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Financial Intelligence Centre Act 38 of 2001

FINANCIAL INTELLIGENCE CENTRE ACT 38 OF 2001
[ASSENTED TO 28 NOVEMBER 2001] [DATE OF COMMENCEMENT: 1
FEBRUARY 2002] (Unless otherwise indicated) (English text signed by the President)
as amended by
Protection of Constitutional Democracy against Terrorist and Related Activities Act
33 of 2004
Regulations under this Act
EXEMPTIONS (FOR BANKS) IN TERMS OF THE FINANCIAL INTELLIGENCE CENTRE ACT
38 OF 2001
EXEMPTIONS (FOR MANAGEMENT COMPANIES OF COLLECTIVE INVESTMENT
SCHEMES) IN TERMS OF THE FINANCIAL INTELLIGENCE CENTRE ACT 38 OF 2001
EXEMPTIONS IN TERMS OF THE FINANCIAL INTELLIGENCE CENTRE ACT 38 OF 2001
GUIDANCE CONCERNING IDENTIFICATION OF CLIENTS
MONEY LAUNDERING CONTROL REGULATIONS
SECOND REPORTING EXEMPTION IN TERMS OF THE FINANCIAL INTELLIGENCE
CENTRE ACT 38 OF 2001

ACT
To establish a Financial Intelligence Centre and a Money Laundering Advisory
Council in order to combat money laundering activities and the financing of terrorist
and related activities; to impose certain duties on institutions and other persons who
might be used for money laundering purposes and the financing of terrorist and
related activities; to amend the Prevention of Organised Crime Act, 1998, and the
Promotion of Access to Information Act, 2000; and to provide for matters connected
therewith.

[Long title substituted by s. 27 (1) of Act 33 of 2004.]

INDEX
CHAPTER 1 FINANCIAL INTELLIGENCE CENTRE
CHAPTER 2 MONEY LAUNDERING ADVISORY COUNCIL
CHAPTER 3 MONEY LAUNDERING CONTROL MEASURES
CHAPTER 4 OFFENCES AND PENALTIES

CHAPTER 5 MISCELLANEOUS
Schedule 1 List of accountable institutions
Schedule 2 List of supervisory bodies
Schedule 3 List of reporting institutions
Schedule 4 Amendment of laws

1 Definitions
(1) In this Act, unless the context indicates otherwise-
‘accountable institution’ means a person referred to in Schedule 1;
‘authorised officer’ means any official of-
(a) the South African Police Service authorised by the National
Commissioner to act under this Act;
(b) the national prosecuting authority authorised by the National
Director of Public Prosecutions to act under this Act;
(c) an intelligence service authorised by the Director-General of
that service to act under this Act; or
(d) the South African Revenue Service authorised by the
Commissioner for that Service to act under this Act;
‘business relationship’ means an arrangement between a client and an
accountable institution for the purpose of concluding transactions on a regular
basis;
‘cash’ means-
(a) coin and paper money of the Republic or of another country
that is designated as legal tender and that circulates as, and is
customarily used and accepted as, a medium of exchange in the
country of issue;
(b) travellers’ cheques;
‘Centre’ means the Financial Intelligence Centre established by section 2;
‘Council’ means the Money Laundering Advisory Council established by
section 17;
‘Director’ means the Director of the Centre appointed in terms of section 6;
‘entity’ has a corresponding meaning with the definition in section 1 of the
Protection of Constitutional Democracy against Terrorist and Related
Activities Act, 2004; and

[Definition of ‘entity’ inserted by s. 27 (1) of Act 33 of 2004.] ‘intelligence service’ means the National Intelligence Agency or the South
African Secret Service established by section 3 of the Intelligence Services
Act, 1994 (Act 38 of 1994);
‘investigating authority’ means an authority that in terms of national legislation
may investigate unlawful activities;
‘Minister’ means the Minister of Finance;
‘money laundering’ or ‘money laundering activity’ means an activity which has
or is likely to have the effect of concealing or disguising the nature, source,
location, disposition or movement of the proceeds of unlawful activities or any
interest which anyone has in such proceeds, and includes any activity which
constitutes an offence in terms of section 64 of this Act or section 4, 5 or 6 of
the Prevention Act; *
‘National Commissioner’ means the National Commissioner of the South
African Police Service referred to in section 207 of the Constitution of the
Republic of South Africa, 1996 (Act 108 of 1996);
‘National Director of Public Prosecutions’ means the National Director of
Public Prosecutions referred to in section 179 of the Constitution of the
Republic of South Africa, 1996 (Act 108 of 1996);
‘offence relating to the financing of terrorist and related activities’ means an
offence under section 4 of the Protection of Constitutional Democracy against
Terrorist and Related Activities Act, 2004;
[Definition of ‘offence relating to the financing of terrorist and related activities’
inserted by s. 27 (1) of Act 33 of 2004.] ‘prescribed’ means prescribed by the Minister by regulation in terms of section
77;
‘Prevention Act’ means the Prevention of Organised Crime Act, 1998 (Act 121
of 1998);
‘proceeds of unlawful activities’ has the meaning attributed to that term in s
ection 1 of the Prevention Act;*
‘property’ has the meaning attributed to that term in section 1 of the Prevention
Act;*
‘reporting institution’ means a person referred to in Schedule 3;

‘single transaction’ means a transaction other than a transaction concluded in
the course of a business relationship;
‘South African Revenue Service’ means the South African Revenue Service
established by section 2 of the South African Revenue Service Act, 1997 (Act
34 of 1997);
‘supervisory body’ means a functionary or institution referred to in Schedule 2;
‘this Act’ includes a regulation made in terms of section 77;
‘transaction’ means a transaction concluded between a client and an
accountable institution in accordance with the type of business carried on by
that institution;
‘unlawful activity’ has the meaning attributed to that term in section 1 of the
Prevention Act.*
(2) For the purposes of this Act a person has knowledge of a fact if-
(a) the person has actual knowledge of that fact; or
(b) the court is satisfied that-
(i) the person believes that there is a reasonable possibility
of the existence of that fact; and
(ii) the person fails to obtain information to confirm or
refute the existence of that fact.
(3) For the purposes of this Act a person ought reasonably to have known
or suspected a fact if the conclusions that he or she ought to have reached, are
those which would have been reached by a reasonably diligent and vigilant
person having both-
(a) the general knowledge, skill, training and experience that may
reasonably be expected of a person in his or her position; and
(b) the general knowledge, skill, training and experience that he or
she in fact has.

CHAPTER 1
FINANCIAL INTELLIGENCE CENTRE (ss 2-16)
2 Establishment
(1) A Financial Intelligence Centre is hereby established as an institution
outside the public service but within the public administration as envisaged in section
195 of the Constitution.

(2) The Centre is a juristic person.

3 Objectives
(1) The principal objective of the Centre is to assist in the identification of the
proceeds of unlawful activities and the combating of money laundering activities and
the financing of terrorist and related activities.
[Sub-s. (1) substituted by s. 27 (1) of Act 33 of 2004.] (2) The other objectives of the Centre are-
(a) to make information collected by it available to investigating
authorities, the intelligence services and the South African
Revenue Service to facilitate the administration and
enforcement of the laws of the Republic;
(b) to exchange information with similar bodies in other countries
regarding money laundering activities and similar offences.

4 Functions
To achieve its objectives the Centre must-
(a) process, analyse and interpret information disclosed to it, and
obtained by it, in terms of this Act;
(b) inform, advise and cooperate with investigating authorities,
supervisory bodies, the South African Revenue Service and the
intelligence services;
(c) monitor and give guidance to accountable institutions,
supervisory bodies and other persons regarding the
performance by them of their duties and their compliance with
the provisions of this Act;
(d) retain the information referred to in paragraph (a) in the manner
and for the period required by this Act.

5 General powers
(1) The Centre may do all that is necessary or expedient to perform its
functions effectively, which includes the power to-

(a) determine its own staff establishment and the terms and
conditions of employment for its staff within a policy
framework determined by the Minister;
(b) appoint employees and seconded personnel to posts on its staff
establishment;
(c) obtain the services of any person by agreement, including any
state department, functionary or institution, to perform any
specific act or function;
(d) acquire or dispose of any right in or to property, but rights in
respect of immovable property may be acquired or disposed of
only with the consent of the Minister;
(e) open and operate its own bank accounts, subject to the Public
Finance Management Act, 1999 (Act 1 of 1999);
(f) insure itself against any loss, damage, risk or liability;
(g) perform legal acts or institute or defend any legal action in its
own name;
(h) engage in any lawful activity, whether alone or together with
any other organisation in the Republic or elsewhere, aimed at
promoting its objectives;
(i) do anything that is incidental to the exercise of any of its
powers.

6 Appointment of Director
(1) The Minister must appoint a fit and proper person as the Director of the
Centre.
(2) A person appointed as the Director holds office-
(a) for a term not exceeding five years, but which is renewable;
and
(b) on terms and conditions set out in a written employment
contract, which must include terms and conditions setting
specific, measurable performance standards.
(3) The Minister must consult the Council before appointing a person or
renewing the appointment of a person as the Director, except in the case of the
appointment of the first Director.

7 Removal from office
(1) The Minister may remove the Director from office only on the grounds
referred to in section 13 or on the grounds of misconduct, incapacity or incompetence.
(2) The Minister may suspend the Director from office, pending-
(a) the determination of any enquiry as to whether grounds of
misconduct, incapacity or incompetence exist; or
(b) the outcome of a security screening investigation referred to in
section 13 (3).

8 Acting Director
When the Director is absent or otherwise unable to perform the functions of
office, or during a vacancy in the office of Director, the Minister may designate
another employee of the Centre to act as Director.

9 Proof of appointment
If the Minister has given notice in the Gazette of any appointment of a person
as the Director or as acting director, this notice may be presented in a Court as proof
of the appointment.

10 Responsibilities of Director
(1) The Director-
(a) is responsible for the performance by the Centre of its
functions;
(b) takes all decisions of the Centre in the exercise of its powers
and the performance of its functions, except those decisions
taken in consequence of a delegation or instruction in terms of
section 16; and
(c) is the chief executive officer and also the accounting authority
of the Centre.
(2) As the chief executive officer, the Director is responsible for-
(a) the formation and development of an efficient and performance
driven administration;
(b) the management of the administration; and
(c) the control, and maintenance of discipline, of staff.

(3) As accounting authority of the Centre the Director must perform the
functions assigned to accounting authorities in terms of the Public Finance
Management Act, 1999 (Act 1 of 1999).
(4) The Director performs the functions of office subject to any policy
framework which may be prescribed by the Minister.

11 Staff
(1) The staff of the Centre consists of-
(a) the Director; and
(b) persons appointed as employees of the Centre by the Director.
(2) An employee of an organ of state may be seconded to the Centre by
agreement between the Centre and such organ of state.
(3) Staff members referred to in subsection (1) (b) and persons seconded to the
Centre in terms of subsection (2) perform their duties subject to the control and
directions of the Director.
(4) If an officer or employee in the public service is seconded to the Centre,
the period of his or her service with the Centre must be calculated as part of and
continuous with his or her employment in the public service, for purposes of leave,
pension and any other condition of service.
(5) The provisions of any pension law applicable to an officer or employee
referred to in subsection (4) or, in the event of his or her death, to his or her
dependants, which are not inconsistent with this section, must, with the necessary
changes, continue so to apply.
(6) No person seconded to the Centre or employed by the Centre to perform
any of the functions of the Centre may strike or induce or conspire with any other
member of the staff of the Centre to strike.
(7) The services of the Centre, for the purposes of the application of Chapter
IV of the Labour Relations Act, 1995 (Act 66 of 1995), are deemed to have been
designated as an essential service in terms of section 71 of that Act.
(8) All other conditions of service of staff of the Centre are as determined in
terms of this Act.

12 Security screening of staff of Centre other than Director
(1) No person other than the Director may be appointed or seconded to
perform any of the functions of the Centre unless-
(a) information with respect to that person has been gathered in a
security screening investigation by the National Intelligence
Agency established by section 3 of the Intelligence Services
Act, 1994 (Act 38 of 1994); and
(b) the Director, after evaluating the gathered information, is
satisfied that such person may be so appointed without the
possibility that such person might be a security risk or that he
or she might act in any way prejudicial to the objectives or
functions of the Centre.
(2) If the Director is so satisfied, the Director must issue a certificate with
respect to such person in which it is certified that such person has successfully
undergone a security clearance.
(3) Any person referred to in subsection (1) may at any time determined by the
Director be subjected to a further security screening investigation as contemplated in
subsection (1) (a).
(4) The Director may withdraw a certificate referred to in subsection (2) if the
Director obtains information from an investigation referred to in subsection (3) which,
after evaluation by the Director, causes the Director to believe that the person in
question could be a security risk or could possibly act in any manner prejudicial to the
objectives or functions of the Centre.
(5) If the certificate referred to in subsection (2) is withdrawn, the person
concerned may not perform any functions of the Centre and the Director must
discharge him or her from the Centre.

13 Security screening of Director of Centre
(1) No person may be appointed as the Director of the Centre unless-
(a) information with respect to that person has been gathered in a
security screening investigation by the National Intelligence
Agency established by section 3 of the Intelligence Services
Act, 1994 (Act 38 of 1994); and

(b) the Minister, after evaluating the gathered information, is
satisfied that such person may be so appointed without the
possibility that such person might be a security risk or that he
or she might act in any manner prejudicial to the objectives or
functions of the Centre.
(2) If the Minister is so satisfied, he or she must issue a certificate with respect
to such person in which it is certified that such person has successfully undergone a
security clearance.
(3) The Director may at any time determined by the Minister be subjected to a
further security screening investigation as contemplated in subsection (1) (a).
(4) The Minister may withdraw a certificate referred to in subsection (2) if the
Minister obtains information from an investigation referred to in subsection (3) which,
after evaluation by the Minister, causes the Minister to believe that the Director could
be a security risk or could possibly act in any manner prejudicial to the objectives or
functions of the Centre.
(5) If the certificate referred to in subsection (2) is withdrawn, the Director
may not perform any functions of the Centre and the Minister must discharge him or
her from the Centre.

14 Funds and financial year of Centre
(1) The funds of the Centre consist of-
(a) money appropriated annually by Parliament for the purposes of
the Centre;
(b) any government grants made to it; and
(c) any other money legally acquired by it, provided that the
Centre may accept donations only with the prior written
approval of the Minister.
(2) The financial year of the Centre ends on 31 March in each year.

15 Audit
The Auditor-General must audit and report on the accounts and financial
records of the Centre.

16 Delegation
(1) The Director may-
(a) delegate, in writing, any of the powers entrusted to the Centre
in terms of this Act to a member of the staff of the Centre; or
(b) instruct a member of the staff to perform any of the functions
assigned to the Centre in terms of this Act.
(2) A delegation or instruction in terms of subsection (1)-
(a) is subject to the limitations or conditions that the Director may
impose; and
(b) does not divest the Director of the responsibility concerning
the exercise of the delegated power or the performance of the
assigned function.
(3) The Director may confirm, vary or revoke any decision taken by a staff
member in consequence of a delegation or instruction in terms of subsection (1), as
long as no such variation or revocation of a decision detracts from any rights that may
have accrued as a result of the decision.
(4) A person seconded to the Centre in terms of section 11 (2) is for the
purposes of this section regarded as being a staff member.

CHAPTER 2
MONEY LAUNDERING ADVISORY COUNCIL (ss 17-20)

17 Establishment
A Money Laundering Advisory Council is hereby established.

18 Functions
(1) The Council must-
(a) on the Minister’s request or at its own initiative, advise the
Minister on-
(i) policies and best practices to identify the proceeds of
unlawful activities and to combat money laundering
activities; and
(ii) the exercise by the Minister of the powers entrusted to
the Minister in terms of this Act;

(b) advise the Centre concerning the performance by the Centre of
its functions; and
(c) act as a forum in which the Centre, associations representing
categories of accountable institutions, organs of state and
supervisory bodies can consult one another.
(2) The Centre must provide administrative and secretarial support and
sufficient financial resources for the Council to function effectively.

19 Composition
(1) The Council consists of the Director and each of the following, namely-
(a) the Director-General of the National Treasury;
(b) the Commissioner of the South African Police Service;
(c) the Director-General of the Department of Justice and
Constitutional Development;
(d) the National Director of Public Prosecutions;
(e) the Director-General of the National Intelligence Agency;
(f) the Director-General of the South African Secret Service;
(g) the Governor of the South African Reserve Bank;
(h) the Commissioner for the South African Revenue Service;
(i) persons representing categories of accountable institutions
requested by the Minister to nominate representatives;
(j) persons representing supervisory bodies requested by the
Minister to nominate representatives; and
(k) any other persons or bodies requested by the Minister to
nominate representatives.
(2) The Minister must appoint a member of the Council as the chairperson of
the Council. The chairperson of the Council serves as such until the chairperson
resigns or until a new chairperson is appointed by the Minister.
(3) The Director and each of the persons referred to in paragraphs (a) to (h) of
subsection (1) may appoint a member of his or her staff to represent him or her at any
meeting of the Council which he or she is unable to attend.
(4) The accountable institutions and supervisory bodies referred to in
paragraphs (i) and (j) of subsection (1) and the persons and bodies referred to in
paragraph (k) of subsection (1) may-

(a) appoint alternates to represent them at any meeting of the
Council;
(b) change their representatives to the Council when they consider
it appropriate to do so.

20 Meetings and procedure
(1) The chairperson of the Council may call a meeting of the Council, but
must call a meeting if the Minister so requests.
(2) The Council-
(a) must meet regularly, but not less than once per year;
(b) may determine its own procedures at meetings;
(c) may request advice and assistance from such persons as it
considers necessary to assist it to perform its functions;
(d) may appoint committees from its members to assist it in the
performance of its functions.
(3) A committee appointed in terms of subsection (1) (d) may co-opt any
person who is not a member of the Council as a member of the committee, whether
for a particular period or in relation to a particular matter dealt with by that
committee.
(4) When a provision of this Act requires consultation with the Council on any
specific matter before a decision may be taken on that matter and it is not feasible to
call a meeting of the Council, that provision is satisfied if-
(a) a proposed decision on that matter is circulated in writing to the
members of the Council; and
(b) an opportunity is given to each of them to comment in writing
on the proposed decision within a reasonable time.

CHAPTER 3
CONTROL MEASURES FOR MONEY LAUNDERING AND FINANCING OF
TERRORIST AND RELATED ACTIVITIES (ss 21-45)
[Heading substituted by s. 27 (1) of Act 33 of 2004.] [Date of commencement of Chapter 3: to be proclaimed.]

Part 1
DUTY TO IDENTIFY CLIENTS (s 21)
21 Identification of clients and other persons
(1) An accountable institution may not establish a business relationship or
conclude a single transaction with a client unless the accountable institution has taken
the prescribed steps-
(a) to establish and verify the identity of the client;
(b) if the client is acting on behalf of another person, to establish
and verify-
(i) the identity of that other person; and
(ii) the client’s authority to establish the business
relationship or to conclude the single transaction on
behalf of that other person; and
(c) if another person is acting on behalf of the client, to establish
and verify-
(i) the identity of that other person; and
(ii) that other person’s authority to act on behalf of the
client.
[Date of commencement of sub-s. (1): 30 June 2003.] (2) If an accountable institution had established a business relationship with a
client before this Act took effect, the accountable institution may not conclude a
transaction in the course of that business relationship, unless the accountable
institution has taken the prescribed steps-
(a) to establish and verify the identity of the client;
(b) if another person acted on behalf of the client in establishing
the business relationship, to establish and verify-
(i) the identity of that other person; and
(ii) that other person’s authority to act on behalf of the
client;
(c) if the client acted on behalf of another person in establishing
the business relationship, to establish and verify-
(i) the identity of that other person; and

(ii) the client’s authority to act on behalf of that other
person; and
(d) to trace all accounts at that accountable institution that are
involved in transactions concluded in the course of that
business relationship.
[Date of commencement of sub-s. (2): to be proclaimed.]

Part 2
DUTY TO KEEP RECORD (ss 22-26)
22 Record to be kept of business relationships and transactions
(1) Whenever an accountable institution establishes a business relationship or
concludes a transaction with a client, whether the transaction is a single transaction or
concluded in the course of a business relationship which that accountable institution
has with the client, the accountable institution must keep record of-
(a) the identity of the client;
(b) if the client is acting on behalf of another person-
(i) the identity of the person on whose behalf the client is
acting; and
(ii) the client’s authority to act on behalf of that other
person;
(c) if another person is acting on behalf of the client-
(i) the identity of that other person; and
(ii) that other person’s authority to act on behalf of the
client;
(d) the manner in which the identity of the persons referred to in
paragraphs (a), (b) and (c) was established;
(e) the nature of that business relationship or transaction;
(f) in the case of a transaction-
(i) the amount involved; and
(ii) the parties to that transaction;
(g) all accounts that are involved in-
(i) transactions concluded by that accountable institution in
the course of that business relationship; and

(ii) that single transaction;
(h) the name of the person who obtained the information referred
to in paragraphs (a), (b) and (c) on behalf of the accountable
institution; and
(i) any document or copy of a document obtained by the
accountable institution in order to verify a person’s identity in
terms of section 21 (1) or (2).
(2) Records kept in terms of subsection (1) may be kept in electronic form.
[Date of commencement of s. 22: 30 June 2003.]

23 Period for which records must be kept
An accountable institution must keep the records referred to in section 22
which relate to-
(a) the establishment of a business relationship, for at least five
years from the date on which the business relationship is
terminated;
(b) a transaction which is concluded, for at least five years from the
date on which that transaction is concluded.
[Date of commencement of s. 23: 30 June 2003.]

24 Records may be kept by third parties
(1) The duties imposed by section 22 on an accountable institution to keep
record of the matters specified in that section may be performed by a third party on
behalf of the accountable institution as long as the accountable institution has free and
easy access to the records.
(2) If a third party referred to in subsection (1) fails to properly comply with
the requirements of section 22 on behalf of the accountable institution concerned, the
accountable institution is liable for that failure.
(3) If an accountable institution appoints a third party to perform the duties
imposed on it by section 22, the accountable institution must forthwith provide the
Centre with the prescribed particulars regarding the third party.
[Date of commencement of s. 24: 30 June 2003.]

25 Admissibility of records
A record kept in terms of section 22 or section 24, or a certified extract of any
such record, or a certified printout of any extract of an electronic record, is on its mere
production in a matter before a court admissible as evidence of any fact contained in it
of which direct oral evidence would be admissible.
[Date of commencement of s. 25: 30 June 2003.]

26 Centre’s access to records
(1) An authorised representative of the Centre has access during ordinary
working hours to any records kept by or on behalf of an accountable institution in
terms of section 22 or section 24, and may examine, make extracts from or copies of,
any such records.
(2) The authorised representative of the Centre may, except in the case of
records which the public is entitled to have access to, exercise the powers mentioned
in subsection (1) only by virtue of a warrant issued in chambers by a magistrate or
regional magistrate or judge of an area of jurisdiction within which the records or any
of them are kept, or within which the accountable institution conducts business.
(3) A warrant may only be issued if it appears to the judge, magistrate or
regional magistrate from information on oath or affirmation that there are reasonable
grounds to believe that the records referred to in subsection (1) may assist the Centre
to identify the proceeds of unlawful activities or to combat money laundering
activities.
(4) A warrant issued in terms of this section may contain such conditions
regarding access to the relevant records as the judge, magistrate or regional magistrate
may deem appropriate.
(5) An accountable institution must without delay give to an authorised
representative of the Centre all reasonable assistance necessary to enable that
representative to exercise the powers mentioned in subsection (1).
[Date of commencement of s. 26: 30 June 2003.]

Part 3
REPORTING DUTIES AND ACCESS TO INFORMATION (ss 27-41)
27 Accountable institutions to advise Centre of clients
If an authorised representative of the Centre requests an accountable
institution to advise whether-
(a) a specified person is or has been a client of the accountable
institution;
(b) a specified person is acting or has acted on behalf of any client
of the accountable institution; or
(c) a client of the accountable institution is acting or has acted for a
specified person,
the accountable institution must inform the Centre accordingly.
[Date of commencement of s. 27: 3 February 2003.]

28 Cash transactions above prescribed limit
An accountable institution and a reporting institution must, within the
prescribed period, report to the Centre the prescribed particulars concerning a
transaction concluded with a client if in terms of the transaction an amount of cash in
excess of the prescribed amount-
(a) is paid by the accountable institution or reporting institution to
the client, or to a person acting on behalf of the client, or to a
person on whose behalf the client is acting; or
(b) is received by the accountable institution or reporting
institution from the client, or from a person acting on behalf of
the client, or from a person on whose behalf the client is acting.
[Date of commencement of s. 28: to be proclaimed.]

28A Property associated with terrorist and related activities
(1) An accountable institution which has in its possession or under its control
property owned or controlled by or on behalf of, or at the direction of-

(a) any entity which has committed, or attempted to commit, or
facilitated the commission of a specified offence as defined in
the Protection of Constitutional Democracy against Terrorist
and Related Activities Act, 2004; or
(b) a specific entity identified in a notice issued by the President,
under section 25 of the Protection of Constitutional Democracy
against Terrorist and Related Activities Act, 2004, must within
the prescribed period report that fact and the prescribed
particulars to the Centre.
(2) The Director may direct an accountable institution which has made a report
under subsection (1) to report-
(a) at such intervals as may be determined in the direction, that it is
still in possession or control of the property in respect of which
the report under subsection (1) had been made; and
(b) any change in the circumstances concerning the accountable
institution’s possession or control of that property.
[S. 28A inserted by s. 27 (1) of Act 33 of 2004.]

29 Suspicious and unusual transactions
(1) A person who carries on a business or is in charge of or manages a
business or who is employed by a business and who knows or ought reasonably to
have known or suspected that-
(a) the business has received or is about to receive the proceeds of
unlawful activities or property which is connected to an offence
relating to the financing of terrorist and related activities;
(b) a transaction or series of transactions to which the business is a
party-
(i) facilitated or is likely to facilitate the transfer of the
proceeds of unlawful activities or property which is
connected to an offence relating to the financing of
terrorist and related activities;
(ii) has no apparent business or lawful purpose;
(iii) is conducted for the purpose of avoiding giving rise to a
reporting duty under this Act;

(iv) may be relevant to the investigation of an evasion or
attempted evasion of a duty to pay any tax, duty or levy
imposed by legislation administered by the
Commissioner for the South African Revenue Service;
or
(v) relates to an offence relating to the financing of terrorist
and related activities; or
(c) the business has been used or is about to be used in any way for
money laundering purposes or to facilitate the commission of
an offence relating to the financing of terrorist and related
activities,
must, within the prescribed period after the knowledge was acquired or the suspicion
arose, report to the Centre the grounds for the knowledge or suspicion and the
prescribed particulars concerning the transaction or series of transactions.
[Sub-s. (1) substituted by s. 27 (1) of Act 33 of 2004.] (2) A person who carries on a business or is in charge of or manages a
business or who is employed by a business and who knows or suspects that a
transaction or a series of transactions about which enquiries are made, may, if that
transaction or those transactions had been concluded, have caused any of the
consequences referred to in subsection (1) (a), (b) or (c), must, within the prescribed
period after the knowledge was acquired or the suspicion arose, report to the Centre
the grounds for the knowledge or suspicion and the prescribed particulars concerning
the transaction or series of transactions.
(3) No person who made or must make a report in terms of this section may
disclose that fact or any information regarding the contents of any such report to any
other person, including the person in respect of whom the report is or must be made,
otherwise than-
(a) within the scope of the powers and duties of that person in
terms of any legislation;
(b) for the purpose of carrying out the provisions of this Act;
(c) for the purpose of legal proceedings, including any proceedings
before a judge in chambers; or
(d) in terms of an order of court.

(4) No person who knows or suspects that a report has been or is to be made in
terms of this section may disclose that knowledge or suspicion or any information
regarding the contents or suspected contents of any such report to any other person,
including the person in respect of whom the report is or is to be made, otherwise than-
(a) within the scope of that person’s powers and duties in terms of
any legislation;
(b) for the purpose of carrying out the provisions of this Act;
(c) for the purpose of legal proceedings, including any proceedings
before a judge in chambers; or
(d) in terms of an order of court.
[Date of commencement of s. 29: 3 February 2003.]

30 Conveyance of cash to or from Republic
(1) A person intending to convey an amount of cash in excess of the
prescribed amount to or from the Republic must, before that person conveys the cash
into or out of the Republic, report the prescribed particulars concerning that
conveyance to a person authorised by the Minister for this purpose.
(2) A person authorised in terms of subsection (1) must without delay send a
copy of the report to the Centre.
[Date of commencement of s. 30: to be proclaimed.]

31 Electronic transfers of money to or from Republic
If an accountable institution through electronic transfer sends money in excess
of a prescribed amount out of the Republic or receives money in excess of a
prescribed amount from outside the Republic on behalf, or on the instruction, of
another person, it must, within the prescribed period after the money was transferred,
report the transfer, together with the prescribed particulars concerning the transfer, to
the Centre.
[Date of commencement of s. 31: to be proclaimed.]

32 Reporting procedures and furnishing of additional information
(1) A report in terms of section 28, 29 or 31 to the Centre and a report in terms
of section 30 (1) to a person authorised by the Minister must be made in the
prescribed manner.

(2) The Centre, or an investigating authority acting with the permission of the
Centre or under the authority of an authorised officer, may request an accountable
institution, a reporting institution or any other person that has made a report in terms
of section 28, 29 or 31 to furnish the Centre or that investigating authority with such
additional information concerning the report and the grounds for the report as the
Centre or the investigating authority may reasonably require for the performance by it
of its functions.
(3) When an institution or a person referred to in subsection (2) receives a
request under that subsection, that institution or person must furnish the Centre
without delay with such additional information concerning the report and the grounds
for the report as that institution or person may have available.
[Date of commencement of s. 32: 3 February 2003.]

33 Continuation of transactions

An accountable institution, reporting institution or person required to make a
report to the Centre in terms of section 28 or 29, may continue with and carry out the
transaction in respect of which the report is required to be made unless the Centre
directs the accountable institution, reporting institution or person in terms of section
34 not to proceed with the transaction.
[Date of commencement of s. 33: 3 February 2003.]

34 Intervention by Centre
(1) If the Centre, after consulting an accountable institution, a reporting
institution or a person required to make a report in terms of section 28, 28A or 29, has
reasonable grounds to suspect that a transaction or a proposed transaction may involve
the proceeds of unlawful activities or property which is connected to an offence
relating to the financing of terrorist and related activities or may constitute money
laundering or a transaction contemplated in section 29 (1) (b) it may direct the
accountable institution, reporting institution or person in writing not to proceed with
the carrying out of that transaction or proposed transaction or any other transaction in
respect of the funds affected by that transaction or proposed transaction for a period as
may be determined by the Centre, which may not be more than five days, in order to
allow the Centre-

(a) to make the necessary inquiries concerning the transaction; and
(b) if the Centre deems it appropriate, to inform and advise an
investigating authority or the National Director of Public
Prosecutions.
[Sub-s. (1) substituted by s. 27 (1) of Act 33 of 2004.] (2) For the purposes of calculating the period of five days in subsection (1),
Saturdays, Sundays and proclaimed public holidays must not be taken into account.
(3) Subsection (1) does not apply to the carrying out of a transaction to which
the rules of an exchange licensed in terms of the Stock Exchanges Control Act, 1985,
or the Financial Markets Control Act, 1989, apply.
[Date of commencement of s. 34: 3 February 2003.]

35 Monitoring orders
(1) A judge designated by the Minister of Justice for the purposes of the
Interception and Monitoring Prohibition Act, 1992 (Act 127 of 1992), may, upon
written application by the Centre, order an accountable institution to report to the
Centre, on such terms and in such confidential manner as may be specified in the
order, all transactions concluded by a specified person with the accountable institution
or all transactions conducted in respect of a specified account or facility at the
accountable institution, if there are reasonable grounds to suspect that-
(a) that person has transferred or may transfer the proceeds of
unlawful activities or property which is connected to an offence
relating to the financing of terrorist and related activities to the
accountable institution or is using or may use the accountable
institution for money laundering purposes or for the financing
of terrorist acts or for the purpose of any transaction
contemplated in section 29 (1) (b); or
[Para. (a) substituted by s. 27 (1) of Act 33 of 2004.] (b) that account or other facility has received or may receive the
proceeds of unlawful activities or property which is connected
to an offence relating to the financing of terrorist and related
activities or is being or may be used for money laundering
purposes or for the financing of terrorist or related activities or

for the purpose of any transaction contemplated in section 29
(1) (b).
[Para. (b) substituted by s. 27 (1) of Act 33 of 2004.] (2) An order in terms of subsection (1) lapses after three months unless
extended in terms of subsection (3).
(3) A judge referred to in subsection (1) may extend an order issued in terms
of subsection (1) for further periods not exceeding three months at a time if-
(a) the reasonable grounds for the suspicion on which the order is
based still exist; and
(b) the judge is satisfied that the interest of justice is best served by
monitoring the person, account or facility referred to in
subsection (1) in the manner provided for in this section.
(4) An application referred to in subsection (1) must be heard and an order
must be issued without notice to or hearing the person or persons involved in the
suspected money laundering activities.
[Date of commencement of s. 35: 3 February 2003.]

36 Information held by supervisory bodies and South African Revenue
Service
(1) If a supervisory body or the South African Revenue Service knows or
suspects that an accountable institution, as a result of a transaction concluded by or
with the accountable institution, wittingly or unwittingly has received or is about to
receive the proceeds of unlawful activities or has been used or may be used in future
for money laundering purposes or for the purpose of any transaction contemplated in
section 29 (1) (b), it must advise the Centre of that fact and furnish the Centre with all
information and any records regarding that knowledge or suspicion which the Centre
may reasonably require for the achievement of its objectives.
(2) If the Centre believes that a supervisory body or the South African
Revenue Service may have information indicating that an accountable institution, as a
result of a transaction concluded by or with the accountable institution, wittingly or
unwittingly has received or is about to receive the proceeds of unlawful activities or
has been used or may be used in future for money laundering purposes or for the
purpose of any transaction contemplated in section 29 (1) (b), the Centre may request
that supervisory body or the South African Revenue Service to confirm or rebut that

belief and the supervisory body or South African Revenue Service, as the case may
be, must do so and, if that belief is confirmed, must furnish the Centre with all
information and any records regarding that knowledge or suspicion which the Centre
may reasonably require for the achievement of its objectives.
(3) The Commissioner for the South African Revenue Service and the chief
executive officer of a supervisory body may make such reasonable procedural
arrangements and impose such reasonable safeguards regarding the furnishing of
information referred to in subsections (1) and (2) as the Commissioner or such officer
considers appropriate to maintain the confidentiality, if any, of that information.
[Date of commencement of s. 36: 3 February 2003.]

37 Reporting duty and obligations to provide information not affected by
confidentiality rules
(1) Subject to subsection (2), no duty of secrecy or confidentiality or any other
restriction on the disclosure of information, whether imposed by legislation or arising
from the common law or agreement, affects compliance by an accountable institution,
supervisory body, reporting institution, the South African Revenue Service or any
other person with a provision of this Part.
(2) Subsection (1) does not apply to the common law right to legal
professional privilege as between an attorney and the attorney’s client in respect of
communications made in confidence between-
(a) the attorney and the attorney’s client for the purposes of legal
advice or litigation which is pending or contemplated or which
has commenced; or
(b) a third party and an attorney for the purposes of litigation
which is pending or contemplated or has commenced.
[Date of commencement of s. 37: 3 February 2003.]

38 Protection of persons making reports
(1) No action, whether criminal or civil, lies against an accountable institution,
reporting institution, supervisory body, the South African Revenue Service or any
other person complying in good faith with a provision of this Part, including any
director, employee or other person acting on behalf of such accountable institution,

reporting institution, supervisory body, the South African Revenue Service or such
other person.
(2) A person who has made, initiated or contributed to a report in terms of
section 28, 29 or 31 or who has furnished additional information concerning such a
report or the grounds for such a report in terms of a provision of this Part is
competent, but not compellable, to give evidence in criminal proceedings arising from
the report.
(3) No evidence concerning the identity of a person who has made, initiated or
contributed to a report in terms of section 28, 29 or 31 or who has furnished additional
information concerning such a report or the grounds for such a report in terms of a
provision of this Part, or the contents or nature of such additional information or
grounds, is admissible as evidence in criminal proceedings unless that person testifies
at those proceedings.
[Date of commencement of s. 38: 3 February 2003.]

39 Admissibility as evidence of reports made to Centre
A certificate issued by an official of the Centre that information specified in
the certificate was reported or sent to the Centre in terms of section 28, 29, 30 (2) or
31 is, subject to section 38 (3), on its mere production in a matter before a court
admissible as evidence of any fact contained in it of which direct oral evidence would
be admissible.
[Date of commencement of s. 39: 3 February 2003.]

40 Access to information held by Centre
(1) No person is entitled to information held by the Centre, except-
(a) an investigating authority inside the Republic, the South
African Revenue Service and the intelligence services, which
may be provided with such information-
(i) on the written authority of an authorised officer if the
authorised officer reasonably believes such information
is required to investigate suspected unlawful activity; or
(ii) at the initiative of the Centre, if the Centre reasonably
believes such information is required to investigate
suspected unlawful activity;

(b) an entity outside the Republic performing similar functions to
those of the Centre, or an investigating authority outside the
Republic which may, at the initiative of the Centre or on
written request, obtain information which the Centre reasonably
believes is relevant to the identification of the proceeds of
unlawful activities or the combating of money laundering or
financing of terrorist and related activities or similar offences in
the country in which that entity is established;
[Para. (b) substituted by s. 27 (1) of Act 33 of 2004.] (c) an accountable institution or reporting institution which or any
other person who may, at the initiative of the Centre or on
written request, be provided with information regarding the
steps taken by the Centre in connection with transactions
reported by such accountable institution, reporting institution or
person, unless the Centre reasonably believes that disclosure to
such accountable institution, reporting institution or person of
the information requested could-
(i) inhibit the achievement of the Centre’s objectives or the
performance of its functions, or the achievement of the
objectives or the performance of the functions of
another organ of state; or
(ii) prejudice the rights of any person;
(d) a supervisory body, which may at the initiative of the Centre or
on written request be provided with information which the
Centre reasonably believes is relevant to the exercise by that
supervisory body of its powers or performance by it of its
functions in relation to an accountable institution;
(e) in terms of an order of a court; or
(f) in terms of other national legislation.
(2) A request for information contemplated in subsection (1) (b), (c) or (d)
must be in writing and must specify the desired information and the purpose for which
the information is required.
(3) The Director may make such reasonable procedural arrangements and
impose such reasonable safeguards regarding the furnishing of information referred to

in subsection (1) (a), (b), (c) or (d) as the Director considers appropriate to maintain
the confidentiality of that information.
(4) Information held by the Centre may only be provided to an entity referred
to in subsection (1) (b) pursuant to a written agreement between the Centre and such
entity, or the authority which is responsible for that entity, regulating the exchange of
information between the Centre and such entity.
(5) An agreement referred to in subsection (4) does not-
(a) take effect until it has been approved in writing by the Minister;
(b) permit the Centre to provide any category of information to the
entity in respect of which the agreement is concluded which
that entity is not permitted to provide to the Centre.
(6) A person who obtains information from the Centre may use that
information only within the scope of that person’s powers and duties and for the
purpose specified in terms of subsection (2).
[Date of commencement of s. 40: 3 February 2003.]

41 Protection of confidential information
No person may disclose confidential information held by or obtained from the
Centre except-
(a) within the scope of that person’s powers and duties in terms of
any legislation;
(b) for the purpose of carrying out the provisions of this Act;
(c) with the permission of the Centre;
(d) for the purpose of legal proceedings, including any proceedings
before a judge in chambers; or
(e) in terms of an order of court.
[Date of commencement of s. 41: 3 February 2003.]

Part 4
MEASURES TO PROMOTE COMPLIANCE BY ACCOUNTABLE
INSTITUTIONS (ss 42-43)
42 Formulation and implementation of internal rules
(1) An accountable institution must formulate and implement internal rules
concerning-
(a) the establishment and verification of the identity of persons
whom the institution must identify in terms of Part 1 of this
Chapter;
(b) the information of which record must be kept in terms of Part 2
of this Chapter;
(c) the manner in which and place at which such records must be
kept;
(d) the steps to be taken to determine when a transaction is
reportable to ensure the institution complies with its duties
under this Act; and
(e) such other matters as may be prescribed.
(2) Internal rules must comply with the prescribed requirements.
(3) An accountable institution must make its internal rules available to each of
its employees involved in transactions to which this Act applies.
(4) An accountable institution must, on request, make a copy of its internal
rules available to-
(a) the Centre;
(b) a supervisory body which performs regulatory or supervisory
functions in respect of that accountable institution.
[Date of commencement of s. 42: 30 June 2003.]

43 Training and monitoring of compliance
An accountable institution must-
(a) provide training to its employees to enable them to comply with
the provisions of this Act and the internal rules applicable to
them;

(b) appoint a person with the responsibility to ensure compliance
by-
(i) the employees of the accountable institution with the
provisions of this Act and the internal rules applicable
to them; and
(ii) the accountable institution with its obligations under
this Act.
[Date of commencement of s. 43: 30 June 2003.] Part 5
REFERRAL AND SUPERVISION (ss 44-45)
44 Referral of suspected offences to investigating authorities and other
public bodies

If the Centre in the performance of its functions has reasonable grounds to
suspect that an accountable institution, or any other person other than a supervisory
body who is subject to the provisions of this Act, has contravened or failed to comply
with any provision of this Act or any rule or guideline applicable to that accountable
institution or person which facilitates compliance with this Act, it may, if it considers
it appropriate to do so, refer the matter to-
(a) a relevant investigating authority; or
(b) an appropriate supervisory body or other public body or
authority affected by it, together with any recommendation the
Centre considers appropriate.
[Date of commencement of s. 44: 3 February 2003.]

45 Responsibility for supervision of accountable institutions
(1) Each supervisory body is responsible for supervising compliance with the
provisions of this Chapter by each accountable institution regulated or supervised by
it.
(2) When the Centre refers a matter to a supervisory body or other public body
or authority in terms of section 44, that supervisory body or other public body or
authority must investigate the matter and may, after consultation with the Centre, take
such steps within the scope of its powers as it considers appropriate to remedy the
matter.

(3) Should a supervisory body or other public body or authority to which a
suspected contravention or failure is referred in terms of section 44 fail to take
adequate steps to ensure that the suspected contravention ceases or the suspected
failure is rectified, the Centre may, after consultation with the supervisory body or
other public body or authority concerned, take such steps within the scope of its
powers as the Centre considers appropriate to remedy the matter.
[Date of commencement of s. 45: 3 February 2003.]

CHAPTER 4
OFFENCES AND PENALTIES (ss 46-71)
46 Failure to identify persons
(1) An accountable institution that performs any act to give effect to a business
relationship or single transaction in contravention of section 21 (1) is guilty of an
offence.
[Date of commencement of sub-s. (1): 30 June 2003.] (2) An accountable institution that concludes any transaction in contravention
of section 21 (2) is guilty of an offence.
[Date of commencement of s. 46 (2): 1 July 2004.] [a38y2001s47]47 Failure to keep records
An accountable institution that fails to-
(a) keep record of information in terms of section 22 (1); or
(b) keep such records in accordance with section 23 or section 24
(1); or
(c) comply with the provisions of section 24 (3),
is guilty of an offence.
[Date of commencement of s. 47: 30 June 2003.]

48 Destroying or tampering with records
Any person who wilfully tampers with a record kept in terms of section 22 or
section 24 (1), or wilfully destroys such a record, otherwise than in accordance with
section 23, is guilty of an offence.
[Date of commencement of s. 48: 30 June 2003.]

49 Failure to give assistance
An accountable institution that fails to give assistance to a representative of
the Centre in accordance with section 26 (5), is guilty of an offence.
[Date of commencement of s. 49: 30 June 2003.]

50 Failure to advise Centre of client
An accountable institution that fails to inform the Centre in accordance with
section 27, is guilty of an offence.
[Date of commencement of s. 50: 3 February 2003.]

51 Failure to report cash transactions
An accountable institution or reporting institution that fails, within the
prescribed period, to report to the Centre the prescribed information in respect of a
cash transaction in accordance with section 28, is guilty of an offence.
[Date of commencement of s. 51: to be proclaimed.]

52 Failure to report suspicious or unusual transactions
(1) Any person who fails, within the prescribed period, to report to the Centre
the prescribed information in respect of a suspicious or unusual transaction or series
of transactions or enquiry in accordance with section 29 (1) or (2), is guilty of an
offence.
(2) Any person referred to in section 29 (1) or (2) who reasonably ought to
have known or suspected that any of the facts referred to in section 29 (1) (a), (b) or
(c) or section 29 (2) exists, and who negligently fails to report the prescribed
information in respect of a suspicious or unusual transaction or series of transactions
or enquiry, is guilty of an offence.
[Date of commencement of s. 52: 3 February 2003.]

53 Unauthorised disclosure
(1) Any person referred to in section 29 (3) who discloses a fact or information
contemplated in that section, otherwise than in the circumstances or for the purposes
authorised in that section, is guilty of an offence.

(2) Any person referred to in section 29 (4) who discloses a knowledge or
suspicion or any information contemplated in that section, otherwise than in the
circumstances and for the purposes authorised in that section, is guilty of an offence.
[Date of commencement of s. 53: 3 February 2003.]

54 Failure to report conveyance of cash into or out of Republic
Any person who wilfully fails to report the conveyance of cash into or out of
the Republic in accordance with section 30 (1), is guilty of an offence.
[Date of commencement of s. 54: to be proclaimed.]

55 Failure to send report to Centre
A person referred to in section 30 (2) who fails to send a report regarding the
conveyance of cash to the Centre in accordance with that section, is guilty of an
offence.
[Date of commencement of s. 55: to be proclaimed.]

56 Failure to report electronic transfers
An accountable institution that fails to report to the Centre the prescribed
information in respect of an electronic transfer of money in accordance with section
31, is guilty of an offence.
[Date of commencement of s. 56: to be proclaimed.]

57 Failure to comply with request
An accountable institution, reporting institution or any other person that fails
to comply with a request made by the Centre or an investigating authority acting
under the authority of an authorised officer in terms of section 32 (2), is guilty of an
offence.
[Date of commencement of s. 57: 3 February 2003.]

58 Failure to comply with direction by Centre
An accountable institution that fails to comply with a direction by the Centre
in terms of section 34 (1), is guilty of an offence.
[Date of commencement of s. 58: 3 February 2003.]

59 Failure to comply with monitoring order
An accountable institution that fails to comply with an order by a judge in
accordance with section 35, is guilty of an offence.
[Date of commencement of s. 59: 3 February 2003.]

60 Misuse of information
(1) Any person who-
(a) discloses confidential information held by or obtained from the
Centre otherwise than in accordance with section 40;
(b) wilfully destroys or in any other way tampers with information
kept by the Centre for the purposes of this Act; or
(c) uses information obtained from the Centre otherwise than in
accordance with-
(i) any arrangements or safeguards made or imposed by the
Director in terms of section 40 (3); or

(ii) section 40 (6),
is guilty of an offence.
(2) Any person who knows, suspects or ought reasonably to have known or
suspected-
(a) that information has been disclosed to the Centre; or
(b) that an investigation is being, or may be, conducted as a result
of information that has been or is to be disclosed to the Centre,
and who directly or indirectly alerts, or brings information to the attention of, another
person which will or is likely to prejudice such an investigation, is guilty of an
offence.
[Date of commencement of s. 60: 3 February 2003.]

61 Failure to formulate and implement internal rules
An accountable institution that fails to-
(a) formulate and implement internal rules in accordance with
section 42 (1) and (2);
(b) make the internal rules available to its employees in accordance
with section 42 (3); or

(c) make a copy of its internal rules available to the Centre or a
supervisory body in terms of section 42 (4),
is guilty of an offence.
[Date of commencement of s. 61: 30 June 2003.]

62 Failure to provide training or appoint compliance officer
An accountable institution that fails to-
(a) provide training to its employees in accordance with section 43
(a); or
(b) appoint the person referred to in section 43 (b),
is guilty of an offence.
[Date of commencement of s. 62: 30 June 2003.]

63 Obstructing of official in performance of functions
Any person who obstructs, hinders or threatens an official or representative of
the Centre in the performance of their duties or the exercise of their powers in terms
of this Act, is guilty of an offence.
[Date of commencement of s. 63: 3 February 2003.]

64 Conducting transactions to avoid reporting duties
Any person who conducts, or causes to be conducted, two or more
transactions with the purpose, in whole or in part, of avoiding giving rise to a
reporting duty under this Act, is guilty of an offence.
[Date of commencement of s. 64: 3 February 2003.]

65 Unauthorised access to computer system or application or data
(1) Any person who, without authority to do so, wilfully accesses or causes
any other person to access any computer system that belongs to, or is under the
control of, the Centre, or any application or data held in such a computer system, is
guilty of an offence.
(2) Any person who, without authority to do so, wilfully causes any computer
system that belongs to, or is under the control of, the Centre, to perform or fail to
perform a function, is guilty of an offence.
[Date of commencement of s. 65: 3 February 2003.]

66 Unauthorised modification of contents of computer system
Any person who, without authority to do so, wilfully causes a computer
system that belongs to, or is under the control of, the Centre, or any application or
data held in such a computer system, to be modified, destroyed, erased or the
operation or reliability of such a computer system, application or data to be otherwise
impaired, is guilty of an offence.
[Date of commencement of s. 66: 3 February 2003.]

67 Definitions
For the purposes of sections 65 and 66-
(a) ‘access’ in relation to an application or data means rendering
that application or data, by whatever means, in a form that
would enable a person, at the time when it is so rendered or
subsequently, to take account of that application or data, and
includes using the application or data or having it output from
the computer system in which it is held in a displayed or
printed form or to a storage medium or by means of any output
device, whether attached to the computer system in which the
application or data are held or not;
(b) ‘application’ means a set of instructions that, when executed in a
computer system, causes a computer system to perform a
function;
(c) ‘computer system’ means an electronic, magnetic, optical,
electrochemical or other data processing device, including the
physical components thereof, and any removable storage
medium that is for the time being therein or connected thereto,
or a group of such interconnected or related devices, one or
more of which is capable of-
(i) containing data; or
(ii) performing a logical, arithmetic or any other function in
relation to data;
(d) ‘data’ means any representation of information, knowledge,
facts or concepts, capable of being processed in a computer
system.

[Date of commencement of s. 67: 3 February 2003.]

68 Penalties
(1) A person convicted of an offence mentioned in this Chapter, other than an
offence mentioned in subsection (2), is liable to imprisonment for a period not
exceeding 15 years or to a fine not exceeding R10 000 000.
[Date of commencement of sub-s. (1): 3 February 2003.] (2) A person convicted of an offence mentioned in section 55, 61 or 62 is
liable to imprisonment for a period not exceeding five years or to a fine not exceeding
R1 000 000.
[Date of commencement of sub-s. (2): 30 June 2003.]

69 Defences
If a person who is an employee, director or trustee of, or a partner in, an
accountable institution is charged with committing an offence under section 52, that
person may raise as a defence the fact that he or she had-
(a) complied with the applicable obligations in terms of the
internal rules relating to the reporting of information of the
accountable institution; or
(b) reported the matter to the person charged with the
responsibility of ensuring compliance by the accountable
institution with its duties under this Act; or
(c) reported the matter to his or her superior, if any, if-
(i) the accountable institution had not appointed such a
person or established such rules; or
(ii) the accountable institution had not complied with its
obligations in section 42 (3) in respect of that person; or
(iii) the internal rules were not applicable to that person.
[Date of commencement of s. 69: 3 February 2003.]

70 Search, seizure and forfeiture
(1) A police official or person authorised by the Minister to receive a report
under section 30 (1), who has reasonable grounds to suspect that an offence under
section 54 has been or is about to be committed, may at any time search any person,

container or other thing in which any cash contemplated in section 30 (1) is suspected
to be found.
(2) A police official or person authorised by the Minister referred to in
subsection (1) may seize any cash contemplated in section 30 (1).
(3) Any cash seized under subsection (2) must be returned to the person from
whom it was seized as soon as possible-
(a) after the expiry of a period of 90 days from the date of the
seizure, unless, before the expiry of that period-
(i) that person has been arrested without a warrant of arrest
being issued;
(ii) a warrant for the arrest of that person has been issued;
or
(iii) a summons has been issued for that person to appear in
court,
in connection with the suspected commission of an offence under section 54 in
respect of that cash or any portion of it;
(b) after the expiry of a period of 90 days from the date of the
seizure, unless, before the expiry of that period, an application
for a preservation order in terms of section 38 of the Prevention
Act in respect of that cash is pending before the High Court;
(c) if that person is acquitted on a charge of committing an offence
under section 54; or
(d) if a forfeiture order in terms of section 50 of the Prevention Act
is not made in respect of that cash.
(4) Whenever any person is convicted of an offence under section 54 the court
convicting that person must, in addition to any punishment which that court may
impose in respect of the offence, declare any cash contemplated in section 30 (1) that
was seized under subsection (2), or is in the possession or custody or under the control
of the convicted person, to be forfeited to the State.
(5) Whenever a person is convicted of an offence under section 64 the court
convicting that person must, in addition to any punishment which that court may
impose in respect of the offence, declare any property in respect of which those
transactions were conducted to be forfeited to the State.

(6) A declaration of forfeiture shall not affect any interest which any person
other than the convicted person may have in the cash or property concerned if that
person proves-
(a) that he or she acquired the interest in that cash or property in
good faith; and
(b) that he or she did not know that the cash or property in question
was-
(i) conveyed as contemplated in section 30 (1) or that he or she
could not prevent the cash from being so conveyed; or
(ii) used in the transactions contemplated in section 64 or that he or
she could not prevent the property from being so used,
as the case may be.
(7) Subject to subsection (6), the court concerned or, if the judge or judicial
officer concerned is not available, any judge or judicial officer of that court, may at
any time within a period of three years from the date of the declaration of forfeiture,
on the application of any person other than the convicted person who claims that he or
she has any interest in the cash in question, inquire into and determine any such
interest.
(8) Subject to subsection (6), if a court referred to in subsection (7) finds that-
(a) the cash or property in question belonged to the applicant at the
time of the forfeiture, the court must set aside the declaration of
forfeiture in question and direct that the cash or property be
returned to the applicant or, if the State has disposed of it,
direct that the applicant be compensated by the State in an
amount equal to the amount of cash or the value of the property
forfeited; or
(b) the applicant had an interest in the cash or property in question
at the time of the forfeiture, the court must direct that the
applicant be compensated by the State in an amount equal to
the value of his or her interest in the cash or property.
(9) Any person aggrieved by a determination made by a court under
subsection (8), may appeal against the determination as if it were a conviction by the
court making the determination, and such appeal may be heard either separately or

jointly with an appeal against the conviction as a result of which the declaration of
forfeiture was made, or against a sentence imposed as a result of such conviction.
(10) In order to make a declaration of forfeiture or to determine any interest
under subsection (8), the court may refer to the evidence and proceedings at the trial
or hear such further evidence, either orally or by affidavit, as it may deem fit.
[Date of commencement of s. 70: to be proclaimed.]

71 Jurisdiction of courts
(1) A regional court has penal jurisdiction to impose any penalty mentioned in
section 68 (1), even though that penalty may exceed the penal jurisdiction of that
court.
(2) A magistrate’s court has penal jurisdiction to impose any penalty
mentioned in section 68 (2), even though that penalty may exceed the penal
jurisdiction of that court.
(3) A magistrate’s court or regional court has jurisdiction to make any order of
forfeiture referred to in section 70, even though the amount forfeitable under that
order may exceed the civil jurisdiction of a magistrate’s court or regional court.
[Date of commencement of s. 71: 3 February 2003.]

CHAPTER 5
MISCELLANEOUS (ss 72-82)
72 Act not to limit powers of investigating authorities or supervisory bodies
This Act does not detract from-
(a) an investigating authority’s powers in terms of other legislation
to obtain information for the purpose of criminal investigations;
or
(b) a supervisory body’s duties or powers in relation to the entities
supervised or regulated by it.

73 Amendment of list of accountable institutions
(1) The Minister may, by notice in the Gazette, amend the list of accountable
institutions in Schedule 1 to-
(a) add to the list any person or category of persons if the Minister
reasonably believes that that person or category of persons is

used, or is likely to be used in future, for money laundering
purposes;
(b) delete any institution or category of institutions from the list if
the Minister reasonably believes that that institution or category
of institutions is not being used, and is not likely to be used in
the future, for money laundering purposes; or
(c) make technical changes to the list.
(2) Before the Minister amends Schedule 1 in terms of subsection (1) (a) or
(b), the Minister must consult the Council and the Centre, and-
(a) if only one person or institution will be affected by the
proposed amendment, give that person or institution at least 30
days’ written notice to submit written representations to the
Minister; or
(b) if a category of persons or institutions will be affected by the
proposed amendment, by notice in the Gazette give persons or
institutions belonging to that category at least 60 days’ written
notice to submit written representations to the Minister.
(3) Any addition to or deletion from the list of accountable institutions in
Schedule 1 in terms of subsection (1) (a) or (b) must, before publication in the
Gazette, be approved by Parliament.

74 Exemptions for accountable institutions
(1) The Minister may, after consulting the Council and the Centre, and on
conditions and for a period determined by the Minister, exempt from compliance
with-
(a) any of the provisions of this Act-
(i) a person;

(ii) an accountable institution; or

(iii) a category of persons or accountable institutions;
(b) any or all of the provisions of this Act, a person or category of
persons or an accountable institution or category of accountable

institutions in respect of any one or more categories of
transactions.
(2) Any exemption referred to in subsection (1)-
(a) must be by notice in the Gazette and may be withdrawn or
amended by the Minister, after consulting with the Council and
the Centre;
(b) must be tabled in Parliament before being published in the
Gazette.

75 Amendment of list of supervisory bodies
(1) The Minister may, by notice in the Gazette, amend the list of supervisory
bodies in Schedule 2 to-
(a) add to the list any entity or functionary which performs
supervisory or regulatory functions in relation to any category
of accountable institutions;
(b) delete any supervisory body from the list if that supervisory
body no longer performs supervisory or regulatory functions in
relation to any category of accountable institutions; or
(c) make technical changes to the list.
(2) Before the Minister amends Schedule 2 in terms of subsection (1) (a) or
(b), the Minister must consult the Council and the Centre, and give the entity or
functionary concerned, or the supervisory body concerned, as the case may be, at least
60 days’ written notice to submit written representations to the Minister.
(3) Any addition to or deletion from the list of supervisory bodies in Schedule
2 in terms of subsection (1) (a) or (b) must, before publication in the Gazette, be
approved by Parliament.

76 Amendment of list of reporting institutions
(1) The Minister may, by notice in the Gazette, amend the list of reporting
institutions in Schedule 3 to-
(a) add to the list any person or category of persons if the Minister
reasonably believes that the person or category of persons is
used, or is likely to be used in future, for money laundering
purposes but it is not appropriate to impose on such person or

category of persons the duties which apply to an accountable
institution under this Act;
(b) delete any person or category of persons from the list if-
(i) the Minister reasonably believes that the person or
category of persons is not being used, and is not likely
to be used in the future, for money laundering
purposes; or
(ii) the person or category of persons is to be added to the
list of accountable institutions; or
(c) make technical changes to the list.
(2) Before the Minister amends Schedule 3 in terms of subsection (1) (a) or
(b), the Minister must consult the Centre and the Council, and-
(a) if only one person will be affected by the proposed amendment,
give the person at least 30 days’ written notice to submit written
representations to the Minister; or
(b) if a category of persons will be affected by the proposed
amendment, by notice in the Gazette give persons belonging to
that category at least 60 days’ written notice to submit written
representations to the Minister.
(3) Any addition to or deletion from the list of reporting institutions in
Schedule 3 in terms of subsection (1) (a) or (b) must, before publication in the
Gazette, be approved by Parliament.

77 Regulations
(1) The Minister, after consulting the Council and the Centre, may make,
repeal and amend regulations concerning-
(a) any matter that may be prescribed in terms of this Act; and
(b) any other matter which is necessary or expedient to prescribe to
promote the objectives of this Act.
(2) Regulations in terms of subsection (1) may-
(a) differ for different accountable institutions, reporting
institutions, persons, categories of accountable institutions,
reporting institutions and persons and different categories of
transactions;

(b) be limited to a particular accountable institution or reporting
institution or person or category of accountable institutions or
reporting institutions or persons or a particular category of
transactions; and
(c) for a contravention of or failure to comply with any specific
regulation, prescribe imprisonment for a period not exceeding
six months or a fine not exceeding R100 000.
(3) Regulations in terms of subsection (1) must be reviewed by the Council
within two years after being published in the Gazette and thereafter at such intervals
as the Council deems appropriate.
(4) The Minister must table regulations, repeals and amendments made under
subsection (1) in Parliament before publication in the Gazette.

78 Indemnity
The Minister, the Centre or an employee or representative of the Centre, or
any other person performing a function or exercising a power in terms of this Act, is
not liable for anything done in good faith in terms of or in furthering the objectives of
this Act.

79 Amendment of laws
The Acts mentioned in Schedule 4 are hereby amended to the extent set out in
Schedule 4.
[Date of commencement of s. 79: 3 February 2003.]

80 Status of footnotes
The footnotes in this Act have been inserted only for ease of reference to
relevant provisions of the Prevention Act. They are not part of this Act. They do not
have the force of law.

81 Transitional arrangements
(1) Until the date referred to in section 82 (2), the person designated for the
purposes of section 7 of the Prevention Act will be deemed to have been duly
designated and will continue to hold office as if this Act had not been passed.

(2) All proceedings in relation to an offence in terms of section 7 (7) of the
Prevention Act that were instituted before the date on which section 79 of this Act
takes effect and that are pending before any court of law or reviewing authority on
that date, must be dealt with as if this Act had not been passed.
(3) An investigation or prosecution or other legal proceeding in respect of
conduct which would have constituted an offence under section 7 (7) of the
Prevention Act and which occurred after the commencement of that Act but before
section 79 of this Act takes effect, may be instituted and continued as if this Act had
not been passed.

82 Short title and commencement
(1) This Act is called the Financial Intelligence Centre Act, 2001, and takes
effect on a date fixed by the President by proclamation in the Gazette.
(2) Despite subsection (1)-
(a) section 79 does not take effect before the date on which section
29 takes effect; and
(b) section 21 (2) takes effect one year after section 21 (1) takes
effect.

Schedule 1
LIST OF ACCOUNTABLE INSTITUTIONS
[Date of commencement of Schedule 1: 1 March 2002.] 1. An attorney as defined in the Attorneys Act, 1979 (Act 53 of 1979).
2. A board of executors or a trust company or any other person that invests,
keeps in safe custody, controls or administers trust property within the meaning of the
Trust Property Control Act, 1988 (Act 57 of 1988).
3. An estate agent as defined in the Estate Agents Act, 1976 (Act 112 of 1976).
4. A financial instrument trader as defined in the Financial Markets Control Act,
1989 (Act 55 of 1989).
5. A management company registered in terms of the Unit Trusts Control Act,
1981 (Act 54 of 1981).
6. A person who carries on the ‘business of a bank’ as defined in the Banks Act,
1990 (Act 94 of 1990).

7. A mutual bank as defined in the Mutual Banks Act, 1993 (Act 124 of 1993).
8. A person who carries on a ‘long-term insurance business’ as defined in the
Long-Term Insurance Act, 1998 (Act 52 of 1998), including an insurance broker and
an agent of an insurer.
9. A person who carries on a business in respect of which a gambling licence is
required to be issued by a provincial licensing authority.
10. A person who carries on the business of dealing in foreign exchange.
11. A person who carries on the business of lending money against the security of
securities.
12. A person who carries on the business of rendering investment advice or
investment broking services, including a public accountant as defined in the Public
Accountants and Auditors Act, 1991 (Act 80 of 1991), who carries on such a
business.
13. A person who issues, sells or redeems travellers’ cheques, money orders or
similar instruments.
14. The Postbank referred to in section 51 of the Postal Services Act, 1998 (Act
124 of 1998).
15. A member of a stock exchange licensed under the Stock Exchanges Control
Act, 1985 (Act 1 of 1985).
16. The Ithala Development Finance Corporation Limited.
17. A person who has been approved or who falls within a category of persons
approved by the Registrar of Stock Exchanges in terms of section 4 (1) (a) of the
Stock Exchanges Control Act, 1985 (Act 1 of 1985).
18. A person who has been approved or who falls within a category of persons
approved by the Registrar of Financial Markets in terms of section 5 (1) (a) of the
Financial Markets Control Act, 1989 (Act 55 of 1989).
19. A person who carries on the business of a money remitter.

Schedule 2
LIST OF SUPERVISORY BODIES
[Date of commencement of Schedule 2: 1 March 2002.] 1. The Financial Services Board established by the Financial Services Board Act,
1990 (Act 97 of 1990).
2. The South African Reserve Bank as defined in the South African Reserve
Bank Act, 1989 (Act 90 of 1989).
3. The Registrar of Companies as defined in the Companies Act, 1973 (Act 61 of
1973).
4. The Estate Agents Board established in terms of the Estate Agents Act, 1976
(Act 112 of 1976).
5. The Public Accountants and Auditors Board established in terms of the Public
Accountants and Auditors Act, 1991 (Act 80 of 1991).
6. The National Gambling Board established in terms of the National Gambling
Act, 1996 (Act 33 of 1996).
7. The JSE Securities Exchange South Africa.
8. The Law Society of South Africa.

Schedule 3
LIST OF REPORTING INSTITUTIONS
[Date of commencement of Schedule 3: 1 March 2002.] 1. A person who carries on the business of dealing in motor vehicles.

2. A person who carries on the business of dealing in Kruger rands.

Schedule 4
AMENDMENT OF SECTIONS OF PREVENTION OF ORGANISED CRIME
ACT, 1998 (ACT 121 OF 1998)
[Date of commencement of Schedule 4: 3 February 2003.] 1. The repeal of section 7.
2. The substitution for section 7A of the following section:
7A Defence
(1) If a person is charged with committing an offence under section 2
(1) (a) or (b), 4, 5 or 6, that person may raise as a defence the fact that he or she had
reported a knowledge or suspicion in terms of section 29 of the Financial Intelligence
Centre Act, 2001.
(2) If a person who is an employee of an accountable institution as
defined in the Financial Intelligence Centre Act, 2001, is charged with committing an
offence under section 2 (1) (a) or (b), 4, 5 or 6, that person may also raise as a defence
that fact that he or she had-
(a) complied with the applicable obligations in terms of the
internal rules relating to the reporting of information of the accountable institution; or
(b) reported the matter to the person charged with the
responsibility of ensuring compliance by the accountable institution with its duties
under that Act; or
(c) reported a suspicion to his or her superior, if any, if-
(i) the accountable institution had not appointed such a
person or established such rules;

(ii) the accountable institution had not complied with its
obligations in section 42 (3) of that Act in respect of that person; or

(iii) those rules were not applicable to that person.
3. The amendment of section 8 by the deletion of subsection (2).
4. The amendment of section 77-
3.1 by the deletion from subsection (1) of paragraph (b); and
3.2 by the deletion from subsection (1) of paragraph (c).

AMENDMENT OF PROMOTION OF ACCESS TO INFORMATION ACT,
2000 (ACT 2 OF 2000)
The amendment of Part 1 of the Schedule by the addition of the following
item:

‘Act 38 of 2001 Financial Intelligence Centre Act Section 36’

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