Background Report on Congo (Brazzaville)

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Basi c Facts 2
Name ofCo untryRep ublic ofCo ngo/ Con go(Braz zaville) 3
CapitalBraz zaville
Population3,702,314 (July2006)
Are a342,000 sqkm
Average Life
Exp ectancy52.8 years
Ethnic GroupsKongo48%,Sangha20%, M’Bochi12%, Teke 17% ,Europea nsand other 3%
GDP per capita ,
Comm unityofDem ocracies
Previou s
part icipati onNone
Timeline ofRec entMajor Events inCongo -Brazzavi lle:
• 1992 August –Multiparty elections underanew constit utionbring Pascal
L issouba to the Pre sidency afteryears ofmili tar yrul e.
• 1993 –Fig htin gbetw eengovernment andopposit ionover elect ion result s.
•1994 -1995 –Ceasefire andpower -sharing between governm entand opposit ion.
•1997 June–Fighting eruptsbetween partisans offormer dictator Denis Sassou –
Nguesso andPresident Lissouba.
•1997 October –Interven tionbyAngola in Congolese civil waron the side of
Sassou -Nguesso. Sassou-Nguesso declareshimselfPre sident.
• 1999 December –Peace agreement signe dbetween governm entand rebels,
pro viding fordisarmamen t,dialogue, andsecurit yservi cesreform.
•2001 April– National Dialogu eends withthe signatur eof the Convent ionfor
P eace and Reconstru ction.
•2002 January –New constitution approvedin refere ndum.
•2002 March– Presidential electionsseeDeni sSassou -Nguesso elec ted President
with 89% ofthe vote.
• 2002 March –Rebellion ofthe Natio nalResistance Council(t he “Ni njas”) begins
in Pool andBrazzaville.
•2003 March –Government and“Ninj as”sign peac edea l.
• 2005 May–National Resistance Councilstarts “Operat ionrestore orderand
secu rity” in Pool toestablish security inareas under its control.
1Princ ipal author:Democ racy Coalition Project2Source: CIAWorl dFac tbook at https:// www.cia.g ov/cia/publ ications/ factbook/index.html ,ac cessed on
July18, 2006 .
3Forthesake of simplicity, wewill refertothecount ryas “Cong o”throughout thisreport. Any mention of
Congodoe snot refe rto the Democr aticRepubli cof Cong o.

2 •2005 November –Congolese Parliament grants amnesty toformer PrimeMinister
Kolela sso as to allow him tobur yhis late wife inBraz zaville.
With import antreserves ofoil and other natural resources, Congo’srecenthistory has
been marked byviolent political struggleand national disuni ty.Congo’s rulingMarxist –
inspired CongoleseLabo rParty (PCT) underGeneral DenisSassou -Nguesso gave way to
free elections in 199 2,leading tothe elec tion ofPascal Lissouba asPreside nt.However ,
the Lissouba government wasfaced with aseri esofrebel lions andchallenges. In1997,
after acivil war,General Sas sou -Nguesso regainedthe upper handwithAngolan military
assistan ce,decl ared himselfPresident and suspended the 1992 constit ution. Fighting
flared upagainin late 1998 asforces close toform erPresi dent Lissoubaandformer
Pri me Min ister Bernard Kolelaschallenge dSassou -Nguesso’s rule.Acea sefire mediated
by Ga bones ePresident OmarBon go brought the confl icttoaclose inDec ember 1999,
and inApri l2001 Presi dent Sassou -Ng uesso convenedaNat ional Dialogue (D ialogue
Sans Exclusif )wit hthe goal ofdrafting anew constit ution.Howeve r,le adi ng opposition
figu res such asLissouba andKolelas wereunable to atte ndthe Dialogue after having
been sentenced to death inabsentia byCongol esecourt s.The new const itution which
emerged fromthisdialogue was approved inanationa lrefe rendum inJanua ry2002.
A round ofpresi dential andlegislativeelect ions followed the2002 referendum.
President Sassou-Nguesso dominated theelection campa ignafterone ofthe leading
contenders joined othercandidates inboycott ingthe elec tion, allegin gfraud .N either
Lissouba norKolel aswere abletoparti cipate,due to thei rin abse ntia death sentences.
The election sawPresident Sassou-Nguesso return edtooffic ewith 89% ofthe votes .
Soon after thepresidential election,fightingerupted inPool between the govern ment
and agroup offormer Kolelas supporte rs,the Council forNationa lResi stance (CNR) ,
known asthe “Ninj as”. The fighting saw anumbe rof attacks byboth theNinj asand the
government uponcivilians untilthegovernm entand theCNR signed apeac eag reement
in 200 3, incl uding pledges for disarmam entand anamnesty. However, continued
disagreement between thegovernment andthe ninjas over theimple ment ation ofthe
agreement ’sdisarmament clauseshaskept theconfli ctalive. Armedfighters and
check poin tsremai nat lar ge throu ghout thePool region, andthegovernme nthasnot been
able tocomm encereconstruction workinthe are a.
President Sassou-Nguesso’s government came underint ernat ional criticism when the
“Kimberly Process”ofdiamond certification decide dto suspend Congo’s membershipin
2004 after doubt sar ose about Congo’s commitment toatransparent management ofits
diamond resources. However,themain natural resourc etha tdomi nates Congo’s economy
is petro leum ;the countr yis the fifth largest producer in sub -Sa haran Africa.
4The IMF
recently recommended suspensionofCongo -Braz zavillefrom its Poverty Reduction
G rowth Facility, basing its decis iononanumber ofviol ations ofthe conditions that
“trig ger” theHeavily Indepted PoorCount ries(HIPC) program .
4Freedom House(2005).

3 President Sassou-Nguesso’s internationalprofi lerose inearly 2006 when member
stat es ofthe African Union decided topass over Sudan forchairm anship ofthe
organ ization, grantingtheone -year term toCongo inst ead.
DemocraticInstitutions andProcess es
Though theconst itution adoptedbyCongo in2001 procla imsit a democ raticstate, in
which “government ofthe people, by the peopl eand for the peopl e”is the guiding value,
there areanumber ofserious questions surroundin gPreside ntDenis Sassou -Ng uesso’s
fu ll comm itment tothese princip les.
Thetransiti onand consti tution-drafting process
Theprocess through whichthecons tituti onwas drafted,approve dand ratified, as
well asthe actual content ofthe constitut ion,has bee nquestione d.The National Dialogue
which President Sassou-Nguesso convened in 2001 exclude danum berofsubstantial
polit ical actors despite thefact thatitbil led itsel fas adialogue SansExclusif (without
e xcluding anyone).Infact, former Presi dent Lissouba and former Prime Mini ster Kolelas
were unab leto return fromexileduetothe fact that theyhad been triedand sentenced in
absentia fortreason
Theconstit utionanditsinstitutions
The 2001 constitution sets out thebroa dguidel inesofamult i- party democratic
presidential system ofgovernment, andintroduce sa se ries of insti tutional innovati onsto
Congo’s governm ent. Theseinclude aNati onal Counc ilfor the Freedom of
Communicat ion,aNational Council forHuma nRight s,and anOmbudsman ofthe
Rep ublic.
The President, underthe2001 constitution, servesaseven -yea rterm ,and can bere –
elect edonce. Whil ethe Presiden tthus facesterm limit s,som em embers ofthe opposition
and ofthe transi tional government havesuggeste dtha tthe draft consti tutionconcentrates
too much powerinthe hands ofthe President.
7For instan ce,in contrast tothe earlier
1992 consti tution, the2001 constitution doesnothave aproce dureforthe impeachment
o f the Presi dent byParliament. TheFederation Internationale desDroi tsde L’Homme
(FIDH) ,together withtheCongolese NGOObservatoi reCongol aisdes Droits de
5ProjetdeCon stitution pour laRep ublique du Congo (29November 2001)avail able athttp:/ /www.c ongo- nstit/home.php (a cc essed on 21 July 2006) . 6SeeArts. 161-169 ofthe Projet deConsti tution (29November 2001)avai lable athttp: //www.congo – nstit/home.php (a cc essed on 21 July 2006) .
7‘Dissident Brazzaville MinisterResign s’(8 May 2001) BBCNewsat
http ://news.b ca/1318135.stm
,(ac cessed on21July 2006) ;‘Con goapprov esnew
cons titution ’(24 Janua ry2002) BBCNews athtt p://new 2/hi/af rica/1 779007. stm
,(ac cessed on
21 July 2006 ).

4 l’Ho mme (OCDH), pointstothe const itution’s provisions oneme rgency rule, which
allow thePresident torul eby decree even ifhisrequest to rule bydecree hasbeen denied
by Parliament, aseviden ceofatroubling imbala nceinCongo’s newconstitution.
8Th e
European Union’s(EU)Election ObservationMission’s reportpoints out that these
emergency powers “undermine toacertai nextent the separati onof powers, acar dinal
prin cip leof any democratic regime…[and that] theywe aken therole ofParl iament ”.
Furthermore, thereseems tobe astrong feeling among humanrights advocate sthat
the Human RightsCommission istoo weak to be effec tivein fight inghuman rights
a buses. TheCommiss ionhas no subpoena authorit y,and its independ encehasbeen
questioned ,si nce Commission membersareappoi ntedbypreside ntialdecree .
10 In July
2005, theOCDH withdrew fromtheComm ission, arguin gthat itwa swe ak and beho lden
to government interests.
Refe rendum andtransitional elections
Thereferendum onthe constitution displayedworrying irr egulari tiesfrom the point
of view ofthe democratic process,whichforeshadowed problemswith thepresidential
elect ion. Interna tional observers were not allowed tomonitor the vote, many opposition
parti escal led forabo ycott ofthevote, and local humanrights NGOs rejec ted itsresult,
a lleging flawsandirregularities.
The subsequent presidential election held on 10March 2002,which saw Denis
Sasso u-Ngu esso winwith 89% ofthe vote ,present edanum berofprobl emsaswell.
Rep orts publi shed bythe EU Election ObservationMission (MOEC), andFIDH withthe
assistan ceofOCDH ,outlined anumber ofproblem swi th the presidenti alelection
p rocess.
Observers pointedto flaws inthe distributi onofregistrati oncards and other electoral
materials, delays and irregularities onelect ion day, andthelack ofaccess tothe vote
count by forei gnand national observers. Reports alsounderli nedthestron gly restrictive
can didacy criteria forthe presidential elect ion, appare ntlytailore dto exclud ecer tain
can didates, aswel las the disproportionate attenti onpaid bythe media toSassou -Nguesso
a s well asSassou -Nguesso’s useofstat einfrast ructure forhisown election cam paig n.
The National Electoral Commission wasfaulted forits lack oftransparency and
ineff icienc y;some local and regional electoral commissions, ofwhich the opposition was
nominally amember ,apparently nevereven met. Oppositi oncandi dateswe reintimidated
and haras sedbypolice housesearches ,and prev entedfrom holding pressconferences.
Nevertheless, thefinal report ofMO EC conclude sthat whil efraud probably took
place, the resul twas notsufficient soastochange the overal lresult ofthe elect ion, noting
8FIDH (March2002)p2; SeeArt. 132ofthe Projet deConst ituti on (29 Novem ber2001) availab leat
http ://www.congo t/v4 x/instit/ home.php
(a ccessed on21July 2006) . 9Miss ionD’Ob servation Electora lede L’Uni onEuropeenne au Congo (2002) p8.10Freedom House(20 05).11‘Congo appro vesnew constitut ion’(24Janu ary2002) BBCNews at
https://news.b ca/1779007.stm
,(ac cessed on21July 2006) ;‘Civil Societ ies[sic ]rejec t
resu ltsofCong olese Refer endum’ (31Janua ry2002) at
https://www.afro 002/cob001_r ef_prote sts.h tm
,(ac cessed on21 July 2006 ).
12MOEC (2002);FIDH (2002 ).

5 the general weakness ofthe opposition parties.
13 The FIDH report ismore forthright inits
condemnation ofthe presidential election,arguingthatthe Congole segove rnment failed
to live up toits obli gation underarticle 25(b) ofthe Interna tionalCove nantonCivil and
Poli tical Rights toorganize freeandfairelecti ons.
In addition tothe technical problems surroundi ngthe elect ion, wemust consider the
polit ical process during theelection campaignaswell.It can beargued, first ly,that the
conviction inabsentia offormer Pres ident Lissouba andform erPrime Minister Kolelas
meant thattwoof the most important potentialcandidat esfor the presiden cywere unable
to com pete. Secondly ,the withdraw alfrom theelection, inearly March 2002,ofthree
can didates, including themost important remainingchall enger tothe President, Andre
Milongo meant thatbythe time ofthe elect ion theincum bentfaced nosignificant
challenges tohis candidacy .
S ubseque ntlegi slative andlocal elections wereless controversi al.Opposit ion
parti esdeci ded nottoboycott theparliament aryelections, despi teearl iercallsto delay
them because ofanew burstof fighting inthe Pool region ofSouthern Congo.
Nevertheless, members ofthe opposit ionstill allege dthat theNational Elector al
Commiss ion(CON EL)was biased towards thePresident’s party. 17 The first round ofthe
parli amentary elec tions, on26May 2002,wa sm arked by viole ncein the Pool region, but
the sec ond round afew weeks later wasmore peaceful .
Rule ofLa w
Human rightsreports onCongo underline continuing concerns with impunit yin the
government ’sadministration ofthe rule oflaw, especi allyafte ra verdi ctwas handed
down inthe “Beach” trialon16August 2005.Theverdictacqui tted hig h-level
g overnment andarmed forces officers ofcompl icity in the massac reof 353 Congolese
refu gees returnin gto Brazzaville fromtheDem ocrati cRepubl icof Congo in1999. While
the trial did find the state respons ibleforthe killi ngs and disappeara nces,noindi vidual
was held responsi bleforthe mass acre. The trial was organiz edin2003 after theFrench
government arrestedaCongolese ChiefofPoli ceinconne ction withthe “Be ach” affair;
the Congolese government contendedthat Franc ehad nojurisdic tionover thecase. Some
human rights organizations andvictims’ famil ies argued thatthe trial was only organized
to deflect attent ion from thetrial inFrance; FIDHdescribe dit as a“parody”.
1 9
The judiciary andcorrections system remains over-burdened, worseningthe pro blem
of detentio nswithou ttrial andofprisone rcondit ionsinCongo. 20 Anumber ofcas esof
13Op. cit.pp27-28 .14FIDH (2002 p11).15‘One ManRace inCo ngo Poll’(10M arch 2002) BBC News at
http ://news.b /hi/afri ca/1865069.stm
(a cc essed on 24 Jul y2006) . 16‘Disaster Threatens Congo’ (16May 2002) BBC News c.c /2/hi/a frica/1991788.stm
(ac cessed on24 July 2006).17‘Thierry Mongal la:‘La CONEL reste uncomm ission monocol ore’Congo pa ,
https://www.congo rticle .php3?id _articl e=3 69
(acc essed on 24 Jul y20 06) . 18‘Violence, FraudMarsCo ngo Poll’ (27May 2002) BBCNews
https://news.b ca/2010758.stm
(a cc essed on 24 Jul y2006) ;‘Low Turnout forPeacef ul
Con goVote’ (23 June 2002) rica/2061767.stm
(acce ssed on 24 July 2006). 19Amnesty Internati onal(200 5);FIDH (2003).20St ate Department (2006);Fr eedo mHouse (2005).

6 disappearances arestill outstanding andnotaccounte dfor, according to the UN’s
Work ingGroup onEnforced orInvolunta ryDisap pearanc es.
The OCDH andFIDH have alsodrawn attent ion tothe cont inued detent ion without
trial oftwel veoffice rsaccused ofplann ingacoup against thePreside nt.They havenow
been detained beyondthelimit imposed byCongol eselaw. OCDH andFIDH have also
highl ighted the poor conditions inwhich thesetwelveoffice rshave bee nkept. Thetwelve
d etainees havereportedly sufferedabuse,and have notbeenallowe dto see their
2 2
Freed omofthought, express ion,the pressand civil soci ety
Free dom ofthe pres sis guaranteed byCongo’s newconstit ution, andaccording to
Freed omHouse, the“government generallyrespect sthis right in prac tice.”
23 However,
prin tmedia, thoug hcritical ofthe governm ent,do not have awide distributi oninareas
outsi de the capital, where thestate-owned radio and television dominate.
24 T he
government hasharas sedand punished foreignjournalistswho conduct edcritical
investigati vereport inginside thecountry onsensiti vepoli tical issue s.
25 Some harassment
and intimi dation ofCongoles ejournalists occursas we ll–on April 20,2006,ajournalist
work ing for Thalass amagazine wasarrested and charged with“propagating false
news ”.
Members ofnon -g overn mental organizati onshave sometimesbee nharassed; arecent
case involved atri al on embezzlement chargesagainst Congole seanti -c orruption activists
associated with the International PublishWhatYou Paycampai gn.These charges were
thro wn outby theju dge trying thecase, claimi ngthat there wasno evide nceforthem.
Howev er,the charges were illegally reintroduc edby the Prosec utoratthe end ofan
appe alpresented beyondthetime limitim pose dby Congolese law,according tosour ces
in Publish WhatYouPay.
28 O n Nove mber 13,one ofthe anti-corrupt ioncampaigners,
C hrist ian Mounzeo, wasarrested uponhisreturn from anoffici almeet ingofthe
Ext ractive Industries Transparency Initiativeand accused ofdefami ngthe President. In
December 2006,thecampaign erswere convi cted offorge ry, eventhoug htheir
internation alfun derstestified thatthere wasno mism anagem ent,andgiven suspended
prison sentences andfines.
21Commissi ononHuman Rights (200 6)p43 .22See ‘Mauvai sesconditions dedéte ntio net mauvais traitement ssu bispar 12militaire sen pré ventive
depuis 18mois’ (Octobe r19 2006) at http:/ /www p3?i d_artic le=3735
(accessed on
Dec ember 13, 2006 ).
23Freedom House(20 05).24Ibid .25State Department (2006).26Committee to Pro tect Journalists (2006) at
https://www.cp ases06/a fric a_c ases_06/rep_congo01may06ca.html
(accessed on24 July 2006) . 27Pub lish What YouPaye-ma ilnewsletter (15July2006).28Em ailcorres pondence withPublish What You Paysou rce (Dec ember 12,2006).29‘Congo activists finedfo rforge ry’BBC News (December 27,2006)
http ://news.b ca/6212659.stm
,acc essed onJanu ary22,2007.

Congo hastaken someimportant stepstowa rdsstabi lization and pacifi cation, after
years of chaos and conflict. Theconstitutionalprocess of2001 -2002, and the electi onsof
2002 indicate that there isawill forthe count rytomove forward andoutofthe legacy of
civil war andpower struggles. Theamnesty forformer PrimeMiniste rKol elasin 2005 to
allow himto bur yhis late wifein Brazzavil leis a posi tive step towards theretur nof other
fo rmer opposi tion leaders ,such asforme rPresident Lissouba.
30 A number of
deve lopments suggest thatthesecurity situati on might improve. Theseinclude the
incompletely implemented 2003accordbe tween thegove rnmentand theCNR, aswell as
the CN R’s own efforts toestablish securityandorder inareas under its control.
However, theobvious imbalances infavor ofPresi dent Sassou -Nguessa’s election
campaign duringthe pres idential elections of 2002 raise seve redoubts aboutCongo’ s
democratic trajectory.The 2002 electio nsand the2001 National Dialogue, evenifwell –
intentio ned,donot indicate awillingness toinvolve allpoli ticalact ors in bui lding atruly
plural anddemocratic Congo,inwhich alte rnati oningovernm entis possible.
Furthermore, the concerns aboutimpunit yand themal admini strati onofthe just ice system
sug ges tthat the rule oflaw isunfortunately still an aspirat ionand notareal ity in Cong o.
From theanal ysisabove, itis quite clearthatthere areanumber ofare as that require
improve mentbefore theCommunity ofDemoc racie scan conside rCon goto be truly on
the path toward democratic rule.TheCommunit yof Demo craciesand thewider
internation alcom munity shouldinsistonfundame ntalreform sin elec tion organiz ation
and the rule oflaw ifthey want tohelp Congo become ademo cracy.
Firstly, theelectoral process needs tobe improved soastopre vent the flaws and
irregularities thatoccurred in2002. Anumber ofspe cific improve mentscoul dbe made,
such asthe reform ofthe National Electoral Commission inorder to make ittruly
independent fromgovern mentinterferenc e,with the incl usion ofopposi tionpoliticians. A
thorough reviewofthe electoral registerand nati onalcensus, assugge sted by the EU’ s
MOEC, mighthelp tostrengthen technicalstandards forthe next elect ion cycle.
Technical assistance withtheplanning andexec ution ofnati onal elect ions might help to
address someoftheirregularities observed, suchas the lackof pape rba llots, which was
in many casesaprob lem ofbottlenecks atthe printi ngpresse s.In othe raspect s,technical
assistan cemight not beenough ifthe willto distort theelect oral proce ssisthere. To
address this,the Community ofDemoc raciesand theinternati onalcommuni tyshould aim
to stren gthen Congoles ecivil society, inpartic ular through thetraining ofind epe ndent
national electoralobservers .
The Community ofDemocracies shouldalsoremind Congo thattheeffective
prov ision ofthe rule oflaw isacrucial component ofdemocra cy.Impuni ty,especia llyfor
high -profil ehum anrights abuses,should notbetolerat ed. Howe ver,many problems in
the judicial andcorrections sectoralsoseem to be the product ofobsta clesinthe
administr ation ofjustice andthelack ofresourc es.Insuc hca ses, inte rnati onal assistance
sho uld focus oncapacity -building andthe improvem entofcondi tions inprisons and
30‘Amnesty passedforCo ngo ’sex-PM’ (24November 2005)BBCNews
http ://news.b .uk/2 /hi/afri ca/4467118.stm
(a cc essed on 24 Jul y2006) 31MOEC (2002)p2932MOEC (2002)p29

8 detention centers, sothat delays inprocessing cases need notcause unnece ssarysufferin g
in crowded andunsanitary conditions. Judicialharassm entofanti -corrupti onactivists
must alsocease.
World BankInstitut e
Indicator s200 5
Co ngo –
Bra zzaville
Voi ce and Acco untabilit y 29.0 Rang e0-100 (Lowe rvalue indicates weak voiceand
ac countabil ity; highe rvalue indica tesstrong voi ce and
Political Stabi lity and
Absence ofViolence11.3 Range0-100 (Lower value indicat esweak politicalstability
and high viol ence; higher value indic atesopposi te)
Governm ent
Effectiveness7.7 Range0-100 (Lowe rvalue indicates weak governmen t
effectivenes s;highe r value indicates strong govt.
effectivenes s)
Regulatory Quali ty 11.4 Rang e0-100 (Lower value in dic ates weak regulatory qualit y;
higher valueindi cates strong regulatory quality)
Rule ofLaw 4.8Rang e0-100 (Lower valueindica tesweak rule oflaw; higher
value indicates strong ruleof law )
Con trolofCo rrup tion 14.3 Rang e0-100 (Lower valueindicates weakcontrol of
corruption; higher value indicates strongcon trol ofco rrupt ion)
Freedom House:
Freedom inthe
World 2007
Political Righ ts 6 Range1-7 (Low ervalue indicat esgood system ofpolit ic al
rights; higher valu eindic ates badsystem political right s)
Civil Liberties 5Range1-7 (Lowe rvalu e indicat esgood system of civil
libe rties; high er val ueind icates badsystem civilliberties)
Status NF3Ca teg ories: F(Free); PF(Partly Free);NF(Not Free)/(*)
Indicates electoralsystem
Freedom House:
Freedom ofthe Press
Congo –
TotalScore 51PF Range0-100 (Lowe rval ue indicates totalfreepress; highe rva lu e
indicates lessfreedo m)/3 Categories: F(F ree) ;PF (Par tlyFree) ;NF
(Not Free )
Corrup tion
Perceptio nsIndex
Congo –
Brazz aville
Tot alScore 2.3Range 0-10 (lower value indicates high corrup tio n; highe rval ue
ind icates lowervalues of corru ption)

– Amne styInternational (2006) Amnesty Internati onalAnnual Report2006,at
http :// rt2006/cog-summ ary-eng ,(ac cessed on21June 2006)
-Central Intelligence Agency(2006)CIAWorld Factbook at
http :// blications/factbook/ index.html
,acc essedJuly 5,2006
– Fédération International desLigu esde Droi tsde l’Homme (FIDH)(March2002)
Rapport HorsSérie :Elections entrompe l’œil auCongo -B razzaville at
www.fidh.or g/afriq/rapp ort/2002/cg326 f.pdf
(acces sedon18July 2006)
-Fédération International desLigues deDroits de l’Homm e(FIDH) (17March
2003 ) Writ ten Submiss iontothe UN Commission onHuman Rights
(E/CN.4/2003/N GO/241)
-Freedo mHouse (2006) Freedom inthe Worl d–Congo, Republicof (Brazzaville)
(20 05) onlineat
http :// cfm?page=22&year=2005&country=686
(access edon 21June 2006)
-Freedo mHouse (2006) Freedom ofthe Pre ss–Congo, Republicof (Brazzaville)
(20 05) online at
http :// cfm?page=16&year=2005&country=6868
,acces sedon21June 2006
-Miss ion d’Obser vationElectorale (MOEC)del’Uni onEuropée nne(2002) Congo
–Election Présid entielle 10Mars2002 :Rapport Final ,avail able at
http :// ons/hum an_right s/eu_ele ction_ass_ obser
v/congobraz/ rapp02.pdf , (accesse d18 July 2002)
-United Nations Commiss iononHum anRight s(27 Decem ber 2005) Civil and
Politic alRight s,Including theQuestions of:Disappearances andSummary
Execu tions –Repo rtof the Working Group onEnforced orInvolu ntary
Disappearances (E/CN.4/2006/56)
– United StatesDepartment ofState (2006) Country ReportsonHuman Rights
Practices – 2005: Republic ofCongo at
http ://www.stat /hrrpt/2005/61564.htm
,(ac cess edon July 18,2006)
Journa ls,Magazines ,On lineN ew sSo urc es:
– –
– AllAfri –ww
– BBC News– ht tp://
– –
– LesDépêches deBrazzaville -https://www.brazz aville-a diac.c om/
-ReliefWeb –www .reliefw
-Reuters AlertNet –ww