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- Year: 2001
- Country: Somalia
- Language: English
- Document Type: Domestic Law or Regulation
The country which gained its independence from the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland on 26th June 1960 and was known as the Somaliland Protectorate and which joined Somalia on 1st July 1960 so as to form the Somali Republic and then regained its independence by the Declaration of the Conference of the Somaliland communities held in Burao between 27th April 1991 and 15th May 1991 shall hereby and in accordance with this Constitution become a sovereign and independent country known as “The Republic of Somaliland”.
Sovereignty resides in the people who shall exercise it in accordance with the Constitution and other laws.
The territory of the Republic of Somaliland covers the same area as that of the former Somaliland Protectorate and is located between Latitude 8° to 11° 30’ north of the equator and Longitude 42° 45’ to 49° East; and consists of the land, islands, and territorial waters, above and below the surface, the airspace and the continental shelf.
The Republic of Somaliland is bordered by the Gulf of Aden to the north; Somalia to the east; the Federal Republic of Ethiopia to the south and the west; and the Republic of Djibouti to the north west.
The territory of the nation is inviolable, and shall not be trespassed upon.
The capital of the Republic of Somaliland is Hargeisa.
Any person who is a patrial of Somaliland being a descendant of a person residing in Somaliland on 26th June 1960 or earlier shall be recognised as a citizen of Somaliland.
The law shall determine the acquisition or loss of the citizenship of Somaliland.
Islam is the religion of the Somaliland state, and the promotion of any religion in the territory of Somaliland, other than Islam, is prohibited.
The laws of the nation shall be grounded on and shall not be contrary to Islamic Sharia.
The state shall promote religious tenets (religious affairs) and shall fulfil Sharia principles and discourage immoral acts and reprehensible behaviour.
The calendar shall be the Islamic Calendar based on the hijra, and the Gregorian calendar.
The official language of the Republic of Somaliland is Somali and the second language is Arabic.
Other languages shall be used, when necessary.
The flag of the Republic of Somaliland shall consist of three horizontal, parallel and equal sections, the top section of which is coloured green and has inscribed in its midst in white in Arabic language (the phrase) La Ilaaho Ila-Allaah Muhammad Rasuulah-Allaah (There is no God, but Allah and Mohammad was his Prophet); the middle section is white and has inscribed in its midst an equally sided five pointed black star; and the bottom section is coloured clear red.
The emblem of the nation shall consist of a coffee coloured falcon with (the words), in Arabic language, “ALLAHU AKBAR” (God is great) inscribed on its breast. Below the eagle are two hands shaking and a set of scales hang above it and come down on both of its sides. The falcon and the scales and hands are in turn surrounded on both sides and below by two strands of green leaves intertwined at the base, and with the Arabic words Bismillahi Rahmani Rahim
inscribed at the top gap between the two leaves.
The National Anthem shall be determined by law and shall reflect the principles of the Constitution, the national aspirations, and co-operative social order; and shall have its own unique music which shall be different from that of other countries.
Any partial or total changes to the flag, the emblem and the national anthem shall be approved by a resolution of the House of Representatives.
All citizens of Somaliland shall enjoy equal rights and obligations before the law, and shall not be accorded precedence on grounds of colour, clan, birth, language, gender, property, status, opinion etc.
Precedence and discrimination on grounds of ethnicity, clan affiliation, birth and residence is prohibited; and at the same time programmes aimed at eradicating long lasting bad practices shall be a national obligation.
Save for the political rights reserved for citizens, foreigners lawfully resident in Somaliland shall enjoy rights and obligations before the law equal to those enjoyed by citizens.
The political system of the Republic of Somaliland shall be based on peace, co- operation, democracy and plurality of political parties.
The number of political parties in the Republic of Somaliland shall not exceed three (3).
A special law shall determine the procedures for the formation of a political party, but it is unlawful for any political party to be based on regionalism or clanism .