social security to Dalit community,
special arrangements shall be made in accordance with law.
(4) Dalit community shall have the right to use, preserve and develop their
traditional occupation, knowledge, skill and technolog y. The State shall
give priority to modern profession of Dalits in relation to their traditional
occupation, by providing them with necessary skill and resources.

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(5) The State shall , according to law, provide land to landless Dalits for one
time.
(6) The State shall , according to law, make housing arrangements for Dalits
who do not have housing of their own .
(7) The facilities provided to the Dalit community according to this Article,
shall have to be justly distributed to Dalit women and men and all the
Dalit communities living in different parts of the country, ensuring that
all Dalits receive the facilities proportionally.
41 . Right of senior citizens : Senior citizens shall have the right to special
protection and social security from the State.
42 . Right to social justice : (1) Socially backward women, Dalits, Adibasi,
Janajati , Adibasi Janajati , Madhesi, Tharu, minority groups, persons with
disability, marginalized groups, Muslim, backward classes, gender and sexually
minority groups, youths, peasant s, laborers , the oppressed and the citizens of
backward regions, and economically poor Khas Arya shall have the right to
employment in state structures on the basis of the principle of inclusion.
(2) Citizens who are economically very poor and communities on the verge of
extinction, shall have the right to special opportunity and facilities in the
areas of education, health, housing, employment, food and social
security, for their protection, progress, empowerment and development.
(3) People with physical impairment shall have the right to a dignified way
of life and equal access to social services and facilities, along with their
diversity identity.
(4) Each peasant shall have the right to access to land as provided for in law
for agricultural purposes, a long with the right to choose and preserve
traditionally adopted and used endemic seeds and agricultural species.
(5) The families of martyrs who sacrificed their lives in the people’s
movements, armed conflicts and revolutions for a democratic progressive
change in Nepal, the families of those who were disappeared, persons
who fought for democracy, victims of conflict and the displaced, persons
who were physically maimed, the wounded and the victims, shall have
the right with priority, as provided for by l aw, to education, health,
employment, housing and social security, with justice and appropriate
respect.
43 . Right to social security: Economically poor, physically incapacitated and
helpless person, helpless single women, persons with physical impairm ent,
children, persons who cannot look after themselves and the citizens who
belong to communities that are on the verge of extinction, shall have the
right to social security as provided for by law.
44 . Right of consumers : (1) Each consumer shall have th e right to quality
foodstuffs and services.

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(2) A person who has suffered from sub -standard object or service shall have
the right to be compensated as provided for by law.
45 . Right against exile : No citizen shall be exiled .
46 . Right to constitutional r emedy : There shall be right to constitutional remedy
pursuant to the Articles 133 or 144 in course of implementation of rights
granted in this part.
47. Implementation of fundamental rights : For the enforcement of the rights
conferred in this Part, the Sta te shall make legal provisions, as required,
within three years of the commencement of this constitution.
48 . Duties of citizens : Each person shall the following duties:
(a) Protect nationality, sovereignty and integrity of Nepal by pledging
allegiance t o the nation,
(b) Abide by the constitution and law,
(c) Compul sorily enlist when the state needs the service.
(d) To prot ect and conserve public property.

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PART 4
Directive Principles, Policies and Responsibilities of the State
49 . To be the Guiding Pri nciples : (1) The Directive Principles, Policies and
Responsibilities of the State mentioned in this Part shall remain as guidelines
for the governance of the State.
(2) The State shall mobilize or have it mobilized, the required resources and
means for th e implementation of the principles, policies and
responsibilities mentioned in this Part.
50. Directive Principles : (1) It shall be the political objective of the State to
strengthen a federal democratic republican system to ensure an atmosphere
where de mocratic rights are exercised by a cknowledging sovereignty,
independence and integrity of the cou ntry to be of utmost importance ; by
protecting freedom, equality, property and all citizens through rule of law ; by
embracing the norms and values of fundament al rights and human rights,
gender equality, proportional inclusion, participation and social justice; and
by maintaining a just system in all spheres of national life in order to establish
a government system aimed at public welfare, while maintaining rel ations
between federal units on the basis of cooperation between them, and
internalizing the principle of inclusion in the governance system on the basis
of local autonomy and decentralization,
(2) It shall be the socio -cultural objective of the State to build a civilized
and egalitarian society by ending all forms of discrimination, oppression
and injustice based on religion, culture, cultural practices, customs,
traditional practices, or on any other grounds; develop socio -cultural
values based on nation al p ride, democracy, people orientation , dignity of
labor , entrepreneurship, discipline, dignity and tolerance, by respecting
cultural diversity and maintaining communal harmony, solidarity and
amity.
(3) It shall be the economic objective of the State t o make the national
economy self -reliant, independent, and developing it towards socialism
oriented economy with equitable distribution of resources and means,
by ending all forms of economic exploitation and inequality, with
maximum utilization of availa ble resources and means through the
participation of cooperatives, and public and private sector for
sustainable development, and to build an exploitation -free society by fair
distribution of the achievements made so far.
(4) The international relations of the State shall be directed towards
maintaining international relations based on sovereign equality,
protecting sovereignty, independence, territorial integrity and national
interest of the country, and promoting national prestige in the
international c ommunity.

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51. State policies : The State shall pursue the following policies:
(a) Policies regarding national unity and national security :
(1) Maintaining national unity intact by protecting independence ,
sovereignty , territorial integrity and autonomy of the country ;
(2) Promoting national unity by developing relations of mutual
cooperation between federal units by maintaining mutual
understanding, tolerance, and solidarity among various caste,
ethnic, religious, linguistic and cultural groups and comm unities.
(3) Management of law and order situation by developing a national
security system.
(4) Guaranteeing an all -round human security system.
(5) Making the army, police, armed police and other security organs
strong, capable, professional, inclusive and accountable to people
on the basis of national security system.
(6) Making citizens capable and ready for national service according to
the need of the nation.
(7) Utilizing the knowledge, skills and experience of the ex –
bureaucrats, army men and polic emen in an appropriate way .
(b) Policies regarding political and governance system :
(1) Guaranteeing people’s welfare and all -round -progress through
economic, social and cultural transformation, while d efending and
strengthening polit ical achieveme nts and their development.
(2) Maintaining rule of law by protecting and practicing human rights.
(3) Implementing international treaties and agreements to which Nepal
is a State party.
(4) Guaranteeing good governance by ensuring equal and easy access of
people to services provided by the State and making public
administration clean, competent, impartial, transparent,
accountable and participatory.
(5) Making necessary provisions to make the mass media clean, healthy,
impartial , dignified, responsible and professional.
(6) Expanding and developing a harmonious and cooperati ve relations
between federal units through partnerships in the management of
resources and means, administration and responsibilities.

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(c) Policies regarding social and cultural transfo rmation :
(1) Building a society based on harmonious social relations by
developing a healthy and civilized culture.
(2) Conducting studies, research and archaeological excavations and
dissemination of Information about them for the protection,
main tenance and development of historical, archaeological and
cultural heritage.
(3) Community development by promoting local participation through
the promotion and mobilization of creativity of local communities in
social, cultural and charitable works.
(4) Stres sing on the development of art, literature and music that are in
the form of national heritage
(5) Put an end to all forms of discrimination, and injustice in the name
of religion, culture, tradition, practices and rites.
(6) To preserve and develop the la nguage, texts, culture, literature,
arts motion pictures and property of different castes and
communities, on the basis of equity, while also maintaining the
country’s cultural diversity.
(7) To pursue the multi -language policy .
(d) Policies regarding fin ance , industry and commerce :
(1) Strengthening national economy through the participation and free
development of public sector , cooperative sector and private
sector.
(2) Achieving economic prosperity with the maximum utilization of
available resources an d means by stressing on the roles of private
sector in the economy;
(3) Pr omotin g cooperatives with its maximum utilization for national
development.
(4) Providing for regulation to maintain fair ness , accountab ility and
competitive atmosphere in all activ ities of economic sector to
promot e and mobiliz e them for the overall national development;
(5) Fair distribution of the fruits of development and available means
and resources.
(6) Diversifying and expanding markets for productions and services
through th e development and expansion of industries and promotion
of exports by identifying the areas of comparative advantages.
(7) Protecting consumer rights by maintaining discipline and business
fairness by controlling anomalies and malpractices such as blac k-

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marketing, monopoly, artificial scarcity and unhealthy competition
and making national economy competitive .
(8) Prioritizing domestic investment based on Nepali labor, skill and raw
material for the development of the economy of the country
through the p rotection and promotion of national industries and
resources and means.
(9) According priority to domestic investment in service sector to
promote it a competitive industry for development of national
economy;
(10) Encouraging and mobilizing foreign capi tal and technology
investment for infrastructure development in the areas of export
promotion, and import to suit national interest.
(11) Foreign aid shall be based on national needs and priority, and it
shall be made transparent. The amount received as f oreign aid shall
be included in the national budget.
(12) Utilizing the knowledge, skill, technology and ca pital of the non –
resident Nepalese for national development.
(13) Providing mobility to economic development by establishing
coordination among provi nces and between province and federation
regarding industrial corridors, special economic zones, national
projects and foreign investment projects.
(e) Policies regarding agriculture and land reform :
(1) Introducing scientific land reform by ending dual ow nership of land
for the benefit of farmers.
(2) Increasing produce and productivity through land plotting and by
discouraging absentee land ownership.
(3) Protecting and promoting rights and interests of peasants and
utilizing the land use policy for incre asing production and
productivity of agriculture and for commercia liz ation,
industrializ ation, diversification and modernization of agriculture ;
(4) Making proper utilization of land through proper regulation and
management on the basis of productivity of land, its nature, and
also by maintaining environmental balance.
(5) Making arrangements for agricultural tools and an access to market
with appropriate price for the produce.
(f) Development policy :
(1) Formulating strategies and programs for sustainable socio -economic
development under regional development plans for balanced and
inclusive regional development and to implement them in a
coordinated manner.

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(2) Prioritizing under -developed regions while going for balanced,
environment -friendly, qualitative and sustainable physical
infrastructure development.
(3 ) Increasing the participation of local people in development process.
(4 ) Promoting investment in scientific studies and research, and
inventions in science and technology, and for thei r progress and
development, while protecting scientific, technological and
intellectual minds and special talents.
(5 ) Developing and expanding information technology as required by the
nation, and making its access easy and simple for the general
public, while also making its maximum use for national
development.
(6 ) Prioritizing poor citizens in the distribution of the fruits of
development, and making necessary arrangements for the general
public to have a fair share of it.
(7 ) Developing an integrated national identity management information
system, and manage it in an integrated way for all kinds of
information and statistics relating to citizens, and integrate it to the
services and facilities provided by the State and the national
development planni ng.
(8 ) Updating of population statistics and affiliating it with the nationa l
development planning.
(g) Policy regarding the conservation, management and use of natural
resources :
(1) The State shall pursue a policy of conserving the natural resources
av ailable in the country by imbibing the norms of inter -generation
judicious use of it and for the national interest. It shall also be
about its sustainable use in an environmental friendly way. The
policy shall ensure the fair distribution of the benefits g enerated by
it by giving local people the priority and preferential rights.
(2) The State shall pursue a policy of prioritizing national investment in
water resources based on people’s participation and making a multi –
utility development of water resource s.
(3) The State shall pursue a policy of developing and producing
renewable energy, ensuring cheap, easily available and dependable
supply of energy, and making an appropriate use of it to meet the
basic needs of the citizens.
(4) Developing a sustainable and dependable irrigation system by
controlling water -related natural disasters with the management of
the river systems.

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(5) The State shall pursue a policy of making a sustainable use of
biodiversity through the conservation and management o forests,
fa una and flora, and by minimizing the negative impacts of
industrialization and physical development by promoting public
awareness on environmental cleanliness and protection.
(6) The State shall pursue a policy of keeping necessary landmass as
forest area in order to strike an environmental balance.
(7) The State shall pursue a policy of adopting appropriate ways of
minimizing or stopping negative effects on environment if it is
there, or if there is a possibility of such an impact on nature,
environment, o r biodiversity.
(8) The State shall formulate policies and enact laws on the basis of the
principle of sustainable environment development based on pre –
warning and pre -informed agreements regarding environmental
protection.
(9) The State shall formulate and pursue a policy of designing a pre –
warning system, disaster preparedness, rescue, relief works and
rehabilitation in order to minimize the risks of natural disasters.
(h) Policies regarding the basic needs of citizens :
(1) Making education scientifi c, technical, professional, skill -oriented ,
and employment and people oriented in order to prepare the human
resources to be competent, competitive, moral, and committed to
national interest.
(2) Increasing the investment of the State in the educational se ctor,
and regulating and managing the investment of the private sector in
it to make education service oriented.
(3) Making higher education easily available, of high quality and
accessible, and gradually making it free.
(4) Establishing and promoting inf ormation centers and libraries for the
personality development of citizens.
(5) The State shall gradually increase necessary investment in the
public health sector in order to make citizens healthy.
(6) Ensuring easily available and equal access to high qu ality health
care for all .
(7) Protecting and promoting Nepal’s traditional medicinal system such
as the Ayurved a, na tural medicines and homeopath y;
(8) The State shall gradually increase investment in the health sector
and make it service oriented by reg ulating and managing the
investment of the private sector in it.

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(9 ) Gradually increase the number of health institutions and health
workers, while emphasizing research on health in order to make
qualitative health service available to all.
(10 ) It shall b e the policy of the State to increase general life expectancy
by decreasing maternity -infant mortality rate by encouraging family
planning population management based on the need and capacity
of the country.
(11 ) Developing well -planned and organized se ttlement areas by
managing the unplanned settlements.
(12 ) Increasing investment in the agricultural sector by making necessary
provisions for sustainable productivity, supply, storage and security,
while making it easily available with effective distrib ution of food
grains by encouraging food productivity that suits the soil and
climate conditions of the country in accordance with the norms of
food sovereignty.
(13 ) Making a well -planned supply system by ensuring equal access of
citizens to the basic ne eds and services, and prioritizing the remote
areas and regions that were made to lag behind.
(14 ) Increasing investment in the transportation sector by ensuring
simple, easy and equal access of all citizens to transportation
facilities, and prioritizing e nvironment friendly technology,
encouraging public transportation and quality private
transportation, while also making the transportation sector safe,
well managed and disabled friendly.
(15 ) Ensuring insurance policy for citizens and making arrangement s for
their access to health care.
(i) Policies regarding labor and employment :
(1) Creating a condition to ensure employment for all and employment
opportunities in the country itself by making the labor power, which
is the main social and economic force, competent and professional.
(2) Guaranteeing social security by ensuring the basic rights of all
laborers in accordance with the concept of dignity of labor.
(3) Ending child labor and all forms of labor exploitation.
(4) Encouraging the participation of laborers in the management by
creating good industrial relationship between employers and
employees .
(5) Regulating and managing foreign employment in order to make this
sector exploitation free, safe and well -managed to guarantee
labo rers’ right and employment.

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(6) Encouraging the use of the capital, skill, technology and the
experience gained in foreign employment in the productivity sector
of the country.
(j) Policies regarding social justice and inclusion :
(1) Making appropriat e arrangements of livelihoods by prioritizing
employment for single women who are in helpless conditions on the
basis of skill, capability and merit .
(2) Making women self reliant who are vulnerable, victims of conflict,
excluded by family and the society, by making necessary
arrangements of rehabilitation, protection and empowerment for
them.
(3) Ensuring the use of necessary services and facilities during the
reproductive stage
(4) Economically evaluating the works and contribution in regard to
child care and care for the family.
(5) Paying primary attention to the utmost interest of children.
(6) Rehabilitat ion of kamaiya (bonded laborers) , kamlari, haruwa,
charuwa, haliya, the landless and the squatters by identifying them,
and making arrangements of hou sing, or providing small plot of land
or house, employment, or arable land for their livelihoods.
(7) Providing appropriate opportunities to youths for their contribution
to the all -round -development of the State by increasing their
participation in it, through the creation of an atmosphere for them
to use their political, economic, social and cultural rights, and also
by providing special opportunities in educational, health and
employment sector through their personality development for their
empowerme nt and all -round -development.
(8) Making special arrangements to ensure the rights of Adivasi
Janajati s (indigenous ethnic groups) to lead a dignified life with
their respective identities, and making them participate In decision
making processes that co ncern them, and preserving and
maintaining the traditional knowledge, skill, experience, culture
and social practices of Adivasi Janajati s and local communities.
(9) Making special arrangements for minority communities to exercise
their social and cultura l rights by maintaining their identity.
(10) Making special arrangements for the Madhesi community to have
equal distribut ion of benefits of economic, social and cultural
opportunities, and also for the protection, progress, empowerment
and development of the very poor and backward classes within the
Madhesi community.

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(11) Making special provisions of protection, progress, empowerment and
development, and the fulfillment of basic needs of the citizens of
oppressed and backward regions.
(12) Giving prio rity to the very poor within all communities, regions, and
gender, while providing social security and social justice.
(13) Making a well planned investment in sports and sports men and
women in order to produce healthy, able and disciplined citizens
and d eveloping sports as a medium of consolidating national unity
and promoting national prestige in the international arena.
(14) Involving NGOs and INGOs only in the areas of national needs and
priority, by adopting a one -door policy for the establish ment,
endorsement, engagement, regulation and management of such
organizations, and by making the investment and role of such
organizations accountable and transparent.
(k) Policies regarding justice and punishment :
(1) Making judicial administration s wift, competent, easily available,
economical, impartial, effective and accountable to people.
(2) Adopting alternative methods such as reconciliation and mediation
for the settlement of disputes of ordinary nature.
(3) Adopting effective methods in contro lling corruption and
irregularities in all sectors , including politics, judicial sector,
administration and the social sector.
(l) Policies regarding tourism : Developing environment friendly tourism
industry as an important basis of national economy by id entifying,
protecting, promoting and publicizing the historical, cultural, religious,
archaeological and natural heritage sites of the country, and prioritizing
local people in the distribution of benefits of the tourism industry.
(m) Policy regarding int ernational relations:
(1) Pursuing an independent foreign policy considering national interest
to be of utmost importance, on the basis of the UN Charter, non –
alignment, principle of Panchasheel, international law and universal
norms, and by remaining act ive to defend the sovereignty,
indivisibility, national independence and national interest.
(2) Entering into treaties and agreements on the basis of equality and
mutual interest, by reviewing past treaties.
52 . Obligation of the Sate : It shall be the ob ligation of the State to maintain
Nepal’s independence, sovereignty, territorial integrity , autonomy of Nepal,
protecting and promot ing fundamental rights and human rights, and to
observe the directive principles of the State and gradually implementing the
policies.
53 . Submitting report : An annual report regarding the works of the government
including the achievements made in the implementation of the directive

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principles, policies and responsibilities mentioned in this Part, shall be
presented to the Pr esident . The President shall make arrangements to send
such reports to the Federal Legislature through the Prime Minister .
54 .Provision regarding monitoring: (1) There shall be a committee in the
Parliament as provided for in law to monitor the progressiv e implementation
of the directive principles, policies and responsibilities of the state as
mentioned in this Part.
55. Questions not to be raised in court : No question shall be raised in any court as
to whether any of the provisions contained in this Par t is implemented or not.

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PART 5
Restructuring of the State and the distribution of State power
56 . Structure of the State : (1) The Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal shall
have three main levels of structure : federal, provincial and local.
(2) The State powers of Nepal shall be used by the federal, provincial and
the local level in accordance with this constitution.
(3) There shall be the provinces with the districts listed in Schedule -4 that
prevail at the commencement of this Constitution in Nepal .
(4) Under the local level, there shall be Village C ouncil, Municipal Council
and District Assembly. The number of wards in a Village council and
Municipal Council shall be as provided for in a Federal law .
(5) Special, protected and autonomous regions m ay be created fo r socio –
cultural protection or economic development according to Federal law .
(6 ) The Federation , provinces and local levels shall protect Nepal’s
independence, sovereignty, territorial integrity, autonomy, national
interests, overall devel opment, multi -party competitive democratic
republic and federal system of governance, human rights and
fundamental rights, rule of law, separation of powers and check and
balance, equitable society based on plurality and equality, and inclusive
representat ion and identity .
57 . Distribution of State power : (1) The power of the federation shall be relating
to the s ubjects mentioned in Schedule -5, and such authority shall be
exercised in accordance with this Constitution and the Federal law .
(2) The power of the province shall be relating to the s ubjects mentioned in
Schedule -6, and the exercise of such authority shall be done in
accordance with this Constitution and the Federal law .
(3) The concurrent/shared power of the federation and the province shall be
relating to the s ubjects mentioned in Schedule -7, and the exercise of
such authority shall be done in accordance with this constitution and the
laws made by the Federal Parliament and Provincial Assembly .
(4) Powers shall be vested in the local level on t he mat ters referred to in
Schedule -8 and such powers shall be exercised according to this
Constitution and Federal law , provincial law and laws formulated by the
local level.
(5) Concurrent list of powers of the Federation, province and local level shall
be as mentioned in Schedule -9 and exercise of such powers shall be
according to this constitution, and Federal law , provincial law and laws
formulated by the local level.
(6) While making law by Provincial Assembly , village council and municipal
council pur suant to clause (5) , they shall have to make laws w ithout

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being inconsistent to Federal law and if such laws formulated by
Provincial legislature, village council and municipal council is
inconsistent with the Federal law , such law shall, to the extent of its
being inconsistent , be void .
(7) While making law by village council and municipal council pursuant to
clause (5), they shall have to make laws w ithout being inconsistent to
provincial law and if such laws formulated by the village council and
municip al council is inconsistent with the provincial law, such law shall,
to the extent of its being inconsistent, be void.
58 Residual powers : Powers relating any subject that are not mentioned in the
list of powers of the federation, province or the local lev el entity, or in the
concurrent/shared powers of federation and the province, or not stated in
this Constitution, shall rest with the federation as residual powers.
59 . Use of fiscal power: (1) The federal, provincial and the local entities shall
enact la w, make annual budget, make necessary decisions, formulate policies
and planning, and implement them in regard to the subjects related to the
fiscal power mentioned in their respective lost of powers.
(2) The federation may make basic laws regarding neces sary policies and
criteria related to the subjects included in the list of concurrent/shared
power and in other areas of fiscal authority, which may also be
implemented in provinces.
(3) The federation, province and the local level entity shall make budge ts of
their respective levels, and the budget shall be presented in accordance
with the Federal law .
(4) The federation, province and the local level entity shall have to make
arrangements for equitable distribution of the benefits from the
development of natural resources. A certain portion of such benefit,
royalty, services or objects, shall have to be distributed in areas affected
by projects and to the local communities as provided for by law.
(5) When the federal, provincial and local level entity util ize natural
resources, they shall have to give priority to local communities to make
certain percentage of investment if they wish to do that in view of the
nature and percentage in the investment.
(6) The government of Nepal shall have the right to seek f oreign aid and
loan. The economic stability of the country as a whole shall have to be
maintained in doing so.
(7) The management of budget deficit of the federation, province and the
local level entity and the arrangements regarding fiscal discipline shal l
be in accordance with Federal law .
60. Distribution of sources of revenue : (1) The federation, province and the
local level entity shall impose tax on subjects within their fiscal jurisdiction
and collect revenue from such sources.

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Provided that with r egard to the source that are not included in the
concurrent/shared list or in any list at any level, it shall be as determined by the
Government of Nepal.
(2) The Government of Nepal shall make necessary arrangements to
equitably distribute the revenue gen erated by it from its sources,
between the federation, province and the local level entities.
(3) The amount of the fiscal transfer , the province and the local level
entities are to receive shall be as recommended by the National Natural
Resources and Fisc al Commission .
(4) The Government of Nepal shall distribute fiscal equalization grants to
province and local level entity on the basis of their need for expenditure,
their capacity in generating revenue and the efforts made by them.
(5) The province shall distribute fiscal equalization grants received from the
Government of Nepal and the revenue generated from its sources, to the
local level entities under it on the basis of need for their expenditures
and their capacity to generate revenue, in accordance with provincial
law.
(6) The Government of Nepal shall make arrangements regarding conditional
grants to be provided through the Federal Consolidated Fund,
complementary grants, or the special grants for other purposes.
(7) The distribution of revenue bet ween the federal, provincial and the local
level entity shall be transparent.
(8) While enacting the F ederal Act regarding revenue distribution, the
matters that need to be included are: national policy, national needs,
the autonomy of provinces and local level entitie s, the service delivery of
the provinces and local level entities and the fiscal rights given to them;
their capacity to generate revenue ; feasib ility and use of revenues; their
contribution to development works; regional imbalance; poverty an d
inequality; exclusion, emergency works and the support of meet
temporary needs.

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PART 6
President and vice -President
61 . President : (1) There shall be a President in Nepal.
(2) The President shall be the head of the State. He/she shall perform
his/her duties according to this Constitution and Federal law s.
(3) The President shall promote national unity of Nepal.
(4 ) Compliance and protection of the constitution shall be the main duties of
the President .
62 . Election of the President : (1) An electoral college, consisting of voting
members of the Federal Parliament and the members of Provincial Assembly ,
shall elect the President . It shall be done as provided for in law with the
difference of weightage in voting of the members of the Federal Parliament
and the members of Provincial Assembly .
(2) Notwithstanding anything contained in clause (1), it shall not be deemed
to prevent the formation of an electoral college for the use of the
election of the President simply because of the reason that an electio n of
Provincial Assembly has not been held in any province.
(3) The person who receives majority votes of the total number of existing
members of the Electoral College as provided for in clause (1), shall be
elected as President .
(4) If any candidate fails to receive majority votes according to clause (3),
there shall be a second round of voting between the two candidates who
receive the highest votes , and a person getting more than fifty percent
of vote in this voting shall be elected as President .
(5 ) If none of the two candidates obtain more than fifty percent of the votes
in the voting held under clause (4), then a re -voting will be conducted.
Any person getting the majority of votes cast in this re -voting shall be
elected as President .
(6) If a pe rson who is elected to the position of the President already holds a
political position through election, nomination, or appointment, the
position held by such a person shall automatically become vacant.
(7) The election of the President and other related arrangements shall be as
provided for by law
63. Term of Office of President : (1) The term of the President shall be for five
years.
(2) The President whose term has expired pursuant to clause (1), shall
continue to work according to this Constitution until the newly elected
President joins the office.

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64. Qualifications of the President : (1) A person shall be eligible to be President
if he/she fulfils the following qualifications:
(a) He/she is eligible to be a member of the Federal Parliament .
(b) He/she has attained at least 45 years of age, and
(c) Is not ineligible by any law.
(2) Notwithstanding anything contained in clause (1), a person who has already
been elected President for two terms, shall not be eligible to be a President ial
candidate fo r the President ial election thereafter.
65. The circumstances in which the President ceases to hold office : The
President shall cease to hold office under the following circumstances:
(a) If a written resignation is tendered to the Vice -President .
(b) If a n impeachment motion against the President is passed pursuant to
Article 101;
(c) If the term of office expires
(d) If he/she dies
66 . Functions, duties and powers of the President : (1) President shall exercise
his/her rights and duties as provided for by this constitution and Federal law s
(2) While exercising rights under clause (1), the President shall perform all
the works with the consent and recommendation of the Council of
Ministers, except in case where the works have to be performed
expressly under the recommendation of some agency or official. Such
consent and recommendation shall be made to the President through the
Prime Minister .
(3) The decision or order made in the name of the President as provided for
by clause (2) and the certification of cre dentials in that regard, shall be
done as specified by Federal law .
67 . Vice -President : (1) There shall be a Vice -President in Nepal.
(2) The V ice -President shall perform the duties of the President until a new
President is elected in the case when the Pr esident ceases to hold Office
due to reasons other than when the President is absent or the term of
office has expired.
(3) If a person is elected to the position of Vice -President already holds a
political position through election, nomination or appointm ent, the
position held by such a person shall automatically become vacant.
68 . The circumstances in which the Vice -President ceases to hold office : The
Vice -President shall cease to hold office under the following circumstances:
(a) If he/she tenders a wr itten resignation to the President ,

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(b) If an impeachment motion against the Vice -President is passed pursuant
to Article 101,
(c) If the term of office expires, or
(d) If he/she dies.
69 . Other provisions regarding the Vice -President : The qualification of the Vice –
President , election process, and other provisions regarding the term of office,
shall be similar to that of the President .
70 . President and Vice -President to belong to different gender or community :
While conducting election of the President and Vice -President under this
constitution, the election shall be held so as to represent different gender or
communities.
71. Oath of office of the President and Vice -President : The President shall take
the oath of office and secrecy before the Chief Justi ce, and, the Vice –
President before the President , as provided for by law, before assuming the
responsibilities of the office.
72. Remuneration and other benefits to the President and Vice -President : The
remuneration and other benefits to the President and Vice -President shall be
as determined by an Act, and until such Act is made, it shall be as specified
by the Government of Nepal.
73. Office of the President and the Vice -President : (1) Separate offices shall be
set up to assist the works of the President and the Vice -President .
(2) The Government of Nepal shall provide necessary personnel and make
other arrangements for the management of the works of the offices
pursuant to clause (1).

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PART 7
Federal Executive
74. Form of governance : The form of governan ce of Nepal shall be a multi -party,
competitive, federal democratic republican parliamentary system based on
plurality.
75. Executive Power : (1) The executive power of Nepal shall rest with the
Council of Ministers in accordance with this Constitution an d law.
(2) The responsibility of providing general directives, control and
enforcement regarding the governance system of Nepal, by adhering to
this constitution and law, shall rest with the Council of Ministers.
(3) The entire works relating to the federa l executive of Nepal shall be done
in the name of the Government of Nepal.
(4) The decision or Order and related certification of credentials as provided
for by clause (3) shall be done according to law.
76. Formation of the Council of Ministers : (1) The President shall appoint the
parliamentary party leader of the political party with the majority in the
House of Representatives as a Prime Minister , and a Council of Ministers shall
be formed in his/her chairmanship.
(2) If there is not a clear majority of any party according to clause (1), the
President shall appoint as Prime Minister the member of the House of
Representatives who can have the majority with the support of two or
more political parties represented in the House of Representatives.
(3) If th ere is a situation wherein it is not possible to make the appointment
of the Prime Minister as provided for in clause (2) within 30 days of the
final result of the election of the House of Representatives, or if the
appointed Prime Minister , as provided fo r in clause (4), fails to receive a
vote of confidence, the President shall appoint the leader of the party
with the highest number of members in the House of Representatives as
the Prime Minister .
(4) The Prime Minister appoint ed according to clause (2) or (3 ) shall have to
receive the vote of confidence of the House of Representatives within 30
days of his/her appointment .
(5) If a Prime Minister appointed according to clause (3) fails to receive a
vote of confidence pursuant to clause (4) , the Presiden t shall appoint a
member as Prime Minister , who produces bases that he/she may win the
vote of confidence of the House of Representatives as provided for in
clause (2).
(6) The Prime Minister appointed according to c lause (5) shall have to get
the vote of confidence according to clause (4).

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(7) If the Prime Minister appointed according to clause (5) fails to get the
vote of confidence or if any member fails to be appointed as Prime
Minister , the President shall , on the recommendation of Prime Minister ,
dissolve the House of Representatives and fix a date to conduct another
election within six months.
(8) The procedure regarding the appointment of the Prime Minister shall
have to be completed within 55 days after the post of the Prime Minister
falls vaca nt, or the announcement of the final results of the election of
the House of Representatives according to this Constitution.
(9) The President shall, on the recommendation of the Prime Minister , form
a council of ministers consisti ng of members not exceedi ng twenty five in
number from amon g the members of the Federal Parliament on the basis
of the principle of inclusion.
Explanation: For the purpose of this Article ‘minister’ stands for deputy Prime
Minister , minister, minister of state and assistant minist er.
(10) The Prime Minister and the ministers shall be collectively accountable to the
Federal Parliament , and, a minister shall be personally accountable to the
Prime Minister for the works of his/her ministry, and also to the Federal
Parliament .
77 . Circumstances under which the Prime Minister and minister ceases to hold
office : (1) The Prime Minister shall cease to hold office in the following
circumstances|
(a) If he/she tenders written resignation to the President ,
(b) If a vote of confidence fails to be approved according to Article
(100 ), or a motion of no confidence is passed,
(c) If he/she ceases to be a member of the House of Representatives,
(d) If he/she dies.
(2) The ministe r shall cease to hold office in the following circumstances:
(a) If he/she tenders a written resignation to the Prime Minister ,
(b) If the Prime Minister removes him/her from the post,
(c) If the Prime Minister ceases to hold off ice according to clause (1)
(a), (b) or (c) , or
(d) If he/she dies .
(3) If the Prime Minister ceases to hold the office according to clause (1),
the same council of ministers shall continue to work until another council
of ministers is constituted.

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Provided that, in the case of the death of the Prime Minister , the senior most
minister shall continu e to act as Prime Minister until a new Prime Minister is
appointed.
78 . A person to be a minister who is not a member of the Federal Parliament :
(1) Whatso ever is contained in clause (9) of Article (76 ), the President may,
on the recommendation of the Prim e Minister , appoint deputy Prime Minister ,
minister, minister of state, assistant minister, who is not a member of the
Federal Parliament .
(2) The minister appointed according to clause (1) shall have to receive
membership of the Federal Parliament with in six months of taking oath
of office.
(3) If the minister fails to get the membership of the Federal Parliament
according to clause (2), the minister shall not be eligible for
reappointment as minister during the tenure of the existing House of
Represent atives.
(4) Whatever may be contained in clause (1), a person who has lost election
in the election of the existing House of Representatives, shall not be
eligible to be a minister according to clause (1), during the tenure of the
existing House of Repre sentatives.
79 . The remuneration and other benefits to the Prime Minister , deputy Prime
Minister , minister, state minister and assistant minister: The remuneration
and benefits to the Prime Minister , deputy Prime Minister , minister, state
minister, and a ssistant minister shall be as provided for by Federal Act. Until
such an Act is formulated, it shall be as determined by the Government of
Nepal.
80 . Oath of office : The Prime Minister , the D eputy Prime Minister and minister
shall take t he oath of office and secrecy before the President , and, the state
minister and assistant minister before the Prime Minister according to Federal
law .
81 . The President to be informed : The Prime Minister shall inform the President
about the following:
(a) The decision of t he Council of Ministers,
(b) The B ill to be presented before the Federal Parliament ,
(c) If the President asks for other information relating to Part (a) and (b),
the other information shall be provided.
(d) Contemporary situations of the country and su bjects relating to foreign
affairs.
82 . The working procedure of the government of Nepal : (1) The division of
works and work performance of the government of Nepal shall be in
accordance with the regulations passed by the Government of Nepal.

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(2) No questi on shall be raised in any court as to whether or not the
regulations under clause (1) were abided by.

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PART 8
Federal Parliament
83. Federal Parliament : There shall be a Legislature, called Federal Parliament ,
consisting of two Houses, namely the House o f Representatives and the
National Assembly.
84. Constitution of House of Representatives: (1) The House of Representatives
shall consist of two hundred and seventy five members as follows :-
(a) One hundred and sixty five members elected through the first -past –
the -post electoral system consisting of one member from each of
the one hundred and sixty five electoral constituencies formed by
divi di ng Nepal into 165 constituencies based on geography, and
population.
(b) One hundred and ten members elected from proportional
representation electoral system where voters vote for parties,
while treating the whole country as a single electoral constituency.
(2) Provision shall be made according to Federal law for the representation
of political parties to file candid acy for the election of the House of
Representatives for proportional representa tion system through closed
list of women, Dalit , Adibasi Janajati, Khas Arya, Madhesi, Tharu,
Muslim, and backward regions . Balance in geography and province shall
be considere d for such candidacy .
Explanation: For the purpose of this provision, Khas Arya means Chhetri, Brahmin,
Thakuri and Sannyasi (Dasnami) community.
(3) While filing candidacy by political parties pursuant to clause (2),
provision of representation of pers ons with disability shall also be made.
(4) The election for the members of House of Representatives pursuant to
clause (1) shall be held through secret ballots as provided in the law.
(5 ) Every Nepali citizen who has attained the age of eighteen years, a s
provided in law, shall be entitled to vote in any constituency.
(6 ) Subject to law, any Nepali citizen, who is entitled to vote in election for
House of Representatives, and who meets t he requirements under Article
87 , shall be allowed to file candidacy from any constituency.
Provided that the same person shall not be a candidate in more than one electoral
constituency at the same time.
(7 ) In case of vacancy of a seat of a member in House of Representatives,
while still ahead of six months of its terms, such vacancy shall be filled
through process by which said member had been elected.
(8) Notwithstanding anything contained elsewhere in this Article, women
should account for at least one third of total members elected from each

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party in Federal Parliamen t. In case, one -third percentage of women are
not elected while being elected under section (a) of clause (1), and
section (a), clause (2) of Article 84 , the party that fails to ensure one –
third representation shall have to elect at least one -third of tot al
numbers as woman in the Federal Parliament while electing members
under section (b) of clause (1) .
(9) Election of House of Representatives and other matters thereto shall be
pursuant to Federal law s.
85 . Term of House of Representatives: (1) Except whe n dissolved earlier, the
term of House of Representatives shall be five years.
(2) Notwithstanding anything in clause (1), provided that the situation when
the order for the state of emergency is made and when such state of
emergency exists , the term of Ho use of Representatives may be
extended, not exceeding one year in accordance with Federal law .
(3) The term extended under clause (2 ) shall, ipso facto , end within six
months of the end of state of emergency.
86 . Constitution of National Assembly and terms of members: (1) National
Assembly shall be a permanent house.
(2) There shall be fifty -nine members in the National Assembly as follows: –
(a) Fifty six members elected from an Electoral College comprising
members of Provincial Assembly and chairpersons a nd vice –
chairpersons of Village councils and Mayors and Depu ty Mayors of
Municipal councils, with different weights of votes for each, with
eight members from each province, including at least three women,
one D alit, one person with disability or minority;
(b) Three members, including at least one woman , to be nominated by
the President on the recommendation of Government of Nepal.
(3) The tenure of members of National Assembly shall be six years.
Provided that after the commencement of this Constitution, arrangements shall be
made by drawing lottery to retire one -third of the members on the expiry of two
years, another one -third on the expiry of four years, and the final one -third on the
expiry of six years .
(4) The tenure shall be considered to have commen ced from the day of first
meeting of the National Assembly.
(5) In case of vacancy of a seat in National Assembly, it shall be filled in the
manner through which the said member had been elected or nominated.
(6) Other provisions relating to election of Na tional Assembly members shall
be as provided by law.
87 . Qualifications for Members: (1) Persons who meet the following requirement
shall be considered eligible to be the member of Federal Parliament :-

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(a) citizen of Nepal,
(b) who has attained twenty five years of age for the House of
Representatives and thirty five years of age for the National
Assembly;
(c) who has not been punished for any criminal offence involving moral
turpitude
(d) not ineligible under any law,
(e) not holding an office of profit.
Explanation: “Office of profit” in this section means any position, other than a
political position which is to be filled by election or nomination, for which a
remuneration or economic benefit is paid out of a government fund. (2) No person
shall be a mem ber of both Houses at the same time.
(2) No one person can be a member of both the houses at the same time
(3) If a person who is elected or nominated to the position of the member of
Federal Parliament already holds a political position through election,
nomination, or appointment, the position held by such a person shall
automatically become vacant from the day of his/her taking oath of
office.
88 . Oath: Every member of the Federal Parliament shall, before taking part for
the first time in the meeting of the parliament at its committees, have to
take an oath as provided in law.
89 . Vacation of seat: The seat of a Member of Parliament shall be vacant in the
following circumstances: –
(a) if he or she resigns in writing to the Speaker or Chairperson,
(b) if he or she does not meet the requirements under Article 91,
(c) if his or her term of office expires or if the term of the House of
Representatives and National Assembly expires,
(d) if he or she remains absent from ten consecutive meetings without
notifica tion to the House,
(e) if the party of which he or she was a member when elected provides
notification in the manner set forth by law that he or she has abandoned
the party.
(f) if he or she dies.
90 . Decision as to Disqualification of Members : If a quest ion arises as to
whether a Member of Parliament is disqualified or has ceased to possess any
of the qualifications set forth in Article 91 the final decision shall be made by
the Constitutional bench of the Supreme Court .

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91 . Speaker and Deputy -Speaker of the House of Representatives: (1) The
House of Representatives shall, within fifteen days of commencement of first
meeting, elect a Speaker and a Deputy Speaker from among its members.
(2) While electing S peake r and Deputy S peaker as per clause (1), e ithe r
Speaker or Deputy Speaker shall be a woman and belong to different
parties .
Provided that, no more than one party is elected to the House of Representatives
or does not seek to file its candidacy even when elected, nothing in this article
shall bar from having Speaker and Deputy Speaker of the same party.
(3) If the office of the Speaker or the Deputy Speaker falls vacant, the House
of Representatives shall fill the vacancy through election from among its
members.
(4) The Deputy Speaker shall, in the abse nce of the Speaker of the House of
Representatives, chair the meeting of House of Representatives.
(5) In case the election of the Speaker and Deputy Speake r has not taken
place, or both positions remain vacant, the senior -most member of the
House of Repre sentatives shall preside the meeting of the House of
Representatives.
(6 ) The office of the Speaker or the Deputy Speaker shall be vacant in the
following circumstances:
(a) if s/he ceases to be a member of the House of Representatives:
Provided that, afte r the dissolution of the House of Representatives,
the Speaker and Deputy Speaker shall continue in office until the
date of the filing of nominations for election to the House of
Representatives
(b) if s/he submits a written resignation;
(c) if a resoluti on is passed by a majority of two -thirds of the total
number of members in the House of Representatives to the effect
that his/ her conduct is not compatible with his/her position.
(7 ) The Deputy Speaker shall preside over a meeting at which deliberations
are to be held on a resolution that the conduct of the Speaker of the
House of Representatives is not compatible with his/her position. The
Speaker shall be entitled to take part and vote in the deliberations on
such resolution.
92. Chairperson and Vice -Ch airperson of National Assembly:
(1) After the commencement of its first session, the National Assembly shall,
within fifteen days of commencement of first meeting, elect a
Chairperson and Vice chairperson from among its members.
(2) While electing as per clause (1), e ither Chairperson or Vice chairperson
Chairman of the National Assembly shall be a woman.

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Provided that no more than one party is elected to the National Assembly or does
not seek to file its candidacy even when elected, nothing in this arti cle shall bar
from having Chairperson and Vice chairperson from the same party.
(3) If the office of the Chairperson or Vice chairperson falls vacant, the National
Assembly shall fill the vacancy through election from among its members.
(4) The Vice -Chair person shall, in the absence of the Chairperson of the National
Assembly, chair the National Assembly.
(5) If the election of the Chairperson and Vice chairperson has not taken place, or
if both the positions have become vacant, the senior -most member of t he
National Assembly shall preside over the meeting of the National Assembly.
(6) The office of the Chairperson and Vice chairperson shall be vacant in the
following circumstances:
(a) if s/he ceases to be a member of the National Assembly,
(b) if s/he sub mits a written resignation,
(c) if a resolution is passed by a majority of two -thirds of the total members
of the National Assembly to the effect that his or her conduct is not
compatible with his/her position.
(7) The Vice -Chairperson shall preside over a meeting at which deliberations are to
be held on a resolution that the conduct of the Chairperson of the National
Assembly is not compatible with his/her position. The Chairperson shall be
entitled to take part and vote in the deliberations on such resolu tion.
93. Summoning and Prorogation of Sessions:
(1) President shall summon a session of parliament within one month after the
elections to the House of Representatives are held. Thereafter, President shall
summon other sessions from time to time in accord ance with this Constitution:
Provided that the interval between two consecutive sessions shall not be more than
six months.
(2) President may prorogue the session of both or either of the Houses of
Parliament.
(3) If, during the prorogation or recess of th e House of Representatives, one -fourth
of its members submit a request stating that it is desirable that a session or
meeting of House of Representatives be called, the President shall call the
session or meeting of the Parliament by setting date and time for this within a
fortnight, and House of Representatives shall convene or commence its session
on the specified date and the time thus fixed.
94. Quorum: Except as otherwise provided in this Constitution, no resolution shall
be presented for decision in e ither House of Parliament unless one -fourth of
the total number of members of the concerned House are present.
95. Address by President : (1) President may address either House or a joint sitting
of both the Houses of Parliament, and s/he may summon the mem bers for
that purpose .

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(2) President shall address the first session after an election to the House of
Representatives and a joint sitting of both the Houses of Parliament after the
commencement of the first session of each year.
96 . Deputy Prime -minister, State Minister and Assistant Minister Entitl ed to Take Part
in Both Houses : A Minister shall be entitled to attend and take part in the
proceedings and deliberations of any of the House of Parliament or its
committees.
Provided that s/ he shall not be enti tled to vote in a House or committee of which
s/ he is not a member.
97 . Formation of Committees: (1) House of Representatives and National Assembly
shall have the right to form committees according to the law.
(2) If a resolution is passed by either House demanding that a Joint Committee of
both the Houses be constituted for the purpose of managing the working
procedure between the two Houses, resolving disagreements on any Bill, or for
any other specified function, a Joint Committee thereon shall be consti tuted.
The Joint Committee shall consist of up to a maximum of twenty -five members
in the ratio of five members from the House of Representatives to one member
from the National Assembly.
98 . Transaction of Business in case of vacancy of Members: Both Hous e of Federal
Parliament shall have the power to transact its business notwithstanding any
vacancies in the seats of its members, and no proceedings shall become
invalid even if it is subsequently discovered that a person not entitled to take
part in the pr oceedings of either House had participated therein.
99 . Voting: Except as otherwise provided in this Constitution, all questions
submitted for decision in either House of Parliament shall be decided by a
majority vote of the members present and voting. Nor mally, the member
presiding shall not have the right to vote .
But he may exercise the right to cast decisive vote in case of a tie.
100 . Provision related to Vote of Confiden ce and Motion of no -confidence: (1)
The Prime Minister , while he holds office, may , whenever he is of the opinion
that it is necessary or appropriate to obtain a vote of confidence from the
members of the House of Representatives, shall table a resolution to that
effect in the House of Representatives.
(2) The Prime Minister may, if his or her party is fragmented or the coalition
partner withdraws its support, to obtain a vote of confidence from the
members of the House of Representatives, table a resolution to that
effect in the House of Representatives within thirty days.
(3) A decisio n on a resolution tabled pursuant to clauses (1) and (2) shall be
made by a majority of the total number of members of the House of
Representatives.

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(4) One -fourth of the total number of members of the House of
Representatives may table in writing a no -con fidence motion against the
Prime Minister :
Provided that a no -confidence motion shall not be presented up to first two years
of appointment of the Prime Minister and if a no -confidence motion fails, another
motion cannot be tabled within a year of its fail ure.
(5) The name of the member proposed for Prime Minister should be
mentioned when tabling the no -confidence motion under clause (4).
(6) The Prime Minister shall be deemed to be relieved of his/her office if the
no -confidence motion tabled under clause (4) is passed by a majority of
the total number of members of the House of Representatives.
(7) If the office of Prime Minister falls vacant under clause (6), the President
shall appoint the member proposed in motion o f no -confidence under
Article 76 , the Prime Minister .
101 . Impeachment: (1) At least one -fourth majority of the total number of the
then members of House of Representatives may table a motion of
impeachment against the President or Vice -President on the charge of serious
violation of the Const itution and law by him/her. If at least two -thirds
majority of the total number of the then members of joint session of both
Houses of Federal Parliament passes the motion, the President or Vice
President shall ipso facto be relieved of his or her office.
(2) A motion of impeachment against the Chief Justice or any other Judge of
Supreme Court, member of Judicial Council and Head or official of
Constitutional Bodies may be moved by at least one -fourth majority of
the total number of the then members of Hous e of Representatives on
the grounds of serious violation of the Constitution and law, his or her
incompetence, misbehavior or failure to discharge the duties of his or her
office in good faith or his or her inability to discharge his or her duties
because of physical or mental reason; and if the motion is passed by a
two -thirds majority of the total number of the then members of joint
session of both Houses of Federal Parliament , he or she shall ipso facto
be relieved of his or her office.
(3) A motion of i mpeachment recommendation committee shall be formed in
House of Representatives to recommend charges of impeachment under
clause (2).
(4) The committee formed under clause (3) shall comprise of eleven
members.
(5) According to clause (2), motion of impeach ment can be tabled at the
House of Representatives by the committee under clause (2) on the
charges of serious violation of constitution, other grounds of his or her
incompetence, misbehavior or failure to discharge the duties of his or her
office in good faith or his or her inability to discharge his or her duties

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because of physical or mental reason, are proven with evidence by at
least three members .
(6) Once the process of impeachment is set in motion as per clause (2) , then
the person against whom the impeac hment motion is moved, whether
Chief Justice or Supreme Court judges, members of Judicial Council or
chiefs or members of C onstitutional bodies, shall not perform his/her
duty till the process over the motion is complete.
(7) Person against whom impe achment motion is moved as per clause (1) or
(2) shall be given adequate opportunity to defend.
(8) There shall be no obstruction in taking action as per the law against a
person who is discharged of duty after the approval of impeachment
motion as per thi s article if such a person is found to have committed
crime whether such person was President or vice President , chief j ustice
or supreme court judges, members of judicial council or chiefs or
members of constitutional bodies .
(9 ) Any official who has been removed from office by way of impeachment
pursuant to clause (1) and (2) shall not be entitled to gratuity or pension,
and shall be ineligible to be appointed or nominated to any other public
position.
(10 ) Other provisions related to impeachment motion shall be as provided by
law.
10 2. Penalty for Unauthorized Presence or Voting: If a person sits or votes in a
meeting of either House of Parliament as a member without taking an oath
pursuant to Article 88 , or knowing that s/he is not qualified for members hip in
the House, s/he shall, on order of the person chairing the House, be liable to
a fine of five thousand rupees for each day of such presence or voting. The
fine shall be recovered as government dues.
103 . Privileges: (1) Subject to the provisions of this Constitution there shall be full
freedom of speech in both Houses of Parliament and no member shall be arrested,
detained or prosecuted in any court for anything said or any vote cast in the House.
(2) Subject to the provisions of this Constitution, e ach – House of Parliament
shall have full power to regulate its internal business, and it shall be, the
exclusive right of the House concerned to decide whether or not any
proceeding of the House is regular. No question shall be raised in any
court in this behalf.
(3) No comment shall be made about the good faith concerning any
proceeding of either House of Parliament and no publication of any kind
shall be made about anything said by any member which intentionally
distorts or misinterprets the meaning of th e speech.
(4) The provisions laid in clause (1) and (3) shall also apply to any person,
other than a member, who is entitled to take part in a meeting of the
House.

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(5) No proceedings shall be initiated in any court against any person for
publication of an y document, report, vote or proceeding which is made
under authority given by a H ouse of Parliament.
Explanation: For the purpose of this clause and clauses (1), (2), (3) and (4), the
word “House” shall mean and include the House of Representatives and Nat ional
Assembly and shall also mean a joint sitting of Parliament or a meeting of the Joint
Committee.
(6) No member of Parliament shall be arrested between the date of issuance
of the summons for a session and the date on which that session closes:
Provide d that n othing in this clause shall be deemed to prevent the arrest under
any law of any member on a criminal charge. If any member is so arrested, the
official making such arrest shall forthwith inform the person chairing the concerned
House.
(7) Any brea ch of privilege of either House of Parliament shall be deemed to
constitute contempt of Parliament and the concerned House shall have
the exclusive right to decide whether or not any breach of privilege has
taken place.
(8) If a person is in contempt of ei ther House of Parliament, the Chairperson
of the concerned House may, after a decision by the House to that
effect, admonish, warn or impose a sentence of imprisonment not
exceeding three months, to remain effective only during the current
session of the H ouse, or impose a fine up to five thousand rupees on such
person. The fine shall be recovered as government dues.
Provided that if the person so accused submits an apology to the satisfaction of the
House, it may either pardon him or remit or commute the s entence imposed on
him.
(9) Other matters relating to privileges not mentioned in this Constitution
shall be as determined by law.
10 4. Procedures relating to the Conduct of Business: (1) Each House of Federal
Parliament shall, subject to the provisions of this Constitution, frame rules for
conducting its business, maintaining order during its meetings and regulating
the constitution, functions and procedures of the committees or any other
matter of the Federal Parliament or committees. The Federal Parliame nt shall
determine its own conduct of business until such rules are framed.
(2) Matters relating to the conduct of business of a joint sitting of Federal
Parliament and the constitution of its Joint Committee and the functions
and procedures thereof shall be in accordance with rules approved by the
joint session of the both Houses.
10 5. Restriction on discussion: No discussion shall be held in either House of
Federal Parliament on a matter which is under consideration in any court of
Nepal, and about anyth ing done by a Judge in course of performance of his
duties.

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Provided that nothing in this Article shall be deemed to bar the expression of
opinion about the conduct of a Judge during deliberations on a motion of
impeachment.
106. Secretary General and S ecr etary of Federal Parliament : (1) Secretary of the
House of Representatives shall be appointed on the recommendation of its
Speaker, the Secretary of the National Assembly shall be appointed on the
recommendation of its Chairperson, the secretary -general ap pointed in
consultation with both the Speaker and the Chairperson.
(2) The qualifications, duties, functions, rights and other services of
Secretary General the Secretary of the National Assembly, and the
Secretary of Federal House of Representatives shall be as determined by
law.
107 . Secretariat of Federal Parliament : A Secretariat shall be established for the
purpose of conducting the business of Parliament. Other matters related
thereto shall be as determined by law.
108 . Remuneration: The remuneration and benefits of the Speaker and Deputy
Speaker of the House of Representatives, the Chairperson and Vice –
Chairperson of the National Assembly and Chairperson of committees and
members of Federal Parliament shall be as determined by the law. Until so
determ ined it shall be as specified by the Government of Nepal .

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PART 9
Federal Legislative Procedure
109. Legislative power of Federal Parliament : The legislative powers of the
Federal Parliament sha ll be as enumerated in Schedule -5, Schedule -7 and
Schedule -9.
110. The procedure of introducing a Bill : (1) A Bill may be introduced at either
House of the Federal Parliament subject to this Constitution.
Provided that finance bill may be introduced in the House of Representatives only.
(2) The finance Bill and Bills concerning the security agencies, including the
Nepal Army, Nepal Police, Armed Police, shall be introduced only as a
government Bill.
(3) “Finance Bill” means a Bill concerning all or any of the following
subjects:
(a) the imposition, collection, a bolition, remission, alteration of taxes
or regulation of tax system.
(b) the preservation of the Federal Consolidated Fund or any other
Federal Government fund, the deposit of money into and the
appropriation or the withdrawal of money from such funds, or the
reduction, increment or cancellation of appropriations or of
proposed expenditures from such funds.
(c) the regulation of matters relating to the raising of loans or the
giving of guarantee by the Government of Nepal or any matter
pertaining to the amendment of the laws concerning financial
liabilities undertaken or to be undertaken by the Government of
Nepal.
(d) the custody and investment of all revenues received by any
Government fund, money acquired through the repayment of loans
and the grant of money, or audit of the accounts of the
Government.
(e) Matters directly related to sections (a), (b), (c) and (d).
Provided that a bill shall not be deemed to be a Finance bill by reason only that it
provides for the payment of any fees such as license fee, application fee, renewal
fee, or it provides for imposition of any penalty or imprisonment.
(4) If any question is raised as to whether a bill is a finance Bill or not, the
decision of the Speaker thereon shall be final.

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11 1. Procedure for pass ing Bills :
(1) A Bill passed by one House of the Federal Parliament shall be
imme diately sent to the other House , and after the bill is passed by that
House, it shall be sent to the President for certification.
(2) The Finance Bill passed by the House of R epresentatives, shall b e sent to
the National Assembly. The National Assembly shall have to discuss on
the Bill send it back to the House of Representatives with suggestions, if
any, within fifteen days of receiving it.
(3) The House of Representatives s hall discuss over the Bill returned with
suggestions according to clause (2), incorporate the appropriate
suggestions, if any, and present it to the President for certification.
(4) If the National Assembly does not return the Bill even after 15 days of
re ceiving it according to clause (2), the House of Representatives shall
send the Bill to the President for certification.
(5) Except In the case of a Finance Bill, the Bill sent to the National
Assembly by the House of Representatives after passing it, the National
Assembly shall have to send them back with suggestions after passing
them within two months of receiving them. In the event when such bills
are not returned by the National Assembly within the timeframe, the
House of Representatives shall send su ch Bills to the President for
certification, after making a decision on them with a majority voting of
total existing number of members.
(6) If one House rejects the Bill passed by another House, or if it is passed
with amendments, the Bill shall have to b e sent back to the House where
it had been originated.
(7) If a Bill is rejected by National Assembly, or sends it back with
amendments to the House of Representatives, and if a majority of the
existing number of members of the House of Representatives di scuss over
it and pass it as it is , or pass it with amendments, the Bill shall be
presented to the President for certification.
(8) If a Bill is sent back to the National Assembly by the House of
Representatives with amendments as provid ed for by clause (6), and if
National Assembly also passes the Bill along with the amendments made,
it shall be presented to the President for certification.
(9) The following Bills shall be presented in the joint meeting of both the
Houses and if the Bill is passed as i t is or with amendments by the joint
meeting, the House where the Bill had originated shall present it before
the President for certification.
(a) Bills Passed by the National Assembly but rejected by the House of
Representatives, or

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(b) Bills sent back b y the House of Representatives to the National
Assembly with amendments but National Assembly failing to agree
on the amendment.
(10) If the session ends when a Bill is still under consideration, the next
session may take over the procedure.
Provided that, if a Bill is presented to the House of Representatives and is under
consideration, or it is sent to National Assembly after passing it, but if the House of
Representatives is dissolved while the Bill is still under consideration in the
National Assem bly, or if its tenure comes to an end, such Bill shall be considered
not effective.
11 2. Withdrawal of Bill : The member who introduces a Bill may withdraw the Bill
with the approval of the House.
11 3. Certification of the Bills:
(1) The Bill which is prese nted to the President according to Article (111 ) for
certification shall have to be authenticated by the Speaker or
Chairperson of the House where it originated.
Provided that, in the case of a Finance Bill, the Speaker shall have to authenticate
it as Fi nance Bill.
(2) The Bill presented to the President for certification according to this
Article, shall be certified within 15 days, and both the Houses shall be
informed about that as early as possible.
(3) Except in the case of a Finance Bill, if the Pr esident is satisfied that
reconsideration is necessary on a bill, the Bill may be sent back to the
House where it originated with necessary information within 15 days of
receiving the Bill.
(4) If the President sends back a Bill with the information and if both the
Houses reconsiders the bill as it was presented or with amendments, and
pass it and present it again to the President , the Bill shall be certified by
the President within 15 days of its submission.
(5) The Bill becomes an Act after it is certif ied by the President .
11 4. Ordinance:
(1) If at any time, except when both the Houses of the Federal Parliament is
in session, the President is satisfied that circumstances exist which
render it necessary to take action, the President may issue an Ordina nce
on the recommendation of the Council of Ministers.
(2) An Ordinance promulgated under clause (1) shall have the same force
and effect as an Act.
Provided that, every such Ordinance:

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(a) Shall be tabled at the next session and if not passe d by both the
Houses, it shall cease to be effective,
(b) May be repealed at any time by the President ,
(c) Shall unless rendered ineffective or repealed under section (a) or
(b), cease to have effect after six months of its issuance, or after
six months o f the meeting of both the Houses,
Explanation : For the use of this clause, if the meetings of the Federal Parliament
are held at different dates, the time shall be count from the later date of the
meeting.

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PART -10
Federal Financial Procedures
11 5. Not tax to be levied or loan to be raised :
(1) No tax will be levied and collected except in accordance with law.
(2) No loan shall be raised or guarantee be given by the Government of
Nepal except in accordance with law.
116 . Federal Consolidated Fund : Exce pt for the revenues of religious
endowments, all revenues received by the Government of Nepal, all loans
raised on the security of revenues, and all money received in payment of any
loan made under the authority of any Act and any amount received by the
Go vernment of Nepal, unless any other arrangement is made by the Act, shall
be credited to a Government Fund to be known as Federal Consolidated Fund.
117 . Expenditure from Federal Consolidated Fund or Federal Government Fund :
No expenditure shall be incurr ed out of the Federal Consolidated Fund or any
other federal government fund, other than the following:
(a) Money charged to the Federal Consolidated Fund,
(b) Money required to meet expenditure under an Appropriation Act,
(c) Advance money authorized by an Act required to meet expenditures,
when an Appropriation Bill is under consideration, or
(d) Expenditures to be incurred in extraordinary circumstances under a Vote
of Credit Act which contains only a description of expenditure.
Provided that matters r elating to the Contingency Fund shall be governed in
accordance with Article 12 4.
118. Expenditure chargeable on the Federal Consolidated Fund :
The expenditures related to the following matters shall be charged on the
consolidated fund and the approval o f the Federal Parliament shall not be
necessary for such expenses:
(a) amount required as remuneration and benefits payable to the President
and vice President ,
(b) amount required as remuneration and benefits payable to the Chief
Justice, Supreme Court Ju stice and the Judicial Council members,
(c) amount required as remuneration and benefits payable to the Speaker
and deputy Speaker of the House of Representatives, Chair and Vice –
chair of National Assembly,
(d) amount required as remuneration and benefits payable to t he Heads and
office -bearers of C onstitutional bodies,

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(e) amount required as remuneration and benefits payable to the Provincial
Head,
(f) the administrative expenses of the office of the President and the V ice –
President , Supreme Court, Judici al Council and constitutional bodies and
office of the Provincial Head ,
(g ) all charges relating to debts for which the Government of Nepal is liable,
(h ) any sum required to be paid under any judgment or decree of a court
against the Government of Nepal, and
(i) Any other sum declared by Federal law to be chargeable on the Federal
Consolidated Fund.
119 . Estimates of Revenues and Expenditure: (1) The Finance Minister of the
Government of Nepal shall, with respect to every fiscal year, present before
the j oint meeting of both the houses of the Federal Parliament the annual
estimates including the following matters:
(a) an estimate of revenues,
(b) the money required to meet the charges on the Federal
Consolidated Fund, and
(c) the money required to meet th e expenditure to be provided for by
an Appropriation Act.
(2) The annual estimates to be presented pursuant to Clause (1) shall be
accompanied by a statement of the expenses allocated to each Ministry
in the previous financial year and particulars of wheth er the objectives
of the expenses have been achieved.
(3) The Finance Minister of the Government of Nepal shall table the revenue
and expenditure estimates according to Clause (1) on the 15 th of the
month of Jestha (beginning of June) in the Lunar Calendar every year.
120 . Appropriation Act : The money required to meet the expenditure to be
provided by an Appropriation Act shall be specified under appropriate heads
in an Appropriation Bill.
12 1. Supplementary estimates : (1) The Finance Minister of the Gover nment of
Nepal shall, in respective of any financial year, present supplementary
estimates before the House of Representatives, if it is found:
(a) that the sum authorized to be spent for a particular service by the
Appropriation Act for the current fiscal year is insufficient, or that a
need has arisen for expenditure upon new services not provided for
by the Appropriation Act for that year, or
(b) that the expenditures made during that fiscal year are in excess of
the amount authorized by the Appropriati on Act.

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(2) The sums included in the supplementary estimates shall be specified
under separate heads in a Supplementary Appropriation Bill.
12 2. Votes on Account : (1) Notwithstanding anything contained in this part, a
portion of the expenditure estimated f or the financial year may, when an
Appropriation Bill is under considerati on, be incurred in advance by a Federal
Act.
(2) A Vote on Account Bill shall not be submitted until the estimates of
revenue and expenditures have been presented in accordance with the
provisions of Article 119 , and the sums involved in the Vote on Account
shall not exceed one -third of the estimate of expenditure for the
financial year.
(3) The expenditure incurred in accordance with the Federal Vote on
Account Act shall be included in the Appropriation Bill.
123 . Votes of credit : Notwithstanding anything contained elsewhere in this Part, if
owing to a local or national emergency due to either natural causes, a threat
of external aggression or internal disturbances or other reasons, a nd it is
impractical or inexpedient in view of the security or interest of the State to
specify the details required under Clause (1) of Article 119 , the Finance
Minister may present a Vote of Credit Bill before the House of Representatives
giving only a d escription of the proposed expenditure.
124 . Federal Contingency Fund : (1) A Federal Act may create a Contingency Fund
into which shall be paid from time to time such m oney as may be determined
by the Federal Act .
(2) Such Fund created under clause (1) sh all be under the control of the
Government of Nepal. Any unforeseen expenditures shall be met out of
such fund by the Government of Nepal.
(3) The amount of expenditures so met under clause (2) shall be reimbursed
as soon as possible as per the Federal Ac t.
12 5. Act relating to financial Procedures : Matters relating to the transfer of
money appropriated from one head to another and other financial procedures
shall b e regulated by Federal Act.

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PART -11
Judiciary
12 6. Courts to exercise powers related to ju stice : (1) Powers relating to justice
in Nepal shall be exercised by courts and other judicial institutions in
accordance with the provisions of this Constitution, other laws and recognized
principles of justice.
(2) All must adhere to the order or verdi ct given by the court in relation to
the court cases.
127 . Courts : (1) There shall be the following courts in Nepal:
(a) Supreme Court,
(b) High Court, and
(c) District Court
(2) In addition to the courts referred to in Clause (1), other institutions may
be established according to the need to adopt other means of
alternatives of dispute resolution or judicial bodies to adjudicate cases at
the local level according to the law.
128 . Supreme Court (1) There shall be a Supreme Court in Nepal.
(2) The Supreme C ourt shall be the Court of Record. Unless otherwise
provided in this Constitution, all other courts and judicial institutions
shall be under the Supreme Court. The Supreme Court shall have the
final power to interpret the Constitution and law.
(3) The Supr eme Court may inspect, supervise and give necessary directives
to courts and other judicial institutions falling under its jurisdiction on
matters relating to judicial administration or management.
(4) The interpretation of constitution and law or the leg al principles
propounded by the Supreme Court in relation to court cases must be
followed by all. The Supreme Court can initiate a contempt of court case
and punish according to the law against anyone obstructing its or its
subordinate court’s act of judic ial execution or not abiding by its order
or verdict.
129 . Appointment and qualifications of Chief Justice and Justices of the
Supreme Court : (1) In addition to the Chief Jus tice of Nepal, there shall be
maximum of 20 Justices in the Supreme Court. In case the number of the
Justices is inadequate because of the increase of number of cases at the
Supreme Court , a maximum of ten temporary J ustices may be appointed for a
certain period.
(2) President shall appoint a Chief Just ice on the recommendation of
Const itution al Council and Justices of the S upreme Court on the
recommendation of Judicial Council.

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(3 ) Any person who has worked as a Judge of the Supreme Court for at least
three years is eligible for appointment as Chief Justice of the Supreme
Court.
(4 ) The tenure of office of the Chief Justice shall be six years.
(5 ) Any Nepali citizen who holds a bachelor degree of law and has worked as
Chief Judge or Judge of the High Court for seven years or has practiced
law for at least fifteen years as a law graduate senior advocate or
advocate or has worked for at least fifteen years in the judicial or le gal
field or has worked as a gaz etted officer first class or above of the
judicial service for at least twelve years is eligible for appointment as a
Judge of the Sup reme Court.
Explanation : The period worked as a judg e of the Appellate C ourt before the
commencement of this Constitution shall be regarded as the period to have worked
in capacity of the High Court Judge for the purpose of this Clause.
(6 ) If the office o f the Chief Justice becomes vacant, or the Chief Justice is
unable to carry out the duties of her/his office due to any reason or
she/he cannot be present in office due to a leave of absence, or her/his
being outside of Nepal, the senior -most Judge of the Supreme Court shall
act as the Acting Chief Justice.
130 . Conditions of service and benefits of the Chief Justice and Ju stices : (1) The
Chief Justice, and judges of the Supreme Court are entitled to receive a
pension as provided for in the law if they resi gn, or get compulsory retirement
or die after having served for at least five years.
(2) Except as otherwise provided in this Constitution, the remuneration and
other conditions of service of the Chief Justice and Judge of the Supreme
Court shall be accord ing to the law.
(3) Notwithstanding anything contained in Clauses (1) and (2), any Chief
Justice or Judge of the Supreme Court who has been removed from office
through impeachment or has been punished by the court on criminal
charges of moral degradation s hall not be entitled to any gratuities and
pensions.
(4) The remuneration and other conditions of service of the Chief Justice
and other judges of the Supreme Court shall not be altered to their
disadvantage.
However, this provision shall not apply in cas e of a declaration of a state of
emergency due to severe economic breakdown.
131. Vacation of Office of Chief Justice or Justices of the Supreme Court : The
Chief Justice or Judge of the Supreme Court will cease to hold office in the
following situations:
(a) If the Chief Justice submits her/his written resignation to the President
and a Judge submits her/his resignation to the Chief Justice,

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(b) If she/he attains the age of six -five years,
(c) If an impeachment resolution is passed according to Article 10 1,
(d) If the President relieves her/him of the post on the recommendation of
the Constitutional Council in case of the Chief Justice and on the
recommendation of the Judicial Council in case of the Judge for not
being able to perform duties in service due t o physical or mental illness,
(e) If convicted by the court on criminal charges of moral degradation, or
(f) If she/he dies.
132 . Chief Justice and Justices not to be engaged in any other assignment : (1)
The Chief Justice or Judge of the Supreme Court shal l not be engaged in or
deputed to any other assignment except that of a Judge.
Provided that the Government of Nepal may, in consultation with the Judicial
Council, depute a Supreme Court Judge to work concerning judicial inquiry or to
legal or judicial in vestigation or research for a specified period.
(2) Any person who has once held the office of Chief Justice or Judge of the
Supreme Court shall not be eligible for appointment in any government
post, except otherwise mentioned in this Constitution.
133 . Jurisdiction of the Supreme Court : (1) Any Nepali citizen may file a petition
in the Supreme Court to have any law or any part thereof declared void on the
ground of inconsistency with this Constitution because it imposes an
unreasonable restriction on the enjoyment of the fundamental rights
conferred by this Constitution or on any other ground, or any law formulated
by the Provincial Assembly is inconsistent with the law formulated by Federal
Parliament or any law formulated by Municipal Assembly or Village Assembly
is inconsistent with the law formulated by Federal Parliament or Provincial
Assembly , and extra -ordinary power shall rest with the Supreme Court to
declare that law void either ab initio or from the date of its decision if it
appears that the law in question is inconsistent.
(2) The Supreme Court shall, for the enforcement of the fundamental rights
conferred by this Constitution, for the enforcement of any other legal
right for which no other remedy has been provided or for which the
remedy even t hough provided appears to be inadequate or ineffective, or
for the settlement of any constitutional or legal question involved in any
dispute of public interest or concern, have the extraordinary power to
issue necessary and appropriate orders to enforce s uch rights or settle
the dispute.
(3) For th is purpose, the Supreme Court may, with a view to imparting full
justice and providing the appropriate remedy, issue appropriate orders
and writs including the writs of habeas corpus, mandamus, certiorari,
prohi bition and quo warranto.
Provided that, except on the ground of absence of jurisdiction, the Supreme Court
shall not, under this Clause, interfere with the internal affairs of the Federal

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Parliament and, the proceedings and decisions of the Federal Parliam ent
concerning violation of its privileges and any penalties imposed thereof.
(4) The Supreme Court shall have jurisdiction to hear original and appellate
cases, to review its own judgments or interim order, to examine decision
referred for confirmation, r eview cases or hear petitions. Such review
shall be done by judge other than the one involved in original verdict.
(5 ) The Supreme Court shall hear appeal of cases that have been initiated
and executed by the High Court, a subject of public interest litiga tion
including a question related to the interpretation of the constitution and
law or a case referred by the High Court along with its opinion that it
would be appropriate for the Supreme Court to decide on it.
(6 ) Other rights and procedural of the Supre me Court shall be as per the
Federal law
134 . Transfer of cases : (1) If a case including the same question in substantial
terms are under consideration of the Supreme Court and High Courts and if
the Supreme Court considers that the question is of public i mportance or if it
is seen so in the petition of the Attorney General or the petitioner of the
case, the Supreme Court shall have the right to invite the case and decide it
together.
(2) If special circumstances arise whereby question could be raised on th e
judicial impartiality over the hearing of a case in any High Court, the
Supreme Court may order according to the law by clarifying the reason
and basis to transfer the hearing of the case from one High Court to
another High Court.
135 . Not to be part of pleading of court cases : The Chief Justice or Judge of the
Supreme Court, Judge of the Constitutional Court following their retirement
shall not be allowed to plead any cases in any court, or involve in
reconciliation or mediation business.
136 . Responsib ility of the Chief Justice : The Chief Justice shall have the ultimate
responsibility to make the administration of justice effective of the Supreme
Court and other courts under its jurisdiction or other judicial institutions.
137 . Formation of the Constitu tional Bench: (1) There shall be a Constitutional
Bench in the Supreme Court. The Bench shall comprise of the Chief Justice
and other four Justices appointed by the Chief Justice on the recommendation
of Judicial Council.
(2) The Bench under clause (1) sh all hear and decide on the following cases
in addition to the petitions filed according to clause (1) of Article (133):

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(a) Related to dispute s over the jurisdiction between the Federation
and Province, among Provinces, between a Province and lo cal level
and among the local levels (of government),
(b) Related to dispute s concerning the election of members of the
Federal Parliament or Provincial Assembly , and ineligibility of the
member of the Federal Parliament or Provincial Assembly .
(3) Notwit hstanding anything written in Article (133), the Chief Justice may
allocat e any cases under consideration at Supreme Court containing
question of serious constitutional explanation to the Bench under clause
(1).
(4) Other arrangements related to the proced ures of the Constitutional
Bench shall be as determined by the Supreme Court.
138 . Annual report : (1) Each year, the Supreme Court, Judicial Council and
Judicial Service Co mmission shall present its annual report to the President ,
and the President through the Prime Minister shall submit such reports before
the Federal Parliament .
(2) If recommendations from the Federal Parliament are deemed necessary
upon discussion on the annual report submitted according to Clause (1),
then such recommendations may be gi ven to the concerned institution
through the Government of Nepal, Ministry of Law and Justice.
(3) Other provisions relating to the annual report according to Clause (1) will
be according to the law.
139. High Court : (1) There shall be a High Court in eve ry province.
(2) The High Court can initiate a contempt of court case and punish
according to the law against anyone obstructing its or its subordinate
court’s act of judicial execution or not abiding by its order or verdict.
(3) In addition to the Chief J udge, every High Court shall have judges in the
number as provided in the Federal law .
140. The appointment and qualifications of the Chief Judge and Judge s of the
High Court : (1) The Chief Justice shall, on the recommendation of the
Judicial Council, appo int the Chief Judge and Judges of the High Court.
(2) Any Nepali citizen who has a Bachelor’s Degree in law and has worked as
a District Judge for at least five years or has practiced as a law graduate
senior advocate or advocate for at least ten years ; o r for at least 10
years, has either taught law or conducted research thereon or worked in
any other field of law or justice or worked in any post of gazetted first
class officer of the Judicial Service for a period of at least five years shall
be considere d eligible for appointment as Chief Judge or other Judge of
the High Court.
(3) During appointments of Chief Judge and other Judges of the High Court
from among the persons meeting qualifications according to Clause (2),

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in case of a district judge, the a ppointment shall be made also on the
ground of the proportion of cases decided annually by her/him and the
situation of cases endorsed or overturned during final decision in the
higher court, and in case of others, on the ground of examination and
evaluati on according to the law.
(4) If the office of the Chief Judge becomes vacant, or the Chief Judge is
unable to carry out the duties of her/his office due to any other reason,
or she/he cannot be present in office due to a leave of absence or
her/his being o utside of the province, the senior -most Judge of the High
Court shall act as the Acting Chief Judge.
14 1. Conditions of service and benefits of Chief Judge and Judge s:
(1) Unless otherwise mentioned in this Constitution, the remuneration and
other conditio ns of service of the Chief Judge and other Judges of the
High Court shall be according to the law.
(2) Notwithstanding anything contained in Clause (1), the Chief Judge and
Judge of the High Court, who has been removed from office following
action by the J udicial Council or following punishment by the court on
criminal charges constituting moral degradation, shall not be entitled to
gratuity or pension.
Provided that this provision shall not apply in a condition of the Judicial Council
removing her/him fro m office for being unable to perform duties of office due to
reasons of physical or mental illness.
(3) The remuneration and other terms of service of the Chief Judge or Judge
of the High Court shall not be altered to their disadvantage.
Provided that this provision shall not apply in situation of a declaration of state of
emergency due to severe economic breakdown.
142 . Vacancy of office of the Chief Judge or Judge : (1) The Chief Judge or Judge
of the High Court shall cease to hold office in the following circumstances:
(a) If she/he submits written resignation to the Chie Justice,
(b) If she/he attains the age of sixty three years,
(c) If she/he is removed by the Judicial Council for reasons of
incompetence, misbehavior, ill -intended activities and serio us
violation of the code of conduct,
(d) If she/he is removed by the Judicial Council for being unable to
discharge the duties of her/his office due to physical or mental
illness.
(e) If punished by the court on criminal charges constituting moral
degrada tion, or
(f) If she/he dies.

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(2) A Judge who is facing a charge before being removed from office
according to Section (c) of Clause (1) must be given a reasonable
opportunity to defend herself/himself. The Judge against whom
proceedings have been initiat ed accordingly shall not perform duties of
her/his office until the proceedings have been completed.
(3) The Chief Judge or Judge removed from office may face investigation
and prosecution according to the law for offense committed while
holding office.
14 3. Chief Judge and Judge not be engaged in any other assignment and
transfer related provision : (1) The Chief Judge and Judge shall not be
transferred to or deputed to any assignment except that of a Judge.
Provided that the Government of Nepal may, in con sultation with the Judicial
Council, depute a High Court Judge to work concerning judicial inquiry or for a
specified period to any legal or judicial investigation or research or to any other
work of national concern.
(2) The Chief Justice may transfer a H igh Court Judge from one High Court to
another on the recommendation of the Judicial Council.
14 4. Jurisdiction of the High Court : (1) The High Court shall, for the enforcement
of the fundamental rights conferred by this Constitution, for the enforcement
of any other legal right for which no other remedy has been provided or for
which the remedy even though provided appears to be inadequate or
ineffective, or for the settlement of any legal question involved in any dispute
of public interest or concern, hav e the right to issue necessary and
appropriate orders in the name of governments, office -bearers, institutions or
individuals within its provincial jurisdiction.
(2 ) For the purpose of Clause (1), the High Court may issue appropriate
orders and writs incl uding the writs of habeas corpus, mandamus,
certiorari, prohibition and quo warranto.
Provided that except on the ground of absence of jurisdiction, the High Court shall
not, under this Clause, interfere with the internal task and the proceedings and
decis ion of the Provincial Assembly concerning violation of its privileges and any
penalties imposed thereof.
(3 ) The High Court shall have jurisdiction to hear original and appellate
cases and to examine decisions referred for confirmation, as provided for
in law.
(4 ) Other powers and working procedures of the High Court shall be
according to the Federal law .
14 5. Transfer of cases : (1) If the High Court feels that any case under
consideration at courts under its jurisdiction involved a question of provincial
law and that the question needs to be resolved in order to decide the case,
then the Court may invite such cases from the subordinate courts and give full
decision on the case or decide on such questions and send it back to the
original court.

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(2) If a spec ial circumstance of questions likely to be raised on the judicial
impartiality appears, then the High Court may, by clearing the reasons
and ground according to the law, order such cases to be transferred and
heard from one district court to another distri ct under its jurisdiction.
146 . Allowed to plead : A person who has retired as a High Court Judge can plead
in in the Supreme Court and High Courts other than in the high courts and
subordinate courts that she/he has served as the Judge.
147 . Responsibility of the Chief Judge : The Chief Judge shall have the ultimate
responsibility to make the administration of justice within the jurisdiction of
the High Court effective, and for this purpose she/her may, subject to this
Constitution and other laws, give nece ssary instructions to the High Court,
other subordinate courts and judicial institutions.
148 . District Court : (1) There shall be a district court in every district.
(2) The local level judicial institutions established according to the
provincial law sha ll remain under the District Court. The District Court
may inspect, supervise and issue necessary instructions to its subordinate
judicial institutions.
149 . Appointment, qualifications and remuneration and other terms of service
of the Judges of District Courts : (1) The Chief Justice shall, on the
recommendation of the Judicial Council appoint the Judges of the District
Courts.
(2) The position of vacant district court judge shall be fulfilled as follows: –
(a) Out of the total vacant positions, twenty perc ent positions to be fulfilled
through appointment of the second class officers of the judicial service
who have completed Bachelor’s level in law and having completed at
least three years of service , based on seniority, qualifications and
evaluation of per formance ;
(b) Out of the total vacant positions, for ty percent positions to be fulfilled
through appointment of the second class officers of the judicial service
who have completed Bachelor’s level in law and having completed at
least three years of servic e, based on an open competitive examination;
(c) Out of the remaining positions, forty percent of positions to be fulfilled
through an open competitive examination amongst Nepali nationals who
have the Bachelor’s Degree in law and worked as an advocate for eight
years or at least eight years in any post of gazetted second class officer
having completed Bachelor’s Degree in law or persons who have
practiced law or has either taught law or conducted research thereon or
worked in any other field of law and jus tice for at least eight years ;
(3) The Judicial Service Commission shall, after taking written and verbatim
practical examinations according to the law from among the persons with
qualifications according to section (b) and section (c) of Clause (2),
recom mend to the Judicial Council according to the merit list for
appointment as district judge.

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(4) The remuneration and other conditions of service of the Judges of
District Court shall be according to the law.
(5) The remuneration and other conditions of se rvice of the Judges of the
District Court shall not be altered to their disadvantage.
Provided that this provision shall not apply in a situation of declaration of a state
of emergency due to severe economic breakdown.
(6) A Judge of the District Court sha ll cease to hold office in the following
circumstances:
(a) If she/he submits written resignation to the Chief Justice of
Supreme Court,
(b) If she/he attains the age of sixty three years,
(c) If she/he is removed by the Judicial Council for reasons of
incompetence, misbehavior, ill -intended work or serious violation of
the code of conduct,
(d) If removed by the Judicial Council for being unable to discharge the
duties of her/his office due to physical or mental illness,
(e) If punished by the court on c riminal charges constituting moral
degradation, or
(f) If she/he dies.
(7) A Judge of the District Court who is facing a charge before being
removed according to section (c) of Clause (6) shall be given a reasonable
opportunity to defend herself/himself. The Judge against whom
proceedings have been initiated accordingly shall not perform the duties
of her/his office until the proceedings have been completed.
(8) The Judge thus removed may face investigation and prosecution
according to the law on offenses committed while holding office.
15 0. Judges of the District Court not to be engaged in any other assignment and
provisions related to transfer : (1) A District Court Judge shall not be engaged
in or deputed to any assignment except that of a Judge.
Provided that the Government of Nepal may, in consultation with the Judicial
Council, assign a District Court Judge to work concerning judicial inquiry or for a
specified period to any legal or judicial investigation or research, or to works
related to elections.
(2) The Chief Justice may transfer the Judges of the District Court from one
court to another on the recommendation of the Judicial Council.
15 1. Jurisdiction of the District Court : (1) The District Court shall, unless
provided otherwise in the law, have j urisdiction to hear original cases and
execute all cases within its jurisdiction, hear petitions of habeas corpus,
prohibitory order and other petitions according to the law, hear appeal over

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the decisions taken by the quasi -judicial bodies, hear appeal o ver the decision
of the local level judicial institutions established according to the law of the
province and initiate action and punish in contempt of court against those
obstructing its or its subordinate courts acts of judicial execution or not
abiding by the order or verdict.
(2) The jurisdiction of the district court and other provisions relating to its
working procedure shall be as provided for in the law.
152. Specialized court : (1) In addition to the courts referred to in Article 130, the
law may establish and constitute other specialized courts, judicial institutions
or tribunal, for the purpose of hearing cases of special types and nature.
Provided that no specialized court, judicial institution or tribunal shall be
constituted for the purpose of hearing a particular case.
(2) Cases related to criminal offense leading to prison sentence of more than
a year shall not fall under the jurisdiction of any other institution other
than a court or specialized court or military court or judicial body.
153 . Judicial Council : (1) There shall be a Judicial Council to make
recommendations and give advice in accordance with this Constitution
concerning the appointment of, transfer of, disciplinary action against,
dismissal of Judges, and other matters relating t o judicial administration,
which shall consist of the following as its Chairperson and members: –
(a) The Chief Justice -Chairperson
(b) The Federal Minister for Law and Justice -Member
(c) Senior -most Judge of the Supreme Court -Member
(d) A legal expert n ominated by the President on the recommendation
of the Prime Minister -Member
(e) A senior advocate, or an advocate who has at least twenty years ’
experience to be appointed by the President on the
recommendati on of the Nepal Bar Association -Member
(2) Th e term of office of the members referred to in sections (d) and (e) of
Clause (1) shall be four years and their remuneration and privileges shall
be the same as those of a Judge of the Supreme Court.
(3) The members referred to in sections (d) and (e) of C lause (1) above, may
be removed from office on the same grounds and in the same manner as
provided for the removal of a Judge of the Supreme Court.
(4) The Chairperson , inter alia , and members of the Judicial Council may
obtain and study the documents and files of a case related to any
complaint lodged against a judge, and may furnish information thereon
to the Judicial Council.
(5) The Judicial Council may, while carrying out preliminary investigation of
a complaint received against a judge, constitute a C ommittee of Inquiry,

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if it has determined that a detailed investigation by an expert is
required.
(6) Except in case of J ustices who can be removed from office through the
impeachment motion under this constitution, the Judicial Council can
investigate an d move court cases against other judges accused of
corruption or abuse of authority.
(7) The Judicial Council shall, pursuant to this Constitution, maintain an
updated record of the persons who meet the qualifications to be
appointed to the post of Chief Justice and Judge of the Supreme Court,
Chief Judge and Judge of the High Court .
(8) The other functions, duties and powers of the Judicial Council shall be
according to the law.
154 . Judicial Service Commission : (1) The Government of Nepal shall carry out
appointments, transfers and promotions to gazetted posts of federal judicial
service or take departmental action against any staff holding such post
according to the law on the recommendation of the Judicial Service
Commission .
Provided that the Governmen t of Nepal shall make permanent appointments
through new recruitments in gazetted po st of federal j udicial service of a person
who is not in Federal Government Service or while making promot ions from non –
gazetted post of federal judicial s ervice to gazette post of the same service, on the
recommendation of the Public Service Commission .
Explanation : For the purpose of this Article, the Public Service Commission shall
conduct the open and internal practical examinations taken during appointments to
gazetted post of judicial service.
(2) The Judicial Service Commission shall consists of the following
chairperson and members:
(a) Chief Justice of the Supreme Court -Chairperson
(b) Federal law and Justice Minister – Member
(c) Senior -most Judge of the Supreme Co urt -Member
(d) Chairperson of the Public Service Commission –Member
(e) The Attorney General -Member
(3 ) The other functions, duties, and powers, and working procedures of the
Judicial Service Commission shall be according to the law.
15 5. Provisions rel ated to conditions of service and benefits : The remuneration,
benefits and conditions of service of the staffers of the Federal Judicial
Servi ces shall be as provided in Federal Act .
156 . Provisio ns related to provincial level Judicial Service C ommission : The
formation of judicial service in the province and the remuneration, benefits

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and conditions of service of its staffers shall be as provided in the Federal
law .

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PART 12
Attorney General
157. Attorney General : (1) There shall be an Attorney General in Nepal.
(2) The President , on the recommendation of the Prime Minister , shall
appoint Attorney General. The Attorney General shall hold office as
required by the Prime Minister .
(3) The person qualified to be the judge of the Supreme Court shall be
eligible to be appointed as Attorney General.
(4) The office of Attorney General shall be deemed vacant under the
following circumstances: –
(a) if she/he submits resignation in writing through the Prime Minister
to the President ,
(b) if the President , on the recom mendation of the Prime Minister ,
removes him/her from the office,
(c) if she/he dies.
(5) The remuneration and other facilities of the Attorney General shall be at
par with that of a judge of the Supreme Court. The other conditions of
the service of the At torney General shall be as prescribed by law.
158. Functions, Duties and Powers of Attorney General : (1) The Attorney General
shall be the Chief Legal Advisor to the Government of Nepal. It shall be the
duty of the Attorney General to give opinions and adv ice on constitutional and
legal matters to the Government of Nepal and to such other authorities as the
Government of Nepal may specify.
(2) The Attorney General or officers subordinate to him/her shall represent
the Government of Nepal in suits in which t he rights, interests or
concerns of the Government of Nepal are involved. Unless this
constitution otherwise requires, the Attorney General shall have the right
to make the final decision to initiate proceedings in any case on behalf of
the Government of N epal in any court or judicial authority. The Attorney
General shall appoint other attorneys as needed to deal with legal
proceedings.
(3) The advice from the Attorney General shall be required to withdraw any
lawsuits filed on behalf of the Government of Nepal.
(4) In case of being called to do so, the Attorney General may appear in the
meeting of the Federal Legislature or any committee to express his/her
opinion on any legal question.
(5) In the course of discharging his/her official duties, the Attorne y General
shall have the right to appear before any court, office or authority of
Nepal.

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(6) In addition to clause (2), the Attorney General shall have authority as
follows: –
(a) To appear on behalf of the Government of Nepal in litigations
submitted by or against the Government of Nepal.
(b) To monitor or cause to be monitored the implementation of
interpretation of law and the legal principles propounded by the
Supreme Court in the course of proceeding.
(c) To investigate allegations of inhuman treatment to any person in
custody, or any denial of consultation with his/her relatives or
through legal practitioners in case of complaints or information
received to him through any means and give necessary instruction,
under this constitution, to the relevant authorities, to prevent the
recurrence of such a situation.
(7) The Attorney General may delegate his/her functions, duties and power
to his subordinates or prosecutors, to be exercised in compliance with
the conditions specified.
(8) In addition to the fu nctions, duties and rights as set out in this Article,
the other functions, duties and rights of the Attorney General shall be as
determined by this Constitution and other laws.
159. Annual Report : (1) The Attorney General shall, every year, prepare an an nual
report on the works she /he according this constitution and other laws, and
submit it to the President , and the President , through the Prime Minister ,
shall make the report to be presented in the Federal Legislature.
(2) The report under clause (1) sh all, in addition to other matters, cover the
number of instances of constitutional and legal advice given in the year
by the Attorney General, a description of cases prosecuted by the
government, a summary of cases involving the government as either
plaint iff or defendant, and recommendations for future improvements in
cases brought by the government.
160. Chief Attorney : (1) There shall be a Chief Attorney under Attorney General in
each province.
(2) The Head of Province shall, in recommendation of the Chi ef Minister,
appoint Chief Attorney in the province. The Chief Attorney shall hold
office as required by the Chief Minister.
(3) The person qualified to be the judge of the High Court shall be eligible to
be appointed as Chief Attorney.
(4) The office of C hief Attorney shall be deemed vacant under the following
circumstances: –
(a) if she /he submits resignation in writing through Chief Minister to
the Head of Province ,

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(b) if the Head of Province, on the recommendation of the Chief
Minister, removes him/he r from the office,
(c) if she /he dies.
(5) The Chief Attorney shall be the Chief Legal Advisor to the provincial
government. It shall be the duty of the Chief Attorney to give opinions
and advice on constitutional and legal matters to the provincial
gover nment and to such other authorities as the provincial government
may specify.
(6) The office of the Attorney General shall manage the staffs under office
of Chief Attorney.
(7) The remuneration and other benefit s of the Chief Attorney shall be at
par with that of a judge of the High Court. The other conditions of the
service of Chief Attorney and his/her functions, duties and powers shall
be as prescribed by law of the province.
161. Provisions Concerning Terms and Conditions of Service and Benefits : The
remuneration, other benefits and conditions for service for government
attorneys and other employees working under the Attorney Gen eral shall be as
prescribed in Federal law .

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PART -13
Provincial Executive
162. Provincial executive power : (1) The executive power of the Province shall,
pursuant to this Constitution and laws, be vested in the Council of Ministers of
the Province.
Provided that the executive power of the Province shall be exercised by the
Provincial Head in case of absence of the Provincial Exe cutive in a State of
Emergency or enforcement of Federal rule.
(2) The responsibility for issuing general directives, controlling and
regulating the administration of the Province shall, subject to this
Constitution and other laws, lie in the Provincial Co uncil of Ministers.
(3) The executive functions of the Province shall be exercised in the name of
the Provincial government.
(4) The provincial executive power, pursuant to this Constitution, shall be as
provided in the list of competencies of the Province in Schedule -6 and
the list of Concurrent competencies/powers in Schedule -7 and Schedule –
9.
Provided that the Provincial Council of Ministers must coordinate with the
Government of Nepal while exercising executive powers in areas mentioned in the
concurr ent list.
(5) Any decision or order or implementation warrant to be issued in the
name of Government of Nepal, pursuant to Clause (3) above, shall be
authenticated as prescribed by the provincial law.
163 . Provisions related to the Provincial Head : (1) Ev ery province shall have a
Provincial Head as the representative of the Federal government.
(2) The President shall appoint a Provincial Head for every province.
(3) The term of office of the Provincial Head shall be of five years, except
when she/he is rem oved by the President before the expiry of her/his
term of office.
(4) The same person shall not be the Provincial Head for more than one time
in the same Province.
164 . Qualifications of Provincial Head : Any person with the following
qualifications shall be eligible for the post of the Provincial Head :
(a) has attained 35 years of age,
(b) is eligible to be a member of the Federal Parliament , and
(c) is not ineligible by any law.

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165 : Vacation of the post of Provincial Head : (1) The post of the Provincial Head
shall fall vacant under following conditions:
(a) if she/he tenders her/his resignation before the President ,
(b) if her/his term comes to an end or is removed by the President
before the end of the term, or
(c) if she/he dies.
(2) In case of the po st of the Provincial Head of any Province falls vacant,
the President may designate Provincial Head of any other Province to
officiate until a new Provincial Head is appointed.
16 6. Functions, duties and powers of Provincial Head : (1) The Provincial Head
shall exercise the rights and duties as specified in this constitution or laws
(2) All tasks executed by the Provincial Head as per clause (1) shall be
carried out on the recommendation and consent of the Provincial Council
of Ministers except where it has been specified to be done on the
recommendation of any institution or office -bearers pursuant to this
Constitution and law. Such recommendation and consent shall be submit
through the Chief Minister.
(3) The decision or order made in the name of the Provin cial Head as
provided for by clause (2) and the certification of credentials in that
regard, shall be done as specified by provincial law .
167 . Oath of Provincial Head : The Provincial Head shall take her/his oath of office
and secrecy before the President , pursuant to the Federal law .
168 . Constitution of the Provincial Council of Mini sters: (1) The Provincial Head
shall appoint the leader of the parliamentary party with majority in the
Provincial Assembly as the Chief Minister and the Provincial Council of
Ministers shall be formed under the chairpersonship of the Chief Minister.
(2) If no party carries a clear majority in the Provincial Assembly for purpose
of Clause (1), the Provincial Head shall appoint as Chief Minister the
member of the Provincial Asse mbly who can attain majority of two or
more than two parties represented in the Provincial Assembly .
(3) If a situation arises whereby the appointment of the Chief Minister
according to Clause (2) is not possible within thirty days from the date of
announc ement of the final result of the election to the Provincial
Assembly or if the Chief Minister so appointed is unable to win a vote of
confidence according to Clause (4), the Provincial Head shall appoint as
Chief Minister the leader of the parliamentary pa rty with the highest
number of members in the Provincial Assembly .
(4) The Chief Minister appointed pursuant to Clause (2) or Clause (3) above
must obtain a vote of confidence from the Provincial Assembly within
thirty days of being appointed the Chief Min ister.

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(5) If the Chief Minister appointed pursuant to Clause (3) cannot obtain a
vote of confidence pursuant to Clause (4), the Provincial Head shall
appoint as Chief Minister any other member pursuant to Clause (2) who
can win a vote of confidence in the Provincial Assembly .
(6) The Chief Minister appointed pursuant to Clause (5) must obtain a vote of
confidence pursuant to Clause (4).
(7) If the Chief Minister appointed pursuant to Clause (3) or (5) fails to
obtain a vote of confidence pursuant to Clause (4) and (6) or if
appointment of Chief Minister pursuant to Clause (5) is not possible, the
Provincial Head shall dissolve the Provincial Assembly and announce the
date for another elections to be held within six months.
(8) The appointment process of the Chief Minister in pursuant to this Article
shall be completed within thirty -five days of the announcement of the
final result of the election held for the Provincial Assembly pursuant to
this Constitut ion or from which the post of the Chief Minister falls
vacant .
(9) The Provincial Head shall, on the recommendation of the Chief Minister,
constitute from among the members of the Provincial Assembly the
Provincial Council of Ministers on the basis of the principles of Inclusion
and not exceeding more than tw enty per cent of the total number of
members of the Provincial Assembly , including the Chief Minister.
Explanation : For the purpose of this Article the word ‘Minister’ shall mean
Minister, State Minister and Assistant Minister.
(10) The Chief Minister and Minister shall be collectively accountable towards
the Provincial Assembly , and the Ministers shall be individually
responsible to the Chief Minister and the Provincial Assembly for the
work of their respective Ministries.
169 . Vacancy of office of Chief M inister and Ministers: (1) The Chief Minister shall
be deemed to have ceased to hold office in the following situations:
(a) If the Chief Minister submits her/his resignation to the Provincial
Head .
(b) If vote of confidence pursuant to Article 188 fails o r the no –
confidence motion against her/him is passed ,
(c) If she/he ceases to be the member of the Provincial Assembly , or
(d) If she/he dies.
(2) The Minister, State Minister or Assistant Minister shall be deemed to have
ceased to hold office in the fo llowing situations:
(a) If they submit their resignation to the Chief Minister,
(b) If the Chief Minister removes them,

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(c) If the Chief Minister ceases to hold office pursuant to Clause (1), or
(d) If she/he dies.
(3) If the Chief Minister ceases to hol d office pursuant to Clause (1), the
existing Council of Ministers shall continue to function until a new
Provincial Council of Ministers is constituted.
Provided that in the case of the death of the Chief Minister, the senior most
Minister shall act as Ch ief Minister until a new Chief Minister is appointed.
170 . Appointment of non -member of Provincial Assembly as Minister, State
Minister or Assistant Minister: (1) Not withstanding a nything contained in
clause (9) of Article (168) , the Provincial Head , on t he recommendation of the
Chief Minister, may appoint any person who is not a member of Provincial
Assembly as Minister, State Minister or Assistant Minister.
(2) The Minister, State Minister or Assistant Minister appointed pursuant to
Clause (1) shall gain membership of the Provincial Assembly within six
months of taking oath.
(3) Failure to attain membership of the Provincial Assembly within the
period pursuant to Clause (2) shall make them ineligible to be re –
appointed as Minister, State Minister or Assis tant Minister during the term
of the existing Provincial Assembly .
(4) Notwithstanding anything contained in Clause (1) a person who lost in the
elections of the existing Provincial Assembly shall not be eligible for
appointment to the post of Minister, St ate Minister or Assistant Minister
pursuant to Clause (1) during the term of the same Provincial Assembly .
171 . Remuneration and other benefits of Chief Minister, Minister, State Mi nister
and Assistant Minister: The remuneration and other benefits of the C hief
Minister, Minister, State Minister and Assistant Minister shall be as determined
by an Act. Until so determined, they shall be as specified by the Government
of Nepal.
172 . Oath: The Chief Minister and Ministers shall take their oath of office and
sec recy according to the law before the Provincial Head , and the State
Ministers and Assistant Ministers shall take their oath of office and secrecy
before the Chief Minister.
17 3. Provincial Head to be informed: The Chief Minister shall inform the
Provincial Head about the following subjects:
(a) The decision of the Provincial Council of Ministers,
(b) Bills to be presented before the Provincial Assembly ,
(c) Other necessary information sought by the Provincial Head in relation to
subjects mentions in Section (a) and (b), and
(d) The contemporary situation of the Province.

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17 4. Conduct of business of the Provincial g overnment: (1) The allocation and
transaction of business of the provincial government shall be carried out as
set forth in rules approved by the provincial government.
(2) No question shall be raised in any court as to whether or not rules made
pursuant to Clause (1) above have been observed.

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PART -14
Provincial Legislature
175 . Provincial Legislature: The re shall be a unicameral l egislature in a p rovince
which shall be called the Provincial Assembly .
17 6. Formation of the Provincial Assembly : (1) Every Provincial Assembly shall
consist of the following number of members: –
(a) Members equal to double the number of members to be elected
through the first -past -the -post (FPTP) election system to the House
of Representatives from the concerned province,
(b) The number of members to be elected through the Proportional
Representation (PR) election system equal to the number equivalent
to the remaining for ty per cent when the number of members
maintained pursuant to section (a) is regarded as sixty per cent.
(2) Electoral constituencies shall be maintained pursuant to Federal law on
the basis of geography and population for the election of the members
pursu ant to section (a) of Clause (1)
(3) Sixty per cent of the members of the Provincial Assembly shall be elected
through first -past -the -post election system and forty per cent shall be
elected through proportional representation election system ;
(4) Election of members of the Provincial Assembly to be conducted pursuant
to clause (3) shall be held on the basis of adult franchise through secret
ballot as provided in the law.
(5 ) Every Nepali citizen having domicile in a province and having attained
the age of 18 years shall have the right to vote in any election
constituency as provided for by law.
(6) The representation of women, Dalit, indigenous, indigenous nationalities,
Khas Arya, Madhesi, Muslim, backward region and minorities community
on the basis of g eography and population in the nominations filed by the
political parties for the election to be held for the Provincial Assembly
through the proportional representation (PR) election system shall be
made on the basis of clo sed list in accordance with Fede ral law .
Explanation: ‘Khas Arya’ shall mean Chettri, Brahman, Thakuri, Sanyasi
(Dashanami) community.
(7) While filing of candidacy by political party pursuant to clause (6),
representation of the persons with disability shall also be made.
(8) In case th e seat of any member falls vacant with more than six months of
the term of the Provincial Assembly remaining, the seat shall be filled by
pursuing the same electoral system by which earlier member had been
elected .

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(9) Notwithstanding anything contained e lsewhere in this Article, at least
one third of the total number of members to be elected from each
political party to the Provincial Assembly shall have to be women. In case
at least one third of the candidates elected from a political party
pursuant to section (a) of clause (1) are not women, the political party
shall have to make provision of electing at least one third women while
electing members pursuant to section (b) of the same clause.
(10) Any person eligible to vote for the member of Provincial A ssembly and
qualified as per Article 178 can stand as candidate from any election
constituency of the province.
Provided no one candidate shall stand in election from more than one constituency
at a time.
(11) Other provisions related to Provincial Assembl y election shall be as
prescribed in Federal law .
17 7. Term of Provincial Assembly : (1) Unless dissolved earlier pursuant to this
Constitution, the term of the Provincial Assembly shall be five years.
(2) Provided that the term of the Provincial Assembly may be extended by a
maximum of one year as per the Provincial Act, in the event of the
declaration of a State of Emergency.
(3) The term of Provincial Assembly extended according to clause (2) shall ,
ipso facto , come to an end after six months of the dat e of annulment of
the declaration of the State of Emergency.
178 . Qualification of members of Provincial Assembly : (1) Any person who
possess the following qualifications is eligible to become a member of the
Provincial Assembly :
(a) be a Nepali citizen,
(b) be a voter of the concerned Province,
(c) have attained twenty -five years,
(d) not have been punished for any criminal offence involving moral
turpitude,
(e) not deemed ineligible by any law, and
(f) Not be holding an office of profit.
Explanation : Fo r the purpose of this section , ‘office of profit’ means any position,
other than a political position, filled by election or nomination for which
remuneration or economic benefit is paid out of a Government Fund .
(2) If a person who is elected or nominated to the position of the member of
Provincial Assembly already holds a political position through election,
nomination, or appointment, the position held by such a person shall

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automatically become vacant from the day of his/her taking oath of
office.
179 . Oath of member of Provincial Assembly : The members of the Provincial
Assembly shall take the oath, as provided for in the law, before taking part
for the first time in a meeting of the Assembly or a meeting of any of its
Committee.
180 . Vacation of seat of Provincial Assembly member: The seat of a member of
the Provincial Assembly shall deemed to be vacant in the following
circumstances:
(a) if she/he submits resignation to the Speaker of the Provincial Assembly ,
(b) if she/he does not, or has ceased to, po ssess the qualif ications pursuant
to Article 178 ,
(c) if the term of the Provincial Assembly expires or is dissolved,
(d) if she/he remains absent from ten consecutive meetings without
notification to the Provincial Assembly ,
(e) if the party of which she /he was a member when elected provides
notification in the manner set out by provincial law that she/he has left
the party, or
(f) if she/he dies.
181 . Decision about disqualification of members of Provincial Assembly : If a
question arises as to whether an y member of the Provincial Assembly is
disqualified or has ceased to posses any of the qualifications required by
Article 17 8, the final decision shall be made by the Constitutional Bench of
the Supreme Court.
182 . Speaker and Deputy Spe aker of the Provinc ial Assembly : (1) The Provincial
Assembly shall elect a Speaker and a Deputy Speaker from among its members
within fifteen days of the first meeting of the Assembly.
(2) While electing speaker and deputy speaker as per clause (1), either of
Speaker or Dep uty Speaker shall be woman and they shall belong to
different parties .
Provided that if not more than one party is represented in the Provincial Assembly
or candidacy has not been registered even with the presence of more than one
party, it shall not obst ruct the Speaker and Deputy Speaker being from the same
party.
(3) If the office of the Speaker or Deputy Speaker falls vacant, the Provincial
Assembly shall fill the vacancy through election from among its members.
(4) In the absence of the Speaker of th e Provincial Assembly , the Deputy
Speaker shall chair the meeting of the Provincial Assembly .

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(5 ) If the election of the Speaker and Deputy Speaker has not taken place, or
if both the positions become vacant, the member who is the senior most
by age among the members present, shall preside over the meeting of
the Provincial Assembly .
(6 ) The office of the Speaker or Deputy Speaker of Provincial Assembly shall
become vacant in the following circumstances:
(a) if she/he ceases to be a member of the Provincial Assembly ,
(b) if she/he submits written resignation, or
(c) if a resolution is adopted by a majority of two -thirds of the total
number of members existing for the time being in the Provincial
Assembly , to the effect that her/his conduct is not compatible with
her/his position.
(7 ) The Deputy Speaker shall preside over the meeting at which deliberations
are to be held on a resolution that the conduct of the Speaker is not
compatible with her/his position. The Speaker shall be entitled to take
part and vote in the deliberations on such a resolution.
18 3. Summoning and prorogation of s essions of Provincial Assembly : (1) The
Provincial Head shall summon the session of the Provincial Assembly within
twenty days after the final result of the election to the Prov incial Assembly
has been announced. And the subsequent sessions shall be called from time to
time pursuant to the Constitution by the Provincial Head .
Provided that the period betw een the prorogation of a session and the
commencement of new session shall n ot be more than six months.
(2) The Provincial Head may prorogue the session of the Provincial Assembly .
(3) If, when the Provincial Assembly is not in session or has been adjourned,
at least one -fourth of all members of the Provincial Assembly submit a
re quest stating that it is desirable that a session or meeting of the
Provincial Assembly be called, the Provincial Head shall call such a
session or meeting by setting the date and time for this. The session of
the Provincial Assembly shall commence or the meeting will be held in
the date and time designated accordingly.
18 4. Address by the Provincial Head : (1) The Provincial Head shall make a call to
address the session of the Provincial Assembly and appeal to members for
their presence in it.
(2) The Prov incial Head shall address the first session held following the
elections to the Provincial Assembly and the meeting of the Provincial
Assembly after commencement of the first session every year.
18 5. Quorum of Provincial Assembly : Except as otherwise provi ded for in this
Constitution, no resolution shall be presented for decision in any meeting of
the Provincial Assembly unless one -fourth of the total number of members are
present.

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18 6. Voting in Provincial Assembly : Any resolution submitted for decision in the
Provincial Assembly shall be decided by a majority vote of members present
and voting. The presiding member shall not have the right to vote.
Provided that in case of a tie the presiding member may exercise a casting vote.
187 . Pri vileges of Provinci al Assembly : (1) There shall be full freedom of speech,
pursuant to this Constitution, in the Provincial Assembly and no member shall
be arrested or detained or prosecuted in any court for anything expressed or
for any vote cast in that meeting.
(2) The Pr ovincial Assembly shall, pursuant to this Constitution, have full
power to regulate its business, and it shall have the exclusive right to
decide whether or not any proceeding of the Provincial Assembly is
regular. No question shall be raised in any court in this regard.
(3) No comment shall be made about the good faith of any proceedings of
the Provincial Assembly , and no person shall make or disseminate
anything about the comments or suggestion made by any member,
deliberately misinterpreting or distortin g their meaning.
(4) The provision of Clause (1) and (3) shall also be applicable to any other
person who is allowed to take part in the Provincial Assembly , other than
the member of the Provincial Assembly .
(5) No proceedings shall be initiated in any c ourt against any person for
publication made under authority given by the Provincial Assembly of any
document, report, vote or proceeding.
Explanation: For this Clause and for Clauses (1), (2), (3) and (4), the word
‘Provincial Assembly ’ shall also mean th e meeting of the Committee of the
Provincial Assembly .
(6) No member of the Provincial Assembly shall be arrested after a notice of
the summoning of the session has been issued and until the session ends.
Provided that nothing in this Clause shall be de emed to prevent the arrest of any
member on a criminal charge under any law. If any member is so arrested, the
authority making such arrest shall immediately inform the person chairing the
Provincial Assembly .
(7) Any breach of privilege shall be deemed t o constitute contempt of the
Provincial Assembly and the Provincial Assembly shall have the exclusive
right to decide whether or not any breach of privilege of the Assembly
has taken place.
(8) If a person is in contempt of the Provincial Assembly , the pe rson chairing
the meeting may, in accordance with a decision by the meeting to that
effect, reprimand or warn or impose a sentence of imprisonment not
exceeding three months or impose a fine of up to ten thousand rupees on
such a person, and such fine shal l be recovered as government dues.

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Provided that if such a person submits an apology to the satisfaction of the
Provincial Assembly , it may either pardon her/him or alter the sentence imposed
on her/him.
(9) Other matters relating to privileges of the Prov incial Assembly shall be as
determined by the Provincial law.
18 8. Provisions related to Vote of Confi dence and no -confidence motion : (1) If
the Chief Minister considers it necessary or appropriate to make it clear that
the Provincial Assembly has confiden ce in her/him, she/he may propose a
vote of confidence to the Provincial Assembly any time.
(2) If the party represented by the Chief Minister is divided or if a party
joining the provincial government withdraws its support, the Chief
Minister shall propo se a vote of confidence to the Provincial Assembly
within thirty days.
(3) If the vote proposed in pursuant to Clause (1) and (2) is not passed by a
majority of the total number of members existing in the time being , the
Chief Minister shall cease to hold office.
(4) At least one -fourth of the total number of members of the Provincial
Assembly may propose a no -confidence motion, stating that the
Provincial Assembly has no confidence in the Chief Minister.
Provided that a no -confidence motion shall not be m oved until the first two years
of her/his appointment as the Chief Minister and not before another year once a
no -confidence motion fails.
(5) A no -confidence motion pursuant to Clause (4) shall also include the
name of the proposed member for the post of Chief Minister.
(6) If the no -confidence motion registered pursuant to Clause (4) is passed
by a majority of the total number of members existing in the time being
in the Provincial Assembly , the Chief Minister shall cease to hold office.
(7) If the no -co nfidence motion pursuant to Clause (6) is passed and the post
of Chief Minister falls vacant, the Provincial Head shall appoint as Chief
Minister, pursuant to Article 168 , the member of the Provincial Assembly
proposed pursuant to Clause (5).
18 9. Minister , State Minister and Assistant Minister to attend the meeting of
Provincial Assembly : The Minister, State Minister and Assistant shall be
allowed to attend and take part in the business and deliberations of the
Provincial Assembly and its Committee meeting s.
Provided that the Minister, State Minister or Assistant Minister, who is not a
member of the Provincial Assembly , shall not be allowed to vote in the Provincial
Assembly meeting or its Committees and the Minister, State Minister or Assistant
Minister, w ho is a member of the Provincial Assembly shall not be allowed to vote
in the meeting of the Committee other than she/he is a member.

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190. Unauthorized presence or voting in Provincial Assembly to be penalized : If
any person who has not taken oath pursuan t to Article 178 or does not hold
necessary qualifications for membership of the Provincial Assembly attends
the Provincial Assembly or its Committee meetings or votes in capacity of a
member then the person presiding over the meeting shall order a fine of five
thousand rupees against the person for every instance of such attendance or
voting, and the penalty shall be recovered as government dues.
19 1. Restriction on discussion: No discussion shall be held in the Provincial
Assembly which could have an adv erse impact in the judicial execution of a
matter under consideration in any court of Nepal, and about anything done by
a Judge in the course of performance of his or her judicial duties.
192 . Transaction of business in case of vacancy in membership : The p roceedings
of the Provincial Assembly shall be conducted notwithstanding any vacancies
in its membership , and no proceedings shall become invalid even if it
subsequently found that a person not entitled to take part in the proceedings
participated.
19 3. Pr ovincial Assembly to form committees: The Provincial Assembly shall
constitute committees or special committees according to the need and as
provided for in its rules to manage the transaction of business of the
Provincial Assembly .
19 4. Procedure relating to the conduct of business of the Provincial Assembly :
The Provincial Assembly shall frame rules to conduct its business, maintain
order during its meetings and to regulate the constitution, functions and
procedures of, and for any other matters pertainin g to, committees of the
Provincial Assembly .
19 5. Secretary and Secretari at of the Provincial Assembly : (1) The Provincial
Head shall, on the recommendation of the Speaker of the Province, appoint
Secretary of the Provincial Assembly .
(2) There shall be a Secretariat to carry out and manage the business of the
Provincial Assembly . The establishment of such a Secretariat and other
matters related thereto shall be as determined by Provincial law.
(3) The qualification, functions, duties, powers and other ter ms and
conditions of service of the Secretary of the Provincial Assembly shall be
as provided for in the law.
19 6. Remuneration: The remunerations and benefits of the Speaker, Deputy
Speaker and members of the Provincial Assembly shall be as provided for i n
the Provincial law. Until such a law is formulated, it shall be as determined by
the provincial government.

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PART 15
Provincial Legislative Procedure
197. Legislative power of Provincial Legislature : The legislative powers of the
Provincial Legislature shall be as enumerated in Schedule -6, Schedule -7 and
Schedule -9.
19 8. Procedure to introduce bills in the Provincial Assembly : (1) A bill may be
introduced, pursuant to this constitution, in the Provincial Assembly .
(2) The Finance Bills and Bills con cerning law and order shall be introduced
only as a Government Bill.
(3) “Finance Bill” means a Bill concerning all or any of the following
subjects:
(a) the imposition, collection, abolition, remission, alteration or
regulation of taxes or regulation of t ax system in the Province,
(b) the preservation of the Provincial Consolidated Fund or any
Government fund of another Province, the deposit of money into
and the appropriation or the withdrawal of money from such funds,
or the reduction, increment or cance llation of appropriations or of
proposed expenditures from such funds,
(c) the regulation of matters relating to the raising of loans or the
giving of guarantees by the Provincial Government, or any matter
pertaining to amendment of the laws concerning the financial
liabilities undertaken or to be undertaken by the Provincial
Government,
(d) the custody and investment of all revenues received by any
Provincial Government Fund, money acquired through the
repayment of loans, and the grant of money; or audits of the
accounts of the Provincial Government; or
(e) matter directly related to section s (a), (b), (c), (d) and (e).
Provided that a Bill shall not be deemed to be a Finance Bill by reason only that it
provides for the levying of any charges and fees such as license fee, application
fee, renewal fee or it provides for imposition of any penalty or imprisonment.
(4) If any question arises whether a Bill is a Finance Bill or not, the decision
of the Speaker of the Provincial Assembly thereon shall be final.
19 9. Procedure for Passing Bills: (1) A Bill passed by the Provincial Assembly shall
be presented to the Head of Province for certification.
(2) If a session of the Provincial Assembly terminates while a Bill is under
consideration, deliberations on the B ill may continue at the succeeding
session:

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Provided that if the Provincial Assembly is dissolved or its term expires when any
Bill is under consideration at the Provincial Assembly , such Bill shall be deemed to
have lapsed.
200 . Withdrawal of the Bill: A Bill may be withdrawn by the member introducing it
with the approval of the Provincial Assembly .
201 . Certification of the Bill: (1) A Bill which to be presented to the Head of
Province for certi fication pursuant to Article 199 shall be so presented by t he
Speaker of the Provincial Assembly after certifying it.
Provided that in the case of a Finance Bill, the Speaker shall so certify stating that
it is a Finance Bill.
(2) The Head of Province shall certify the Bill presented to her/him for
certification within fifteen days, and inform the Provincial Assembly
about the same as soon as possible.
(3) Except for a Finance Bill, if the Head of Province is of the opinion that
any Bill presented to her/him for certification needs further
deliberations, she/he may send back the Bill with her/his message to the
Provincial Assembly within fifteen days from the date of presentation of
the Bill to her/him.
(4) If any Bill is sent back with a message from the Head of Province, it shall
be reconsidered by the Provin cial Assembly and if the Bill so reconsidered
is again passed as it was or with amendments, and is again presented to
him/her, the Head of Province shall certify the Bill within fifteen days of
such presentation.
(5) A Bill shall become an Act after it i s certified by the Head of Province.
20 2. Ordinance: (1) If at any time, except when the Provincial Assembly is in
session, if circumstances exist which render it necessary to take immediate
action, the Head of Province may, on the recommendation of the P rovincial
Council of Ministers, promulgate an Ordinance.
(2) An Ordinance promulgated under Clause (1) shall have the same force and
effect as of Act:
Provided that every such Ordinance:
(a) shall be tabled at the next session of Provincial Assembly , and i f not passed it
shall ipso facto cease to be effective;
(b) may be repealed at any time by the Head of Province ; and
(c) shall, unless rendered ineffective or repealed under sections (a) or (b), ipso
facto cease to have effect at the expiration of sixty days from the
commencement of the session of the Provincial Assembly .

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PART 1 6
Financial Procedures of Province
203 . No tax to be levied or loan to be raised (1) No tax shall be levied and
collected except in accordance with law.
(2) No loan shall be rai sed and guarantee be given by the Provincial
Government except in accordance with the Federal law .
20 4. Consolidated Fund of the Province: Except for the revenues of religious
endowments, all revenues received by the Provincial Government, all loans
raise d on the security of revenues, and all the money received in repayment
of any loan made under the authority of any Act and any amount received by
the Provincial Government shall be credited to a Provincial Government Fund
to be known as the Provincial Cons olidated Fund.
20 5. Expenditures from the Provincial Consolidated Fund or a Provincial
Government Fund: No expenditure shall be incurred out of the Provincial
Consolidated Fund or any other Provincial Government fund other than the
following:
(a) money charged on the Consolidated Fund,
(b) money required to meet expenditure under an Appropriation Act,
(c) advance money authorized by an Act required to meet expenditures,
when an Appropriation Bill, is under consideration, or
(d) expenditures to be incurred in extraordinary circumstances under a
Vote of Credit Act which contains only a description of
expenditure.
Provided that matters relating to the Provincial Contingency Fund shall be in
accordance with Article 21 2.
20 6. Expendi ture chargeable on th e Provincial Consolidated Fund: The
expenditures relating to the following matters shall be charged on the
Provincial Consolidated Fund and permission of the Provincial Assembly shall
not be necessary for such expenses :
(a ) the amount to be provided for the salary and benefits of the Speaker and
Deputy Speaker of the Province,
(b) the amount required as remuneration and benefits payable to the
Chairperson and members of the Provincial Public Service Commission,
(c) all char ges relating to debts for which the Provincial Government is
liable,
(d) any sum required to be paid under any judgment or decree of a court
against the Provincial Government,

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(e) any other sum declared by law to be chargeable on the Provincial
Consolidate d Fund.
20 7. Estimates of revenues and expenditure: (1) The Finance Minister of the
Province shall, with respect to every fiscal year, present before the Provincial
Assembly annual estimates including the following matters:
(a) an estimate of revenues,
(b) the money required to meet the charges on the Provincial
Consolidated Fund, and
(c) the money required to meet the expendi ture to be provided for
by Provincial Appropriation Act.
(2) the annual estimate to be presented pursuant to Clause (1) shal l be
accompanied by a statement of the expenses allocated to each Ministry
in the previous financial year and particulars of whether the objectives
of the expenses have been achieved.
208 . Province Appropriation Act: The money required to meet the expendi ture to
be provided by any Province Appropriation Act shall be specified under
appropriate heads in an Appropriation Bill.
209 . Supplementary estimates: (1) The Finance Minister of the Province shall, in
respect of any financial year, present supplementary estimates before the
Provincial Assembly , if it is found –
(a) that the sum authorized to be spent for a particular service by the
Provincial Appropriation Act for the current fiscal year is
insufficient, or that a need has arisen for expendi ture upon new
services not provided for by the Provincial Appropriation Act for
that year, or
(b) that the expenditures made during that fiscal year are in excess of
the amount authorized by the Provincial Appropriation Act.
(2) The sums included in the supplementary estimates shall be specified
under separate heads in a Supplementary Appropriation Bill.
210 . Votes on account: (1) Notwithstanding anything contained in this Part, a
portion of the expenditure estimated for the financial year may, when
an Appropriation Bill is under consideration, be incurred in advance by
an Act.
(2) A Vote on Account Bill shall not be submitted until the estimates of
revenues and expenditures have been presented in accordance with
the provisions of Article 207 , and the sums involved in the Vote
on Account shall not exceed one -third of the estimate of expenditure
for the financial year.
(3) The expenditure incurred in accordance with the Vote on Account Act
shall b e included in the Appropriation Bill.

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211 . Votes of credit: Notwithstanding anything contained elsewhere in this Part, if
owing to a provincial emergency due to either natural causes or a threat of
external aggression or internal disturbances or other reasons, it is
impractical or inexpedient in view of the security or interest of the
Province to specify the details required under Clause (1) of Article 207 , the
Finance Minister of the Province may present a Vote of Credit Bill before
the Provincial Assembly giving only a description of the expenditure.
21 2. Provincial Contingency Fund: (1) A Provincial Act may create a Fund by the
name of Provincial Contingency Fund into which shall be paid from time to
time suc h money as may be deter mined by the Provincial Act.
(2) Such Fund created under clause (1) shall be under the control of the
Provincial Government. Any unforeseen expenditures shall be met out of
such Fund by the Provincial Government.
(3) The amount of the expenditures so m et shall be reimbursed as soon as
possible as per the Provincial Act.
21 3. Act relating to financial procedures : Matters relating to the transfer of
money appropriated by Provincial Act from one head to another and
other financial p rocedures sh all be regulated by Provincial Act.

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PART – 17
Local Executive
21 4. Executive power of local : (1) The local executive power shall, subject to this
Constitution and other laws, be vested in the Village executive or Town
executive.
(2) The local executive pow er shall, subject to this Constitution, remain
limited to the subjects mentioned in the local level/ level competencies
in Schedule -8 and Schedule -9.
(3) The responsibility for issuing general directives, controlling and
regulating the administration of Vil lage Council and Municipality shall,
subject to this Constitution and other laws, lie in the Village executive
and Town executive.
(4) The executive functions of the Village Council and Municipality shall be
exercised in the name of Village executive and T own executive.
(5) Any decision or order or implementation warrant to be issued in the
name of the Village executive and Town executive, pursuant to Clause
(4) above, shall be authenticated as prescribed by law.
21 5. Provisions related to Head and Deputy H ead of Village Executive: (1) There
shall be a Head of Village executive in every Village Council . The Village
executive shall be formed under her/his chairpersonship.
(2) The Village executive, pursuant to Clause (1), shall have a Deputy Head
and ward cha irpersons elected from each ward and members elected as
per clause (4) below .
(3) The election of the Head and Deputy Head shall be held through secret
ballot based on one person one vote according to the the first -past -the –
post electoral system by the vot ers of the concerned Village C ouncil
area .
Explanation: For the purpose of this Article, ‘Head and Deputy Head’ shall mean
the Head and Deputy Head of the Village executive.
(4) Four women members that are elected by the Village Assembly members
from amon g themselves and two persons elected from the Dalit or
minority community with qualifications pursuant to Clause (5) below shall
also be members of the Village executive and this election shall be held
within 15 days following the final result of the elect ion of Village
Assembly as per Article 222 .
(5) Any person with the following qualifications shall be eligible for election
to the post of Head, Deputy Head, ward chairperson and member :
(a) be a Nepali citizen,
(b) have attained twenty -one years of age,

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(c) is included in the voters list of the Village council,
(d) is not ineligible by any law.
(6) The term of office of the Head, Deputy Head, ward chairperson and
Village executive members shall be of five years
(7) Any person who has been elected to the p ost of the Head for two terms
shall not be eligible to become a candidate in the subsequent Village
municipality elections
(8) The post of the Head, Deputy Head, ward chairperson or member shall
fall vacant under following conditions: –
(a) if the Head ten ders her/his resignation before the Deputy Head and
the Deputy Head before the Head,
(b) if her/his term comes to an end, or
(c) if she/he dies
(9 ) In case the post of Head or Deputy Head falls vacant as per Clause ( 8)
with more than one year of the term l eft, the vacant post for the
remaining term shall be filled through by -elections.
216 . Provisions related to Mayor and Deputy Mayor of Municipality: (1) There
shall be a Mayor of the Municipal Executive in every municipality. The
municipal executive shal l be formed under her/his chair.
(2) The Municipal Executive, pursuant to Clause (1), shall have a Deputy
Mayor , ward chairperson elected from each ward and members elected
as per clause (4) below .
(3) The election of the Mayor and Deputy Mayor shall be he ld through secret
ballot based on one person one vote according to the first -past -the -post
electoral system by the voters of the concerned Municipal Council area .
Explanation: For the purpose of this Article, ‘ Mayor and Deputy Mayor ’ shall mean
the Head an d Deputy Head of the Municipal executive.
(4) Five women members that are elected by the Municipal Assembly
members from among themselves and three persons elected from the
Dalit or minority community with qualifications pursuant to Clause (5)
below shall also be members of the Municipal executive and this election
shall be held within 15 days following the final result of the election of
Municipal Assembly as per Article 223
(5) Any person with the following qualifications shall be eligible for election
to the post of Head , Deputy Head, ward chairperson and members :
(a) be a Nepali citizen,
(b) have attained twenty -one years of age,
(c) is included in the voters list of the Municipality,

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(d) is not ineligible by any law .
(6) The term of office of the He ad , Deputy Head, ward chairperson and
Municipal executive members shall be of five years.
(7) Any person who has been elected to the post of the Mayor for two terms
shall not be eli gible to become a candidate in the subsequent
municipality elections.
(8) The post of the Head , Deputy Head , ward chairperson or members shall
fall vacant under following conditions: –
(a) if the Head tenders her/his res ignation before the Deputy Head and
the Deputy Head before the Head ,
(b) if her/his term comes to an end, or
(c) if she/he dies.
(9 ) In case the post of Head and Deputy Head fall s vacant as per Clause ( 8)
with more than one year of the term left, the vacant post for the
remaining period shall be filled through by -elections.
217 . Judicial Committee: (1) There sha ll be a Judicial Committee under the
Convenorship of the Deputy Head of the Village Executive in every Village
Council and under the Convenorship of the Deputy M ayor of the Municipality
in every Municipality to exercise power to hear cases, as entrusted to the
Village Council or Municipality pursuant to Federal and Provincial laws.
(2) The Judicial Committee, pursuant to Clause (1), shall have two members
designated by the Head of Village Executive in case of Village Council
and two members designated by th e Mayor of the Municipal executive in
case of a Municipality.
218 . Conduct of business of Village Executive and Municipal Executive: The
allocation and transaction of business of the Village Executive and Municipal
Executive shall be carried out as set for th in rules approved by the Village
Executive and Municipal Executive.
21 9. Other provisions rel ated to local level executive: Other provisions relating
to the local level executive other than those written in this part shall be as
provided for in the laws drafted, in pursuant to this Constitution, by the
Federal Parliament .
220 . District Assembly and District Co -ordination Committee : (1) There shall be a
District Assembly, as provided in the law, for coordination and essential
management among the Village Municipalities and Municipalities within the
District.
(2) Head of every Village executive and Mayor of every Municipal executive
within the district shall be members in the District Assembly. The first
meeting of the District Assembly shall be held withi n thirty days of the

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announcement of the final results of the Village Assembly and Municipal
Assembly elections.
(3) The District Assembly shall, pursuant to Provincial laws, elect a District
Coordination Committee with a maximum of nine members including a
Head, a Deputy Head, at least three women and at least one person from
the Dalit or minority community. The District Coordination Committee
shall execute all tasks to be carried out on behalf of the District
Assembly.
(4) The members of the Village Assem bly or Municipal Assembly within the
district concerned shall be eligible to be a candidate for the post of
Head, Deputy Head or member of the District Coordination Committee.
(5) The term of office of the Head, the Deputy Head and member of the
District C oordination Committee shall be of five years.
(6) The post of the Head or Deputy Head or member of the District
Coordination Committee shall fall vacant under following conditions: –
(a) if the Head tenders her/his resignation before the Deputy Head and
th e Deputy Head or member tenders her/his resignation before the
Head,
(b) if her/his term comes to an end, or
(c) if she/he dies.
(7) The function, duties and powers of the District Assembly shall be as
follows:
(a) to coordinate among the Village Munici palities and Municipalities and
Province within the District,
(b) to carry out monitoring so as maintain balance in development and
construction works,
(c) to maintain coordination among the Federal and Provincial
government offices and Village Council and M unicipality within the
district,
(d) to perform other tasks as provided for in the Provincial law.
(8) The fiscal responsibility related to the operation of District Assembly and
benefits received by members of District Coordination Committee shall
be upon the Provincial Government.

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PART 18
Local Legislature
221 . Legislative Power of Local Level : (1) The legislative power of the local level
shall, subject to this Constitution, be vested in the Village Assembly and
Municipal Assembly.
(2) The legislative p ower of the Village Assembly and Municipal Assembly
shall be as enumerated in Schedules -8 and -9.
22 2. Formation of Village Assembly (1) There shall be a V illage Assembly in each
Village C ouncil.
(2) The Village Assembly referred to in clause (1) shall com prise a village
execut ive Head, a Deputy Head and four members elected from every
Ward of the Village council and member of the vill age executive elected
from the D alit or minority community pursuant to clause (4) of Article
215 .
(3 ) The Vil lage Assembly t o be constituted pursuant to Clause (1) shall have
the representation of at least two women from every Ward of the Village
Council .
(4 ) One ward committee comprising of one ward Chairperson and four
members shall be formed in each ward of the Village coun cil as provided
for in Federal law . The election of the ward C hairperson and members
shall be held on the basis of the first past the post system .
(5) Every person who has attained the age of eighteen years and included in
the voters list of the Village Co uncil shall be entitled to vote as provided
for in a Federal law .
(6) Any person who possess the following qualifications is eligible to become
a candidate for the post of member of the Village Assembly:
(a) be a Nepali citizen,
(b) have attained twenty -on e years of age,
(c ) be included in the voter’s list of the Village Council , and
(d) not deemed ineligible by any law
(7) Elections to the Village Assembly and other matters pertaining thereto
shall as provided for in the law.
223 . Constitution of Municipa l Assembly : (1) There shall be one Municipal
Assembly in each Municipality.
(2) The Municipal Assembly referred to in clause (1) shall comprise the Mayor
and Deputy Mayor , ward Chairperson and four members elected from
every Ward of the Municipal council a nd member of the Municipal

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executive elected from the Dalit or minority community pursu ant to
clause (4) of Article 216 .
(3 ) The Munic ipal Assembly to be constituted pursuant to Clause (1) shall
have the representation of at least two women from every Ward of the
Municipality.
(4) One ward committee comprising of one ward Chairperson and four
members shall be formed in each ward of the Municipality as provided for
in Federal law . The election of the ward chairperson and members shall
be held on the basis of the first past the post system .
(5) Every person who has attained the age of eighteen years and is included
in the voters list of the Municipality shall be entitled to vote, as provided
for in a Federal law .
(6) Any person who possess es the following qual ifications is eligible to
become a candidate for the post of member of the Municipal Assembly:
(a) be a Nepali citizen,
(b) have attained twenty -one years of age,
(c) be included in the voter’s list of the Municipality, and
(d) not deemed ineligible by any law.
(7) Elections to the Municipal Assembly and other matters pertaining thereto
shall as provided for in the Federal law .
22 4. Chairperson and Vice -Chairperson of Village Assembly and Municipal
Assembly: The Head and Deputy Head of the Village Executiv e and the Mayor
and Deputy Mayor of the Municipal Executive shall carry out the transaction of
business as Chairperson and Vice -Chairperson of the Village Assembly and
Municipal Assembly respectively.
225 . Term of office of Village Assembly and Municipal A ssembly : The term of
Village Assembly and Municipal Assembly shall be five years.
22 6. To form laws : (1) The Village Assembly and Municipal Assembly shall make
necessary laws on the subjects mentioned in the list of competencies of the
local level pursuant to Schedule -8 and 9 .
(2) Th e procedure of drafting of laws pursuant to Clause (1) shall be as
provided for in the Provincial law.
227 . Other provisions related to Village Assembly and Municipal Assembly: The
operation of the Village Assembly and Municipal Assembly, meeting
procedures, formation of Committ ees, condition of vacation of the post of
members, the benefits entitled to members of the Village Assembly and
Municipal Assembly and other arrangements of the Village Council and
Municipality personnel a nd office shall be as provided for in the Provincial
law.

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PART -19
Local Financial Procedure
22 8. No tax to be levied or loan to be raised: (1) No tax shall be levied and
collected except in accordance with law.
(2) The local level shall impose tax in are as within its jurisdiction, without
causing any adverse impact on the national economic policy,
transportation of goods, services, capital and labor , and on neighboring
Province or local levels .
22 9. Local Consolidated Fund: (1) There shall be a Local Cons olidated Fund in
every Village Council and Municipality under the local level . All revenues
received by the local Village Council or Municipality, grants and loans
received from the Government of Nepal and the Provincial Government and
any amount received from other sources shall be deposited in such Fund.
(2) Provision relating to expenditures from the Local Consolidated Fund,
pursuant to Clause (1), shall be as provided for in the local law.
230 . Estimate of Revenue and Expenditure of Village Council and Municipality:
(1) The Village Executive and Municipal Executive shall, with respect to every
fiscal year, present before the Village Assembly or Municipal Assembly annual
estimates of revenues and expenditure, and have it passed.
(2) If the Village Execu tive and Municipal Executive have to develop a deficit
budget while presenting a budget under clause (1) , they shall, pursuant
to Federal law and Provincial law, also propose sources to fulfill the
deficit.

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PART -20
Interrelationship between the Federation ,
Provinces and L ocal levels
231 . Legislative interrelationship between Federation and Province: (1) Federal
law shall be formulated to be enforced across Nepal or to any region of Nepal
according to the need.
(2) Provincial law shall be formulated to be effective within whole of the
province or any part thereof.
(3 ) If two or more Provinces make a petition before the Federal Parliament
to make laws on any subject in the Schedule -6, the Federal Parliament
may formulate necessary laws. Such laws shall be enforced in the
respective Provinces only .
232 . Relations between the Fede ration, Provinces and local level : (1) The
Federatio n, Provinces and the local level shall enjoy relations based on the
principles of cooperative, coexistence and coordination.
(2) The Government of Nepal may issue necessary directives, pursuant to the
constitution and prevalent laws, to all the Provinces on matters of
national importance and on matters to be coordinated among the
Provinces and it shall be the duty of the respective P rovince to abide by
such directives.
(3) If any Province indulges in an act that would have a serious effect on
Nepal’s sovereignty, territorial integrity or independence, autonomy , the
President shall, according to the need, reprimand such a Province,
sus pend or dissolve the Council of Ministers of the Province and the
Provincial Assembly .
(4) The act of such suspension or dissolution of the Council of Ministers of
the Province and the Provincial Assembly , pursuant to Clause (3), must
be approved by a majo rity of total members of the Federal Parliament
existing in the time being within thirty -five days.
(5) If the suspension or dissolution, pursuant to Clause (3), is endorsed by
the Federal Parliament , fresh elections of the Provincial Assembly of
such Prov ince shall be held within six months.
Provided that if not endorsed by the Federal Parliament , such suspension or
dissolution shall ipso facto cease to be effective.
(6) If the suspension pursuant to Clause (3) is endorsed according to Clause
(4) and u nti l elections are held pursuant to Clause (5), Federal rule shall
come into force in such Province.
(7) During a period when federal rule is imposed, the Federal Parliament
may make law s on the matters enumerated in S chedule -6. Such law shall

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prevail until its repeal by subsequent law enacted by the Provincial
Assembly .
(8) The Government of Nepal may , in pursuant to the Constitution and
Federal law , provide necessary support and directives to the Village
Executive and Municipal Executive on its own or throu gh the Provincial
Government. It shall be the duty of the Village executive or Municipal
executive to abide by such directive.
23 3. Relations among the Provinces: (1) A Province shall cooperate in
implementing the legal provisions or judicial and administr ative decisions or
orders of another Province.
(2) A Province shall exchange information and consult on subjects of mutual
concern and interest, coordinate mutually about its tasks and legislation
and expand mutual support with another Province.
(3) A Pro vince shall provide equal protection , treatment and benefits to
residents of another Province in according with its own laws.
23 4. Inter -Provincial Council: (1) There shall be an Inter -Provincial Council to
settle disputes of political nature between the F ederation and Province and
among the Provinces, consisting of a Chairperson and members as follows:
(a) Prime Minister -Chairperson
(b) Home Minister of Government of Nepal -Member
(c) Finance Minister of Government of Nepal -Member
(d) Ch ief Ministers of respective Provinces -Member
(2) Meeting of the Inter -Provincial C ouncil shall be held as may be necessary.
(3) The Inter -Provincial Council shall, according to need, invite to the
meeting of the Council the Minister of the Government of Nepal and the
Minister of the Province and experts related to the subject of dispute.
(4) Pr ocedures concerning meeting of Inter -Provincial C ouncil shall be as
determined by the said council.
235 . Coordination among the Federation, Provinces and local Levels : (1) The
Fe deral Parliament shall formulate necessary laws to maintain coordination
between the Federation, Provinces and local levels .
(2) The Provincial Assembly shall coordinate with District Coordination
Committee to establish coordination between the Province an d Village
Council or Municipality and to settle disputes, if any, of political nature.
(3 ) The method and procedure of settling disputes pursuant to Clause (2)
shall be as provided for in the Provincial law.
23 6. Interprovincial Trade : No obstruction of an y kind or levying of taxes or
discrimination shall be made in the export and import of goods or services

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from one Province or local level to another Province or local level and in the
transportation of any goods or services through the territory of any pro vince
or local level to another province or local level of Nepal.
237 . Jurisdiction of the Constitutional Court not to be affected : Nothing
contained in this Part shall have any effect on the jurisdiction of the
Constitutional Bench of the Supreme Cour t as provided for in Article 137 .

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PART 2 1
Commission for the Investigation of Abuse of Authority
23 8. Commission for the Investigation of Abuse of Authority: (1) There shall be a
Commission for the Investigation of Abuse of Authority in Nepal, consisting of
a Chief Commissioner and four other Commissioners. The Chief Commissioner
shall act as the Chairperson of the Commission for the Investigation of Abuse
of Authority.
(2) The President shall, on the recommendation of the Constitutional
Council, appoint the C hief Commissioner and other Commissioners.
(3) The term of office of the Chief Commissioner and other Commissioners
shall be six years from the date of appointment.
(4) Notwithstanding anything contained in Clause (3), the office of the Chief
Commissioner or a Commissioner shall be deemed vacant under the
following circumstances:
(a) if she/he submits a written resignation to the President ,
(b) if she/he attains the age of sixty -five,
(c) if a resolution of impeachment is passed against her/him as per
Artic le 101 ,
(d) If she/he is removed by the President on the recommendation of
Constitutional Council for being unable to discharge the duties of
her/his office due to physical or mental illness , or
(e ) if she/he dies.
(5) Chief Commissioner or Commissioners appointed as per Clause (2) cannot
be re -appointed .
Provided that, nothing in thi s Clause shall be deemed to bar the appointment of
a Commissioner to Chief Commissioner, and when a Commissioner is so
appointed as the Chief Commissioner, her/his term of off ice shall be computed
as to include her/his tenure as Commissioner as well.
(6 ) Any person who possesses the following qualifications is eligible to be
appointed as the Chief Commissioner or a Commissioner of the
Commission for the Investigation of Abuse of Authority:
(a) holds a bachelor’s degree from a recognized university,
(b) is not a member of any political party immediately before the
appointment,
(c) has at least twenty years of experience in the field of accounting,
revenue, engineering, law, dev elopment or research and is a
distinguished person,

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(d) has attained forty -five years of age, and
(e) possesses a high moral character.
(7 ) The remuneration and other conditions of service of the Chief
Commissioner and the Commissioners shall be as determi ned by law. The
remuneration and other conditions of service of the Chief Commissioner
and the Commissioners shall not, so long as they hold office, be altered
to their disadvantage.
Provided that this provision shall not apply in the event of a declaratio n of a State
of Emergency due to extreme financial breakdown .
(8 ) A person who has been the Chief Commissioner or Commissioner shall not
be eligible for appointment in any other government service.
Provided that n othing in this Clause shall be deemed to b e a bar to the
appointment to any position of a political nature, or to any position which has the
responsibility of making investigations, inquiries or findings on any subject, or to
any position which has the responsibility of submitting advice, opinions or
recommendations after carrying out a stud y or research on any subject.
239. Functions, duties and powers of the Commission for the Inves tigation of
Abuse of Authority: (1) The Commission for Investigation of Abuse of
Authority may, in accordance with t he law, conduct or cause to be conducted
investigations of corruption by a person holding any public office.
Provided that this Clause shall not be applicable to any official in relation to whom
this Constitution itself separately provides for such action, and to any officials with
regard to whom other law has separately made special provision.
(2) Any investigation may be conducted or caused to be conducted, against
any official of a Constitutional Body removed from their office following
an impeachment r esolution on the ground of misbehavior as per Article
101 , any Judge removed by the Judicial Council, or any person proceeded
against under the Army Act after they are removed from office, in
accordance with Federal law .
(3) If the Commission for the Inves tigation of Abuse of Authority finds, upon
investigation carried out pursuant to Clause (1) and (2) , that a person
holding any public office has committed an act which is defined by law as
corrupt, it may lodge or caused to be lodged a case against such pe rson
or any other person involved therein in a court with jurisdiction, in
accordance with the law.
(4) If the Commission for the Investigation of Abuse of Authority finds, upon
investigation carried out pursuant to Clause (1) and (2) , that the nature
of t he work to be carried out by the person holding any public office falls
under the jurisdiction of another authority or body, it may forward a
recommendation to authority or body concerned in writing for necessary
action.

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(5 ) The Commission for the Investig ation of Abuse of Authority may delegate
any of its functions, duties and powers relating to the investigation or
lodging of cases, to the Chief Commissioner, Commissioner or any
officer -level employee of the Government of Nepal to be exercised and
followe d in compliance with the conditions specified.
(6) Subject to this Constitution, other function, duties, powers and
procedures of the Commission for the Investigation of Abuse of Authority
shall be as determined by Federal law .

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PART – 22
Auditor General
240 . Auditor General: (1) There shall be an Auditor General of Nepal.
(2) The Auditor General shall be appointed by the President on the
recommendation of the Constitutional Council.
(3) The term of office of the Auditor General shall be six years from the date
of appointment.
(4) Notwithstanding anything contained in Clause (3), the office of the
Auditor General shall be deemed vacant in the following circumstances: –
(a) if she/he submits a written resignation to the President ,
(b) if she/he attains the ag e of sixty -five,
(c) if a resolution of impeachment is passed against her/him as per
Article 101 ,
(d) If she/he is removed by the President on the recommendation of
Constitutional Council for being unable to discharge the duties of
her/his office due to p hysical or mental illness, or
(e ) if she/he dies.
(5) Auditor General appointed as per Clause (2) shall not be re -appointed .
(6 ) Any person who possesses the following qualifications is eligible to be
appointed as the Auditor General: –
(a) holds a Bachelo r’s Degree in Management, Commerce or Accounts
from a recognized university, or has worked as a Special Class
Officer of the Government of Nepal after successfully completing
the Chartered Accountants examination, or has at least twenty
years experience in the field of auditing,
(b) is not a member of any political party immediately before
appointment,
(c) has attained forty -five years of age, and
(d) possesses high moral character.
(7 ) The remuneration and conditions of service of the Auditor General shall
be as determined by law. The remuneration and other conditions of
service of the Auditor General shall not, so long as she/he holds office,
be altered to her/his disadvantage.
Provided that this provision shall not apply in the case of declaration of a S tate of
Emergency due to extreme economic breakdown .

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(8 ) A person who has been the Auditor General shall not be eligible for
appointment in other Government service.
Provided that, nothing in this Clause shall be a bar to appointment to any position
of a political nature, or to any position which has the responsibility of making
investigations, inquiries or findings on any subject, or to any position which has the
responsibility of submitting advice, opinions or recommendations after carrying out
studies o r research on any subject.
241 . Functions, duties and powers of the Auditor General: (1) The accounts of
the Office of the President and Vice -President , Supreme Court, the Federal
Parliament , Provincial Assemblies, Provincial Governments, Constitutional
bo dies or their offices, courts , the Office of the Atto rney General and the
Nepal Army, Nepal Police and Armed Police as well as of all other government
offices and courts shall be audited by the Auditor General in the manner
determined by law, with due cons ideration given to the regularity, economy,
efficiency, effectiveness and the propriety thereof.
(2) The Auditor General shall be consulted in the matter of the appointment
of auditors for carrying out the audit of any corporate body of which the
Governmen t of Nepal or Provincial Government owns more than fifty
percent of the shares or assets. The Auditor General may also issue
necessary directives setting forth the principles for carrying out the audit
of such corporate bodies.
(3) The Auditor General shal l, at all times, have access to documents
concerning the accounts for the purpose of carrying out the functions
specified in Clause (1). It shall be the duty of the Head of the office in
question to provide all documents or information which may be
demande d by the Auditor General or her/his employees.
(4) The accounts to be audited pursuant to Clause (1) shall, subject to the
Federal law , be maintained in such form as is prescribed by the Auditor
General.
(5) In addition to the accounts of the offices refer red to in Clause (1), the
Federal law may also require that the accounts of any other office or
institution be audited by the Auditor General.

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PART – 23
Public Service Commission
24 2. Public Service Commission: (1) There shall be a Public Service Commissi on of
Nepal consisting of a Chairperson and four other members.
(2) The President shall , on the recommendation of the Constitutional
Council, appoint the Chairpe rson and members of the Public Service
Commission.
(3) At least fifty percent of the total n umb er of members of the Public
Service Commission shall be appointed from among persons wh o have
worked for twenty years or more in any government service, and the rest
of the members shall be appointed from among persons who have done
research, investigation , teaching or any other significant work in fields
such as science, technology, art, literature, law, public administration,
sociology or any other sphere of national life and who hold a high
reputation.
(4) The term of office of the Chairperson a nd other members of the Public
Service Commission shall be six years from the date of appointment.
(5) The Chairperson and members appointed pursuant to clause (2) shall not
be eligible for reappointment.
Provided that n othing in this Clause shall be deemed to be a bar to the
appointment of a member of the Public Service Commission as Chairperson thereof,
and when a member is so appointed as the Chairperson, her/his term of office shall
be computed so as to include her/his tenure as member as well.
(6 ) Notwithstand ing anything contained in Clause (4), the office of
Chairperson or other members shall be deemed vacant in the following
circumstances: –
(a) if she/he submits a written resignation to the President ,
b) if she/he attains the age of sixty -five,
c) if a reso lution of impeachment is passed against her/him as per
Article 101 ,
(d) If she/he is removed by the President on the recommendation of
Constitutional Council for being unable to discharge the duties of
her/his office due to physical or mental illness, or
(d) if she/he dies.
(7 ) A person who possesses the following qualifications is eligible to be
appointed as the Chairperson and member of the Public Service
Commission :
(a) holds a post -graduate degree from a recognized university,

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(b) is not a member of any political party immediately before
appointment,
(c) has attained the age of forty five years, and
(d) possesses high moral character.
(8 ) The remuneration and other conditions of service of the Chairpe rson and
members of the Public Service Commission shal l be as determined by
law. The remuneration and other conditions of service of the Chairperson
and members of the Public Service Commission shall not, so long as they
hold office, be altered to their disadvantage.
Provided that this provision shall not app ly in the case of declaration of a State
of Emergency due to extreme economic breakdown .
(9) A person who has been the Chairperso n and the member of the Public
Service Commission shall not be eligible for appointment in other
Government service.
Provided that, nothing in this Clause shall be deemed to be a bar to appointment to
any position of a political nature, or to any position which has the responsibility of
making investigations, inquiries or findings on any subject, or to any position which
has the responsibility of submitting advice, opinions or recommendations after
carrying out studies or research on any subject.
243 . Functions, duties and powers of the Public Service Commission : (1) It shall
be the duty of the Public Service Commission to conduct examinations for the
selection of suitable candid ates to be appointed to Civil Service pos itions .
Explanation: For the purposes of t his Article, “Civil Service position s” shall mean
positions of all services of the Government of Nepal, except Army and Fed eral
Police or Armed Police, and such other services and positions as are excluded from
the Civil Service or positions by Act.
(2) In addition to the Civil Service, provisions shall be made in the law for
the Public Service Commission to conduct the writt en examinations for
the recruitment in the Nepalese Army, Nepal Police or Armed Police
Force , or federal government services or corporate bodies .
Explanation: For the purpose of this Article, the words ” corporate bodies ” shall
mean any corporate body inclu ding corporation, company, bank, committee,
commissions to be formed under a Federal law , authority, academy, board, center,
council and similar institution in which the Government of Nepal owns and controls
more than fifty percent of the shares or assets , other than a University and
Teachers Service Commission .
(3) Consultation wit h the Public Service Commission shall be made on
matters concerning general principles to be followed while promoting a
person holding a positio n of Nepal Army, Nepal police, Arm ed P olice
Force, Nepal and of other federal government services .

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(4) Consultation with the Public Service Commission shall be made on
matters concerning general principles to be followed while formulating
laws concerning terms and conditions of services of any corporate body
including promotion and departmental actions.
(5) No permanent appointment shall be made in a position which entitles to
pension from Nepal government except on the recommendation of the
Public Service Commission.
(6) The Public Serv ice Commission shall be consulted on the following
subjects:
(a) matters concerning the law relating to the conditions of service of
the Federal Civil Service,
(b) the general principles to be followed in the course of appointment
to, promotion to, and dep artmental action concerning therein, the
Federal Civil Service or positions therein,
(c) matters concerning the suitability of any candidate for appointment
to a Federal Civil Service position for a period of more than six
months,
(d) matters concerning th e suitability of any candidate for transfer or
promotion from one kind of Federal Civil Service to another kind of
Federal Civil Service or from any other Government Service to the
Federal Civil Service or for changing the service or translocation
from the Civil Service Position of any Province to Federal Civil
Service position or from Federal Civil Service position to the
Provincial Civil Service.
(e) matters concerning the permanent transfer or promotion of any
employee working in any position of an organ ization which is not
required to consult with the Public Service Commission on matters
of appointment, to any position for which consultation with the
Public Service Commission is required, and
(f) matters relating to departmental actions proposed against any
Federal Civil Servant.
(7) Notwithstanding anything contained in Clause (6 ), matters falling within
the purview of the Judicial Service Commission pursuant to Article 154
shall be governed by that Article.
(8 ) The Public Service Commission may delegat e any of its functions, duties
and powers to any members of the commission, a committee of such
members or any employee of the Government of Nepal, to be exercised
and followed in compliance with specified conditions.
(9) Subject to this Constitution, othe r functions, duties and working
procedures of the Public Service Commission shall be as determined by
Federal law .

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244 . Provision related to Provincial Public Service Commission: (1) There shall
be a Provincial Public Service Commission in every Province.
(2) The formation , functions, duties and powers of the Provincial Public
Service Commission shall be determined as provided for in the Provincial
law.
(3) For the purpose of clause (2), the Federal Parliament by making a law ,
shall determine the bases an d criteria.

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PART -24
Election Commission
245 . Election Commission: (1) There shall be an Election Commission in Nepal
consisting of a Chief Election Commissioner and four other Election
Commissioners. The Chief Election Commissioner shall act as the Chairp erson
of the Election Commission.
(2) The President shall, on the recommendation of the Constitutional
Council, appoint the Chief Election Commissioner and the Election
Commissioners.
(3) The term of office of the Chief Election Commissioner and the Electi on
Commissioners shall be six years from the date of appointment.
(4) Notwithstanding anything mentioned in Clause (3), t he office of the Chief
Election Commissioner and Election Commissioner shall be deemed
vacant in the following circumstances:
(a) if sh e/he submits a written resignation to the President ,
(b) if she/he attains the age of sixty -five,
(c) if a resolution of impeachment is passed against her/him as per
Article 101 ,
(d) If she/he is removed by the President on the recommendation of
Constitut ional Council for being unable to discharge the duties of
her/his office due to physical or mental illness.
(e) if she/he dies.
(5) The Chief Commissioner and commissioner appointed pursuant to clause
(2) shall not be eligible for reappointment.
Provided that n othing in this Clause shall be deemed to be a bar to the
appointment of a commissioner of the Election Commission as Chief C ommissioner
thereof, and when a Commissioner is so appointed as the Chief Commissioner ,
her/his term of office shall be comput ed so as to include her/his tenure as
Commissioner as well.
(6 ) Any person who possesses the following qualifications is eligible to be
appointed as the Chief Election Commissio ner or an Election
Commissioner :-
(a) holds a Bachelor’s Degree from a recogniz ed university,
(b) is not a member of any political party immediately before the
appointment;
(c) has attained the age of forty five , and
(d) possesses high moral character.

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(7 ) The remuneration and other conditions of service of the Chief Election
Commiss ioner and the Election Commissioners shall be as determined by
law. The remuneration and other conditions of service of the Chief
Election Commissioner and the Election Commissioners shall not, so long
as they hold office, be altered to their disadvantage.
Provided that this provision shall not apply in the case of declaration of a State of
Emergency due to extreme economic breakdown .
(8) A person who has been the Chief Election Commissioner or the Election
Commissioner shall not be eligible for appointmen t in other Government
Services.
Provided that, nothing in this Clause shall be deemed to be a bar to the
appointment to any political position or to any position which has the responsibility
of making investigations, inquiries or findings on any subject, o r to any position
which has the responsibility of submitting advice, opinion or recommendation after
carrying out a study or research on any subject.
24 6. Functions duties and, powers of Election Commission : (1) The Election
Commission shall, subject to th is Constitution and other laws, conduct,
supervise, direct and control the election of the President , the Vice –
President , Federal Parliament , Provincial assemblies, local bodies. The
Election Commission shall be responsible for preparing the voters’ list f or the
purpose of election.
(2) The Election Commission shall hold referendum on subject of national
importance as per this Constitution and Federal law s.
(3 ) If candidacy nominations have been registered for the election of the
President , the Vice -Preside nt , the member of Federal Parliament and
Provincial Assembly but a question arises before the completion of the
election about the illegitimacy of a candidate, a final decision thereon
shall be made by the Election Commission.
(4 ) The Election Commission m ay delegate any of its functions, duties and
powers to the Chief Election Commissioner, Election Commissioner or any
employee of the Government of Nepal to be exercised and followed in
compliance with the conditions specified.
(5 ) Other functions, duties a nd powers and working procedures of the
Election Commission shall be as regulated by law.
247 . Necessary Cooperation to be Extended : The Government of Nepal , provincial
government and local government shall provide necessary employees and
extend other coop eration as may be required to perform the functions of the
Election Commission in accordance with this Constitution.

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PART – 25
National Human Rights Commission
248 . National Human Rights Commission: (1) There shall be a National Human
Rights Commission in Nepal consisting of the following Chairperson and four
other members:
(2) The President shall, on the recommendation of the Constitutional
Council, appoint the Chairperson and the Members of the National Human
Rights Commission.
(3) The term of office of the Chairperson and Members of the National
Human Rights Commission shall be six years from the date of
appointment.
(4) The Chairperson and members appointed pursuant to clause (2) shall not
be eligible for reappointment.
Provided that nothing in this C lause shall be deemed to be a bar to the
appointment of a member of the Commission as chairperson thereof, and when a
member is so appointed as the Chairperson, her/his term of office shall be
computed so as to include her/his tenure as member as well.
(5 ) Notwithstanding anything contained in Clause (3), the office of the
Chairperson or the Members of the National Human Rights Commission
shall be deemed vacant in the following circumstances:
(a) if she/he submits a written resignation to the President ,
(b) if a resolution of impeachment is passed against her/him as per
Article 101 ,
(c) If she/he is removed by the President on the recommendation of
Constitutional Council for being unable to discharge the duties of
her/his office du e to physical or mental il lness, or
(d ) if he or she dies.
(6 ) Any person who possesses the following qualifications is eligible to be
appointed as the Chairperson or a member of the National Human Rights
Commission : –
(a) for the position of Chairperson, a person from among the re tired
Chief Justices or Judges of the Supreme Court who has made an
outstanding contribution to the protection and promotion of human
rights, or a person who holds a high reputation and has rendered an
outstanding contribution in the field of protection an d promotion of
human rights or various sections of national life for at least twenty
years,
(b) for the position of members, persons from among the persons who
hold high reputation and have been actively involved in the field of,

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and rendered an outstandin g contribution to, the protection and
promotion of human rights or children rights, or various sections of
national life for at least twenty years,
(c) holds a Bachelor’s Degree from a recognized university,
(d) has attained the age of forty five,
(e ) is n ot a member of any political party immediately before the
appointment, and
(f) possesses high moral character.
(7 ) The remuneration and other conditions of service of the Chairperson and
the Members of the National Human Rights Commission shall be as
deter mined by law. The remuneration and other conditions of service of
the Chairperson and the Members of the National Human Rights
Commission shall not, so long as they hold office, be altered to their
disadvantage.
Provided that this provision shall not apply in the case of declaration of a State of
Emergency due to extreme economic breakdown .
(8) A person who has been the Chairperson or a Member of the National
Human Rights Commission shall not be eligible for appointment in any
other government service.
Pro vided that n othing in this Clause shall be deemed to be a bar to the
appointment to any political position or to any position which has the responsibility
of making investigations, inquiries or findings on any subject, or to any position
which has the resp onsibility of submitting advice, opinion or recommendation after
carrying out a study or research on any subject.
249 . Functions, duties and powers of Na tional Human Rights Commission: (1) It
shall be the duty of the National Human Rights Commission to ens ure the
respect, protection and promotion of human rights and their effective
implementation.
(2) In order to perform the duty pursuant to Clause (1), the National Human
Rights Commission may carry out the following functions: –
(a) conduct inquiries into, and investigations of, and recommendation
for action against the perpetrator of, instances of violation or
abetment of violation the human rights of any person or a group of
persons, upon a petition or complaint presented to the Commission
by the victim he rself/himself or any person on her/his behalf or
upon information received from any sources, or on its own
initiative,
(b) forward a recommendation to the authority concerned to take
departmental action against any authority that has the duty of
responsibi lity to prevent violations of human rights, if it failed to

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perform such duty or responsibility or showed recklessness or lack of
interest in performing that duty,
(c) make recommendations if necessary, to lodge a petition in the
court, in accordance with the law, against a person or institution
that has violated human rights,
(d) work jointly and in a coordinated manner with civil society to
enhance awareness of human rights,
(e) forward a recommendation to the relevant authority for taking
departmental a ction against or imposing punishment on the
violators of human rights, giving clear reasons and basis therefor,
(f) review existing laws relating to human rights on a periodic basis and
to recommend to the Government of Nepal necessary reforms and
amendmen t thereto,
(g) recommend with reasons to the Government of Nepal that it
become a party to any international treaties and agreements on
human rights, if it is desirable to do so, and to monitor the
implementation of the international treaties and agreement s on
human rights to which Nepal is a party and if found not to be
implemented, forward recommendations to the Government of
Nepal for effective implementation of such agreements,
(h) Publicize the names of any official, person or bodies not following
or i mplementing the recommendations and directions of the
National Human Rights Commission regarding the violations of
human rights in accordance with law, and to record them as human
rights violators.
(3) The National Human Rights Commission in performing its functions and
duties, may exercise the following powers: –
(a) exercise same powers as the court in requiring any person to appear
before the Commission for recording their statement and
information or examining them, receiving and examining evidence,
and ordering the production of any physical proof,
(b) in case the Commission has received the information from any
source that a serious incident of violation of human rights has
occurred or is likely to occur, it may enter a person’s residence or
office, co nduct a search and seize any documents and evidence
relating to human rights violations therein,
(c) enter any government premises or other places, without prior
notice, in case the Commission has received information that
violation of human rights of a pe rson is occurring thereon and
immediate action is required, to provide rescue,
(d) order compensation for the victims of human rights violations in
accordance with law,

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(4) The National Human Rights Commission may delegate any of its
functions, duties and powers to the Chairperson, any member or any
employee of the Government of Nepal to be exercised and followed in
compliance with the conditions specified
(5) Other functions, duties and powers and procedural of the National
Human Rights Commission shall b e as specifi ed by Federal law .

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PART 2 6
National Natural Resources and Fiscal Commission
250 . National Natural Resources and Fiscal Commission : (1) There shall be a
National Natural Resources and Fiscal Commi ssion in Nepal consisting of a
Chairperson and m embers not exceeding five in number.
(2) The President shall, on the recommendation of the Constitutional
Council, appoint Chairperson and members of the National Natural
Resources and Fiscal Commission.
(3) The tenure of office of the Chairperson and memb ers of the National
Natural Resources and Fiscal Commission shall be for six years from the
date of appointment.
(4) Notwithstanding anything contained in Clause (3), the office of the
Chairperson and members of the National Natural Resources and Fiscal
Co mmission shall be deemed vacant in the following circumstances:
(a) If a written resignation is tendered to the President ,
(b) If he/she attains the age of 65 years;
(c) If an impeachment motion against him/her is passed as per Article
101 ,
(d) If she/h e is removed by the President on the recommendation of
Constitutional Council for being unable to discharge the duties of
her/his office due to physical or mental illness.
(e ) If he/she dies.
(5) The Chairperson and members appointed pursuant to clause (2) shall not
be eligible for reappointment.
Provided that nothing in this Clause shall be deemed to be a bar to the
appointment of a member of the Commission as chairperson thereof, and when a
member is so appointed as the Chairperson, her/his term of offic e shall be
computed so as to include her/his tenure as member as well.
(6) Any person with the following qualifications is eligible to be appointed as
the Chairperson or member of the National Natural Resources and Fiscal
Commission:
(a) who holds at least a Bachelor’ s Degree in the concerned subject
from a university recognized with expertise in natural resources or
fiscal management, economics, law or management, and having at
least twenty years of experience in the sector
(b) who is not a member of a pol itical party at the time of the
appointment,
(c) who is at least forty five years of age, and

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(d) who has a high moral character.
(7 ) The remuneration and the conditions of service of the Chairperson and
members of the National Natural Resources and Fi scal Commission shall
be as provided for by law, and the remuneration and conditions of
service shall not be alterable to their disadvantage.
Provided that, this provision shall not be applicable in the event of the declaration
of a State of Emergency du e to extreme economic breakdown .
(8 ) A person who has already served as the Chairperson or a member of the
National Natural Resources and Fiscal Commission shall not be eligible to
be appointed in other government position/service.
Provided that nothing i n this Clause shall be deemed to be a bar to the
appointment to any political position or to any position which has the responsibility
of making investigations, inquiries or findings on any subject, or to any position
which has the responsibility of submit ting advice, opinion or recommendation after
carrying out a study or research on any subject.
25 1. The functions, duties and powers of National Natural Resources and Fiscal
Commission: (1) The functions, duties and powers of the National Natural
Resources and Fiscal Commission shall be as follows :
(a) Determine extensive grounds and measures, regarding the
distribution of revenue from the federal consolidated fund to the
federal, provincial and local level governments according to the
constitution and law,
(b) Making recommendations, according to law, on distribution of the
equalization grants to provincial and local governments from the
federal consolidated fund,
(c) Conducting research and studies with regard to making a basis for
distribution of condition al grants to provincial and local
governments in compliance with national policy and program and
standards, and the state of infrastructure there.
(d) Determine extensive grounds and measures regarding the
distribution of revenue between provincial and loc al governments
from the provincial consolidated fund.
(e) Making recommendations regarding the measures of reforms on
responsibilities of expenditures and revenue generation for the
federal, provincial and local governments.
(f) Making recommendations abou t the internal loans the federal,
provincial and local governments may take, by analyzing the
macro economic ind ices .
(g) Reviewing the bases of revenue distribution between the federal
and provincial governments, and making recommendations for
reform.

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(h) Determine base for computing the share of investment and return
for federal, provincial and local government while exploiting natural
resources, and make necessary recommendations.
(i) Making recommendations about coordination and mitigation of
disputes l ikely to arise regarding distribution of natural resources
between the federation and province, between the provinces,
between a province and local level entity, or between local level
entities.
(2) The National Natural Resources and Fiscal Commission shal l make
recommendations to the Nepal Government, by conducting necessary
research into, with regards to environmental impact assessment linked to
distribution of natural resources.
(3 ) Other matters including the functions, duties and powers of the Nationa l
Natural Resources and Fiscal Commission, extensive basis for revenue
distribution and natural resources exploitation , shall be as provided for
by Federal law .

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PART 27
Other Commissions
252 . National Women Commission: (1) There shall be a National Women
Commission in Nepal consisting of a Chairperson and fo ur other members.
(2) The President shall, on the recommendation of the Constitutional
Council, appoint the Chairperson and members of the National Women
Commission.
(3) The term of office of the Chai rperson and other members shall be six
years from the date of appointment.
(4) Notwithstanding anything contained in Clause (3), the office of the
Chairperson and members of National Women Commission shall be
deemed vacant in the following circumstances:
(a) if she submits written resignation to the President ,
(b) if she attains the age of sixty five,
(c) if a motion of impeac hment is passed against her as per Article 101 ,
(d) If she/he is removed by the President on the recommendation of
Constitutional Cou ncil for being unable to discharge the duties of
her/his office due to physical or mental illness.
(e ) if she dies.
(5) The Chairperson and members appointed pursuant to clause (2) shall not
be eligible for reappointment.
Provided that nothing in this Cla use shall be deemed to be a bar to the
appointment of a member of the Commission as chairperson thereof, and when a
member is so appointed as the Chairperson, her/his term of office shall be
computed so as to include her/his tenure as member as well.
(6 ) Any person who possesses the following qualifications is eligible to be
appointed as the Chairperson or memb er of National Women
Commission :-
(a) a woman who has made a significant contribution for the rights,
interest of women or gender justice or women de velopment or in
the field of human rights and law for at least ten years,
(b) holds a Bachelor’s Degree from a recognized university in case of the
Chairperson,
(c) has attained the age of forty -five ,
(d ) is not a member of any political party immediately before the
appointment, and

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(e ) possesses high moral character,
(7 ) The remuneration and other conditions of service of the Chairperson and
other members of the National Women Commission shall be as
determined by law. The remuneration and other condition s of service of
the Chairperson and the member of the National Women Commission
shall not, so long as they hold office, be altered to their disadvantage.
Provided that, this provision shall not apply in the case of declaration of a State of
Emergency due t o extreme economic breakdown .
(8 ) A person who has been the Chairperson or member of National Women
Commission shall not be eligible for appointment in other Government
Services.
Provided that nothing in this Clause shall be deemed to be a bar to the
appo intment to any political position or to any position which has the responsibility
of making investigations, inquiries or findings on any subject, or to any position
which has the responsibility of submitting advice, opinion or recommendation after
carrying out a study or research on any subject.
253 . Functions, duties and powers of the National Women Commission : (1)
Functions, duties and powers of the Federal Women Commission shall be as
follows: –
(a) To formulate policies and programs regarding women welfa re for
the Government of Nepal and forward them to the Government for
implementation,
(b) To review whether or not statutes related to women’s welfare are
executed, and whether the internationa l covenant signed by Nepal,
as a signatory, has been executed, and to forward a
recommendation to the Government of Nepal in case they are found
not to have been executed,
(c) To monitor, review and evaluate policies and programs
implemented by the State to bring women into the mainstream of
national development such as proportionate representation in all of
the state agencies, and to forward a recommendation to the
Government of Nepal for an effective implementation of those
provisions,
(d) To carry out research and studies regarding gender equality, women
empowermen t, other legal provisions concerning women, and to
forward a recommendation to the concerned bodies regarding the
areas to be amended in those laws, and to monitor the same,
(e) To monitor the government regarding report to be submitted by the
Government o f Nepal in matters related to international covenant
and treaties to which Nepal is a party,
(f) To forward a recommendation to concerned authority to lodge a
petition in the court, in accordance with the law, in matters related

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with gender violence, and w omen deprived of women rights due to
social malpractices ,
(2) The National Women Commission may delegate, some of its rights to the
Chairperson of the Commission, member, or an officer of the
Government of Nepal, to be exercised in compliance with the cond itions
specified.
(3) Other functions, duties and powers of the National Women Commission
shall be as specified in Federal law .
254. Offices may be established in province: The National Women’s Commission
may establish its offices in provinces as may be ne cessary.

25 5. National Dalit Commission : (1) There shall be a National Dalit Commission in
Nepal consisting of Chairperson and four other Members.
(2) The President shall, on the recommendation of Constitutional Council,
appoint the Chairperson and me mbers of National Dalit Commission.
(3) The term of office for the Chairperson and Members of National Dalit
Commission shall be for six year from the date of appointment.
(4) Notwithstanding any thing contained in the clause (3 ), the office of the
Chairp erson and the members of National Dalit Commission shall be
vacant in the following circumstances: –
(a) if he/she submits written resignation to the President ,
(b) If he/she is passed 65 years of age,
(c) in case impeachment proposal filed against him/her is passed as per
Article 101 ,
(d) If she/he is removed by the President on the recommendation of
Constitutional Council for being unable to discharge the duties of
her/his office du e to physical or mental illness, or
(e ) if he/she dies.
(5) The Chairperso n and members appointed pursuant to clause (2) shall not
be eligible for reappointment.
Provided that nothing in this Clause shall be deemed to be a bar to the
appointment of a member of the Commission as chairperson thereof, and when a
member is so appoi nted as the Chairperson, her/his term of office shall be
computed so as to include her/his tenure as member as well.
(6 ) Persons who meet following qualification shall be eligible for
appointment in the posts of Chairperson and members of the National
Dali t Commission: –

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(a) a person from Dalit community who has significantly contributed to
Dalit welfare, human rights and in the legal field for at least ten
years,
(b) in case of the Chairperson , a person who has held at least
Bachelor’s Degree in human righ ts, social justice, sociology, or law
from the recognized university
(c) who has attained the age of forty -five years,
(d) who has not been a member of any political party immediately
before the appointment,
(e) who possesses high moral character.
(7 ) The remuneration and other benefits of the Chairperson and members of
the National Dalit Commission shall be as prescribed by law, and
conditions and terms of remuneration and other benefits shall not be
altered, so long as they hold office, to their disadvan tage.
Provided that extreme economic breakdown has led to the state of emergency, this
provision shall not be applicable.
(8 ) The person, who has served in the capacity of Chairperson or members of
the National Dalit Commission, shall not be eligible for a ppointment in
other government services.
Provided that, nothing in this clause shall be deemed to be a bar to the
appointment to any position of a political nature, or to any position which has the
responsibility of making investigations, inquiries or find ings on any subject, or to
the position which has the responsibility of submitting advice, opinions or
recommendations.
25 6. Functions, duties and powers of National Dalit Commission : (1) Functions,
duties and powers of National Dalit Commission shall be a s follows: –
(a) To carry out research and studies regarding Dalit community of
Nepal so as to identify legal and institutional reforms to be made
and make a recommendation to the Government of Nepal,
(b) To formulate national policies and programs in matte rs related with
ending caste discrimination, untouchability, suppression and to
enhance Dalit’s status and development, and to forward a
recommendation to the Government of Nepal for implementation ,
(c) To monitor, so as to ensure whether the special provi sions and laws
related with Dalit welfare have been implemented or not, and to
forward a recommendation to the government of Nepal, in case
these provisions are found not to have been implemented,
(d) To review or monitor the Government of Nepal, so as to ensure that
the Government of Nepal submits the report as a signatory to the

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international treaties and agreement, as provisioned by those
treaties,
(e) To monitor, review and evaluate the policies and programs
implemented by the State to bring Dalit commu nity into the
mainstream of national development such as proportionate
representation in all of the state agencies, and to forward a
recommendation to the Government of Nepal for an effective
implementation of those provisions,
(f) To recommend to respecti ve agencies on filing petitions in court
according to the law, against any person or organization if it is
deemed necessary on subjects of discriminations on caste and
untouchability or victim of social malpractices or disallowing or
depriving of exercisin g the right of Dalits.
(2) The National Dalit Commission may delegate, as required, some of its
powers to the Chairperson of the Commission, member, or an officer of
the Government of Nepal, to be exercised in compliance with the
conditions specified.
(3) Other functions, duties and powers of the National Dalit Commission,
shall be as specified by Federal law .
257. Offices may be establis hed in province : The National Dalit Commission may
establish its offices in provinces as may be necessary.

258 . National Inclusion Commission : (1) There shall be a National Inclusion
Commission in Nepal consisting of Chairperson and as many as four other
members.
(2 ) The President shall, on the recommendation of Constitutional Council,
appoint the Chairperson and members of National Inclusion Commission.
(3 ) The term of office of Chairperson and members of National Inclusion
Commission shall be six years from the date of appointment.
(4 ) Notwithstanding any thing contained in the clause (3 ), the posts of the
Chairperson or member of National Inclusion Commission shall be
deemed vacant in the following circumstances: –
(a) if he/she submits written resignation to the President ,
(b) If he/she is past 65 years of age,
(c) in the case impeachment proposal filed against him/her i s passed as
per Article 101 ,
(d) If she/he is removed by the President on the recommendation of
Constitutional Council for being unable to discharge the duties of
her/his office due to physical or mental illness, or

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(e ) if he/she dies.
(5) The Chairperson and members appointed pursuant to clause (2) shall not
be eligible for reappointment.
Provided that nothing in this Clause shall be deemed to be a bar to the
appointment of a member of the Commission as chairperson thereof, and when a
member is so appoin ted as the Chairperson, her/his term of office shall be
computed so as to include her/his tenure as member as well.
(6) Persons who meet following qualification requirement shall be eligible
for appointment in the post of Chairperson and member of National
Inclusion Commission: –
(a) who has significantly contributed, for at least ten years, in the field
of social inclusion, and in promoting the rights and interests and
development of persons disability, marginalized, minority and
backward communities, huma n rights
(b) in case of Chairperson , a person who has attained at least
Bachelor’s Degree from recognized university,
(c) who has attained the age of forty five years,
(d) who has not been a member of any political party immediately
before the appointme nt,
(e) who possesses high moral character .
(7 ) The remuneration and other conditions of service of the Chairperson and
members of the National Inclusion Commission shall be as prescribed by
law. Conditions and terms of remuneration and other benefits shal l not
be altered, so long as they hold office, to their disadvantage.
Provided that extreme economic breakdown has led to state of emergency, this
provision shall not be applicable.
(8 ) The person, who has served in the capacity of Chairperson or members o f
the National Inclusion Commission, shall not be eligible for appointment
in other government services.
Provided that, nothing in this clause shall be deemed to be a bar to the
appointment to any position of a political nature, or to any position which ha s the
responsibility of making investigations, inquiries or findings on any subject, or to
the position which has the responsibility of submitting advice, opinions or
recommendations.
25 9. Functions, duties and powers of National Inclusion Commission : (1)
Functions, duties and powers of National Inclusion Commission shall be as
follows: –
(a) To carry out research and studies for protecting rights and welfare
of Khash Arya, backward class, persons with disability, senior
citizens, laborers, peasants, margina lized and minority

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communities, people of Karnali region and economically
disadvantaged people,
(b) To review the policies of the Government of Nepal for inclusion of
the persons as mentioned in section (a) above and their
implementation, and to forward ne cessary recommendation to the
government for reform,
(c) To conduct study about the rightful representation of the persons as
mentioned in section (a) above in the state mechanisms, and to
forward a recommendation to the Government of Nepal to review
the p rovision to ensure their representation therein,
(d) To study whether protection, empowerment and development of
the persons as mentioned in section (a) is satisfactory and to
forward a recommendation to the Government of Nepal regarding
the policies to be adopted for the future,
(e) To recommend the Government of Nepal regarding policies and
programs to be implemented for development and prosperity of
Karnali and other backward regions,
(f) To recommend for timely revision in the laws related to minorities
and marginalized communities,
(g) To monitor the situation of implementation of rights and interests of
minorities and marginalized communities, and to make
recommendations for revision based on reports of periodic census
and human development indices
(2) The National Inclusion Commission may delegate, as required, some of its
powers to the Chairperson of the Commission, member, or an officer of
the Government of Nepal, to be exercised in compliance with the
conditions specified.
(3) Other functions, dutie s and powers of the National Inclusion Commi ssion
shall be as specified by Federal law .
260. Offices may be established in province : The National Inclusion Commission
may establish its offices in provinces as may be necessary.
261. Adibasi Janajati Commiss ion : (1) There shall be a Adibasi Janajati
Commission in Nepal consisting of Chairperson and as many as four other
members.
(2) The President shall, on the recommendation of Constitutional Council,
appoint the Chairperson and members of Adibasi Janajati Commission.
(3) The term of office of Chairperson and members of Adibasi Janajati
Commission shall be six years from the date of appointment.
(4) The qualification s, condition s of vacancy , remuneration and conditions of
service of the Chairperson and memb ers of Adibasi Janajati Commission

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and other provisions related to functions, duties and power of such
Commis sion shall be according to the Federal law .
262. Madheshi Commission : (1) There shall be a Madheshi Commission in Nepal
consisting of Chairperson a nd as many as four other members.
(2) The President shall, on the recommendation of Constitutional Council,
appoint the Chairperson and members of Madheshi Commission.
(3) The term of office of Chairperson and members of Madheshi Commission
shall be six years from the date of appointment.
(4) The qualifications, conditions of vacancy, remuneration and conditions of
service of the Chairperson and members of Madheshi Commission and
other provisions related to functions, duties and power of such
Commission shall be accor ding to the Federal law .
263. Tharu Commission : (1) There shall be a Tharu Commission in Nepal consisting
of Chairperson and as many as four other members.
(2) The President shall, on the recommendation of Constitutional Council,
appoint t he Chairperson and members of Tharu Commission.
(3) The term of office of Chairperson and members of Tharu Commission
shall be six years from the date of appointment.
(4) The qualifications, conditions of vacancy, remuneration and conditions of
service of the Chairperson and members of Tharu Commission and other
provisions related to functions, duties and power of such Commis sion shall
be according to the Federal law .

264. Muslim Commission : (1) There shall be a Muslim Commission in Nepal
consisting of Chairperson and as many as four other members.
(2) The President shall, on the recommendation of Constitutional Council,
appoint the Chairperson and members of Muslim Commission.
(3) The term of office of Chairperson and members of Muslim Commission
sha ll be six years from the date of appointment.
(4) The qualifications, conditions of vacancy, remuneration and conditions of
service of the Chairperson and members of Muslim Commission and other
provisions related to functions, duties and power of such Comm ission shall
be according to the Federal law .
265. Review of the Commissions: Federal Parliament shall review the
Commissions constituted under this part after ten years of commencement of this
Constitution.

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PART 28
Provision regarding National Securi ty
266 . National Defense Council : (1) There shall be a National Defense Council to
formulate policies for Nepal’s overall national interests, security and defense,
and in order to make recommendations to the Council of Ministers,
Government of Nepal on mob ilization or control of Nepal Army comprising
following Chairperson and members: –
(a) Prime Minister -Chairperson
(b) Defense Minister, Government of Nepal -Member
(c) Home Minister, Government of Nepal -Member
(d) Minister for Foreign Affairs, Governme nt of Nepal -Member
(e) Finance Minister, Government of Nepal -Member
(f) Chef Secretary of Government of Nepal -Member
(g) Chief of the Army Staff -Member
(2) The Secretary of Ministry of Defense shall work as the Secretary of
National Defense Council.
(3) The National Defense Council shall submit its annual report to the
President ; the President shall make it present to the federal legislature
through the Council of Ministers, Government of Nepal.
(4) Other provisions of National Defense Counc il shall b e in accordance with
Federal law .
267 . Provision relating to Nepal Army : (1) There shall be an organization of Nepal
Army, committed to democratic principles, inclusive in character and national
in form, for the protection of Nepal’s independence, soverei gnty, territorial
integrity, autonomy and national unity.
(2) The President shall be the Supreme C ommander -in-Chief of the Nepal
Army.
(3 ) The entry of women, Dalit, indigenous community, Khash Arya, Madhesi,
Tharu, Muslim, people of backward class and bac kward region shall be
ensured in Nepal Army, based on the principle of equality and principles
of inclusion as provided for in the Federal law .
(4 ) The Government of Nepal may, in accordance with Federal law , mobilize
Nepal Army for works relating to dev elopment, disaster management and
others.
(5 ) The President shall appoint or remove the Commander -in -Chief of Nepal
Army on the recommendation of the C ouncil of Ministers .

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(6 ) Mobilization of Nepal Army shall be declared by the President according
to the d ecision by Council of Ministers, Government of Nepal on
recommendat ion of National Defense Council during wars on security of
any parts, territorial integrity or sovereignty of Nepal , external attacks,
armed insurgency or serious crisis arisen due to extre me economic
breakdown . D ecision of mobilization of Nepal Army shall have to be
approved by the House of Representatives within a month of the
declaration .
(7 ) Other provisions relating to Nepal Army shall be as provided by law.
26 8. Provision relating to N epal Police, Armed Police Force , Nepal and National
Investigation Organization : (1) There shall be Nepal Police, Armed Police
Force, Nepal and National Investigation Department at the federal level.
(2) There shall be a provincial police organization in ea ch province.
(3) Operation, supervision and coordination of Nepal Police and provincial
poli ce shall be as provided for by Federal law .
(4 ) Other provisions relating to Nepal Police, Armed Police Force and
National Investigation Department shall be as prov ided by Federal law .

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PART 29
Provision relating to Political Parties
269 . Constitution, registration and operation of Political Parties : (1) Persons who
are committed to a common political ideology, philosophy and program shall,
subject to the laws un der section (b), clause (2) of the Article ( 17 ), be
entitled to form and operate the political parties and to generate or cause to
be generated publicity in order to secure public support and cooperation from
the general public for their ideology, philosop hy and program, and to carry
out any other activities for that purpose.
(2) The political parties formed under clause (1) shall be required to register
their names under the Election Commission in accordance with the
procedure determined by law.
(3) While submitting application for registration pursuant to clause (2)
above, the political parties shall be required to submit the documents
relating to constitution of the party, annual auditing report and other
documents as required by law.
(4) While applying f or the registration of the parties pursuant to clause (2)
above, the political parties shall have to meet the following conditions: –
(a) The constitution and rules of the political party should be
democratic,
(b) There should be the provision, in the const itution of the political
party, of the election of the office bearers in the federal and
provincial levels, at least once in five years.
Provided that in case election of the office bearers could not be held within five
years due to situation arising out o f special circumstance, there shall be no
hindrance to make provision in the statute of a political party to hold such election
within a period of six months.
(c) There should be the provision of proportional participation so as to
reflect the diversity of Nepal, in the executive committees at
various levels of the party.
(5) No political party shall be registered if its name, objective, symbol and
flag is of a character that may disturb the country’s religious or
communal unity or is divisive in charact er.
270 . Prohibition on the imposition of restrictions on political parties: (1) Any
provision, law or the decision that prohibits formation, registration and
operation of pol itical parties under Article 269 , and generate or cause to be
generated publicit y in order to secure public support and cooperation from
the general public for ideology, philosophy and program of the parties, shall
be deemed against this constitution and shall ipso facto be void.
(2) Any law, arrangement or decision which allows for p articipation or
involvement of only a single political party or persons having a single

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political ideology, philosophy or programs in the election, political
system of the country or conduct of sates affairs shall be considered
against this constitution an d shall ipso facto be void.
271 . Registration required for securing recognition for the purpose of
contesting elections as a Political Party : (1) Any political party, formed
under Article 264, wishing to secure recognition from the Election Commission
for the purpose of elections, shall be required to register its name with the
Election Commission in accordance with the procedures determined by the
law.
(2) While applying for registration pursuant to clause (1), a political party
shall have to clarify the details under clause (3) of Article 269 , submit
annual audit report , and also meet the conditions set in clause (4) of the
same article .
272 . Other provisions relating to Political Party : Other provisions relating to
formation, registration, operation and facilities of the political parties shall
be as provided in Federal law .

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PART 30
Emergency Powers
273 . Emergency Powers : (1) In case a grave emergency arises in relation to the
sovereignty or territorial integrity of Nepal or the security of any part ther eof,
whether by war, external attack, armed revolt, extreme economic
breakdown , natural calamity or epidemic outbreak, the President may, by
Proclamation or Order, declare a state of emergency to be enforced in Nepal
or any specified part thereof.
(2) Notw ithstanding anything contained in clause (1), in case a grave
situation arises, whether by natural calamity or epidemic outbreak, in
any province, the concerned province may request the Government of
Nepal to declare, by Proclamation or Order, a s tate of e mergency to be
enforced in the province or any specified area of the province.
(3) The Proclamation or the Order issued pursuant to clause (1) shall be
presented before the meetings of both houses of federal legislature for
approval within a month from th e date of its issuance.
(4) If the Proclamation or the Order presented for the approval pursuant to
clause (3) is approved by a two -third majorities of the total members
present at the meetings of both the houses of federal legislature, such
Proclamation o r Order shall continue in force for a period of three
months from the date of Order or Proclamation.
(5) If the Proclamation or Order presented before both houses of federal
legislature pursuant to clause (4) is not approved, such Proclamation or
Order sha ll, ipso facto , be invalid.
(6) Notwithstanding other provisions in this article, t he proposal to extend
the period of the Proclamation or Order of state of emergency for
another period, not exceeding for three months, may be forwarded in
the federal legis lature, stating that the circumstances under clause (4)
still exist.
(7) Pursuant to Clause (6), if the resolution for Proclamation or Order of
state of emergency for another period is passed by a majority of the two
third members present of both the hous es of the federal legislature, the
state of emergency for the said period shall continue to exist.
(8) In case of dissolution of House of Representatives, the power of Federal
Parliament as per clause (3), (4), (6) and (7) shall be exercised by
National As sembly.
(9 ) After the state of emergency has been declared pursuant to clause (1),
the President may issue necessary orders to meet the exigencies. Orders
so issued shall be operative with the same force and effect as law so long
as the state of emergency is in operation.

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(10 ) While issuing the Proclamation or Order of state of emergency pursuant
to clause (1), the President may suspend the fundamental rights provided
in Part 3 so long as the Proclamation or Order is in operation.
Provided that, Article 16, section (c) and (d) of Article 17 (2 ), Article 18, 19 (2), 20,
21, 22, 24, 26 (1), 29, 30, 31, 32, 35, 36 (1) and (2), 38, 39, 40 (2) and (3), 41, 42,
43, 45 and the right to constitutional remedy and right to habeas corpus related to
Article 46 shall not be suspended.
(11 ) In circumstances where any Article of this constitution is suspended
pursuant to clause ( 10 ), no petition may be made in any court of law, nor
any question be raised for the enforcement of the fundamental rights
conferred by such Article .
(1 2) If, during the continuation of a Proclamation or Order pursuant to this
article, any damage is inflicted upon any person by an act of any official
done in contravention of law or in bad faith, the affected person may,
within three months from the da te of termination of the Proclamation or
Order, file a petition for compensation for said damage. In case the
petition is filed, the court may arrange for the appropriate
compensation, or punish the guilty according to the Federal law .
(13 ) The President may, at any time during its continuance, revoke the
proclamation or order relating to state of emergency .

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PART 31
Amendment of the Constitution
274 . Amendment of the Constitution : (1) This Constitution shall not be amended
in way that contravenes with se lf-rule of Nepal, sovereignty, territorial
integrity and sovereignty vested in people.
(2) Except for matters under clause (1), in case an amendment is sought in
matters that fall under the fundamentals of this constitution , such a
proposal shall be presen ted to either house of the federal legislature .
Provided that, Clause (1) shall not be amended.
(3) Subject to the conditions under clause (2), the bill so presented shall be
published for the perusal of the general public within 30 days of
presentation o f the bill in either house of the federal legislature.
(4) In case t he bill proposed under clause (2 ) is related with altering the
boundaries of a province and falls under the right of provi nces as
mentioned in Schedule (6 ), such a bill shall have to be fo rwarded to the
respective Provincial Assembly to garner consensus, within thirty days of
the time the bill is presented in the federal legislature.
(5) Pursuant to forwarding the bill to the Provincial Assembly as provided in
Clause (4), the Provincial Ass embly shall have to get the consensus bill
endorsed or rejected through majority of the Provincial Assembly and
forward the information regarding the same to the federal legislature,
within three months.
Provided that, In case the Provincial Assembly is no t in place, the bill shall have to
be endorsed or rejected within three months from the time the assembly comes
into force and forward the information to the federal legislature.
(6) If the Provincial Assembly , within the time frame pursuant to Clause (5)
informs the federal legislature that the bill has been rejected by the
majority, the bill shall considered to be rejected.
(7) If, within the time stipulated in clause (5), majority of provincial
assemblies inform the Federal Parliament of the rejection of the bill,
such bill shall be void,
(8) In case the bills that do not require consen t from Provincial Assembly or
the one that has garnered consensus from Provincial Assembly as
mentioned under clause (5), shall require endorsement by the two -thirds
majori ties of the existing members in the both houses of federal
legislature
(9 ) The bill s o approved pursuant to Clause (8 ) shall be forwarded to the
President for approval.

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(10 ) The President shall have to approve the bills under clause (9 ) within
fifteen days from t he da y of reception of the bill, the constitution shall
be amen ded from the date of approval .

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PART 32
Miscellaneous
275 . Provision relating to Referendum : (1) If the two third majority of the total
members in the federal legislature take a decision that it is necessary to make
a decision on any matters of national importance through referendum, a
decision may be reached on such matters through referendum.
(2) The procedures pertaining to referendum shall be as determined by the
Federal law .
276 . Par don : The President may grant pardons to persons convicted, and suspend,
commute, or reduce any sentence imposed by any court, judicial or quasi –
judicial bodies or administrative officer or authority.
277 . Titles, honors, and decorations: (1) The President shall confer the titles,
honors, or decorations to be conferred on behalf of the State.
(2) Any citizen of Nepal shall have to take approval from the Government of
Nepal before accepting any title, honor, or decoration from the
government of any foreign c ountry.
27 8. Right to enter into treaty : (1) The right to enter into treaty or agreement
shall rest in the F ederation.
(2) The Government of Nepal shall have to consult respective province while
making the treaties or agreeme nt on matters under provincia l list.
(3) The Council of Ministers of a province may enter into a contractual
agreement on industrial and economic issues after taking approval from
the Government of Nepal.
279 . Ratification of, accession to, acceptance of or approval of treaties or
agr eement : (1) The ratification of, accession to, acceptance of or approval of
treaties or agreement to which the State of Nepal or the Government of Nepal
is to become a party shall be as determined by the law.
(2) The laws to be made pursuant to clause (1) shall, inter alia , require that
the ratification of, accession to, acceptance or approval of treaty or
agreement on the following subjects be done by two thirds majority of
the total members in both houses of federal legislature: –
(a) peace and friendship ,
(b) security and strategic alliance,
(c) the boundaries of Nepal, and
(d) na tural resources and the distribution of their uses.
Provided that simple majority of the present members of House of Representatives
can ratify, accede to, accept or approve ordi nary type of treaty or agreement

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under section (a) and (d) that do not have wide, grave or long term impact on the
nation
(3) No agreement or treaty to be done after the commencement of this
constitution shall be implemented by the Government of Nepal or S tate
of Nepal so long as it is not ratified, acceded, accepted or approved
according to this Article.
(4) No twithstanding anything contained in clause (1) and (2), there shall be
no agreement and treaty that may adversely affect regional integrity of
Nepal .
280 . Special Provision Rating to Exercise of President Function In case the
position of the President and Vice -President of Nepal falls vacant at once
under this constitution, the Prime Minister shall perform the responsibilities
mandated to the Presiden t under this constitution.
281 . Review and revision of Special Powers : The Government of Nepal shall
review and revise, along with census of every ten years, the provisions
regarding special rights of the women and Dalit community and its
implementatio n and effectiveness based on human development index.
282 . Nepali Ambassadors and Emissaries : (1) The President shall appoint
ambassadors of Nepal and other emissaries for specified purposes based on
the principle of inclusion.
(2) The President shall acce pt the credentials from foreign ambassadors and
diplomatic envoys.
283. Appointment to be made on Inclusive Principle s: Appointment to the
constitutional bodies and agencies shall be made based on the principle s of
inclusion.
284 . Provision relating to Co nstitutional Council : (1) There shall be a
Constitutional Council for making recommendation in accordance with this
constitution for appointment of Chief Justice, the chief and officials of
constitutional bodes, consisting of Chairperson and members as fol lows: –
(a) Prime Minister -Chairperson
(b) Chief Justice -Member
(c) Speaker of the House of Representatives -Member
(d) Chairperson of National Assembly – Member
(e ) Leader from the Opposition Party in House of Representatives -Member
(f) Deputy Speak er of House of Representatives -Member
(2) When the position of the Chief Justice falls vacant and a
recommendation has to be made for the same, the Minister for Justice
shall be present in the Constitutional Council as a member.

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(3) The recommendation sha ll, in accordance with this constitution, have to
be made by the Constitutional Council a month before the posts of Chief
Justice, Chief and officials of Constitutional bodies fall vacant.
Provided that, In case the posts have fallen vacant due to death or resignation, the
recommendation for appointment has to be made so as to fulfill the vacant posts
within a month from the day of position lying vacant.
(4) Other functions, rights and powers of the Constitutional Council and
proceedings related to appointm ent of Chief Justice, chief and officials
of Constitutional Council shall be as determined by the Federal law .
(5) The Chief Secretary of the Government of Nepal shall function as the
secretary of the Constitutional Council.
285 . Formation of the Governmen t Service : (1) The Government of Nepal may, in
order to run the administration of the country, constitute federal civil
service, and other federal services as required. The constitution, operation,
and terms and conditions of such services shall be determi ned by Federal Act.
(2) Positions of all federal governmental services shall be fulfilled
through competitive examinations on the basis of the principle of
open and proportional inclusion according to Federal law .
(3 ) Provincial council of ministers , vill age council a nd municipal council
may form and operate various government services according to law
as may be required for running the ir administration.
286 . Constituency Delimitation Commission : (1) For the purpose of electing
members, in accordance with this constitution, to federal legislature,
Provincial Assembly , village assembly and municipal council, the government
of Nepal may form a Constituency Delimitation Commission, with the
following Chairperson and members in it: –
(a) Retired Justice of the S upreme Court -Chairperson
(b) A geographer/geologist -Member
(c) A sociologist or demographer -Member
(d) An administrator or a legal expert -Member
(e) A spe cial class gazetted officer of the Government of Nepal
-Member Secretary
(2) The proce dural of Constituency Delimitation Commission shall be as
determined at the time of constituting the Commission.
(3 ) Following persons shall be deemed eligible to be appointed as
Chairperson and members of the Constituency Delimitation Commission: –
(a) who has hel d at least a Bachelor’ s Degree in a relevant subject from
a recognized university

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(b) who has attained the age of forty five years,
(c) who has high moral character.
(4 ) The position of the Chairperson or members of the Constituency
Delimitation Commissio n shall be deemed vacant in the following
circumstances: –
(a) if she /he submits written resignation,
(b) if Council of Ministers of Government of Nepal relieves him/her
from duty, or
(c) if she /he dies.
(5 ) The Constituency Delimitation Commission, while delimiting the
constituencies in accordance with this Article, shall, based on population
and geography, maintain as far as practicable the equal ratio or
proportionality between geography, population and the number of
members.
(6 ) While delimiting the co ns tituencies pursuant to clause (5 ), attention shall
be paid to population density of the constituency, geographical
conditions, administrative and transportation proximity, and the
communal and cultural characteristics of the people living in such
distric ts.
(7 ) No question shall be raised in any court of law regarding the
constituencies determined by Constituency Delimitation Commission.
(8 ) The Constituency Delimitation Commission shall submit its report to the
Government of Nepal about the work it h as p er formed.
(9 ) The Government of Nepal shall submit the repor t received pursuant to
clause (8 ) to the federal legislature and also forward it to the Election
Commission for implementation.
(10 ) Constituency Delimitation Commission shall determine its own wo rking
procedures.
(11 ) The remuneration and other benefits of the Chairperson and members of
the Constituency Delimitation Commission shall be similar to those of
Chief Election Commissioner and Election Commissioner s, respectively.
(12 ) The constituencies det ermined in pursuant to clause (5 ) shall be put to a
review in every 20 years.
(13 ) The Government of Nepal shall provide staff to the Constituency
Delimitation Commission in the number as required.

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28 7. Language Commission : (1) The Government of Nepa l shall establish a
Language Commission ensuring representation of the provinces within a year
from the commencement of this Constitution.
(2) There shall be a Chairperson and members as may be required in Language
Commission.
(3) The term of office of the Chairperson and members of the Language
Commission shall be of six years from the date of appointment. None of
them shall be eligible for reappointment.
(4) The persons having possessed the following qualifications may be
appointed to the position of chai rperson or member of the Language
Commission: –
(a) Having attained Master’s degree on the concerned subject from a
recognized University;
(b) Having the experience of at least 20 years in studies, teaching, and
research on various languages of Nepal;
(c) Having attained the age of 45 years;
(d) Having high moral character.
(5 ) The office of the Chairperson or member of the Language Commission
shall be vacant on any of the following circumstances: –
(a) If he/she tenders resignation in writing;
(b) If the Cou ncil of Minister of Government of Nepal removes him/her;
(c) If he/she attains the age of 65 years ;
(d) If he/she dies.
(6) Powers , duties and powers of the Language Commission shall be as
follows: –
(a) To determine the basis for a language to acquire stat us of official
language and forward a recommendation to the Government of
Nepal,
(b) To forward a recommendation to the government of Nepal regarding
the measures to be adopted for the protection, promotion and
development of languages,
(c) To measure the standards for development of mother language, and
to forward a recommendation to the Government of Nepal regarding
its potentials for use in education,
(d) To carry out research, monitoring and studies of languages.
(7 ) The Language Commission shall accomp lish the tasks outlined in section
(a) of clause (3) within five years of formation.

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(8 ) The Government of Nepal may, in coordination with the provincial
government, establish the branch offices of Language Commission in the
provinces.
(9 ) Other rights, du ties and powers and proceedings of the Language
Commission shall be as determined by Federal law .
288 . Capital: (1) The capital of Nepal shall remain in Kathmandu.
(2) The capital of the provinces under this Constitution shall be decided by the
two -thirds majority of the then members of the Provincial Assembly .
(3) Unless decided according to clause (2), the operations of the province shall
be carried from the location determined by the Government of Nepal.
289 . Special provisions relating to Citizenship of the office -bearers : (1) A person
shall have acquired a citizenship by descent to be elected, nominated and
appointed as the President , Vice -President , Prime Minister , Chief Justice,
Speaker of the parliament, Cha irperson of National Assembly, H ead of the
province, chief minister, speaker of Provincial Assembly and chief of security
bodies.
(2) For appointment to the constitutional positions, other than those
referred to in clause (1), the persons having obtained citizenship by
descent, by naturalization or by birth may be eligible.
Provided that in case of the person having obtained citizenship by naturalization,
he/she shall have to have permanent domicile for at least ten years in Nepal and in
case of the person having obtained citizenship by birth or per son having obtained
citizenship by naturalization under Article 11 (6) , he/she shall have to have
permanent domicile for at least five years in Nepal .
290 . Provision relating to Trust : (1) Without prejudice to the fundamental norms
of trusts, the Federal P arliament shall make laws concerning the rights of
peasants having possession on trusts land and the rights of the trusts .
(2) Other provisions as to trusts shall be according to the Federal law .
291 . Not Eligible for Appointment : (1) Notwithstanding anyth ing contained
elsewhere in this constitution, a Nepali citizen having obtained permanent
residence permission of a foreign country shall not be eligible for election,
nomination or appointment to the position to be elected, nominated or
appointed according to this constitution.
Provided that there shall be no hindrance to elect, nominate or appoint such a
person to such position after lapse of a period of three months after he/she waives
such permanent residential permission.
(2) Other provisions as to th e Nepalese citizens having obtained permanent
residence permission of a foreign country as per clause (1) shall be as
provided by Federal law .

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292 . Provision relating to Parliamentary Hearing : (1) Prior to the appointment,
Chief Justice , Justice of the Su preme Court, members of Judicial C ouncil,
Head or official of Constitutional bodies and ambassadors who are appointed
on the recommendation of the Constitutional Council , there shall be a
parliamentary hearing, in accordance with this constitution.
(2) A joint committee shall be formed, in accordance with law, comprising
the members of both the houses of Federal Legislature for the purpose
mentioned under clause (1).
(3) The members represented in the joint committee under clause (2) shall
not be entitled to advocate in the Supreme Court until the term of the
Federal Legislature.
293 . Monitoring and evaluation of work s of Constitutional Bodies : The chief and
officials of the constitutional bodies shall be accountable and answerable to
federal legislature. The respective committee of the House of Representatives
may monitor and evaluate the functioning of the constitutional bodies
including reports , other than that of the National Human Rights Commission,
and issue necessary directives and suggestions.
294 . Annual report of Constitutional Body : (1) The constitutional bodies, formed
in accordance with this Constitution, shall submit the annual report about its
works to the President , who in turn shall have it presented at the federal
legislature, through the Prime Minister .
(2) The details to be included in the report under clause (1) shall be as
determined by law.
(3) Notw ithstanding anything contained i n clause (1), the constitutional
bodies may prepare separate reports with regard to its functions in each
pr ovince and submit the report to the Head of the Province.

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PART 33
Transitional Provisions
295 . Formation of Federal Commission : (1) In order to furnish sugges tions with
regard to the demarcation of the provinces, Government of Nepal may form a
Federal Co mmission.
(2) Naming of province shall be made by a decision of two third majority of
the provincial legislature pursuant to clause (3) of Article 56.
(3) Government of Nepal shall form a commission for determination of
number and borders of the Village Council, Municipal Council and
Special, protected, or autonomous region s to be formed pursuant to
clauses (4) and (5) of Article 56. The number and borders of the Village
Council, Municipal Council and Special, protected, or autonomous region
shall be dete rmined according to the criteria determined by Government
of Nepal.
(4) The commission to be formed pursuant to clause (3) shall be formed
within six months from the date of commencement of this constitution
and the term of office of such commission shall be of one year.
296 . Constituent Assembly to be transformed into Legislature -parliament : (1)
After the commencement of this constitution, the Constituent Assembly shall
be transformed into a Legislature -parliament, and the term of such
Legislature -Parliam ent shall be up to 21 January, 2018 A.D .
Provided that, if the elections for the House of Representatives are to happen
pursuant to this Constitution, t he term of the transformed Legislature -parliament
shall be until one day before the nominations are file d for the election s of House of
Representatives.
(2) The Bills that were under consideration in the House of Representatives
at the time of the commencement of this Constitution shall be
transferred to the legislature parliament under clause (1).
(3) Pursu ant to this Constitution, the Legislature Parliament as per clause (1)
shall conduct all the activities under the prerogative of the Federal
Legislature until the elections for House of Representatives are
conducted.
(4) Until the time the elections for Pr ovincial Assembly are not conducted
after this constitution comes into effect, the responsibility to formulate
laws according to Schedule 5 shall fall under the prerogative of the
Legislature -Parliament pursuant to Clause (1). The laws thus formulated
shal l be, ipso facto , void in the province a year after Provincial Assembly
is constituted according to this constitution.
(5) The Legislature Parliament Secretariat, its General Secretary, Secretar y,
and employees shall remain at the Federal Legislature Secre tariat

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pursuant to this constitution under the condition of their services at the
time of their appointment .
(6) If a session of the Legislature -Parliament is not active when this
constitution comes into effect, then the President shall summon a session
of the Legislature Parliament within seven days of this constitution
coming into effect. Thereafter, the President shall summon the session
of the Legislature Parliament from time to time.
297 . Pr ovisions relating to the President and Vice -President : (1) The President
and Vice President in office during the time of this constitution coming into
effect shall continue to hold office till the time new elections for their posts
are conducted pursuant to this Article.
(2) If the session of the Legislature Parlia ment is ongoing at the time of
commencement of this constitution, then from the date of the
commencement of the constitution ; and if the parliament is not in
session, then from the date of the summoning of t he session under Clause
(6) of Article 296 ; withi n one month , the President and Vice President
shall be elected on the basis of political understanding by the
Legislature -Parliament pursuant to C lause (1) of Article 296 .
(3) If political understanding cannot be reached as per clause (2), the
President an d vice President shall be elected by sim ple majority of the
Legislature -Parliament.
(4) If the post of either President or Vice President falls vacant after being
elected pursuant to Clause (2) and (3), re -elections shall be conducted by
the Legislature Pa rliament pursuant to this Article , until the formation of
the Federal Legislature .
(5) The term of office of the President and Vice -President elected under this
Article, shall be until new President and Vice -President are elected from
the Electoral College as mentioned in Article 62, and assume office.
(6) The position of President or Vice President elected under this Article may
fall vacant in following situations:
(a) If President tenders his/her resignation to Vice President ; or if Vice
President tenders his/her resignation to President ,
(b) If impeachment motion against him/ her is passed as per Clause (7),
(c) If new President or Vice -President is elected from the Electoral
College as mentioned in Article 62 and assume office,
(d) if he/she dies
(7 ) If a t least one fourth of the current members of the Legislature
Parliament agree, a motion of impeachment for grave violation of this
constitution or law shall be moved against President or Vice President in
the Legislature Parliament under Clause (1) of Arti cle 296 . If the motion

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is passed by at least two -third majority of the present number of the
Legislature Parliament, then he/she shall be relieved off the office
298 . Provision relating to Constitution of Council of Ministers : (1) The Council of
Ministers existing at the time of commencement of this Constitution shall
remain until the transformed Legislature -parliament, in accordance with
Clause (2) , constitutes a new Council of Ministers.
(2) If the session of the Legislature Parliament is ongoing at the t ime of
commencement of this constitution, then from the date of the
commencement of the constitution; and if the parliament is not in
session, then from the date of the summoning of the session under Clause
(6) of Article 296 ; within seven days the Prime M inister shall be elected
on the basis of political understanding.
(3) If political understanding cannot be reached as per clause (2), the Prime
Minister shall be elected by simple majority of the Legislature
Parliament.
(4) Structure and division of portf olio in the Council of Ministers to be
formed as per this Article shall be conducted as per mutual
understanding .
(5) There shall be Deputy Prime Minister and other M inisters, as required, in
the Council of Ministers to be formed as per this Article.
(6) W hen appointing Minister as per clause (5), the Prime Minister , at the
recommendation of related political party, shall appoint from among the
members of the Legislature Parliament
(7) The Prime Minister and Ministers appointed as per this Article, shall be
collectively accountable to the Legislature Parliament and Ministers shall
be individually accountable to the Prime Minister and the Legislature
Parliament regarding their work performance in respective Ministries .
(8) The Prime Minister elected under thi s Article shall be relieved off his/her
office in following situation:
(a) If he/she tenders written resignation to the President ,
(b) If vote of no confidence as per Clause (14 ) is passed or if he/she is
unable to pass vote of confidence ,
(c) If he/she is no longer a member of Legislature Parliament ,
(d) If he/she dies
(9) The Deputy Prime Minister , Minister, State Minister, Assistant Minister
appointed under this Article shall be relieved off his/her office in
following situation:
(a) If he/she tenders wr itten resignation to the Prime Minister ,
(b) If the Prime Minister loses his/her office as per Clause (8),

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(c) If the Prime Minister relieves him/her off the office at the
recommendation or consent of the respective political party ,
(d) If he/she dies
(10) If the Prime Minister is relieved off his/her office as per clause (8), the
same Council Ministers shall continue to discharge its duty till a new
Council of Ministers is formed
(11) If the Prime Minister appointe d under this article dies, the Deputy Prim e
Minister or senior most Minister shall take charg e of Prime Minister until a
new Prime Minister is elected .
(12 ) The Prime Minister appointed under this Article can, at any time of
his/her term, move a motion of vote of confidence at the Legislature
Parl iament, in order to clarify that he/she enjoys majority .
(13) At least one fourth member of Legislature Parliament can move a motion
of vote of no confidence against the Prime Minister at the Legislature
Parliament .
Provided that no more than one such moti on of vote of no confidence shall be
moved to the Legislature Parliament against the same Prime Minister within six
months .
(14) The motions moved as per Clause (12 ) or (13 ) shall be decided upon by
the simple majority of the current members of the Legisla ture
Parliament.
(15) After the commencement of this Constitution and until the provincial
council of ministers is constituted, in accordance with this constitution ,
the executive po wer of the province shall be exercised by the
Government of Nepal.
29 9. In terim provision regarding Speaker and Deputy -speaker: (1) The Speaker
and Deputy of the Legislature -Parliament during the time of commencement
of this constitution shall continue to hold office till the time new elections for
their posts are conducted purs uant to this Article.
(2) If the session of the Legislature Parliament is ongoing at the time of
commencement of this constitution, then from the date of the
commencement of the constitution; and if the parliament is not in
session, then from the date of t he summoning of the session under Clause
(6) of Article 296 ; within twenty days the Speaker and Deputy Spe aker
shall be elected on the basis of political understanding by the members
of the Legislature Parliament from amongst themselves.
(3) If political understanding cannot be reached as per clause (2), the
Speaker and the Deputy Speaker shall be elected by simple majority of
the current members of the Legislature Parliament.

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(4) While electing Speaker and Deputy Speaker as per clause (2) and (3), the
Spe aker and Deputy Speaker shall belong to different political parties
representing at the Legislature Parliament.
(5) Speaker or Deputy Speaker shall discharge his/her duty in a neutral
manner and without taking sides to any political party
(6) The Speaker o r Deputy Speaker shall be relieved off his/her office in
following situation:
(a) If he/she tenders written resignation
(b) If he/she loses membership of Legislature Parliament
(c) If a motion against his/her conduct is passed by at least two third
majorit y of the Legislature Parliament
(d) If he/she dies
(7) Meeting of the Legislature Parliament where a motion against Speaker’s
conduct is discussed shall be presided by Deputy Speaker or another
member. But the Speaker can take part in the discussion and v ote
(8) Other processes related to election of Speaker and Deputy Speaker and
other processes related to the passage of motion against his/her
conduct, shall be as specified by the existing Legislature Parliament.
300 . Provision relating to the Judiciary : (1) The Supreme Court, Constituent
Assembly Court, Appellate Court, and District Courts subsisting at the time of
the commencement of this constitution shall continue until the structure of
the judiciary is constituted under this constitution. And this co nstitution shall
not be meant to hinder the making of the decision by the concerned courts on
cases filed prior to and after the commencement of this Constitution.
(2) The Chief Justice and Justices of the Supreme Court, Chief Judge and
Judges of the Appel late courts and Judges of District courts shall be
deemed to have been appointed under this Constitution.
(3) Within a year of the commencement of this constitution, High Courts as
per Article 139 shall be established as per Federal law . After their
establ ishment, the Appellate Courts subsisting at the time of the
commencement of this constitution shall be dissolved.
(4) After the High Courts are formed as per clause (3), the cases under
consideration in the Appellate Courts shall be transferred to the High
Courts by the government of Nepal with the consent of Judicial Council
and by publishing notice to that effect in the Nepal Gazette.
(5) After the High Courts are formed as per clause (3), the Chief Justice
shall, with the recommendation of the Judicial C ouncil, transfer the
Chief Judge and J udges of the Appellate Courts as the chief judge and
judges of the High Courts

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(6) The additional judges engaged at Appellate Courts during the
commencement of this constitution, shall continue to remain in their
offic es till the term specified during their appointment.
(7) The criminal cases, that demand more than a year of imprisonment, lying
sub -judice at other bodies except the courts, shall be transferred to the
District Courts of the respective districts after th e commencement of this
Constitution.
301 . Provisions regarding Constitutional Bodies and Officials thereof : (1 ) The
Constitutional bodies subsisting at the time of the commencement of this
Constitution shall be deemed to have been constituted under this
Co nstitution, and this Constitution shall not hinder such bodies in dealing with
matters under consideration according to the existing laws.
(2 ) The Chief or officials of the C onstitutional bodies engaged at the time of
commencement of this constitution shal l be deemed to have been
appointed under this Constitution and he/she shall remain in his/her
office subject to the terms and conditions stated at the time of
appointment.
(3) If during the commencement of this constitution, there are additional
number of office -bearers in the Commission for Investigation of Abuse of
Authority and Public Service Commission than what is specified in this
constitution, then they shall continue to remain in their office subject to
the terms and conditions stated at the time of their appointment.
302 . Formation and Operation of Government Services in Provincial and Local
Level : (1) Government of Nepal shall make necessary provisions to provide
services at provincial and local level.
(2) While creating provisions pursuant to cla use (1), Government of Nepal can
integrate the personnel working in government services at the time of
commencement of this constitution into the provincial and local level.
303 . Provision regarding the Local Bodies : (1) The local bodies existing at the
time of the commencement of this Constitution shall exist until the number
and constituency is determined, in accordance with this constitution.
(2) The election of the local bodies existing pursuant to clause (1) shall be as
determined by law.
(3) The off icials of the local bodies elected pursuant to clause (2) shall
remain in their office until the election of local level is held according to
this constitution.
304 . Existing laws to remain in operation : (1) All the laws in the force at the time
of commen cement of this Constitution shall remain in operation until
repealed or amended.
Provided that laws inconsistent with this Constitution shall, to the extent of
inconsistency, ipso facto , cease to operate, one year after first session of federal
legislature , in accordance with this constitution.

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(2) The activities under peace process conducted according to the Interim
Constitution 2007 shall be considered to be conducted according to this
constitution.
305 . Power to remove difficulties : Until the first sessi on has started after
conducting election of the Federal Parliament in ac cordance with this
constitution, if any difficulty arises in connection with the implementation of
this Constitution, the President , on the recommendation of the Council of
Ministers, Government of Nepal, may issue necessary orders to remove such
difficulties. Such orders shall be required to be presented immediately to the
meeting of the Leg islature -Parliament or Federal Parliament for endorsement.

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PART 34
Definitions and Interpretat ions
306 . Definitions and Interpretations : (1) Unless the subject or context otherwise
requires, in this Constitution: –
(a) “Minority” means those caste, language, and religious communities,
whose population is less than that determined by the law, and who
has their own specialties, and who aim to protect them; it also
signifies those groups who have faced discrimination and harassed.
(b) “Law” means a Federal law , provincial law, and local law.
(c) “Article" means an Article of this Constitution.
(d) “Muni cipality” means metropolitan and sub metropolitan city as
well.
(e ) “Citizen” means citizen of Nepal.
(f) “Province” means the area and structure of the federal unit carved
in accordance with this Constitution.
(g ) “Remuneration” means and includes salary, allowances, pension and
any other forms of emoluments.
(h ) “State power” means powers of the Executive, the Legislative and
the Judiciary.
(i) “Bill” means a draft of a Constitution or an Act which has been
introduced in the federal legislature or a Provi ncial Assembly .
(j) “Federation” means the federal structure that is the apex body of
the federal system.
(k) “Federal Unit” means federation, provincial or local level
(l) “Constitutional body” means Commission for Investigation of Abuse
of Authority, Au ditor General, Public Service Commission , Election
Commission, National Human Rights Commission, National Natural
Recourses and Finance Commission, National Women Commissio n,
National Dalit Commission, National Inclusion Commission, Adibasi
Janajati Commis sion, Madheshi Commission, Tharu Commission and
Muslim Commission established in accordance with this Constitution.
(m ) “Marginalized” means those who have been forced to fall backward
politically, economically and socially, those who have been unable
to a vail services because of discrimination and harassment, and
because of geographical disconnection, and those communities
whose standard of living has been below the legal standard as
specified in the Human Development indicators. It also signifies the
ultr a-marginalized and communities on verge of extinction.

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(n) “Local level” means village council, municipal council and district
assembly to be formed in accordance with this Constitution.
(2) Unless the subject or context otherwise requires, the prevailing law of
Nepal relating to i nterpretations shall, subject to the provisions of this
Constitution, apply to the interpretation of this Constitution in the same
manner that law applies to the interpretation of the laws of Nepal.

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PART 35
Short T itle, Commencem ent and Repeal
307 . Short title, Commencement and Repeal : (1) Thi s Constitution shall be called
Constitution of Nepal, 2015(2072).
(2) This Constitution shall come into force from 20 th day of the 9 th month of
the year 2015 A.D.
308 . Repeal : The Interim Co nstitution of Nepal 2007 is hereby repealed .

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SCHEDULE – 1
(RELATED WITH CLAUSE (2) OF ARTICLE 8)
Method of Making the National Flag of Nepal
(A) Method of Making the shape inside the Border
(1) On the lower portion of a crimson cloth, draw a line AB of the req uired
length from left to right.
(2) From A draw a line AC perpendicular to AM making AC equal to AB plus
one third AB. From AC mark off D making the line AD equal to line AB.
Join BD.
(3) From BD mark off E making BE equal to AB.
(4) Touching E draw a line FG, starti ng from the point F on line AC, parallel
to AB to the right hand -side. Mark off FG equal to AB.
(5) Join CG.
(B) Method of making the Moon
(6) From AB mark off AH making AH equal to one -fourth of line AB and
starting from H draw a line HI parallel to line AC touch ing line CG at
point I.
(7) Bisect CF at J and draw a line JK parallel to AB touching CG at point K.
(8) Let L be the point where lines JK and HI cut one another.
(9) Join JG.
(10) Let M be the point where line JG and HI cut one another.
(11) With center M and with a distance s hortest from M to BD mark off N on
the lower portion of line HI.
(12) Touching M and starting from O, a point on AC, draw a line from left to
right parallel to AB.
(13) With center L and radius LN draw a semi -circle on the lower portion and
let P and Q be the points where it touches the line OM respectively.
(14) With the center M and radius MQ draw a semi -circle on the lower portion
touching P and Q.
(15) With center N and radius NM draw an arc touching PNQ at R and S. Join
RS. Let T be the point where RS and HI cut one anoth er.
(16) With center T and radius TS draw a semi -circle on the upper portion of
PNQ touching at two points.

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(17) With center T and radius TM draw an arc on the upper portion of PNQ
touching at two points.
(18) Eight equal and similar triangles of the moon are to be made in the
space lying inside the semi -circle of No (16) and outside the arc of No
(17) of his Schedule.
(C) Method of Making the Sun
(19) Bisect line AF at U, and draw a line UV parallel to AB line touching line
BE at V.
(20) With center W, the point where HI and UN cu t one another and radius
MN draw a circle.
(21) With center W and radius LN draw a circle.
(22) Twelve equal and similar triangles of the sun are to be made in the
space enclosed by the circle of No (20) and No (21) with the two apexes
of two triangles touching lin e HI.
(D) Method of Making the Border
(23) The width of the border will be equal to the width of TN. This will be
of deep blue color and will be provided on all the sides of the flag.
However, on the given angles of the flag the external angles will be
equal to the internal angles.
(24) The above mentioned border will be provided if the flag is to be used
with a rope. On the other hand, if it is to be hoisted on a pole, the hole
on the border on the side AC can be extended according to
requirements.
Explanation: – The lines HI, RS, FE, ED, JG, OQ, JK and UV are imaginary. Similarly,
the external and internal circles of the sun and the other arcs except the crescent
moon are imaginary. These are not shown on the flag.

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SCHEDULE – 2
(RELATED TO CLAUSE ( 1), ARTICLE 9)
Nat ional Anthem of Nepal
Woven from hundreds of flowers, we are one garland that’s Nepali
Spread sovereign from Mechi to Mahakali.
A playgrou nd for nature’s wealth unending Out of the sacrifice of our braves, a
nation free and unyielding.
A land of knowledge, of peace, the plains, hills and mountains tall
Indivisible, this beloved land of ours, our motherland Nepal.
Of many races, languages, religions, and cultures of incredible sprawl
This progressive nation of ours, all hail Nepal.

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SCHEDULE – 3
(RELATED TO CLAUSE (2), ARTICLE 9)
Coat of Arms of Nepal

NOTE: This Coat of Arms can be made larger or smaller in size according to
necessity. C olor determined by Government of Nepal shall be used in it.

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SCHEDULE – 4
(RELATING TO CLAUSE (3) OF ARTICLE 56)
PROV INCES AND DISTRICTS WITHIN PROVINCES
Province No. 1 Province No. 2
1. Taplejung 1. Sap tari
2. Panchthar 2. Siraha
3. Ilam 3. Dhanusha
4. Sankhuwasabha 4. Mah ot tari
5. Terhathum 5. Sarlahi
6. Dhankuta 6. Rautahat
7. Bhojpur 7. Bara
8. Khotang 8. Pa rsa
9. So lu khumbu
10. Okhaldhunga
11. Udayapur
12. Jhapa
13. Morang
14. Sunsari
Province No. 3 Province No. 4
1. Dola kha 1. Gor kha
2. Ramechhap 2. Lamjung
3. Sindhuli 3. Tanahu
4. Kavrepalan cho wk 4. Kaski
5. Sindhupal cho wk 5. Manang
6. Rasuwa 6. Mustang
7. Nuwakot 7. Parbat
8. Dhading 8. Syanja
9. Chitwan 9. Myagdi
10. Makwanpur 10. Baglung
11. Bhaktpur 11. Nawalparasi (east of Bardaghat
Susta )
12. Lalitpur
13. Kathmandu
Province No. 5 Province No. 6
1. Nawlparasi
(west of Bardaghat Susta)
1. Rukum (West ern part)
2. Rupandehi 2. Salyan
3. Kapilbastu 3. Dolpa
4. Palpa 4. Jumla
5. Arghakhachi 5. Mugu
6. Gulmi 6. Humla
7. Rukum (East ern part) 7. Kalikot
8. Rolpa 8. Jajarkot
9. Pyuthan 9. Dailekh
10. Dang 10. Surkhet
11. Banke

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12. Bardiya

Province No. 7
1. Bajura
2. Bajhang
3. Doti
4. Achham
5. Darchula
6. Baitadi
7. Dadeldhura
8. Kanchanpur
9. Kailali

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SCHEDULE 5
(RELATED TO ARTICLE 57 (1) AND 109 )
List of Federal Powers/Jurisdiction

Serial
Number
Subjects
1. Related to defense and army
a) Protection of national unity and territorial integrity
b) Related to national security
2. Central police, armed police force, national intelligence and
investigation, peace and security
3. Cen tral planning, central bank, financial policy, currency and banking,
monetary policy, foreign grants, aids and loan.
4. Monitoring and regulation of telecommunication, central telecom, radio
frequency distribution, television and postal service
5 Customs , excise -duty, value added tax (VAT), corporate income tax,
individual income tax, tax on remuneration , passport fee, visa fee,
tourism fee, service charge, penalties and fines
6. Federal civil service, judicial service and other government services
7. Policies and criteria related protection and multi -dimensional use of
water resources
8. International and inter -provincial electricity transmission lines
9. Central statistics (national and international standards and qualities)
10. Central level mega projects for electricity, irrigation and other projects
11. Central university, central level academies , university standard and
regulation, central library
12. Central health policy (setting standard, quality and monitoring of the
health services, natio nal/special service provider hospitals, traditional
treatment services, control of communicable diseases
13. Federal legislature, federal executive, local level affairs, special
structures
14. International trades, exchange, ports and quarantines
15. Ci vil aviation, international airports
16. Foreign and diplomatic affairs, international relations and related to
United Nations
17. International treaties and agreements, extradition, mutual legal
assistance and international border, international border river
18. National transport policy, train and national highways management
19. Laws related to Supreme Court, High Courts, District Courts and Judicial
Administration
20. Citizenship, passport, visa, and immigration
21. Nuclear energy, atmosphere and space related
22. Intellectual property (including patent, design, copy right)
23. War and defense
24. Factory and production of arms and ammunitions
25. Standards and metrology

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Serial
Number
Subjects
26. Mining, exploration
27. National and international ecology manageme nt, national parks, wildlife
reserves and wetlands, national forest policy, carbon services
28. Insurance policy, securities, cooperative regulations
29. Land use policy, housing development policy, tourism policy,
environment adaptation
30. Formulating criminal and civil laws
31. Security press
32. Social security and poverty alleviation
33. Constitutional bodies and commissions of national importance
34. Ancient monuments and places of archaeological importance
35. Issues not listed in the federa tion, province and local level power or
concurrent level power lists, along with other issues not mentioned in
this constitution and law

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SCHEDULE 6
(RELATED WITH ARTICL E 57 (2), 16 2 (4), 1 97 , 23 1 (3), 2 32 (7 ), 274 (4) AND 296 (4) )
List of Provincial Po wers/Jurisdiction
Serial
Number
Subjects
1. Provincial police administration as well as law and order
2. Bank s and operation of financial institutions according to the
policy of Nepal Rastra Bank , cooperatives, and foreign grants and
aids with consent fr om the center
3. Radio, FM, television operation
4. Land and house registration fee, vehicle tax, entertainment tax,
advertisement tax, tax on tourism and agricultural income,
service charge and penalties and fines
5. Provincial civil service, and other government services
6. Provincial statistics
7. Provincial level electricity, irrigation projects, drinking water,
transport
8. Provincial level university, higher education, libraries and
museums
9. Health service
10. Related to Provincial Assembly , provincial cabinet
11. Trade/Business within the province
12. Provincial highways
13. Provincial investigation bureau
14. Infrastructure management and other necessary matters of
province government offices
15. Provincial public service commission
16. Land management, record -keeping of the land
17. Exploration and management of mines
18. Protection and use of language, culture, script, fine arts and
religion
19. Management of national forest, water resources and ecology
within the province
20. Agriculture and livestock development, factories,
industrialization, business, transportation
21. Guthi (community trust/endowment) management

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SCHEDULE 7
(RELATED TO ARTICLE 57 (3), 109 , 16 2 (4), AND 197 )
List of Concurrent (federal and provincial) Power s/Jurisdiction

Serial
Number
Subjects

1.
Criminal and civil work procedures and evidences and oath of office
(legal recognition, public act and records and judicial process)
2. Supply, distribution, price control, standard and monitoring of
essential g oods and services
3. Preventive detention, jail and custody management on the matters
of national security and management of law and orders
4. Transfer of accused as well according those in custody and jail from
one province to other.
5. Laws related t o family affairs (marriage, property transfer, divorce,
endangered, orphan, adopted child, successors and joint family).
6. Receiving property, acquisition and creation of rights
7. Matters related to contracts, cooperatives, collaborations and
agencies
8. Matters related to bankruptcy and insolvency
9. Medicine and pesticides
10. Planning, family planning and population management
11. Matters related to social security and employment, trade union,
resolution of industrial dispute s, labor rights and d isputes
12. Medical, legal , audit, engineering, ayurved, veterinary services,
Amchi and other professions
13. Province border rivers, waterways, environment protection,
biodiversity
14. Related to mass communication
15. Industries and minerals and in frastructures
16. Casino, lottery
17. Natural and man -made disaster preparedness, rescue, relief and
rehabilitation
18. Tourism, drinking water and sanitation
19. Movies, cinema halls and sports
20. Insurance operation and management
21. Poverty alle viation and industrialization
22. Scientific research, science and technology and human resource
development
23. Inter -provincial forest, wildlife, birds, mountains, national parks and
water uses
24. Land policy and related legal provisions
25. Employm ent and aid to unemployed

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SCHEDULE 8
(RELATED TO 57 (4), 214 ( 2), 221 (2) AND 226 (1))
List of Powers/Jurisdiction for Local Level
Serial
number
Subjects
1. Municipal police
2. Cooperatives
3 FM operation
4 Local tax (property tax, house rent tax, f ee on registration of houses and
land, vehicle tax), service fee, tourism fee, advertisement tax, business
tax, land tax (land revenue), fines, entertainment tax
5. Management of local services
6. Local statistics and record keeping
7. Local development projects and programs
8. Basic and secondary education
9. Basic health and sanitation
10. Management of local markets, environment conservation and biological
diversity
11. Local roads, rural roads, agriculture roads, irrigation
12. Village assembly, Municipal assembly, district assembly, local courts,
dispute settlement and mediation
13. Management of local records
14. Distribution of land, building ownership certificates
15. Farming and livestock, agriculture production management, livestock
heal th, cooperative
16. Management of senior citizens, people with physical disability and
disabled
17. Collection of statistics of unemployed people
18. Management, operation and control of agriculture extension
19. Drinking water, small electricity proj ects, alternative energy
20 Disaster management
21. Conservation of Watershed, wetland, wildlife, mines and minerals
22. Preservation and development of language, culture and fine arts

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SCHEDULE 9
(RELATED TO 57 (5), 109, 162 (4), 19 7, 214 (2), 221 (2 ) AND 226 (1) )
List of concurrent Powers/Jurisdiction for Federation, Province and
Local Level
Serial
number
Subjects
1. Cooperatives
2. Education, Health and Newspapers/Magazines
3 Health
4 Agriculture
5. Services like electricity, drinking water, ir rigation
6. Service fee, registration fee, fine, tourism fee and royalty
received from natural resources
7. Forest, wildlife, birds, water use, environment, ecology and
biodiversity
8. Mines and minerals
9. Disaster management
10. Social security an d poverty alleviation
11. Registration of personal incidents, birth, death, marriage and
statistics
12. Archaeology, ancient monuments and museums
13. Management of landless
14. Royalty received from natural resources
15. Permission for vehicles

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