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The Constitution of the Republic of Rwanda

The Rwandan State is an independent, sovereign, democratic, social and secular Republic; The principle governing the Republic is “”government of the people, by the people and for the people””.
All the power derives from the people. No group of people or individual can vest in themselves the exercise of power. National sovereignty belongs to the people who shall exercise it directly by way of referendum or through their representatives.
The territory of Rwanda is divided into Provinces, Districts, Cities, Municipalities, Towns, Sectors and Cells. The law determines the number, boundaries, organization and functioning of Provinces, Cities, Municipalities, Towns and Districts.
The Capital of the Republic of Rwanda is the City of Kigali. The law determines the organization, functioning and operation of the City of Kigali. The Capital can by law be transferred elsewhere within Rwanda.
The national language is Kinyarwanda. The official languages are Kinyarwanda, French and English.
The national symbols of Rwanda are the flag, the motto, the seal and the national anthem. The national flag is made up of three colours : green, yellow and blue. The flag comprises the following colours from the bottom to the top : a green strip, followed by a yellow strip both of which cover half the flag. The upper half is blue and bears on its right hand side the image of the sun with its rays of golden yellow. The sun and its rays are separated by a blue ring. The law determines the characteristics, significance, usage and ceremonials of the national flag. The motto of the Republic is : UNITY, WORK, PATRIOTISM. The Seal of the Republic is made up of a circular green rope with a green knot at the base, bearing on its upper part, the imprints « REPUBULIKA Y’U RWANDA ». At the bottom of the knot is the motto of the Republic : « UBUMWE, UMURIMO, GUKUNDA IGIHUGU ». All these inscriptions are in black against a yellow background. The Seal of the Republic also bears the following ideograms : the sun with its rays, a stem of sorghum and a branch of a coffee tree, a basket, a blue wheel with teeth and two shields one on the right and one on the left. The characteristics, significance, usage and protection of the Seal are determined by law. The national anthem is “”RWANDA NZIZA””. The characteristics and ceremonies of the National Anthem are determined by law.
Every person has a right to nationality.
Dual nationality is permitted. No person may be deprived of Rwandan nationality of origin. No person shall be arbitrarily deprived of his or her nationality or of the right to change nationality. Rwandans or their descendants who were deprived of their nationality between 1st November 1959 and 31 December 1994 by reason of acquisition of foreign nationalities automatically reacquire Rwandan nationality if they return to settle in Rwanda. All persons originating from Rwanda and their descendants shall, upon their request, be entitled to Rwandan nationality. The conditions of acquisition, retention, enjoyment and deprivation of Rwandan nationality are determined by an organic law.

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