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Companies Act 71 of 2008

COMPANIES ACT 71 OF 2008

(English text signed by the President)

[Assented To: 8 April 2009] [Commencement Date: to be proclaimed]

as amended by:

Companies Amendment Act 3 of 2011

ACT

To provide for the incorporation, registration, organisation and management of
companies, the capitalisation of profit companies, and the registration of offices of
foreign companies carrying on business within the Republic; to define the relationships
between companies and their respective shareholders or members and directors; to
provide for equitable and efficient amalgamations, mergers and takeovers of
companies; to provide for efficient rescue of financially distressed companies; to
provide appropriate legal redress for investors and third parties with respect to
companies; to establish a Companies and Intellectual Property Commission and a
Takeover Regulation Panel to administer the requirements of the Act with respect to
companies, to establish a Companies Tribunal to facilitate alternative dispute resolution
and to review decisions of the Commission; to establish a Financial Reporting
Standards Council to advise on requirements for financial record -keeping and
reporting by companies; to repeal the Companies Act, 1973 (Act No. 61 of 1973), and
make amendments t o the Close Corporations Act, 1984 (Act No. 69 of 1984), as
necessary to provide for a consistent and harmonious regime of business incorporation
and regulation; and to provide for matters connected therewith.

BE IT ENACTED by the Parliament of the Repub lic of South Africa, as follows: –

ARRANGEMENT OF SECTIONS

CHAPTER 1
INTERPRETATION, PURPOSE AND APPLICATION

Part A
Interpretation

1. Definitions
2. Related and inter -related persons, and control
3. Subsidiary relationships
4. Solvency and liquidity test
5. General interpretation of Act
6. Anti -avoidance, exemptions and substantial compliance

Part B
Purpose and application

7. Purpo ses of Act
8. Categories of companies
9. Mod ified application with respect to state -owned companies
10. Modified application with respect to non -profit companies

CHAPTER 2
FORMATION, ADMINISTRATION AND DISSOLUTION OF COMPANIES

Part A
Reservation and registration of company names

11. Criteria for names of companies
12. Reservation of name for later use

Part B
Incorporation and legal status of companies

13. Right to incorporate company or transfer registration of foreign company
14. Registration of company
15. Memorandum of Incorporation, shareholder agreements and rules of company
16. Amending Memorandum of Incorporation
17. Alterations, translations and consolidations of Memorandum of Incorporation
18. Authentici ty of versions of Memorandum of Incorporation
19. Legal status of companies
20. Validity of company actions
21. Pre -incorporation contracts
22. Reckless trading prohibited

Part C
Transparency, accountability and integrity of companies

23. External companies and registered office
24. Form and standards for company records
25. Location of company records
26. Access to company records
27. Financial year of company
28. Accounting records
29. Financial statements
30. Annual financial statements
31. Access to financial statements or related information
32. Use of company name and registration number
33. Annual return
34. Additional accountability requirements for certain companies

Part D
Capitalisation of profit companies

35. Legal nature of company shares and requirement to have shareholders

36. Authorisation for shares
37. Preferences, rights, limitations and other share terms
38. Issuing shares
39. Pre -emptive right to be offered and to subscribe shares
40. Consideration for shares
41. Shareholder approval for issuing shares in certain cases
42. Options for subscriptio n of securities
43. Securities other than shares
44. Financial assistance for subscription of securities
45. Loans or other financial assistance to directors
46. Distributions must be authorised by board
47. Capitalisation shares
48. Company or subsidiary acquiring company‟s shares

Part E
Securities registration and transfer

49. Securities to be evidenced by certificates or uncertificated
50. Securities register and numbering
51. Registration and transfer of certificated securities
52. Registration of uncertificated securities
53. Transfer of uncertificated securities
54. Substitution of certificated or uncertificated securities
55. Liability relating to uncertificated securities
56. Beneficial interest in securities

Part F
Governance of companies

57. Inte rpretation and application of Part
58. Shareholder right to be represented by proxy
59. Record date for determining shareholder rights
60. Shareholders acting other than at meeting
61. Shareholders meetings
62. Notice of meetings
63. Conduct of meetings
64. Meeting quorum and adjournment
65. Shareholder resolutions
66. Board, directors and prescribed officers
67. First director or directors
68. Election of directors of profit companies
69. Ineligibilit y and disqualification of persons to be director or prescribed officer
70. Vacancies on board
71. Removal of directors
72. Board committees
73. Board meetings
74. Directors acting othe r than at meeting
75. Director‟s personal financial interests
76. Standards of directors‟ conduct

77. Liabil ity of directors and prescribed officers
78. Indemnification and directors‟ insurance

Part G
Winding -up of solvent companies and deregistering companies

79. Winding -up of solvent companies
80. Voluntary winding -up of solvent company
81. Winding -up of solvent companies by court order
82. Dissolution of companies and removal from register
83. Effect of removal of company from register

CHAPTER 3
ENHANCED ACCOUNTABILITY AND TRANSPARENCY

Part A
Application and general requirements of Chapter

84. Application of Chapter
85. Registration of secretaries and auditors

Part B
Company secretary

86. Mandatory appointment of company secretary
87. Juristic person or partnership may be appointed company secretary
88. Duties of company secretary
89. Resignatio n or removal of company secretary

Part C
Auditors

90. Appointment of auditor
91. Resignation of auditors and vacancies
92. Rotation of auditors
93. Rights and restricted functions of auditors

Part D
Audit committees

94. Audit committees

CHAPTER 4
PUBLIC OFFERINGS OF COMPANY SECURITIES

95. Application and interpretation of Chapter
96. Offers that are not offers to public
97. Standards for qualifying employee share schemes

98. Advertisements relating to offers
99. General restrictions on offers to public
100. Requirements concerning prospectus
101. Secondary offer s to public
102. Consent to use of name in prospectus
103. Variation of agreement mentioned in prospectus
104. Liability for untrue statements in prospectus
105. Liability of experts and others
106. Responsibility for untrue statements in prospectus
107. Time limit as to allotment or acceptance
108. Restrictions on allotment
109. Voidable allotment
110. Minimum interval before allotment or acceptance
111. Conditional allotment if prospectus states securities to be listed

CHAPTER 5
FUNDAMENTAL TRANSACTIONS, TAKEOVERS AND OFFERS

Part A
Approval for certain fundamental transactions

112. Proposals to dispose of all or greater part of assets or undertaking
113. Proposals for amalgamation or merger
114. Proposals for scheme of arrangement
115. Required approval for transactions contemplated in Part
116. Implementati on of amalgamation or merger

Part B
Authority of Panel and Takeover Regulations

117. Definitions applicable to this Part, Part C and Takeover Regulations
118. Application of this Part, Part C and Takeover Regulations
119. Panel regulation of affected transactions
120. Takeover Regulations

Part C
Regulation of affected transactions and offers

121. General requirement concerning transactions and offers
122. Required disclosure concerning certain share transactions
123. Mandatory offers
124. Compulsory acquisitions and squeeze -out
125. Comparable and partial offers
126. Restrictions on frustrating action
127. Prohibited dealings before and during an offer

CHAPTER 6
BUSINESS RESCUE AND COMPROMISE WITH CREDITORS

Part A
Business rescue proceedings

128. Application and definitions applicable only to Chapter
129. Company resolution to begin business rescue proceedings
130. Objections to company resolution
131. Court order to begin business rescue proceedings
132. Duration of busin ess rescue proceedings
133. General moratorium on legal proceedings against company
134. Protection of property interests
135. Post -commencement finance
136. Effect of business rescue on employees and contracts
137. Effect on shareholders and directors

Part B
Practitioner’s functions and terms of appointment

138. Qualifications of practitioners
139. Removal and replacement of practitioner
140. General powers and duties of practitioner
141. Investigation of affairs of company
142. Directors of company to co -operate with and assist practit ioner
143. Remuneration of practitioner

Part C
Rights of affected persons during business rescue proceedings

144. Rights of employees
145. Participation by creditors
146. Participation by holders of company‟s securities
147. First meeting of creditors
148. First meeting of employees‟ representatives
149. Functions, duties and membership of committees of affect ed persons

Part D
Development and approval of business rescue plan

150. Proposal of business rescue plan
151. M eeting to determine future of company
152. Consideration of business rescue plan
153. Failure to adopt business rescue plan
154. Discharge of debts and claims

Part E
Compromise with creditors

155. Compromise between company and creditors

CHAPTER 7
REMEDIES AND ENFORCEMENT

Part A
General principles

156. Alternative procedures for addressing complaints or securing rights
157. Extended standing to apply for remedies
158. Remedies to promote purpose of Act
159. Protection for whistle -blowers

Part B
Rights to seek specific remedies

160. Disputes concerning reservation or registration of company names
161. Application to protect rights of securities holders
162. Application to declare director delinquent or under probation
163. Relief from oppressive or prejudicial conduct or from abuse of separate juristic
personality of company
164. Dissenting shareholders‟ appraisal rights
165. Derivative act ions

Part C
Voluntary resolution of disputes

166. Alternative dispute resolution
167. Dis pute resolution may result in consent order

Part D
Complaints to Commission or Panel

168. Initiating complaint
169. Investigation by Commission or Panel
170. Outcome of investigation
171. Issuance of compliance notices
172. Objection to notices
173. Consent orders
174. Referral of complaints to court
175. Administrative fines

Part E
Powers to support investigations and inspections

176. Summons
177. Authority to enter and search under warrant
178. Powers to enter and search
179. Conduct of entry and search

Part F
Companies Tribunal adjudication procedures

180. Adjudication hearings before Tribunal
181. Right to participate in hearing
182. Powers of Tribunal adjudication hearing
183. Rules of procedure
184. Witnesses

CHAPTER 8
REGULATORY AGENCIES AND ADMINISTRATION OF ACT

Part A
Companies and Intellectual Property Commission

185. Establishment of Companies and Intellectual Property Commission
186. Commission objectives
187. Functions of Commission
188. Reporting, research, public information and relations with other regulators
189. Appointment of Commissioner
190. Minister may direct policy and require investigation
191. Establishment of specialist committees
192. Constitution of specialist committees

Part B
Companies Tribunal

193 Establishment of Companies Tribunal
194. Appointment of Companies Tribunal
195. Functions of Companies Tribunal

Part C
Takeover Regulation Panel

196. Establishment of Takeover Regulation Panel
197. Composition of Panel
198. Chairperson and deputy chairpersons
199. Meetings of Panel
200. Executive of Panel
201. Functions of Panel
202. Takeover Special Committee

Part D
Financial Reporting Standards Council

203. Establishment and composition of Council
204. Functions of Council

Part E
Administrative provisions applicable to Agencies

205. Qualifications for membership
206. Conflicting interests of agency members
207. Resignation, removal from office and vacancies
208. Conflicting interests of employees
209. Appointment of inspectors and investigators
210. Finances
211. Reviews and reports to Minister
212. Confidential information

CHAPTER 9
OFFENCES, MISCELLANEOUS MATTERS AND GENERAL PROVISIONS

Part A
Offences and penalties

213. Breach of confidence
214. False stateme nts, reckless conduct and non -compliance
215. Hindering administration of Act
216. Penalties
217. Magistrate‟s Court jurisdiction to impose penalties

Part B
Miscellaneous matters

218. Civil actions
219. Limited time for initiating complaints
220. Serving documents
221. Proof of facts
222. State liability

Part C
Regulations, consequential matters and commencement

223. Regulations
224. Consequential amendments, repeal of laws and transitional arrangements
225. Short title and commencement

SCHEDULE 1

PROVISIONS CONCERNING NON -PROFIT COMPANIES

1. Objects and policies
2. Fundamental transactions
3. Incorporators of non -profit company
4. Members

5. Directors

SCHEDULE 2

CONVERSION OF CLOSE CORPORATIONS TO COMPANIES

1. Notice of conversion of close corporation
2. Effect of conversion on legal status

SCHEDULE 3

AMENDMENT OF LAWS

A: Close Corporations Act, 1984
1. Amendments to Close Corporations Act definitions
2. Limitation of period to incorporate close corporations or convert companies
3. Legal status of close corporations
4. Names of corpo rations
5. Transparency and accountability of close corporations
6. Rescue of financially distressed close corporations
7. Dissolution of corporations
8. Deregistration of corporations
B: Consequential amendments to certain other Acts listed in Schedu le 4

SCHEDULE 4
LEGISLATION TO BE ENFORCED BY COMMISSION

SCHEDULE 5
TRANSITIONAL ARRANGEMENTS

1. Interpretation
2. Continuation of pre -existing companies
3. Pending matters
4. Memorandum of Incorporation and rules
5. Pre -incorporation contracts
6. Par value of shares, treasury shares, capital accounts and share certificates
7. Company finance and governance
8. Company names and name reservations
9. Continued a pplication of previous Act to winding -up and liquidation
10. Preservation and continuation of court proceedings and orders
11. General preservation of regulations, rights, duties, notices and other instruments
12. Transition of regulatory agencies
13. Continued investigation and enforcement of previous Act
14. Regulations

CHAPTER 1

INTERPRETATION, PURPOSE AND APPLICATION

Part A

Interpretation

1. Definitions

In this Act, unless the context indicates otherwise –

“accounting records” means information in written or electronic form concerning the
financial affairs of a company as required in terms of this Act, including but not limited
to, purchase and sales records, general and subsidiary ledgers and other document s and
books used in the preparation of financial statements;
[Definition of “accounting records” inserted by s. 1 of Act 3/2011]

“acquiring party”, when used in respect of a transaction or proposed transaction,
means a person who, as a result of the tran saction, would directly or indirectly acquire
or establish direct or indirect control or increased control over all or the greater part of a
company, or all or the greater part of the assets or undertaking of a company;
[Definition of “acquiring party” ins erted by s. 1 of Act 3/2011]

“advertisement” means any direct or indirect communication transmitted by any
medium, or any representation or reference written, inscribed, recorded, encoded upon
or embedded within any medium, by means of which a person seeks to bring any
information to the attention o f all or part of the public;

“agreement” includes a contract, or an arrangement or understanding between or
among two or more parties that purports to create rights and obligations between or
among those parties;

“all or the greater part of the assets or undertaking” , when used in respect of a
company, means –

(a) in the case of the company‟s assets, more than 50% of its gross 40 assets fairly
valued, irrespective of its liabilities; or

(b) in the case of the company‟s undertaking, more than 50% of the value of its entire
undertaking, fairly valued;
[Definition of “all or the greater part of the assets or undertaking” inserted by s. 1 of Act 3/2011]

“alterable provision” means a provision of this Act in which it is expressly
contemplated that its effect on a particular company may be negated, restricted, limited,
qualified, extended or otherwise altered in substance or effect by that company‟s
Memorandum of Incorporation;

“alternate director” means a person elected or appointed to serve, as the occasion
requires, as a member of the board of a company in substitution for a particular elected
or appointed director of that company;

“amalgamation or merger” means a transac tion, or series of transactions, pursuant to
an agreement between two or more companies, resulting in –

(a) the formation of one or more new companies, which together hold all of the
assets and liabilities that were held by any of the amalgamating or merg ing
companies immediately before the implementation of the agreement, and the
dissolution of each of the amalgamating or merging companies; or

(b) the survival of at least one of the amalgamating or merging companies, with or
without the formation of one or more new companies, and the vesting in the
surviving company or companies, together with any such new company or
companies, of all of the assets and liabilities that were held by any of the
amalgamating or merging companies immediately before the imple mentation of
the agreement;
[Para. (b) substituted by s. 1 of Act 3/2011]

“amalgamated or merged company” means a company that either –

(a) was incorporated pursuant to an amalgamation or merger agreement; or

(b) was an amalgamating or merging company and continued in existence after the
implementation of the amalgamation or merger agreement,

and holds any part of the assets and liabilities that were held by any of the
amalgamating or merging companies immediately before the implementation of the
agr eement;

“amalgamating or merging company” means a company that is a party to an
amalgamation or merger agreement;

“annual general meeting” means the meeting of a public company required by section
61 (7);

“audit” has the meaning set out in the Auditing Profession Act, but does not include an
“independent review” of annual financial statements, as contemplated in section
30 (2)(b)(ii)(bb);
[Definition of “audit” substituted by s. 1 of Act 3/2011]

“Auditing Pro fession Act” means the Auditing Profession Act, 2005 (Act No. 26 of
2005);

“auditor” has the meaning set out in the Auditing Act;
[Definition of “auditor” substituted by s. 1 of Act 3/2011]

“Banks Act” means the Banks Act, 1990 (Act No. 94 of 1990);
[Definition of “Banks Act” substituted by s. 1 of Act 3/2011]

“beneficial interest” , when used in relation to a company‟s securities, means the right
or entitlement of a person, through ownership, agreement, relationship or otherwise,
alone or together w ith another person to –

(a) receive or participate in any distribution in respect of the company‟s securities;

(b) exercise or cause to be exercised, in the ordinary course, any or all of the rights
attaching to the company‟s securities; or

(c) dispose or direct the disposition of the company‟s securities, or any part of a
distribution in respect of the securities,

but does not include any interest held by a person in a unit trust or collective investment
scheme in terms of the Collective Investment Schemes Act, 2002 (Act No. 45 of 2002);

“board” means the board of directors of a company;

“business days” has the meaning determined in accordance with section 5 (3);

“Cabinet” means the body of the national executive described in section 91 of the
Constitution;

“central securities depository” has the meaning set out in section 1 of the Securities
Services Act, 2004 (Act No. 36 of 2004);

“close corporation” means a juristic person incorporated under the Close Corporations
Act, 1984 (Act No. 69 of 1984);

“Commission” means the Companies and Intellectual Property Commission
established by section 185 ;

“Commissioner” means the person appointed to or acting in the office of that name, as
contemplated in section 189 ;

“Companies Tribunal” means the Companies Tribunal established in terms of section
193 ;

“companies register” means the register required to be established by the Commission
in terms of section 187 (4);

“company” means a juristic person incorporated in terms of this Act, a domesticated
company, or a juristic person that, immediately before the effective date –
[Words preceding para. (a) substituted by s. of Act 3/2011]

(a) was registered in terms of the –

(i) Companies Act, 1973 (Act No. 61 of 1973), other than as an external
company as defined in that Act; or

(ii) Close Corporations Act, 1984 (Act No. 69 of 1984), if it has subsequently
been converted in terms of Schedule 2 ;

(b) was in existence and recognised as an „existing company‟ in terms of the
Companies Act, 1973 (Act No. 61 of 1973); or

(c) was deregistered in terms of the Companies Act, 1973 (Act No. 61 of 1973), and
has subsequently been re -registered in terms of this Act;

“Competition Act” , means the Competition Act, 1998 (Act No. 89 of 1998);

“consideration” means anything of value given and accepted in exchange for any
property, service, act, omission or forbearance or any other thing of value, including –

(a) any money, property, negotiable instrument, securities, investment credit facility,
token or ticke t;

(b) any labour, barter or similar exchange of one thing for another; or

(c) any other thing, undertaking, promise, agreement or assurance, irrespective of its
apparent or intrinsic value, or whether it is transferred directly or indirectly;

“Const itution” means the Constitution of the Republic South Africa, 1996;

“convertible securities” ……….
[Definition of “convertible securities” substituted by the definition of “convertible” by s. 1 of Act 3/2011]

“convertible”, when used in relation to any securities of a company, means securities
that may, by their terms, be converted into other securities of the company, including –

(a) any non -voting securities issued by the company and which will become voting
securities –

(i) on the happening of a designated event; or

(ii) if the holder of those securities so elects at some time after acquiring them;
and

(b) options to acquire securities to be issued by the company, irrespective of whether
those securities may be voting securities, or non -voting securities contemplated in
paragraph (a);
[Definition of “convertible” inserted by s. 1 of Act 3/2011 to substitute the definition of “convertible securities
“]

“co -operative” means a juristic person as defined in the Co -operatives Act, 2005 (Act
No. 14 of 2005);

“Council” means the Financial Reporting Standards Council established by section
203 ;

“director” means a member of the board of a company, as contemplated in section 66 ,
or an alternate director of a company and includes any person occupying the position of
a director or alternate director, by whatever name designated;

“distribution” means a direct or indirect –

(a) transfer by a company of money or other property of the company, other than its
own shares, to or for the benefit of one or more holders of any of the shares, or to
the holder of a beneficial interest in any such shares, of that company or of
another company within the same group of companies, whether –
[Wo rds preceding subpara. (1) substituted by s. 1 of Act 3/2011]

(i) in the form of a dividend;

(ii) as a payment in lieu of a capitalisation share, as contemplated in section 47 ;

(iii) as consideration for the acquisition –
[Words preceding item (aa) substituted by s. 1 of Act 3/2011]

(aa) by the company of any of its shares, as contemplated in section 48 ; or

(bb) by any company within the same group of companies, of any shares
of a company within that group of companies; or

(iv) otherwise in respect of any of the shares of that company or of another
company within the same group of companies, subject to section 164 (19);

(b) incurrence of a debt or other obligation by a company for the benefit of one or
more holders of any of the shares of that company or of another company within
the same group of companies; or

(c) forgiveness or waiver by a company of a debt or other obligation owed to the
company by one or more holders of any of the shares of that company or of
another company within the same group of companies,
[Para. (c) substituted by s. 1 of Act 3/2011]

but does not include any such action taken upon the final l iquidation of the company;

“domesticated company” means a foreign company whose registration has been
transferred to the Republic in terms of sectio n 13 (5) to (11);
[Definition of “domesticated company” inserted by s. 1 of Act 3/2011 ]

“effective date” , with reference to any particular provision of this Act, means the date
on which that provision came into operation in terms of section 225 ;

“electronic communication” has the meaning set out in section 1 of the Electronic
Communications and Transactions Act;

“Electronic Communications and Transactions Act” means the Electronic
Communications and Transactions Act , 2002 (Act No. 25 of 2002);

“employee share scheme” has the meaning set out in section 95 (1)(c);

“exchange” when used as a noun, has the meaning set out in section 1 of the Securities
Services Act, 2004 (Act No. 36 of 2004);

“exercise” , when used in relation to voting rights, includes voting by proxy, nominee,
trustee or other person in a similar capacity;

“ex officio director” means a person who holds office as a director of a particular
company solely as a consequence of that person holding some other office, title,
designation or similar status specified in the company‟s Memorandum of Incorporation;

“external company” means a foreign company that is carrying o n business, or non –
profit activities, as the case may be, within the Republic, subject to section 23 (2);

“file” , when used as a verb, means to deliv er a document to the Commission in the
manner and form, if any, prescribed for that document;

“financial reporting standards” , with respect to any particular company‟s financial
statements, means the standards applicable to that company, as prescribed in terms of
section 29 (4) and (5);

“financial statement” includes –

(a) annual financial statements and provisional annual financial statements;

(b) interim or preliminary reports;

(c) group and consolidated financial statements in the case of a group of companies;
and

(d) financial information in a circular, prospectus or provisional announcement of
results, that an actual or prospective credi tor or holder of the company‟s
securities, or the Commission, Panel or other regulatory authority, may
reasonably be expected to rely on;

“foreign company” means an entity incorporated outside the Republic, irrespective of
whether it is –

(a) a profit, or non -profit, entity; or

(b) carrying on business or non -profit activities, as the case may be, within the
Republic;

“general voting rights” means voting rights that can be exercised generally at a
general meeting of a company;

“group of companies” means a holding company and all of its subsidiaries;
[Definition of “group of companies” substituted by s. 1 of Act 3/2011]

“holding company”, in relation to a subsidiary, means a juristic person that controls
that subsidiary as a result of any circumstances contemplated in section 2 (2)(a) or
3(l)(a);
[Definition of “holding company” substituted by s. 1 of Act 3/2011]

“Human Rights Commission” means the South African Human Rights Commission
established in terms of Chapter 9 of the Constitution;

“incorporator” , when used –

(a) with respect to a company incorporated in terms of this Act, means a person who
incorporated that company, as contemplated in section 13 ; or

(b) with respect to a pre -existing company, means a person who took the relevant
actions comparable to those contemplated in section 13 to bring about the
incorporation of that company;

“individual” means a natural person;

“inspector” means a person appointed as such in terms of section 209 (1);
[Definition of “inspector” substituted by s. 1 of Act 3/2011]

“investigator” ……….
[Definition of “investigator” deleted by s. 1 of Act 3/2011]

“inter -related”, when used in respect of three or more persons, means persons who are
related to one another in a linked series of relationships, such that two of the persons
are related in a manner contemplated in section 2 (1), and one of them is related to the
third in any such manner, and so forth in an unbroken series;
[Definition of “inter -related” substituted by s. 1 of Act 3/2011]

“investigator” means a person appointed as such in terms of section 209 (3);
[Definition of “investigator” inserted by s. 1 of Act 3/2011]

“juristic person” includes –

(a) a foreign company; and

(b) a trust, irrespective of whether or not it was established within or outside the
Republic;

“knowing” , “knowingly” or “knows” , when used with respect to a person, and in
relation to a particular matter, means that the person either –

(a) had actual knowledge of the matter; or
[Para. (a) substituted by s. 1 of Act 3/2011]

(b) was in a position in which the person reasonably ought to have –

(i) had actual knowledge;

(ii) investigated the matter to an extent that would have provided the person
with actual knowledge; or

(iii) taken other measures which, if taken, would reasonably be expected to have
provided the person with actual knowledge of the matter;

“listed securities” has the meaning set out in section 1 of the Securities Services Act,
2004 (Act No. 36 of 2004);

“Master” means the officer of the High Court, referred to in section 2 of the
Administration of Estates Act, 1965 (Act No. 66 of 1965), who has jurisdiction over a
particular matter arising in terms of this Act;
[Definition of “Master” substituted by s. 1 of Act 3/2011]

“material” , when used as an adjective, means significant in the circumstances of a
particular matter, to a degree that is –

(a) of consequence in determining the matter; or

(b) might reasonably affect a person‟s judgement or decision -making in the matter;

“member”, when used in reference to –

(a) a close corporation, has the meaning set out in section 1 of the Close
Corporations Act, 1984 (Act No. 69 of 1984); or

(b) a non -profit company, means a person who holds membership in, and specifi ed
rights in respect of, that non -profit company, as contemplated in Schedule 1 ; or

(c) any other entity, means a person who is a constituent part of that entity;
[Definition of “member” substituted by s. 1 of Act 3/2011]

“Memorandum of Incorporation” ……….
[Definition of “Memorandum of Incorporation” substituted by the definition of “Memorandum”, or
“Memorandum of Incorporation” by s. 1 of Act 3/2011]

“Memorandum”, or “ Memorandum of Incorporation”, means the document, as
amended from time to time that sets out rights, duties and responsibilities of
shareholders, directors and others within and in relation to a company, and other
matters as contemplated in section 15 and by which –

(a) the company was incorporated under this Act, as contemplated in section 13 ;

(b) a pre -existing company was structured and governed before the later of the –

(i) effective date; or

(ii) date it was converted to a company in terms of Schedule 2 ;

(c) a domesticated company is structured and governed;
[Definition of “Memorandum”, or “Memorandum of Incorporation” inserted to substitute definition of
“Memorandum of Incorporation” by s. 1 of Act 3/2011 ]

“Minister” means the member of the Cabinet responsible for compani es;

“nominee” has the meaning set out in section 1 of the Securities Services Act, 2004
(Act No. 36 of 2004);

“non -profit company” means a company –

(a) incorporated for a public benefit or other object as required by item 1 (1) of
Schedule 1 ; and

(b) the income and property of which are not distributable to its incorporators,
members, direct ors, officers or persons related to any of them except to the extent
permitted by item 1 (3) of Schedule 1 ;

“Notice of Incorporation” means the notice to be filed in terms of section 13 (1), b y
which the incorporators of a company inform the Commission of the incorporation of
that company, for the purpose of having it registered;

“official language” means a language mentioned in section 6 (1) of the Constitution;

“ordinary resolution” means a resolution adopted with the support of more than 50%
of the voting rights exercised on the resolution, or a higher percentage as
contemplated in section 65 (8) –

(a) at a shareholders meeting ; or

(b) by holders of the company‟s securities acting other than at a meeting, as
contemplated in section 60 ;
[Definition of “ordinary resolution” substituted by s. 1 of Act 3/2011]

“organ of state” has the meaning set out in section 239 of the Constitution;

“Panel” means the Takeover Regulation Panel, established by section 196 ;

“participant” has the meaning set out in section 1 of the Securities Services Act, 2004
(Act No. 36 of 2004);

“person” includes a juristic person;

“p ersonal financial interest” , when used with respect to any person –

(a) means a direct material interest of that person, of a financial, monetary or
economic nature, or to which a monetary value may be attributed; but

(b) does not include any interest held by a person in a unit trust or collective
investment scheme in terms of the Collective Investment Schemes Act, 2002 (Act
No. 45 of 2002), unless that person has direct control over the investment
decisions of that fund or investment;

“personal liabi lity company” means a profit company that satisfies the criteria in
section 8 (2)(c);
[Definition of “personal liability company” substituted by s. 1 of Act 3/2011 ]

“pre -existing company” means a company contemplated in paragraph (a), (b) or (c) of
the definition of „company‟ in this section;

“pre -incorporation contract” means a written agreement entered into before the
incorporation of a company by a person who purports to act in the name of, or on
behalf of, the proposed company, with the intention or understanding that the proposed
company will be incorporated, and wil l thereafter be bound by the agreement;
[Definition of “pre -incorporation contract” substituted by s. 1 of Act 3/2011 ]

“premises” includes land, or any building, structure, vehicle, ship, boat, vessel, aircraft
or container;

“prescribed” means determined, stipulated, required, authorised, permitted or
otherwise regulated by a regulation or notice made in terms of this Act;

“prescribed officer” means a person who, within a company, performs any function
that has been designated by the M inister in terms of section 66 (10);
[Definition of “prescribed officer” substituted by s. 1 of Act 3/2011]

“present at a meeting” means to be present in person, or able to participate in the
meeting by electronic communication, or to be represented by a proxy who is present in
person or able to participate in the meeting by electronic communication;

“private company” means a prof it company that –

(a) is not a public, personal liability, or state -owned company; and
[Para. (a) substituted by s. 1 of Act 3/2011]

(b) satisfies the criteria set out in section 8 (2)(b);

“profit company” means a company incorporated for the purpose of financial gain for
its shareholders;

“public company” means a profit company that is not a state -owned company, a
private company or a personal liability company;

“public regulation” means any national, provincial or local government legislation or
subordinate legislation, or any licence, tariff, directive or similar authorisation issued
by a regulatory authority or pursuant to any statutory authority;

“records” , when used with respect to any information pertaining to a company, means
any information contemplated in section 24 (1);

“record date” means the date established under section 59 on which a company
determines the identity of its shareholders and their shareholdings for the purposes of
this Act;

“registered auditor” has the meaning set out in the Auditing Profession Act;

“registered external company ” means an external company that has registered its
office as required by section 23 , and has been assigned a registration number in terms
of that sec tion;

“registered office” means the office of a company, or of an external company, that is
registered as required by section 23 ;

“registered trade union” means a trade union registered in terms of section 96 of the
Labour Relations Act, 1995 (Act No. 66 of 1995 );

“registration certificate” , when used with respect to a –

(a) company incorporated on or after the effective date, means the certificate, or
amended certificate, issued by the Commission as evidence of the incorporation
and registration of that compa ny;

(b) pre -existing company registered in terms of –

(i) the Companies Act, 1973 (Act No. 61 of 1973), means the certificate of
incorporation or registration issued to it in terms of that Act;

(ii) the Close Corporations Act, 1984 (Act No. 69 of 1984 ), and converted in
terms of Schedule 2 to this Act, means the certificate of incorporation
issued to the company in terms of that Schedule, read with section 14 ; or

(iii) any other law, means any document issued to the company in terms of that
law as evidence of the company‟s incorporation; or

(c) registered external company, means the certificate of registration issued to it in
terms of this Act or the Companies Act, 1973 (Act No. 61 of 1973); or
[Para. (c) amended by s. 1 of Act 3/2011]

(d) a domesticated company, means the certificate issue d to it upon the transfer of its
registration to the Republic in terms of section 13 (5) to (11);
[Para. (d) inserted by s. 1 of Act 3/2011]

“registr y” means a depository of documents required to be kept by the Commission in
terms of section 187 (4);

“regulated person or entity” means a person that has been granted authority to
conduct business by a regulatory authority;

“regulation” means a regulation made under this Act;

“regulatory authority” means an entity established in terms of national or provincial
legislation respo nsible for regulating an industry, or sector of an industry;

“related” , when used in respect of two persons, means persons who are connected to
one another in any manner contemplated in section 2 (1)(a) to (c);

“relationship” includes the connection subsisting between any two or more persons
who are related or inter -related, as determined in accordance with section 2 ;

“rules” and “rules of a company” means any rules made by a company as
contemplated in section 15 (3) to (5);

“securities” means any shares, debentures or other instruments, irrespective of their
form or title, issued or authorised to be issued by a profit company;
[Definition of “securities” substituted by s. 1 of Act 3/2011]

“securities register” means the register required to be established by a profit company
in terms of section 50 (1);
[Definition of “securities register” inserted by s. 1 of Act 3/2011]

“series of integrated transactions” has the meaning set out in section 41 (4)(b)
[Definition of “series of integrated transactions” inserted by s. 1 of Act 3/2011]

“share” means one of the units into which the proprietary interest in a profit company
is divided;

“shareholder” , subject to section 57 (1), means the holder of a share issued by a
company and who is entered as such in the certificated or uncertificated securities
register, as the case may be;

“shareholders meeting” , with respect to any particular matter concerning a company,
means a meeting of those holders of that company‟s issued securities who are entitled
to exercise voting rights in relation to that matter;

“solvency and liquidity test” means the test set ou t in section 4 (1);

“special resolution” means –

(a) in the case of a company, a resolution adopted with the support of at 40 least 75%
of the voting rights exercised on the resolution, or a different percentage as
contemplated in section 65 (10) –

(i) at a shareholders meeting; or

(ii) by holders of the company‟s securities acting other than at a meeting, as
contemplated in section 60 ; or

(b) in the case of any other juristic person, a decision by the owner or owners of that
person, or by another authorised person, that requires the highest level of support
in order to be adopted, in terms of the 50 relevant law under which that juristic
person was incorporated;
[Definition of “special resolution” substituted by s. 1 of Act 3/2011]

“state -owned company” means an enterprise that is registered in terms of this Act as a
company, and either –

(a) is listed as a public entity in Schedule 2 or 3 of the Public Finance Management
Act, 1999 (Act No. 1 of 1999); or
[Para. (a) substituted by s. 1 of Act 3/2011]

(b) is owned by a municipality, as contemplated in the Local Government: Municipal
Systems Act, 2000 (Act No. 32 of 2000), and is otherwise similar to an enterprise
referred to in paragraph (a);

“subsidiary” has the meaning determined in accordance with section 3;

“Takeover Regulations” means the regulations made by the Minister in terms of
sections 120 and 223 ;

“this Act” includes the Schedules and regulations;

“unalterable provision” means a provision of this Act that does not expressly
contemplate that its effect on any particular company may be negated, restricted,
limited, qualified, extended or otherwise altered in substance or effect by a company‟s
Memorandum of Incorporation or rules;

“uncertificated securities” means any securities defined as such in section 29 of the
Securities Ser vices Act, 2004 (Act No. 36 of 2004);

“uncertificated securities register” means the record of uncertificated securities
administered and maintained by a participant or central securities depository, as
determined in accordance with the rules of a centra l securities depository, and which
forms part of the relevant company‟s securities register established and maintained in
terms of Part E of Chapter 2 ;

“voting power” , with respect to any matter to be decided by a company, means the
voting rights that may be exercised in connection with that matter by a particular
person, as a percentage of all such voting rights;

“voting rights” , with respect to any matter to be decided by a company, means –

(a) the rights of any holder of the company‟s securities to vote in connection with
that matter, i n the case of a profit company; or

(b) the rights of a member to vote in connection with the matter, in the case of a non –
profit company;

“voting securities” , with respect to any particular matter, means securities that –

(a) carry voting rights with respect to that matter; or

(b) are presently convertible to securities that carry voting rights with respect to that
matter; and

“wholly -owned subsidiary” has the meaning determined in accordance with section
3(1)(b).

2. Related and inter -related persons, and control

(1) For all purposes of this Act –

(a) an individual is related to another individual if they –

(i) are married, or live together in a relationship similar to a marriage; or

(ii) are separated by no more than two degrees of natural or adopted
consanguinity or affinity;

(b) an individual is related to a juristic person if the individual directly or
indirectly controls the juristic person, as determined in accordance with
subsection (2); and

(c) a juristic person is related to another juristic person if –

(i) either of them directly or indirectly controls the other, or the business
of the other, as determined in accordan ce with subsection (2);

(ii) either is a subsidiary of the other; or

(iii) a person directly or indirectly controls each of them, or the business
of each of them, as determined in accordance with subsection (2).

(2) For the purpose of subsection (1), a person controls a juristic person, or its
business, if –

(a) in the case of a juristic person that is a company –

(i) that juristic person is a subsidiary of that first person, as determined in
accordance with section 3 (1)(a);or

(ii) that first person together with any related or inter -related person, is –

(aa) directly or indirectly able to exercise or control the exercise of a
majority of the voting rights associated with securities of that
company, whether pursuant to a shareholder agreement or
otherwise; or

(bb) has the right to appoint or elect, or control the appointment or
election of, directors of that company who control a majority of
the votes at a meeting of the board;

(b) in the case of a juristic person that is a close corporation, that first person
owns the majority of the members‟ interest, or controls directly, or has the
right to contr ol, the majority of members‟ votes in the close corporation;

(c) in the case of a juristic person that is a trust, that first person has the ability
to control the majority of the votes of the trustees or to appoint the majority
of the trustees, or to ap point or change the majority of the beneficiaries of
the trust; or

(d) that first person has the ability to materially influence the policy of the
juristic person in a manner comparable to a person who, in ordinary
commercial practice, would be able to e xercise an element of control
referred to in paragraph (a), (b) or (c).

(3) With respect to any particular matter arising in terms of this Act, a court, the
Companies Tribunal or the Panel may exempt any person from the application of
a provision of this Act that would apply to that person because of a relationship
contemplated in subsection (1) if the person can show that, in respect of that
particular matter, there is sufficient evidence to conclude that the person acts
independently of any related or i nter -related person.

3. Subsidiary relationships

(1) A company is –

(a) a subsidiary of another juristic person if that juristic person, one or more
other subsidiaries of that juristic person, or one or more nominees of that
juristic person or any of its subsidiaries, alone or in any combination –

(i) is or are directly or indirectly able to exercise, or control the exercise
of, a majority of the general voting rights associated with issued
securities of that company, whether pursuant to a shareholde r
agreement or otherwise; or

(ii) has or have the right to appoint or elect, or control the appointment or
election of, directors of that company who control a majority of the
votes at a meeting of the board; or

(b) a wholly -owned subsidiary of another juristic person if all of the general
voting rights associated with issued securities of the company are held or
controlled, alone or in any combination, by persons contemplated in
paragraph (a).

(2) For the purpose of determining whether a person contr ols all or a majority of the
general voting rights associated with issued securities of a company –

(a) voting rights that are exercisable only in certain circumstances are to be
taken into account only –

(i) when those circumstances have arisen, and for so long as they
continue; or

(ii) when those circumstances are under the control of the person holding
the voting rights;

(b) voting rights that are exercisable only on the instructions or with the
consent or concurrence of another person are to be tr eated as being held by
a nominee for that other person; and

(c) voting rights held by –

(i) a person as nominee for another person are to be treated as held by
that other person; or

(ii) a person in a fiduciary capacity are to be treated as held by the
beneficiary of those voting rights.

(3) For the purposes of subsection (2), „hold‟, or any derivative of it, refers to the
registered or direct or indirect beneficial holder of securities conferring a right to
vote.

4. Solvency and liquidity test

(1) For any purpose of this Act, a company satisfies the solvency and liquidity test at
a particular time if, considering all reasonably foreseeable financial circumstances
of the company at that time –

(a) the assets of the company , as fairly valued, equal or exceed the liabilities of
the company , as fairly valued; and
[Para. (a) substituted by s. 2 of Act 3/2011]

(b) it appears that the company will be able to pay its debts as they become due
in the ordinary course of business for a period of –

(i) 12 months after the date on which the test is considered; or

(ii) in the case of a distribution contemplated in paragraph (a) of the
definition of „distribution‟ in section 1 , 12 months following that
distribution.

(2) For the purposes contemplated in subsection (1) –

(a) any financial information to be considered concerning the company must be
based on –

(i) accounting records that satisfy the requirements of section 28 ; and

(ii) financial statements that satisfy the requirements of section 29 ;

(b) subject to paragraph (c), the board or any other person applying the
solvency and liquidity test to a company –

(i) must consider a fair valuation of th e company‟s assets and liabilities,
including any reasonably foreseeable contingent assets and liabilities,

irrespective of whether or not arising as a result of the proposed
distribution, or otherwise; and

(ii) may consider any other valuation of the co mpany‟s assets and
liabilities that is reasonable in the circumstances; and

(c) unless the Memorandum of Incorporation of the company provides
otherwise, when applying the test in respect of a distribution contemplated
in paragraph (a) of the definition of “distribution” in section 1 , a person is
not to include as a liability any amount that would be required, if the
company were to be liquidated at the time of the distribution, to satisfy the
preferential rights upon liquidation of shareholders whose preferential
rights upon liquidation are superior to the preferential rights upon
liquidation of those receiving the distribution.
[Para. (c) substitute d by s. 2 of Act 3/2011]

5. General interpretation of Act

(1) This Act must be interpreted and applied in a manner that gives effect to the
purposes set out in section 7 .

(2) To the extent appropriate, a court interpreting or applying this Act may consider
foreign company law.

(3) When, in this Act, a particular number of „business days‟ is provided for between
the happening of one event and another, the number of days must be calculated
by –

(a) excluding the day on which the first such event occurs;

(b) including the day on or by which the second e vent is to occur; and

(c) excluding any public holiday, Saturday or Sunday that falls on or between
the days contemplated in paragraphs (a) and (b), respectively.

(4) If there is an inconsistency between any provision of this Act and a provision of
any other national legislation –

(a) the provisions of both Acts apply concurrently, to the extent that it is
possible to apply and comply with one of the inconsistent provisions
without contravening the second; and

(b) to the extent that it is impossible to apply or comply with one of the
inconsistent provisions without contravening the second –

(i) any applicable provisions of the –

(aa) Auditing Profession Act;

(bb) Labour Relations Act, 1995 (Act No. 66 of 1995);

(cc) Promotion of Access to Information Act, 2000 (Act No. 2 of
2000);

(dd) Promotion of Administrative Justice Act, 2000 (Act No. 3 of
2000);

(ee) Public Finance Management Act, 1999 (Act No. 1 of 1999);

(ff) Securities Services Act, 2004 (Act No. 36 of 2004);
[Item (ff) subs tituted by s. 3 of Act 3/2011]

(gg) Banks Act;
[Item (gg) substituted by s. 3 of Act 3/2011]

(hh) Local Government: Municipal Finance Management Act, 2003
(Act No. 56 of 2003); or
[Item (hh) added by s. 3 of Act 3/2011]

(ii) Section 8 of the National Payment System Act, 1998 (Act No.
78 of 1998).
[Item (ii) added by s. 3 of Act 3/2011]

prevail in the case of an inconsistency involving any of them, except
to the extent provided otherwise in sections 30 (8) or 49 (4); or
[Words following item (ii) substituted by s. 3 of Act 3/2011]

(ii) the provisions of this Act prevail in any other case, except to the
extent provided otherwise in subsection (5) or section 118 (4).

(5) If there is a conflict between a provision of Chapter 8 and a provision of the
Public Service Act, 1994 (Proclamation No.103 of 1994), the provisions of that
Act p revail.

(6) If there is a conflict between any provision of this Act and a provision of the
listing requirements of an exchange –

(a) the provisions of both this Act and the listing requirements apply
concurrently, to the extent that it is possible to apply and comply with one
of the inconsistent provisions without contravening the second; and

(b) to the extent that it is impossible to apply and comply with one of the
inconsistent provisions without contravening the second, the provisions of
this Act prevail, except to the extent that this Act expressly provides
otherwise.
[Subs. (6) inserted by s. 3 of Act 3/2011]

6. Anti -avoidance, exemptions and substantial compliance

(1) A court, on application by the Commission, Panel or an exchange in respect of a
company listed on that exchange, may declare any agreement, transaction,

arrangement, resolution or provision of a company‟s Memorandum of
Incorporation or rules –
[Words preced ing para. (a) substituted by s. 4 of Act 3/2011]

(a) to be primarily or substantially intended to defeat or reduce the effect of a
prohibition or requirement established by or in terms of an unalterable
provision of this Act; and

(b) void to the extent that it defeats or reduces the effect of a prohibition or
requirement established by or in terms of an unalterable provision of this
Act.

(2) A person may apply to the Companies Tribunal for an administrative order
exempting an agreement, transaction, arrangement, resolution or provision of a
company‟s Memorandum of Incorporation or rules from any prohibition or
requirement established by or in terms of an unalterable provision of this Act,
other than a provision that falls within the jurisdiction of th e Panel.

(3) The Companies Tribunal may make an administrative order contemplated in
subsection (2) if it is satisfied that –

(a) the agreement, transaction, arrangement, resolution or provision serves a
reasonable purpose other than to defeat or reduce the effect of that
prohibition or requirement; and

(b) it is reasonable and justifiable to grant the exemption, having regard to the
purposes of this Act and all relevant factors, including –

(i) the purpose and policy served by the relevant prohibitio n or
requirement; and

(ii) the extent to which the agreement, transaction, arrangement,
resolution or provision infringes or would infringe the relevant
prohibition or requirement.

(4) The producer of a prospectus, notice, disclosure or document that is required, in
terms of this Act, to be published, produced or provided to a potential investor, a
company‟s creditor or potential creditor, a holder of a company‟s securities, a
member of a non -profit company, an employee of a company or a representative
of any employees of a company, must publish, produce, or provide that
prospectus, notice, disclosure or document –

(a) in the prescribed form, if any, for that prospectus, notice, disclosure or
document, or;

(b) in plain language, if no form has been p rescribed for that prospectus, notice,
disclosure or document.

(5) For the purposes of this Act, a prospectus, notice, disclosure or document is in
plain language if it is reasonable to conclude that a person of the class of persons

for whom the prospect us, notice, disclosure or document is intended, with
average literacy skills and minimal experience in dealing with company law
matters, could be expected to understand the content, significance and import of
the prospectus, notice, disclosure or document without undue effort, having
regard to –

(a) the context, comprehensiveness and consistency of the prospectus, notice,
disclosure or document;

(b) the organisation, form and style of the prospectus, notice, disclosure or
document;

(c) the vocabulary, usage and sentence structure of the prospectus, notice,
disclosure or document; and

(d) the use of any illustrations, examples, headings or other aids to reading and
understanding in the prospectus, notice, disclosure or document.

(6) The Commission ma y publish guidelines for methods of assessing whether a
prospectus, notice, disclosure or document satisfies the requirements of
subsection (4)(b).

(7) An unaltered electronically or mechanically generated reproduction of any
document, other than a share certificate, may be substituted for the original for
any purpose for which the original could be used in terms of this Act, if that
reproduction satisfies any applicable prescribed requirements as to the form or
manner of reproduction .
[Subs. (7) substitu ted by s. 4 of Act 3/2011]

(8) If a form of document, record, statement or notice is prescribed in terms of this
Act for any purpose –

(a) it is sufficient if the person required to prepare or complete such a
document, record, statement or notice does so in a form that satisfies all of
the substantive requirements of the prescribed form; and

(b) any deviation from the design or content of the prescribed form does not
invalidate the action taken by the person preparing or completing that
document, reco rd, statement or notice, unless the deviation –

(i) negatively and materially affects the substance of the document,
record, statement or notice; or

(ii) is such that it would reasonably mislead a person reading the
document, record, statement or notice.

(9) If a manner of delivery of a document, record, statement or notice is prescribed in
terms of this Act for any purpose –

(a) it is sufficient if the person required to deliver such a document, record,
statement or notice does so in a manner t hat satisfies all of the substantive
requirements as prescribed; and

(b) any deviation from the prescribed manner does not invalidate the action
taken by the person delivering that document, record, statement or notice,
unless the deviation –

(i) materi ally reduces the probability that the intended recipient will
receive the document, record, statement or notice; or

(ii) is such as would reasonably mislead a person to whom the document,
record, statement or notice is, or is to be, delivered.

(10) If, in terms of this Act, a notice is required or permitted to be given or published
to any person, it is sufficient if the notice is transmitted electronically directly to
that person in a manner and form such that the notice can conveniently be printed
by t he recipient within a reasonable time and at a reasonable cost.

(11) If, in terms of this Act, a document, record or statement, other than a notice
contemplated in subsection (10), is required –

(a) to be retained, it is sufficient if an electronic orig inal or reproduction of that
document is retained as provided for in section 15 of the Ele ctronic
Communications and Transactions Act; or

(b) to be published, provided or delivered, it is sufficient if –

(i) an electronic original or reproduction of that document, record or
statement is published, provided or delivered by electronic
communic ation in a manner and form such that the document, record
or statement can conveniently be printed by the recipient within a
reasonable time and at a reasonable cost; or

(ii) a notice of the availability of that document, record or statement,
summarising its content and satisfying any prescribed requirements, is
delivered to each intended recipient of the document, record or
statement, together with instructions for receiving the complete
document, record or statement.

(12) If a provision of this Act requires a document to be signed or initialled –

(a) by or on behalf of a person, that signing or initialling may be effected in
any manner provided for in the Electronic Communications and
Transactions Act; or

(b) by two or more persons, it is sufficient if –

(i) all of those persons sign a single original of the document, in person
or as contemplated in paragraph (a);or

(ii) each of those persons signs a separate duplicate original of the
document, in person or as contemplated in paragraph (a), and in such
a case, the several signed duplicate originals, when combined,
constitute the entire document.

(13) The Commission may –

(a) establish a system, using any means of electronic communication, to
facilitate the automated –

(i) reservation of names in terms of Part A of Chapter 2 or in terms of
any other legislation listed in Schedule 4 ;

(ii) incorporation and registration of companies or close corporations; or

(iii) fili ng of any information contemplated by this Act or by any
legislation listed in Schedule 4 ; or

(b) accredit an established system that –

(i) is capable of facilitating any activity contemplated in paragraph (a);
and

(ii) satisfies any prescribed requirements.

(14) The Minister may –

(a) make regulations relating to the standards of operation, accessibility,
technical requirements, service qua lity, and fees for the use of any system
contemplated in subsection 13; and
[Para. (a) substituted by s. 4 of Act 3/2011]

(b) declare any system established or accredited by the Commission to be an
acceptable mechanism for the filing of any particular do cument, in lieu of
any other requirements set out in legislation relating to the filing of that
document.

(15) To the extent that the specific content, or a particular effect, of any provision of a
company‟s Memorandum of Incorporation –

(a) is required of the company by or in terms of any applicable public
regulation, or by the listing requirements of an exchange; and

(b) has the effect of negating, restricting, limiting, qualifying, extending or
otherwise altering the substance or effect of an unalte rable provision of the
Act,

that provision of the company.s Memorandum of Incorporation must not be
construed as being contrary to section 15 (l)(a).

[Subs. (15) inserted by s. 4 of Act 3/2011]

Part B

Purpose and application

7. Purposes of Act

The purposes of this Act are to –

(a) promote compliance with the Bill of Rights as provided for in the Constitution, in
the application of company law;

(b) promote the development of the South African economy by –

(i) encouraging entrepreneurship and enterprise efficiency;

(ii) creating flexibility and simplicity in the formation and maintenance of
companies; and

(iii) encouraging transparency and high standards of corporate governance as
appropriate, given the significant role of enterprises within the social and
economic life of the nation;

(c) promote innovation and investment in the South African markets;

(d) reaffirm the concept of the company as a means of achieving economic and social
benefits;

(e) continue to provide for the creation and use of companies, in a manner that
enhances the economic welfare of South Africa as a partner within the global
economy;

(f) promote the develop ment of companies within all sectors of the economy, and
encourage active participation in economic organisation, management and
productivity;

(g) create optimum conditions for the aggregation of capital for productive purposes,
and for the investment of that capital in enterprises and the spreading of economic
risk;

(h) provide for the formation, operation and accountability of non -profit companies
in a manner designed to promote, support and enhance the capacity of such
companies to perform their func tions;

(i) balance the rights and obligations of shareholders and directors within companies;

(j) encourage the efficient and responsible management of companies;

(k) provide for the efficient rescue and recovery of financially distressed companies,
in a manner that balances the rights and interests of all relevant stakeholders; and

(l) provide a predictable and effective environment for the efficient regulation of
companies.

8. Categories of companies

(1) Two types of companies may be formed and incorporated under this Act, namely
profit companies and non -profit companies.

(2) A profit company is –

(a) a state -owned company; or

(b) a private company if –

(i) it is not a state -owned company; and

(ii) its Memorandum of Incorporation –

(aa) prohibits it from offering any of its securities to the public; and

(bb) restricts the transferability of its securities;

(c) a personal liability company if –

(i) it meets the criteria for a private company; and

(ii) its Memorandum of Incorporation states that it is a personal liability
company; or

(d) a public company, in any other case.

(3) No association of persons formed after 31 December 1939 for the purpose of
carrying on any business that has for its object the acquisition of gain by the
association or its individual members is or may be a company or other form of
body corporate unless it –

(a) is registered as a company under this Act;

(b) is formed pursuant to another law; or

(c) was formed pursuant to Letters Patent or Royal Charter before 31 May
1962.

9. Modified application with respect to state -owned companies

(1) Subject to section 5 (4) and (5), any provision of this Act that applies to a public
company applies also to a state -owned company, except to the extent that the
Minister has granted an exemption in terms of subsection (3).

(2) The member of the Cabinet respo nsible for –

(a) state -owned companies may request the Minister to grant a total, partial or
conditional exemption from one or more provisions of this Act, applicable
to all state -owned companies, any class of state -owned companies, or to one
or more part icular state -owned company; or

(b) local government matters may request the Minister to grant a total, partial
or conditional exemption from one or more provisions of this Act,
applicable to all state -owned companies owned by a municipality, any class
of such enterprises, or to one or more particular such enterprises,

on the grounds that those provisions overlap or duplicate an applicable regulatory
scheme established in terms of any other national legislation.

(3) The Minister, by notice in the Gazette after receiving the advice of the
Commission, may grant an exemption contemplated in subsection (2) –

(a) only to the extent that the relevant alternative regulatory scheme ensures the
achievement of the purposes of this Act at least as well as th e provisions of
this Act; and

(b) subject to any limits or conditions necessary to ensure the achievement of
the purposes of this Act.

10. Modified application with respect to non -profit companies

(1) Every provision of this Act applies to a non -prof it company, subject to the
provisions, limitations, alterations or extensions set out in this section, and in
Schedule 1 .

(2) The following provisions of this Act, and any regulations made in respect of
any such provisions, do not apply to a non -profit company:

(a) Pa rt D of Chapter 2 – Capitalisation of profit companies.

(b) Part E of Chapter 2 – Securities registration and transfer.

(c) Section 66 (8) and (9) and section 68 – Remuner ation and election of
directors.

(d) Parts B and D of Chapter 3 – Company secretaries, and audit committees,
except to the extent that an obligation to appoint a company secretary,
auditor or audit committee arises in terms of –

(i) a requirement in the company‟s Memorandum of Incorporation, as
contemplated in section 34 (2); or

(ii) regulations contemplated in section 30 (7).

(e) Chapter 4 – Public offerings of company securities.

(f) Chapter 5 – Takeovers, offers and fundamental transactions, except to the
extent contemplated in item 2 of Schedule 1 .

(g) Sections 146 (d), and 152 (3)(c) – Rights of shareholders to approve a
business rescue plan, except to the extent that the non -profit company is
itself a shareholder of a profit company that is engaged in business rescue
proceedings.

(h) Section 164 – Dissenting shareholders‟ appraisal rights, except to the extent
that the non -profit company is itself a shareholder of a profit company.
[Subs. (2) substituted by s. 5 of Act 3/ 2011]

(3) Sections 58 to 65 , read with the changes required by the context –

(a) apply to a non -profit company only if the company has voting members;
and

(b) when applied to a non -profit company, are subject to the provisions of item
4 of Schedule 1 .

(4) With respect to a non -profit company that has voting members, a reference in this
Act to “a shareholder”, “the holders of a company‟s securities”, “holders of
issued securities of that company” or “a holder of voting rights entitled to be
voted‟ is a reference to the voti ng members of the non -profit company.

CHAPTER 2

FORMATION, ADMINISTRATION AND DISSOLUTION OF COMPANIES

Part A

Reservation and registration of company names

11. Criteria for names of companies

(1) Subject to subsections (2) and (3), a company name –

(a) may comprise one or more words in any language, irrespective of whether
the word or words are commonly used or contrived for the purpose,
together with –
[Words preceding subpara. (1) substituted by s. 6 of Act 3/2011]

(i) any letters, numbers or punctuation marks;

(ii) any of the following symbols: +, &, #, @, %, =; „„;
[Subpara. (ii) substituted by s. 6 of Act 3/2011] (Commencement date of subpara (ii): 3 years from the date of
commencement of this Act)

(iii) any other symbol permitted by the regulations made in terms of
subsection (4); or
(Commencement date of subpara (iii): 3 years from the date of
commencement of this Act)

(iv) round brackets used in pairs to isolate any other part of the name,

alone or in any combination; or

(b) in the case of a profit company, may be the registration number of the
company together with the relevant expressions required by subsection (3).

(2) The name of a company must –

(a) not be the same as –

(i) the name of another company, domesticated company, registered
external company, close corporation or co -operative ;

(ii) a name registered for the use of a person, other than the company
itself or a person controlling the company, as a defensive name in
terms of section 12 (9), or as a business name in terms of the Business
Names Act, 1960 (Act No. 27 of 1960), unless the registered user of
that defensive name or business name has executed the necessary
documents to transfer the registration in favour of the company;

(iii) a registered trade mark belonging to a person other than the company,
or a mark in respect of which an application has been filed in the
Republic for registration as a trade mark or a well -known trademark
as contemplated in section 35 of the Trade Marks Act, 1993 (Act No.
194 of 1993), unless the registered owner of that mark has consented
in writing to the use of the mark as the name of the company; or

(iv) a mark, word or expression the use of which is restricted or protected
in terms of the Merchandise Marks Act, 1941 (Act No. 17 of 1941),
except to the extent permitted by or in terms of that Act;
[Para. (a) substituted by s. 6 of Act 3/2011]

(b) not be confusingly simi lar to a name, trade mark, mark, word or expression
contemplated in paragraph (a) unless –

(i) in the case of names referred to in paragraph (a)(i), each company
bearing any such similar name is a member of the same group of
companies;

(ii) in the case of a company name similar to a defensive name or to a
business name referred to in paragraph (a)(ii), the company, or a
person who controls the company, is the registered owner of that
defensive name or business name;

(iii) in the case of a name similar to a trade mark or mark referred to in
paragraph (a)(iii), the company is the registered owner of the business
name, trade mark or mark, or is authorised by the registered owner to
use it; or

(iv) in the case of a name similar to a mark, word or expression referred to
in paragraph (a)(iv), the use of that mark, word or expression by the
company is permitted by or in terms of the Merchandise Marks Act,
1941;
[Para. (b) inserted by s. 6 of Act 3/2011]

(c) not falsely imply or suggest, or be such as would reasonably mislead a
person to believe incorrectly, that the company –

(i) is part of, or associated with, any other person or entity;

(ii) is an organ of state or a court, or is operated, sponsored, supported or
endorsed by the State or by any organ of state or a court;

(iii) is owned, managed or conducted by a person or persons having any
particular educational designation or who is a regulated person or
entity;

(iv) is owned, operated, sponsored, supported or endorsed by, or enjoys
the pa tronage of, any –

(aa) foreign state, head of state, head of government, government or
administration or any department of such a government or
administration; or

(bb) international organisation; and
[Original para. (b) renumbered as para. (c) by s. 6 o f Act 3/2011]

(d) not include any word, expression or symbol that, in isolation or in context
within the rest of the name, may reasonably be considered to constitute –

(i) propaganda for war;

(ii) incitement of imminent violence; or

(iii) advocacy of hatred based on race, ethnicity, gender or religion, or
incitement to cause harm.
[Original para. (c) renumbered as para. (d) by s. 6 of Act 3/2011]

(3) In addition to complying with the requirements of subsections (1) and (2) –

(a) if the name of a profit company is the company‟s registration number, as
contemplated in subsection (1)(b), that number must be immediately
followed by the expression “(South Africa)”;

(b) if the company‟s Memorandum of Incorporation includes any
provision contemplated in section 15 (2)(b) or (c) restricting or prohibiting
the amendment of any particular provision of the Memorandum, the name
must be immediately follow ed by the expression “(RF)”; and
[Para. (b) substituted by s. 6 of Act 3/2011]

(c) a company name, irrespective of its form or language, must end with one of
the following expressions, as appropriate for the category of the particular
company:

(i) The word “Incorporated” or its abbreviation “Inc. “, in the case of a
personal liability company.

(ii) The expression “Proprietary Limited” or its abbreviation, “(Pty)
Ltd.”, in the case of a private company.

(iii) The word “Limited” or its abbreviation, “ Ltd.”, in the case of a public
company.

(iv) The expression “SOC Ltd.” in the case of a state -owned company.

(v) The expression “NPC”, in the case of a non -profit company.

(4) The Minister may prescribe –

(a) additional commonly recognised symbols for use in company names as
contemplated in subsection (l)(a)(iii); and

(b) alternative expressions, in any official language, which may be used in
substitution for any expression required to follow a company‟s name in
terms of subsection (3).
[Subs. (4) substituted by s. 6 of Act 3/2011]

12. Reservation of name and defensive names

(1) A person may reserve one or more names to be used at a later time, either for a
newly incorporated company, or as an amendment to the name of an existing
company, by fi ling an application together with the prescribed fee.

(2) The Commission must reserve each name as applied for in the name of the
applicant, unless –

(a) the applicant is prohibited, in terms of section 11 (2)(a), from using the
name as applied for; or

(b) the name as applied for is already reserved in terms of this section.
[Subs. (2) substituted by s. 7 of Act 3/2011]

(3) If, upon reserving a name in terms of subsection (2), there are reasonable grounds
for considering that the name may be inconsistent with the requirements of –

(a) section 11 (2)(b) or (c) –
[Words preceding subpara. (i) substituted by s. 7 of Act 3/2011]

(i) the Commission, by written notice, may require the applicant to serve
a copy of the application and name reservation on any particular
person, or class of persons, named in the notice, on the grounds that
the person or persons may have an interest in the use of the name that
has been reserved for the applicant; and

(ii) any person to whom a notice is requi red to be given in terms of
subparagraph (i) may apply to the Companies Tribunal for a
determination and order in terms of section 160 ; or

(b) section 11 (2)(d) –
[Words preceding subpara. (i) substituted by s. 7 of Act 3/2011]

(i) the Commission may refer the application and name reservation t o the
South African Human Rights Commission; and

(ii) the South African Human Rights Commission may apply to the
Companies Tribunal for a determination and order in terms of section
160 .

(4) A name reservation continues for a period of six months from the date of the
application, and may be extended by the Commission for good cause shown, on
application by the person for whom the name is reserved t ogether with the
prescribed fee, for a period of 60 business days at a time.

(5) A person for whom a name has been reserved in terms of subsection (2) may
transfer that reservation to another person by filing a signed notice of the transfer
together with the prescribed fee.

(6) If the Commission reasonably believes that an applicant in terms of subsection
(1), a person to whom a reserved name is to be transferred, or a person for whom
a name is reserved, may be attempting to abuse the name reservation s ystem for
the purpose of selling access to names, or trading in or marketing names, the
Commission may issue a notice to that person –

(a) requiring the person to show cause why that name should be reserved or
continue to be reserved, or why the reservati on should be transferred;

(b) refusing to extend a name reservation upon its expiry;

(c) refusing to transfer a reserved name; or

(d) cancelling a name reservation.

(7) If, as a result of a pattern of conduct by a person, or two or more persons who are
related or inter -related, the Commission has reasonable grounds to believe that
the person or persons have abused the name reservation system by –

(a) selling access to names, or trading in or marketing reserved names; or

(b) repeatedly attempting to reserve names for the purpose of selling access to
names, or trading in or marketing reserved names,

the Commission may apply to a court for an order prohibiting the person or
persons from applying to reserve any names in terms of this section for a p eriod
that the court considers just and reasonable in the circumstances.

(8) In considering whether a person has abused, or may be attempting to abuse, the
name reservation system as contemplated in subsection (6) or (7), the
Commission, Tribunal or a co urt may consider any relevant conduct by that
person or any related or inter -related person, including –
[Words preceding para. (a) substituted by s. 7 of Act 3/2011]

(a) the reservation of more than one name in a single application or a series of
applications;

(b) a pattern of repetitious applications to reserve a particular name or a
number of substantially similar names, or to extend the reservation of a
particular name;

(c) a failure to show good cause for a reservation period to be extended; or

(d) a pattern of unusually frequent transfers of reserved names without apparent
legitimate cause having regard to the nature of the person‟s profession or
business.

(9) Any person may on application on the prescribed form and on payment o f the
prescribed fee apply to the Commission to –

(a) register any name as a defensive name for a period of two years; or

(b) renew, for a period of two years, the registration of a name as a defensive
name,

in respect of which he or she has furnished proof, to the satisfaction of the
Commission, that he or she has a direct and material interest.

(10) The registration of a defensive name may be transferred to another person by
notice in the prescribed manner and form and upon payment of the prescribe d fee.
[Subs. (10) inserted by s. 7 of Act 3/2011]

Part B

Incorporation and legal status of companies

13. Right to incorporate company or transfer registration of foreign company
[Heading of s. 13 substituted by s. 8 of Act 3/2011]

(1) One or more persons, or an organ of state, may incorporate a profit company, and
an organ of state, a juristic person, or three or more persons acting in concert,
may incorporate a non -profit company, by –
[Words preceding para. (a) substituted by s. 8 of A ct 3/2011]

(a) completing, and each signing in person or by proxy, a Memorandum of
Incorporation –

(i) in the prescribed form; or

(ii) in a form unique to the company; and

(b) filing a Notice of Incorporation, in accordance with subsection (2).

(2 ) The Notice of Incorporation of a company must be –

(a) filed in the prescribed manner and form, together with the prescribed fee;
and
[Para. (a) substituted by s. 8 of Act 3/2011]

(b) accompanied by a copy of the Memorandum of Incorporation, subject to
any declaration contemplated in section 6 (14)(b).

(3) If a company‟s Memorandum of Incorporation includes any provision
contemplated in section 15 (2)(b) or (c), the Notice of Incorporation filed by the
co mpany must include a prominent statement drawing attention to each such
provision, and its location in the Memorandum of Incorporation.

(4) The Commission –

(a) may reject a Notice of Incorporation if the notice, or any thing required to
be filed with i t, is incomplete, or improperly completed in any respect,
subject to section 6 (8); and

(b) must reject a Notice of Incorporation if –

(i) the initia l directors of the company, as set out in the Notice, are fewer
than required by or in terms of section 66 (2); or

(ii) the Commission reasonably bel ieves that any of the initial directors of
the company, as set out in the Notice, are disqualified in terms of
section 69 (8), and the remaining direct ors are fewer than required by
or in terms of section 66 (2).

(5) Subject to subsections (6) and (7), a foreign company may apply in the prescribed
manner and form, accompanied by the prescribed application fee, to transfer its
registration to the Republic from the foreign jurisdiction in which it is registered,
and thereafter exists as a company in terms of this Act as if it had been originally
so in corporated and registered.
[Subs. (5) inserted by s. 8 of Act 3/2011]

(6) A foreign company may transfer its registration as contemplated in subsection (5)
if –

(a) the law of the jurisdiction in which the company is registered permits such a
transfer, and the company has complied with the requirements of that law in
relation to the transfer;

(b) the transfer has been approved by the company‟s shareholders –

(i) in accordance with the law of the jurisdiction in which the company is
registered, if tha t law imposes such a requirement; or

(ii) by the equivalent of a special resolution in terms of this Act, if the
law of the jurisdiction in which the company is registered does not
require such shareholder approval;

(c) the whole or greater part of its assets and undertaking are within the
Republic, other than the assets and undertaking of any subsidiary that is
incorporated outside the Republic;

(d) the majority of its shareholders are resident in the Republic;

(e) the majority of its directors are or will be South African citizens; and

(f) immediately following the transfer of registration, the company –

(i) will satisfy the solvency and liquidity test; and

(ii) will no longer be registered in another jurisdiction.
[Subs. (6) inserted by s. 8 of Act 3/2011]

(7) Despite satisfying the requirements of subsection (6), a foreign company may not
transfer its registration to the Republic as contemplated in subsection (5) if –

(a) the foreign company –

(i) is permitted, in terms of any law or its Articles or Memorandum of
Incorporation, to issue bearer shares; or

(ii) has issued any bearer shares that remain issued;

(b) the foreign company is in liquidation;

(c) a receiver or manager has been appointed, whether by a court or otherwise,
in rel ation to the property of the foreign company;

(d) the foreign company –

(i) is engaged in proceedings comparable to business rescue proceedings
in terms of this Act; or

(ii) is subject to an approved plan, or a court order, comparable to an
approved business rescue plan in terms of this Act; or

(iii) has entered into a compromise or arrangement with a creditor, and the
compromise or arrangement is in force; or

(e) an application has been made to a court in any jurisdiction, and not fully
disposed of –

(i) to put the foreign company into liquidation, to wind it up or to have it
declared insolvent;

(ii) for the approval of a compromise or arrangement between the foreign
company and a creditor; or

(iii) for the appointment of a receiver or administrator in relation to any
property of the foreign company.
[Subs. (7) inserted by s. 8 of Act 3/2011]

(8) The Minister may make regulations –

(a) prescribing forms and procedures for the consideration of applications
contemplated in subsection ( 5);

(b) for the registration of domesticated companies as contemplated in
subsections (5) to (7) and for the issuing of registration certificates to such
companies; and

(c) establishing requirements for each domesticated company to harmonise its
Memorandum of Incorporation with this Act.
[Subs. (8) inserted by s. 8 of Act 3/2011]

(9) Subsections (3) and (4) and section 14 , each read with the changes required by
the context, apply to an application in terms of subsections (5) to (7).
[Subs. (9) inserted by s. 8 of Act 3/2011]

(10) Upon compliance of the requirements for registration of a domesticated company
as contemplated in terms of this section, the Commissioner must issue to such
company a registration certificate to the effect that such registration has taken
place and that it deemed that the company has been incorporated under this Act.
[Subs. (10) inserted by s. 8 of Act 3/2011]

(11 ) The registration of a domesticated company in terms of subsections (5) to (9)
does not –

(a) establish a new juristic person;

(b) prejudice or affect the identity of the juristic person constituted by that
domesticated company, or its continuity as a juristic person;

(c) prejudice the rights of any person or affect the property, rights, liabilities or
obligations of that juristic person; or

(d) render ineffective any legal proceedings by or against that juristic person.
[Subs. (11) inserted by s. 8 of Act 3/2011]

14. Registration of company

(1) As soon as practicable after accepting a Notice of Incorporation in terms of
section 13 (1), or an application for the domestication of a foreign company in
terms of section 13 (5), the Commission must –
[Words preceding para. (a) substitut ed by s. 9 of Act 3/2011]

(a) assign to the company a unique registration number; and

(b) subject to subsection (2) –

(i) enter the prescribed information concerning the company in the
companies register;

(ii) endorse the Notice of Incorporation, and, if applicable, the copy of the
Memorandum of Incorporation filed with it, in the prescribed manner;
and

(iii) issue and deliver to the company a registration certificate in the
prescribed manner and form, dated as of the later of –

(aa) the date on , and time at, which the Commission issued the
certificate; or

(bb) the date, if any, stated by the incorporators in the Notice of
Incorporation.

(2) If the name of a company, as entered on the Notice of Incorporation –

(a) fails to satisfy the requir ements of section 11 (3), the Commission, in taking
the steps required by subsection (1)(b), may alter the name by inserting or
substituting the approp riate expressions as required by section 11 (3); or

(b) is a name that the company is prohibited, in terms of section 11 (2)(a), from
using, or is reserved in terms of section 12 for a person other than one of the
incorporators, the Commission –
[Words preceding subpara. (i) substituted by s. 9 of Act 3/2011]

(i) must take the steps set out in subsection (1)(b), using the company‟s
registration number, followed by “Inc.”, (Pty) Ltd”, “Ltd.”, “SOC”, or
NPC”, as appropriate, as the interim name of the company in the
companies register and on the registration certificate;

(ii) must invite the company to file an amended Notice of Incorporation
using a sati sfactory name; and

(iii) when the company files such an amended Notice of Incorporation,
must –

(aa) enter the company‟s amended name in the companies register;
and

(bb) issue and deliver to the company an amended registration
certificate showing the amended name of the company.

(3) If, upon registering a company in terms of subsection (1), there are reasonable
grounds for considering that the company‟s name may be inconsistent with the
requirements of –
[Words preceding para. (a) substituted by s. 9 of Act 3/2011]

(a) section 11 (2)(b) or (c) –
[Words preceding subpara. (i) substituted by s. 9 of Act 3/2011]

(i) the Commission, by written notic e, may require the applicant to serve
a copy of the application and name reservation on any particular
person, or class of persons, named in the notice, on the grounds that
the person or persons may have an interest in the use of the reserved
name by the a pplicant; and

(ii) any person contemplated in subparagraph (i) may apply to the
Companies Tribunal for a determination and order in terms of section
160 ; or

(b) section 11 (2)(d) –
[Words preceding subpara. (i) substituted by s. 9 of Act 3/2011]

(i) the Commission may refer the application and name reservation to the
South African Human Rights Commission; and

(ii) the South African Human Rights Commission may apply to the
Companies Tribunal for a determination and order in terms of section
160 .

(4) A registration certificate issued in terms of subsection (1) is conclusive evidence
that –

(a) all the requirements for the incorporation of the company have been
complied wit h; and

(b) the company is incorporated under this Act as from the date, and the time, if
any, stated in the certificate.

15. Memorandum of Incorporation, shareholder agreements and rules of company

(1) Each provision of a company‟s Memorandum of Incorporation –

(a) must be consistent with this Act; and

(b) is void to the extent that it contravenes, or is inconsistent with, this Act,
subject to section 6 (15).
[Para. (b) substituted by s. 10 of Act 3/2011]

(2) The Memorandum of Incorporation of any company may –

(a) include any provision –

(i) dealing with a matter that this Act does not address;
[Subpara. (i) substituted by s. 10 of Act 3/2011]

(ii) altering the effect of any alterable provision of this Act; or
[Subpara. (ii) substituted by s. 10 of Act 3/2011]

(iii) imposing on the co mpany a higher standard, greater restriction, longer
period of time or any similarly more onerous requirement, than would
otherwise apply to the company in terms of an unalterable provision
of this Act;
[Subpara. (iii) inserted by s. 10 of Act 3/2011]

(b) contain any restrictive conditions applicable to the company, and any
requirement for the amendment of any such condition in addition to the
requirements set out in section 16 ;
[Para. (b) substituted by s. 10 of Act 3/2011]

(c) prohibit the amendment of any particular provision of the Memorandum of
Incorporation; or
[Para. (c) substituted by s. 10 of Act 3/2011]

(d) not include any provision that negates, restricts, limits, qualifies, extends or
otherwise alters the substance or effect of an unalterable provision of this
Act, except to the extent contemplated in paragraph (a)(iii).
[Para. (d) inserted by s. 10 of Act 3/2011]

(3) Except to the extent that a company‟s Memorandum of Incorporation provides
otherwise, the board of the company may make, amend or repeal any necessary or
incidental rules relating to th e governance of the company in respect of matters
that are not addressed in this Act or the Memorandum of Incorporation, by –

(a) publishing a copy of those rules, in any manner required or permitted by the
Memorandum of Incorporation, or the rules of the company; and

(b) filing a copy of those rules.

(4) A rule contemplated in subsection (3) –

(a) must be consistent with this Act and the company‟s Memorandum of
Incorporation, and any such rule that is inconsistent with this Act or the
company‟s Memor andum of Incorporation is void to the extent of the
inconsistency;

(b) takes effect on a date that is the later of –

(i) 10 business days after the rule is filed in terms of subsection (3)(b); or
[Subpara. (i) substituted by s. 10 of Act 3/2011]

(ii) the date, if any, specified in the rule; and

(c) is binding –

(i) on an interim basis from the time it takes effect until it is put to a vote
at the next general shareholders meeting of the company; and

(ii) on a permanent basis only if it has been ra tified by an ordinary
resolution at the meeting contemplated in subparagraph (i).

(5) If a rule that has been filed in terms of subsection (3) is subsequently –

(a) ratified as contemplated in subsection (4)(c), the company must file a notice
of ratification within five business days in the prescribed manner and form;
or

(b) not ratified when put to a vote –

(i) the company must file a notice of non -ratification within five business
days after the vote, in the prescribed manner and form; and

(ii) the company‟s board may not make a substantially similar rule within
the ensuing 12 months, unless it has been approved in advance by
ordinary resolution of the shareholders .
[Subs. (5) substituted by s. 10 of Act 3/2011]

(5A) Any failure to ratify the rules of a company does not affect the validity of
anything done in terms of those rules during the period that they had an interim
effect as provided in subsection (4)(c)(i).
[Subs. (5A) inserted by s. 10 of Act 3/2011]

(6) A company‟s Memorandum o f Incorporation, and any rules of the company, are
binding –

(a) between the company and each shareholder;

(b) between or among the shareholders of the company; and

(c) between the company and –

(i) each director or prescribed officer of the company; or

(ii) any other person serving the company as a member of a committee of
the board,
[Subpara. (ii) substituted by s. 10 of Act 3/2011]

in the exercise of their respective functions within the company.

(7) The shareholders of a company may enter i nto any agreement with one another
concerning any matter relating to the company, but any such agreement must be
consistent with this Act and the company‟s Memorandum of Incorporation, and
any provision of such an agreement that is inconsistent with this A ct or the
company‟s Memorandum of Incorporation is void to the extent of the
inconsistency.

16. Amending Memorandum of Incorporation

(1) A company‟s Memorandum of Incorporation may be amended –

(a) in compliance with a court order in the manner contemplated in subsection
(4);

(b) in the manner contemplated in section 36 (3) and (4); or

(c) at any other time if a special resolution to amend it-

(i) is proposed by –

(aa) the board of the company; or

(bb) shareholders entitled to exercise at least 10 percent of the voting
rights that may be exercised on such a resolution; and

(ii) is adopted at a shareholders meeting, or in accordance w ith section
60 , subject to subsection (3).

(2) A company‟s Memorandum of Incorporation may provide different requirements
than those set out in subsection (1)(c)(i) with respect to proposals for
amendments.

(3) Despite subsection (1)(c)(ii), if a non -profit company has no voting members –

(a) the board of that company may amend its Memorandum of Incorporation in
the manner contemplated in subsection (1)(c)(i)(aa); and

(b) the requirements of subsection (1)(c)(ii) do not apply to the company.

(4) An amendment to a company‟s Memorandum of Incorporation required by any
court order –

(a) must be effected by a resolution of the company‟s bo ard; and

(b) does not require a special resolution as contemplated in subsection
(1)(c)(ii).

(5) An amendment contemplated in subsection (1)(c) may take the form of –

(a) a new Memorandum of Incorporation in substitution for the existing
Memorandum; o r

(b) one or more alterations to the existing Memorandum of Incorporation by –

(i) changing the name of the company;

(ii) deleting, altering or replacing any of its provisions;

(iii) inserting any new provisions into the Memorandum of Incorporation;
or

(iv) making any combination of alterations contemplated in this
paragraph.

(6) If a profit company amends its Memorandum of Incorporation in such a manner
that it no longer meets the criteria for its particular category of profit company,
the compa ny must also amend its name at the same time by altering the ending
expression as appropriate to reflect the category of profit company into which it
now falls.

(7) Within the prescribed time after amending its Memorandum of Incorporation, a
company must file a Notice of Amendment together with the prescribed fee, and –

(a) the provisions of section 13 (3) and (4)(a) and section 14 , each read with the
changes required by the context, apply to the filing of the Notice of
Amendment; and

(b) if the amendment to a company‟s Memorandum of Incorporatio n-

(i) has substituted a new Memorandum, as contemplated in subsection
(5)(a), the provisions of section 13 (2)(b), read with the changes
required by the context, apply to the filing of the Notice of
Amendment; or

(ii) has altered the existing Memorandum, as contemplated in subsection
(5)(b) –

(aa) the company must include a copy of the amendment with the
Notice of Amendment; and

(bb) the Commiss ion may require the company to file a full copy of
its amended Memorandum of Incorporation within a reasonable
time.

(8) If a company‟s amendment to its Memorandum of Incorporation includes a
change of the company‟s name –

(a) the provisions of section 14 (2) and (3), read with the changes required by
the context, apply afresh to the company; and

(b) if the amended name of the company –

(i) is reserved in terms of section 12 for that company, the Commission
must –

(aa) issue to the company an amended registration certificate; and

(bb) alter the name of the company on the companies register; or

(ii) is not reserved in terms of section 12 for that company, the
Commission must take t he steps set out in subparagraph (i), unless the
name is –

(aa) the registered name of another company, registered external
company, close corporation or co -operative; or

(bb) reserved in terms of section 12 for another person.

(9) An amendment to a Company‟s Memorandum of Incorporation takes effect –

(a) in the case of an amendment that changes the name of the company, on the
date set out in the amended registration certificate issued by the
Commission in terms of subsection (8), read with section 14 (1)(b)(iii); or

(b) in any other case, on the later of –

(i) the date on, and time at, which the Notice of Amendment is filed; or

(ii) the date, if any, set out in the Notice of Amendment.
[Subs. (9) substituted by s. 10 of Act 3/2011]

(10) If an amendment to the Memorandum of Incorporation of a personal liability
company has the effect of transforming that company into any other category of
company, the company must give at least 10 business days advance notice of the
filing of the notice of amendment to –

(a) any professional or industry regulatory authority that has jurisdiction over
the business activities carried on by the company; and

(b) any person who –

(i) in its dealings with the compa ny, may reasonably be considered to
have acted in reliance upon the joint and several liability of any of the
directors for the debts and liabilities of the company; or

(ii) may be adversely affected if the joint and several liability of any of
the direc tors for the debts and liabilities of the company is terminated
as a consequence of the amendment to the Memorandum of
Incorporation.
[Subs. (10) inserted by s. 11 of Act 3/2011]

(11) A person who receives, or is entitled to receive, a notice in terms of subsection
(10) may apply to a court in the prescribed manner and form for an order
sufficient to protect the interests of that person.
[Subs. (11) inserted by s. 11 of Act 3/2011]

17. Alterations, translations and consolidations of Memorandum of Incorp oration

(1) The board of a company, or an individual authorised by the board, may alter the
company‟s rules, or its Memorandum of Incorporation, in any manner necessary
to correct a patent error in spelling, punctuation, reference, grammar or similar
defect on the face of the document, by –

(a) publishing a notice of the alteration, in any manner required or permitted by
the Memorandum of Incorporation or the rules of the company; and

(b) filing a notice of the alteration.

(2) The Commission, or a director or shareholder of a company, may apply to the
Companies Tribunal for an administrative order setting aside the notice of an
alteration published in terms of subsection (1), only on the grounds that the
alteration exceeds the authority to correct a patent error or defect, as
contemplated in that subsection.

(3) At any time, a company that has filed its Memorandum of Incorporation may file
one or more translations of it, in any official language or languages of the
Republic.

(4) A translation of a company‟s Memorandum of Incorporation must be
accompanied by a sworn statement by the person who made the translation,
stating that it is a true, accurate and complete translation of the Memorandum of
Incorporation.

(5) At any time after a company has filed its Memorandum of Incorporation, and
subsequently filed one or more alterations or amendments to it –

(a) the company may file a consolidated revision of its Memorandum of
Incorporation, as so altered or amended; or

(b) the Commission may require the company to file a consolidated revision of
its Memorandum of Incorporation, as so altered or amended.

(6) A consolidated revision of a company‟s Memorandum of Incorporation must be
accompanied by –

(a) a sworn statement by a director of the company ; or

(b) a statement by an attorney or notary public,

stating that the consolidated revision is a true, accurate and complete
representation of the company‟s Memorandum of Incorporation, as altered and
amended up to the date of the statement.

18. Aut henticity of versions of memorandum of incorporation

(1) The Memorandum of Incorporation of a company, as altered or amended, prevails
in any case of a conflict between it and –

(a) a translation filed in terms of section 17 (3); or

(b) a consolidated revision filed in terms of section 17 (5), unless the
consolidated revision has subsequently been ratified by a special resolution
at a general shareholders meeting of the company.

(2) The latest version of a company‟s Memorandum of Incorporation that has been
endorsed by the Commission in terms of this Part prevails in the case of any
conflict between it and any other purported version of the company‟s
Memorandum of Incorporation.

19. Legal status of companies

(1) From the date and time that the incorporation of a company is registered, as stated
in its registration certificate, the company –

(a) is a juristic person, which exists continuously until its name is removed
from the companies register in accordance with this Act;

(b) has all of the legal powers and capacity of an individual, except to the
extent that –

(i) a juristic person is incapable of exercising any such power, or having
any such capacity; or

(ii) the company‟s Memorandum of Incorporation provides otherwise;

(c) is constituted in accordance with –

(i) the unalterable provisions of this Act;

(ii) the alterable provisions of this Act, subject to any negation,
restriction, limitation, qualification, extension or other alteration that
is contemplated in an alterable p rovision, and has been noted in the
company‟s Memorandum of Incorporation; and

(iii) any further provisions of the company‟s Memorandum of
Incorporation.

(2) A person is not, solely by reason of being an incorporator, shareholder or director
of a compa ny, liable for any liabilities or obligations of the company, except to
the extent that this Act or the company‟s Memorandum of Incorporation provides
otherwise.

(3) If a company is a personal liability company the directors and past directors are
jointl y and severally liable, together with the company, for any debts and
liabilities of the company as are or were contracted during their respective periods
of office.

(4) Subject to subsection (5), a person must not be regarded as having received notice
or knowledge of the contents of any document relating to a company merely
because the document –

(a) has been filed; or

(b) is accessible for inspection at an office of the company.

(5) A person must be regarded as having notice and knowledge of –

(a) any provision of a company‟s Memorandum of Incorporation contemplated
in section 15 (2)(b) or (c) if the company‟s name includes the element “RF”
as c ontemplated in section 11 (3)(b), and the company‟s Notice of
Incorporation or a subsequent Notice of Amendment has drawn attention to
the relevant provision, as contemplated in section 13 (3); and

(b) the effect of subsection (3) on a personal liability company.
[Subs. (5) substituted by s. 12 of Act 3/2011]

(6) If a company has amended its Memorandum of Incorporation, the Memorandum
of Incorporation as previously adopted by the company has no force or effect
with respect to any right, cause of action or matter occurring or arising after the
date on which the amendment took effect.

(7) After a company has changed its name, any legal proceedings that might have
been commence d or continued by or against the company under its former name
may be commenced or continued by or against it under its new name.

20. Validity of company actions

(1) If a company‟s Memorandum of Incorporation limits, restricts or qualifies the
purposes, powers or activities of that company, as contemplated in secti on
19 (1)(b)(ii) –

(a) no action of the company is void by reason only that –

(ii) the action was prohibited by that limitation, restriction or
qualification; or

(ii) as a consequence of that limitation, restriction or qualification, the
directors had no authority to authorise the action by the company; and

(b) in any legal proceeding, other than proceedings between –

(i) the company and its shareholders, directors or prescribed officers; or

(ii) the shareholders and directors or prescribed officer s of the company,

no person may rely on such limitation, restriction or qualification to assert
that an action contemplated in paragraph (a) is void.

(2) If a company‟s Memorandum of Incorporation limits, restricts or qualifies the
purposes, powers or activities of that company, or limits the authority of the
directors to perform an act on behalf of the company, the shareholders, by special
resolution, may ratify any action by the company or the directors that is
inconsistent with any such limit, restr iction or qualification, subject to subsection
(3).

(3) An action contemplated in subsection (2) may not be ratified if it is in
contravention of this Act.

(4) One or more shareholders, directors or prescribed officers of a company, or a
trade union representing employees of the company, may apply to the High Court
for an appropriate order to restrain the company from doing anything inconsistent
with this Act.
[Subs. (4) substituted by s. 13 of Act 3/2011]

(5) One or more shareholders, directors or prescribed officers of a company may
apply to the High Court for an appropriate order to restrain the company or the
directors from doing anything inconsistent with any limitation, restriction or
qualification contemplated in subsection (2), but any such p roceedings are
without prejudice to any rights to damages of a third party who –
[Words preceding para. (a) substituted by s. 13 of Act 3/2011]

(a) obtained those rights in good faith; and

(b) did not have actual knowledge of the limit, restriction or q ualification.

(6) Each shareholder of a company has a claim for damages against any person who
intentionally, fraudulently or due to gross negligence causes the company to do
anything inconsistent with –
[Words preceding para. (a) substituted by s. 13 of Act 3/2011]

(a) this Act; or

(b) a limitation, restriction or qualification contemplated in this section, unless
that action has been ratified by the shareholders in terms of subsection (2).

(7) A person dealing with a company in good faith, other th an a director, prescribed
officer or shareholder of the company, is entitled to presume that the company, in
making any decision in the exercise of its powers, has complied with all of the
formal and procedural requirements in terms of this Act, its Memora ndum of
Incorporation and any rules of the company unless, in the circumstances, the
person knew or reasonably ought to have known of any failure by the company to
comply with any such requirement.

(8) Subsection (7) must be construed concurrently with, and not in substitution for,
any relevant common law principle relating to the presumed validity of the
actions of a company in the exercise of its powers.

(9) If, on application by an interested person or in any proceedings in which a
company is involve d, a court finds that the incorporation of the company, any use
of the company, or any act by or on behalf of the company, constitutes an
unconscionable abuse of the juristic personality of the company as a separate
entity, the court may –

(a) declare that the company is to be deemed not to be a juristic person in
respect of any right, obligation or liability of the company or of a
shareholder of the company or, in the case of a non -profit company, a
member of the company, or of another person specified in the declaration;
and

(b) make any further order the court considers appropriate to give effect to a
declaration contemplated in paragraph (a).
[Subs. (9) inserted by s. 13 of Act 3/2011]

21. Pre -incorporation contracts

(1) A person may enter into a written agreement in the name of, or purport to act in
the name of, or on behalf of, an entity that is contemplated to be incorporated in
terms of this Act, but does not yet exist at the time.

(2) A person who does anything contemplated in subsection (1) is jointly and
severally liable with any other such person for liabilities created as provided for
in the pre -incorporation contract while so acting, if –

(a) the contemplated entity is not subsequently incorporated; or

(b) after being incorporated, the company rejects any part of such an agreement
or action.

(3) If, after its incorporation, a company enters into an agreement on the same terms
as, or in substitution for, an agreement contemplated in subsection (1), the
liability of a person under s ubsection (2) in respect of the substituted agreement is
discharged.

(4) Within three months after the date on which a company was incorporated the
board of that company may completely, partially or conditionally ratify or reject
any pre -incorporation co ntract or other action purported to have been made or
done in its name or on its behalf, as contemplated in subsection (1).

(5) If, within three months after the date on which a company was incorporated, the
board has neither ratified nor rejected a part icular pre -incorporation contract, or
other action purported to have been made or done in the name of the company, or
on its behalf, as contemplated in subsection (1), the company will be regarded to
have ratified that agreement or action.

(6) To the ext ent that a pre -incorporation contract or action has been ratified or
regarded to have been ratified in terms of subsection (5) –

(a) the agreement is as enforceable against the company as if the company had
been a party to the agreement when it was made; and

(b) the liability of a person under subsection (2) in respect of the ratified
agreement or action is discharged.

(7) If a company rejects an agreement or action contemplated in subsection (1), a
person who bears any liability in terms of subsection (2) for that rejected
agreement or action may assert a claim against the company for any benefit it has
received, or is entitled to receive, in terms of the agreement or action.

22. Reckless trading prohibited

(1) A company must not carry on its bus iness recklessly, with gross negligence, with
intent to defraud any person or for any fraudulent purpose.
[Subs. (1) substituted by s. 14 of Act 3/2011]

(2) If the Commission has reasonable grounds to believe that a company is engaging
in conduct prohibited by subsection (1), or is unable to pay its debts as they
become due and payable in the normal course of business, the Commission may
issue a notice to the company to show cause why the company should be
permitted to continue carrying on its busi ness, or to trade, as the case may be.
[Subs. (2) substituted by s. 14 of Act 3/2011]

(3) If a company to whom a notice has been issued in terms of subsection (2) fails
within 20 business days to satisfy the Commission that it is not engaging in
conduct prohibited by subsection (1), or that it is able to pay its debts as they

become due and payable in the normal course of business, the Commission may
issue a compliance notice to the company requiring it to cease carrying on its
business or trading, as the case may be.
[Subs. (3 substituted by s. 14 of Act 3/2011]

Part C

Transparency, accountability and integrity of companies

23. Registration of external companies and registered office

(1) An external company must register with the Commission within 20 business days
after it first begins to conduct business, or non -profit activities, as the case may
be, within the Republic –

(a) as an external non -profit company if, within the jurisdiction in which it was
incorporated, it meets legislative or defini tional requirements that are
comparable to the legislative or definitional requirements of a non -profit
company incorporated under this Act; or

(b) as an external profit company, in any other case;
[Para. (b) substituted by s. 15 of Act 3/2011]

(2) For the purposes of subsection (1), and the definition of “external company” as
set out in section 1, a foreign company must be regarded as “conducting business,
or non -profit activities, as the case may be, within the Republic” if that foreign
company –

(a) is a party to one or more employment contracts within the Republic; or

(b) subject to subsection (2A), is engaging in a course of conduct, or has
engaged in a course or pattern of activities within the Republic over a
period of at least six months, suc h as would lead a person to reasonably
conclude that the company intended to continually engage in business or
non -profit activities within the Republic.
[Original subs. (2) substituted by subs. (2) -(2A) of s. 15 of Act 3/2011] (2A) When applying subsection (2)(b), a foreign company must not be regarded as
“conducting business activities, or non -profit activities, as the case may be, within
the Republic” solely on the ground that the foreign company is or has engaged in
one or more of the following activities:

(a) Holding a meeting or meetings within the Republic of the shareholders or
board of the foreign company, or otherwise conducting any of the
company‟s internal affairs within the Republic;

(b) establishing or maintaining any bank or other financial accounts within the
Republic;

(c) establishing or maintaining offices or agencies within the Republic for the
transfer, exchange, or registration of the foreign company‟s own securities;

(d) creating or acquiring any debts within the Republic, or any mortgages or
security interests in any property within the Republic;

(e) securing or collecting any debt, or enforcing any mortgage or security
interest within the Republic; or

(f) acquiring any interest in any property within the Repu blic.
[Subs. (2A) inserted by s. 15 of Act 3/2011 as part of substitution of original subs. (2)]

(3) Each company or external company must –

(a) continuously maintain at least one office in the Republic; and

(b) register the address of its office, or its principal office if it has more than
one office –

(i) initially in the case of –

(aa) a company, by providing the required information on its Notice
of Incorporation; or

(bb) an external company, by providing the required information
when filing its registration in terms of subsection (1); and

(ii) subsequently, by filing a notice of change of registered office,
together with the prescribed fee.

(4) A change contemplated in subsection (3)(b)(ii) takes effect as from the later of –
[Words preceding para. (a) substituted by s. 15 of Act 3/2011]

(a) the date, if any, stated in the notice; or

(b) five business days after the date on which the notice was filed.

(5) The Commission must –

(a) assign a unique registration number to each ext ernal company that has
registered in accordance with subsection (1);

(b) maintain a register of external companies;

(c) enter the prescribed information concerning each external company in the
register; and

(d) in the case of an external company whose name is a foreign registration
number but does not indicate the name of the foreign jurisdiction in which it
was incorporated, append to its name on the registry the name of that
jurisdiction in a manner comparable to that required for a company under
section 11 (3)(a).

(6) If an external company has failed to register in terms of subsection (1) within
three months after commencing its activities within the Republic, the
Commission may issue a compliance notice to that external company requiring it
to –
[Words preceding para. (a) substituted by s. 15 of Act 3/2011]

(a) register as required by subsection (1) within 20 business days after
receiving the notice; or

(b) if it fails to register within the time allowed in paragraph (a), to cease
carrying on its business or activities within the Republic.

24. Form and standards for company records

(1) Any documents, accounts, books, writing, records or other information that a
company is required to keep in terms of this Act or any other public regulation
must be kept –

(a) in written form, or other form or manner that allows that information to be
convert ed into written form within a reasonable time; and

(b) for a period of seven years, or any longer period of time specified in any
other applicable public regulation, subject to subsection (2).

(2) If a company has existed for a shorter time than contem plated in subsection
(1)(b), the company is required to retain records for that shorter time.

(3) Every company must maintain –

(a) a copy of its Memorandum of Incorporation, and any amendments or
alterations to it, and any rules of the company made in terms of section
15 (3) to (5) ;

(b) a record of its directors, including –

(i) all the information required in terms of subsection (5) in respect of
each current director at any particular time; and

(ii) with respect to each past director, the information required in terms
of s ubparagraph (i), which must be retained for seven years after the
past director retired from the company;
[Para. (b) substituted by s. 16 of Act 3/2011]

(c) copies of all –

(i) reports presented at an annual general meeting of the company, for a
period of seven years after the date of any such meeting;

(ii) annual financial statements required by this Act, for seven years after
the date on which each such particular statements were issued; and

(iii) accounting records required by this Act, for the cu rrent financial year
and for the previous seven completed financial years of the company;

( d ) notice and minutes of all shareholders meetings, including –

(i) all resolutions adopted by them; and

(ii) any document that was made available by the comp any to the holders
of securities in relation to each such resolution,

for seven years after the date each such resolution was adopted;
[Para. (d) substituted by s. 16 of Act 3/2011]

(e) copies of any written communications sent generally by the company to all
holders of any class of the company‟s securities, for a period of seven years
after the date on which each such communication was issued; and

(f) minutes of all meetings and resol utions of directors, or directors‟
committees, or the audit committee, if any, for a period of seven years after
the date –

(i) of each such meeting; or

(ii) on which each such resolution was adopted.

(4) In addition to the requirements of subsection (3), every company must maintain –

(a) a securities register or its equivalent, as required by section 50 , in the case
of a profit company, or a member‟s register in the case of a non -profit
company that has members; and

(b) the records required in terms of section 85 , if that section applies to the
company.
[Subs. (4) substituted by s. 16 of Act 3/2011]

(5) A company‟s record of directors must include, in respect of each director, that
person‟s –

(a) full name, and any former names;

(b) identity number or, if the person does not have an identity number, the
person‟s date of birth;

(c) nationality and passport number, if the person is not a South African;

(d) occupation;

(e) date of their most recent election or appointment as director of the
company;

(f) name and registration numb er of every other company or foreign company
of which the person is a director, and in the case of a foreign company, the
nationality of that company; and

(g) any other prescribed information.

(6) To protect personal privacy, the Minister, by notice in the Gazette , may exempt
from the application of subsection (5)(a) categories of names as formerly used by
any person –

(a) before attaining majority, or by persons who have been adopted, married,
divorced or widowed; or

(b) in other circumstances presc ribed by the Minister.

25. Location of company records

(1) The records referred to in section 24 must be accessible at or from the company‟s
registered office or another location, or other locations, within the Republic.

(2) A company must file a notice, setting out the location or locations at which any
particular records referred to in section 24 are kept or from which they are
accessible if those records –

(a) are not kept at or made accessible from the company‟s registered office, as
contem plated in subsection (1); or

(b) are moved from one location to another.

26. Access to company records

(1) A person who holds or has a beneficial interest in any securities issued by a
profit company, or who is a member of a non -profit company, has a right to
inspect and copy, without any charge for any such inspection or upon payment of
no more than the prescribed maximum charge for any such copy, the information
contained in the following records of the company:

(a) The company‟s Memorandum of Incorporation and any amendments to it,
and any rules made by the company, as mentioned in section 24 (3)(a);

(b) the rec ords in respect of the company‟s directors, as mentioned in section
24 (3)(b);

(c) the reports to annual meetings, and annual financial statements, a s
mentioned in section 24 (3)(c)(i) and (ii);

(d) the notices and minutes of annual meetings, and communications
mentioned in section 24 (3)(d) and (e), but the reference in section 24 (3)(d)
to shareholders meetings, and the reference in section 24 (3)(e) to

communications sent to holders of a company‟s securities, must be regarded
in the case of a non -profit company as referring to a meeting of members,
or communication to members, respectively; and

(e) the securities register of a profit company, or the members register of a non –
profit company that has members, as mentioned in section 24 (4).
[Original subs. (1) substituted by subs. (1) -(5) of s. 17 of Act 3/2011]

(2) A person not contemplated in subsection (1) has a right to inspect or copy the
securities register of a profit company, or the members register of a non -profit
company that has members, or the register of directors of a company, upon
payment of an amount not exceeding the prescribed maximum fee for any such
inspec tion.
[Original subs. (2) substituted by subs. (1) -(5) of s. 17 of Act 3/2011]

(3) In addition to the information rights set out in subsections (1) and (2), the
Memorandum of Incorporation of a company may establish additional
information rights of any person, with respect to any information pertaining to the
company, but no such right may negate or diminish any mandatory protection of
any record required by or in terms of Part 3 of the Promotion of Access to
Information Act, 2000 (Act No. 2 of 2000).
[Subs. (3) inserted by s. 17 of Act 3/2011 as part of substitution of original subs. (1) -(2)]

(4) A person may exercise the rights set out in subsection (1) or (2), or contemplated
in subsection (3) –

(a) for a reasonable period during business hours;

(b) by direct request made to a company in the prescribed manner, either in
person or through an attorney or other personal r epresentative designated in
writing; or

(c) in accordance with the Promotion of Access to Information Act, 2000 (Act
No. 2 of 2000).
[Subs. (4) inserted by s. 17 of Act 3/2011 as part of substitution of original subs. (1) -(2)]

(5) Where a company recei ves a request in terms of subsection (4)(b) it must within
14 business days comply with the request by providing the opportunity to inspect
or copy the register concerned to the person making such request.
[Subs. (5) inserted by s. 17 of Act 3/2011 as part of substitution of original subs. (1) -(2)]

(6) The register of members and register of directors of a company, must, during
business hours for reasonable periods be open to inspection by any member, free
of charge and by any other person, upon payment f or each inspection of an
amount not more than R100,00.
[Original subs. (3) renumbered as subs. (6) by s. 17 of Act 3/2011]

(7) The rights of access to information set out in this section are in addition to, and
not in substitution for, any rights a person may have to access information in
terms of –

(a) section 32 of the Constitution;

(b) the Promotion of Access to Information Act, 2000 (Act No. 2 of 2000); or

(c) any other public regulation.
[Original subs. (4) renumbered as subs. (7) by s. 17 of Act 3/2011]

(8) The Minister may make regulations respecting the exercise of the ri ghts set out in
this section.
[Original subs. (5) renumbered as subs. (8) by s. 17 of Act 3/2011]

(9) It is an offence for a company to –

(a) fail to accommodate any reasonable request for access, or to unreasonably
refuse access, to any record that a p erson has a right to inspect or copy in
terms of this section or section 31 ; or
[Para. (a) substituted by s. 17 of Act 3/2011]

(b) to otherwise impede, interfere with, or attempt to frustrate, the reasonable
exercise by any person of the rights set out in this section or section 3 1.
[Para. (b) substituted by s. 17 of Act 3/2011] [Original subs. (6) renumbered as subs. (9) by s. 17 of Act 3/2011]

27. Financial year of company

(1) A company must have a financial year, ending on a date set out in the company‟s
Notice of Incorporation, subject to any change made in terms of subsection (4).

(2) The first financial year of a company –

(a) begins on the date that the incorporation of the company is registered, as
stated in its registration certificate; and

(b) ends on th e date set out in the Notice of Incorporation, which may not be
more than 15 months after the date contemplated in paragraph (a).

(3) The second and each subsequent financial year of a company –

(a) begins when the preceding financial year ends; and

(b) ends on the first anniversary of the date contemplated in paragraph (a),
unless the financial year end has been changed as contemplated in
subsection (4).

(4) The board of a company may change its financial year end at any time, by filing a
notice of that change, but –

(a) it may not do so more than once during any financial year;

(b) the newly established financial year end must be later than the date on
which the notice is filed; and

(c) the date as changed may not result in a financial year end ing more than 15
months after the end of the preceding financial year.

(5) Despite subsection (2)(b) or (3), the financial year of a company that has changed
the date contemplated in subsection (1) ends on the date as changed.

(6) ……….
[Subs. (6) deleted by s. 18 of Act 3/2011]

(7) The financial year of the company is its annual accounting period.

28. Accounting records

(1) A company must keep accurate and complete accounting records in one of the
official languages of the Republic –

(a) as necessary to enable the company to satisfy its obligations in terms of this
Act or any other law with respect to the preparation of financial statements;
and

(b) including any prescribed accounting records, which must be kept in the
prescribed manner and form.

(2) A company‟s accounting records must be kept at, or be accessible from, the
registered office of the company.

(3) It is an offence for –

(a) a company –

(i) with an intention to deceive or mislead any person –

(aa) to fail to keep accurate or complete accounting records;

(bb) to keep records other than in the prescribed manner and form, if
any; or

(ii) to falsify any of its accounting records, or permit any person to do so;
or

(b) any person to falsify a compa ny‟s accounting records.

(4) For greater certainty, the Commission may issue a compliance notice, as
contemplated in section 171 , to a company in r espect of any failure by the
company to comply with the requirements of this section, irrespective whether
that failure constitutes an offence in terms of subsection (3).

29. Financial statements

(1) If a company provides any financial statements, incl uding any annual financial
statements, to any person for any reason, those statements must –

(a) satisfy the financial reporting standards as to form and content, if any such
standards are prescribed;

(b) present fairly the state of affairs and business of the company, and explain
the transactions and financial position of the business of the company;

(c) show the company‟s assets, liabilities and equity, as well as its income and
expenses, and any other prescribed information;

(d) set out the date on which the statements were published, and the accounting
period to which the statements apply; and
[Para. (d) substituted by s. 19 of Act 3/2011]

(e) bear, on the first page of the statements, a prominent notice indicating –

(i) whether the statements –

(aa) have been audited in compliance with any applicable
requirements of this Act;

(bb) if not audited, have been independently reviewed in compliance
with any applicable requirements of this Act; or

(cc) have not been audited or independently rev iewed; and

(ii) the name, and professional designation, if any, of the individual who
prepared, or supervised the preparation of, those statements.

(2) Any financial statements prepared by a company, including any annual financial
statements of a compa ny as contemplated in section 30 , must not be –

(a) false or misleading in any material respect; or

(b) incomplete in any material particular, subject only to subsection (3).

(3) A company may provide any person with a summary of any particular financial
statements, but –

(a) any such summary must comply with any prescribed requirements; and

(b) the first page of the summary must bear a prom inent notice –

(i) stating that it is a summary of particular financial statements prepared
by the company, and setting out the date of those statements;

(ii) stating whether the financial statements that it summarises have been
audited, independently r eviewed, or are unaudited, as contemplated in
subsection (1)(e);

(iii) stating the name, and professional designation, if any, of the
individual who prepared, or supervised the preparation of, the
financial statements that it summarises; and

(iv) setti ng out the steps required to obtain a copy of the financial
statements that it summarises.

(4) Subject to subsection (5), the Minister, after consulting the Council, may make
regulations prescribing –

(a) financial reporting standards contemplated in th is Part; or

(b) form and content requirements for summaries contemplated in subsection
(3).

(5) Any regulations contemplated in subsection (4) –

(a) must promote sound and consistent accounting practices;

(b) in the case of financial reporting standards for public companies, must be in
accordance with the International Financial Reporting Standards of the
International Accounting Standards Board or its successor body; and
[Para. (b) substituted by s. 19 of Act 3/2011]

(c) may establish different standards applicable to –

(i) profit and non -profit companies; and

(ii) different categories of profit companies.

(6) Subject to secti on 214 (2), a person is guilty of an offence if the person is a party
to the preparation, approval, dissemination or publication of –

(a) any financial statements, including any annual financial statements
contemplated in section 30 , knowing that those statements –

(i) fail in a material way to comply with the requirements of subsection
(1); or
[Subpara. (i) substituted by s. 19 of Act 3/2011]

(ii) are materially false or misleading, as contemplated in subsection (2);
or

(b) a summary of any financial statements, knowing that –

(i) the statements that it summarises do not comply with the
requirements of subsection (1), or are materially false or m isleading,
as contemplated in subsection (2); or

(ii) the summary does not comply with the requirements of subsection
(3), or is materially false or misleading.

30. Annual financial statements

(1) Each year, a company must prepare annual financial st atements within six months
after the end of its financial year, or such shorter period as may be appropriate to
provide the required notice of an annual general meeting in terms of section
61 (7).

(2) The annual financial statements must –

(a) be audited, in the case of a public company; or

(b) in the case of any other profit o r non -profit company –
[Words preceding subpara. (i) substituted by s. 20 of Act 3/2011]

(i) be audited, if so required by the regulations made in terms of
subsection (7) taking into account whether it is desirable in the public
interest, having regard to the economic or social significance of the
company, as indicated by any relevant factors, including –
[Subpara. (i) substituted by s. 20 of Act 3/2011]

(aa) its annual turnover;

(bb) the size of its workforce; or

(cc) the nature and extent of its activities; or

(ii) be either –

(aa) audited voluntarily if the company‟s Memorandum of
Incorporation, or a shareholders resolution, so requires or if the
Company‟s board has so determined; or
[Item (aa) substituted by s. 20 of Act 3/2011]

(bb) independently reviewed in a manner that satisfies the
regulations made in terms of subsection (7), subject to
subsection (2A).
[Item (bb) substituted by s. 20 of Act 3/2011]

(2A) If, with respect to a particular company, every person who is a holder of, or has a
beneficial interest in, any securities issued by that company is also a director of
the company, that company is exempt from the requirements in this section to
have its annual financial statements audited or independently reviewed, but this
exemp tion –

(a) does not apply to the company if it falls into a class of company that is
required to have its annual financial statement audited in terms of the
regulations contemplated in subsection (7)(a); and

(b) does not relieve the company of any requirement to have its financial
statements audited or reviewed in terms of another law, or in terms of any
agreement to which the company is a party.
[Subs. (2A) inserted by s. 20 of Act 3/2011]

(3) The annual financial statements of a company must –

(a) include an auditor‟s report, if the statements are audited;

(b) include a report by the directors with respect to the state of affairs, the
business and profit or loss of the company, or of the group of companies, if
the company is part of a group, i ncluding –

(i) any matter material for the shareholders to appreciate the company‟s
state of affairs; and

(ii) any prescribed information;

(c) be approved by the board and signed by an authorised director; and

(d) be presented to the first shareholders meeting after the statements have been
approved by the board.

(4) The annual financial statements of each company that is required in terms of this
Act to have its annual financial statements audited, must include particulars
showing –

(a) the remuneration, as defined in subsection (6), and benefits received by
each director, or individual holding any prescribed office in the company;

(b) the amount of –

(i) any pensions paid by the company to or receivable by current or past
directors or individuals who hold or have held any prescribed office
in the company;

(ii) any amount paid or payable by the company to a pension scheme with
respect to current or past directors or individuals who hold or have
held any prescribed office in the compan y;

(c) the amount of any compensation paid in respect of loss of office to current
or past directors or individuals who hold or have held any prescribed office
in the company;

(d) the number and class of any securities issued to a director or person ho lding
any prescribed office in the company, or to any person related to any of

them, and the consideration received by the company for those securities;
and

(e) details of service contracts of current directors and individuals who hold
any prescribed off ice in the company.

(5) The information to be disclosed under subsection (4) must satisfy the prescribed
standards, and must show the amount of any remuneration or benefits paid to or
receivable by persons in respect of –

(a) services rendered as direct ors or prescribed officers of the company; or

(b) services rendered while being directors or prescribed officers of the
company –

(i) as directors or prescribed officers of any other company within the
same group of companies; or

(ii) otherwise in connection with the carrying on of the affairs of the
company or any other company within the same group of companies.

(6) For the purposes of subsections (4) and (5), remuneration‟ includes –

(a) fees paid to directors for services rendered by them to or on behalf of the
company, including any amount paid to a person in respect of the person‟s
accepting the office of director;

(b) salary, bonuses and performance -related payments;

(c) expense allowances, to the extent that the director is not required to account
for the allowance;

(d) contributions paid under any pension scheme not otherwise required to be
disclosed in terms of subsection (4)(b);

(e) the value of any option or right given directly or indirectly to a director,
past director or future director, or person related to any of them, as
contemplated in section 42 ;

(f) financial assistance to a director, past director or future director, or person
related to any of them, for the subscription of options or securities, or the
purchase of securities, as contemplated in section 44 ; and
[Para. (f) substituted by s. 20 of Act 3/2011]

(g) with respect to any loan or other financial assistance by the company to a
director, past director or future director, or a person related to any of them,
or any loan made by a third party to any such person, as contemplated in
section 45 , if the company is a guarantor of that loan, the value of –

(i) any interest deferred, waived or forgiven; or

(ii) the difference in value between –

(aa) the interest that would reasonably be charged in comparable
circumstances at fair market rates in an arm‟s length
transaction; and

(bb) the interest actually charged to the borrower, if less.

(7) The Minister may make regulations, including different requi rements for different
categories of companies, prescribing –

(a) the categories of any profit or non -profit companies that are required to
have their respective annual financial statements audited, as contemplated
in subsection (2)(b)(i); and
[Para. (a) s ubstituted by s. 20 of Act 3/2011]

(b) the manner, form and procedures for the conduct of an independent review
under subsection (2)(b)(ii)(bb), as well as the professional qualifications, if
any, and duties of persons who may conduct such reviews and the
accreditation of professions whose members may conduct such reviews.
[Para. (b) substituted by s. 20 of Act 3/2011]

(8) Despite secti on 1 of the Auditing Profession Act, an independent review of a
company’s annual financial statements required by this section does not constitute
an audit within the meaning of that Act.
[Subs. (8) inserted by s. 20 of Act 3/2011]

31. Access to financial statements or related information

(1) In addition to the rights set out in section 26 , a person who holds or has a
beneficial interest in any securities issued by a company, is entitled –

(a) without demand to receive a notice of the publication of any annual
financial statements of the company required by this Act, setting out the
steps required to obtain a copy of those statements; and

(b) on demand to receive without charge one copy of any annual financial
statements of the company required by this Act.

(2) If a judgment creditor of a company has been informed, by a person whose duty it
is to execute the judgment, that there appears t o be insufficient disposable
property to satisfy that judgment, the judgement creditor is entitled within five
business days after making a demand, to receive without charge, one copy of the
most recent annual financial statements of the company.

(3) Tra de unions must, through the Commission and under conditions as determined
by the Commission, be given access to company financial statements for purposes
of initiating a business rescue process.

(4) It is an offence for a company to –

(a) fail to accommodate any reasonable request for access, or to unreasonably
refuse access, to any record that a person has a right to inspect or copy in
terms of this section; or

(b) otherwise impede, interfere with, or attempt to frustrate the reasonable
exerci se by any person of the rights set out in this section.
[Subs. (4) inserted by s. 21 of Act 3/2011]

32. Use of company name and registration number

(1) A company or external company must –

(a) provide its full registered name or registration number to any person on
demand; and

(b) not misstate its name or registration number in a manner likely to mislead
or deceive any person.

(2) If the Commission has issued to a company a registration certificate with an
interim name, as contemplated in section 14 (2)(b), the company must use its
interim name, until its name has been amended.

(3) A person must not –

(a) use the name or registration number of a company in a manner likely to
convey an impression that the person is acting or communicating on behalf
of that company, unless the company has authorised that person to do so; or

(b) use a form of name for any purpose if, in the circumstances, the us e of that
form of name is likely to convey a false impression that the name is the
name of a company.

(4) Every company must have its name and registration number mentioned in legible
characters in all notices and other official publications of the compa ny, including
such notices and publications in electronic format as contemplated in the
Electronic Communications and Transactions Act, and in all bills of exchange,
promissory notes, cheques and orders for money or goods and in all letters,
delivery notes , invoices, receipts and letters of credit of the company.

(5) Contravention of subsection (1), (2), (3) or (4) is an offence.

(6) ……….
[Subs. (6) deleted by s. 22 of Act 3/2011]

(7) ……….
[Subs. (7) deleted by s. 22 of Act 3/2011]

33. Annual return

(1) Every company must file an annual return in the prescribed form with the
prescribed fee, and within the prescribed period after the end of the anniversary of
the date of its incorporation, including in that return –

(a) a copy of its annual financ ial statements, if it is required to have such
statements audited in terms of section 30 (2) or the regulations contemplated
in section 30 (7); and
[Para. (a) substituted by s. 23 of Act 3/2011]

(b) any other prescribed information.

(2) Every external company must file an annu al return in the prescribed form with
the prescribed fee, and within the prescribed period after the anniversary of the
date on which it was registered in terms of section 23 (1).

(3) Each year, in its annual return filed in terms of subsection (1), every company
must designate a director, employee or other person who is responsible for the
company‟s compliance with the requirements of this Part, and Chapter 3 , if it
applies to the company.

34. Additional accountability requirements for certain companies

(1) In addition to complying with the requirements of this Part, a public company or
state -owned company must also comply with the extended accountability
requirements set out in Chapter 3 .

(2) A private company, personal liability company, or non -profit company is not
required to comply with the extended accountability requirements set out in
Chapter 3 , except to the extent contemplated in section 84 (1)(c), or as required by
the company‟s Memorandum of Incorporation.
[Subs. (2) substituted by s. 24 of Act 3/2011]

Part D

Capitalisation of profit companies

35. Legal nature of company shares and requirement to have shareholders

(1) A share issued by a company is movable property, transferable in any manner
provided for or recognised by this Act or other legislation.

(2) A share does not have a nominal or par value, subject to item 6 of Schedule 5 .

(3) A company may not issue shares to itself.

(4) An authorised share of a company has no rights associated with it until it has been
issued.

(5) Shares of a company that have been issued and subsequently –

(a) acquired by that company, as contemplated in section 48 ; or

(b) surrendered to that company in the exercise of appraisal rights in terms of
section 164 ,

have the same status as shares that have been authorised but not issued.

(6) Despite the repeal of the Companies Act, 1973 (Act No. 61 of 1973), a share
issued by a pre -existing company, and held by a shareholder immediately before
the effective date, continues to have all of the rights associated with it
immediately before the effective date, irrespective of whether those rights existed
in terms of the company‟s Memorandum of Incorporation, or in terms of that Act,
subject only to –

(a) amendments to that company‟s Memorandum of Incorporation after the
effective date;

(b) the operation of subsection (5); and

(c) the regulations contemplated in item 6 (3) of Schedule 5 .

36. Authorisation for shares

(1) A company‟s Memorandum of Incorporation –

(a) must set out the classes of shares, and the number of shares of each class,
that the company is authorised to issue;

(b) must set out, with respect to each class of shares –

(i) a distinguishing designation for that class; and

(ii) the preferences, rights, limitations and other terms associated with
that class, subject to paragraph (d);

(c) may authorise a stated number of unclassified shares, which are subject to
classification by the board of the company in accordance with subsection
(3)(c); and

(d) may set out a class of shares –

(i) without specifying the associated preferences, rights, limitations or
other terms of that class;

(ii) for which the board of the company must determine the associated
preferences, rights, limitations or other terms; and

(iii) which must not be issued until the board of the company has
determined th e associated preferences, rights, limitations or other
terms, as contemplated in subparagraph (ii).

(2) The authorisation and classification of shares, the numbers of authorised shares of
each class, and the preferences, rights, limitations and other ter ms associated with
each class of shares, as set out in a company‟s Memorandum of Incorporation,
may be changed only by –

(a) an amendment of the Memorandum of Incorporation by special resolution
of the shareholders; or

(b) the board of the company, in t he manner contemplated in subsection (3),
except to the extent that the Memorandum of Incorporation provides
otherwise.

(3) Except to the extent that a company‟s Memorandum of Incorporation provides
otherwise, the company‟s board may –

(a) increase or decrease the number of authorised shares of any class of shares;

(b) reclassify any classified shares that have been authorised but not issued;

(c) classify any unclassified shares that have been authorised as contemplated
in subsection (1)(c), but are not issued; or

(d) determine the preferences, rights, limitations or other terms of shares in a
class contemplated in subsection (1)(d).

(4) If the board of a company acts pursuant to its authority contemplated in
subsection (3), the company must file a Notice of Amendment of its
Memorandum of Incorporation, setting out the changes effected by the board.

37. Preferences, rights, limitations and other share terms

(1) All of the shares of any particular class authorised by a company have
preferences, rights, limitations and other terms that are identical to those of other
shares of the same class.
[Subs. (1) substituted by s. 25 of Act 3/2011]

(2) Each issued share of a company, regardless of its class, has associated with it one
general voting right, except to the extent provided otherwise by –

(a) this Act; or

(b) the preferences, rights, limitations and other terms determined by or in
terms of the company‟s Memorandum of Incorporation in accordance with
section 36 .

(3) Despite anything to the contrary in a company‟s Memorandum of Incorporation –

(a) every share issued by that company has associated with it an irrevocable
right of the shareholder to vote on any proposal to amend the preferences,
rights, limitations and other terms associated with that share; and

(b) if that company has established only one class of shares –

(i) those shares have a right to be voted on every matter that may be
decided by shareholders of the company; and

(ii) the holders of that class of shares are entitled to receive the net assets
of the company upon its liquidation.

(4) If a company‟s Memorandum of Incorporation has established more than one
class of shares the Memorandum of Incorporation, in setting out the preferences,
rights, limitations and other terms of those classes of shares, must provide that –

(a) for each particular matter that may be submitted for a decision to
shareholders of the c ompany, at least one class of the company‟s shares has
voting rights that may be exercised on that matter; and

(b) the holders of at least one class of the company‟s shares, irrespective of
whether it is the same as any class contemplated in paragraph (a ), are
entitled to receive the net assets of the company upon its liquidation.

(5) Subject to any other law, a company‟s Memorandum of Incorporation may
establish, for any particular class of shares, preferences, rights, limitations or
other terms that –

(a) confer special, conditional or limited voting rights;

(b) provide for shares of that class to be redeemable, subject to the
requirements of sections 46 and 48 , or convertible, as specified in the
Memorandum of Incorporation –

(i) at the option of the company, the shareholder, or another person at
any time, or upon the occurrence of any specified contingency;

(ii) for cash, indebtedness, securities or other property;

(iii) at prices and in amounts specified, or determined in accordance with a
formula; or

(iv) subject to any other terms set out in the company‟s Memorandum of
Incorporation;

(c) entitle the shareholders to distributions calculated in any manner, including
dividends that may be cumulative, non -cumulative, or partially cumulative,
subject to the requirements of sections 46 and 47 ; or

(d) provide for shares of that class to have preference over any other class of
shares with respect to distributions, or rights upon the final liquidation of
the company.

(6) The Memorandum of Incorporation of a company may provide for preferences,
rights, limitations or other t erms of any class of shares of that company to vary in
response to any objectively ascertainable external fact or facts.

(7) For the purpose of subsection (6) –

(a) “external fact or facts” includes the occurrence of any event, a variation in
any fact, benchmark or other point of reference, a determination or action
by the company, its board, or any other person, an agreement to which the
company is a party, or any other document; and

(b) the manner in which a fact affects the preferences, rights, limi tations or
other terms of shares must be expressly determined by or in terms of the
company‟s Memorandum of Incorporation, in accordance with section 36 .

(8) If the Memorandum of Incorporation of a company has been amended to
materially and adversely alter the preferences, rights, limitations or other terms of
a class of shares, any holder of those shares is entitled to seek relief in terms of
section 164 if that shareholder –

(a) notified the company in advance of the intention to oppose the resolution to
amend the Memorandum of Incorporati on; and

(b) was present at the meeting, and voted against that resolution.

(9) A person –

(a) acquires the rights associated with any particular securities of a company –

(i) when that person‟s name is entered in the company‟s certificated
securities register; or

(ii) as determined in accordance with the rules of the Central Securities
Depository, in the case of uncertificated securities; and

(b) ceases to have the rights associated with any particular securities of a
company –

(i) when the transfer to another person, re -acquisition by the company, or
surrender to the company has been entered in the company’s
certificated securities register; or

(ii) as determined in accordance with the rules of the Central Securities
Depository, i n the case of uncertificated securities.
[Subs. (9) inserted by s. 25 of Act 3/2011]

38. Issuing shares

(1) The board of a company may resolve to issue shares of the company at any time,
but only within the classes, and to the extent, that the shares h ave been authorised
by or in terms of the company‟s Memorandum of Incorporation, in accordance
with section 36 .

(2) If a company issues shares –

(a) that have not been authorised in accordance with section 36 ; or

(b) in excess of the number of authorised shares of any particular class,

the issuance of those shares may be retroactively authorised in accordance with
section 36 within 60 business days after the date on which the shares were issued.
[Subs. (2) substituted by s. 26 of Act 3/2011]

(3) If a resolution seeking to retroactively authorise an issue of shares, as
contemplated in subsection (2), is not adopted when it is put to a vote –

(a) the share issue is a nullity to the extent that it exceeds any authorisation;

(b) the company must return to any person the fair value of the consideration
received by the company in respect of that share issue to the extent that it is
nullified, together with interest in accordance with t he Prescribed Rate of
Interest Act, 1975 (Act No. 55 of 1975), from the date on which the
consideration for the shares was received by the company, until the date on
which the company complies with this paragraph;

(c) any certificate evidencing a share s o issued and nullified, and any entry in a
securities register in respect of such an issue, is void; and

(d) a director of the company is liable to the extent set out in section 77 (3)(e)(i)
if the director –

(i) was present at a meeting when the board approved the issue of any
unauthorised shares, or participated in the making of such a decision
in terms of section 74 ; and

(ii) failed to vote against the issue of those shares, despite knowing that
the shares had not been authorised in accordance with section 36 .

39. Subscription of shares

(1) This section –

(a) does not apply to a public company or state -owned company, except to the
extent that the company‟s Memorandum of Incorporation provides
otherwise; and

(b) applies to a private company or personal liability company with respect to
any issue of its shares, other than –

(i) shares issued –

(aa) in terms of options or conversion rights; or

(bb) as contemplated in section 40 (5) to (7); or

(ii) capitalisation shares issued as contemplated in section 47 .

(2) If a private company proposes to issue any shares, other than as contemplated in
subsection (1)(b), each shareholder of that private company has a right, before
any other per son who is not a shareholder of that company, to be offered and,
within a reasonable time to subscribe for, a percentage of the shares to be issued
equal to the voting power of that shareholder‟s general voting rights immediately
before the offer was made.

(3) A private or personal liability company‟s Memorandum of Incorporation may
limit, negate, restrict or place conditions upon the right set out in subsection (2),
with respect to any or all classes of shares of that company.

(4) Except to the extent that a private or personal liability company‟s Memorandum
of Incorporation provides otherwise –

(a) in exercising a right in terms of subsection (2), a shareholder may subscribe
for fewer shares than the shareholder would be entitled to subscribe for
under that subsection; and

(b) shares not subscribed for by a shareholder within the reasonable time
contemplated in subsection (2), may be offered to other persons to the
extent permitted by the Memorandum of Incorporation.
[Subs. (4) substituted by s. 27 of Act 3/2011]

40. Consideration for shares

(1) The board of a company may issue authorised shares only –

(a) for adequate consideration to the company, as determined by the board;

(b) in terms of conversion rights associated with previously issu ed securities of
the company; or

(c) as a capitalisation share as contemplated in section 47 .

(2) Before a company issues any particular shares, the board must determine the
consideration for which, and the terms on which, those shares will be issued.

(3) A determination by the board of a company in terms of subsection (2) as to the
adequacy of consideration for any shares may not be challenged o n any basis
other than in terms of section 76 , read with section 77 (2).

(4) Subject to subsections (5) to (7), when a company has received the consideration
approved by its board for the issuance of any shares –

(a) those shares are fully paid; and

(b) the company must issue those shares and cause the name of the holder to be
entered on the company‟s securities register in accordance with Part E of
this Chapter.

(5) If the consideration for any shares that are issued or to be issued is in the form of
an instrument such that the value of the consideration cannot be realised by the
company until a date after the time the shares are to be issued, or is in the form of
an agreement for future services, future benefits or future payment by the
subscribing party –
[Words preceding para. (5) substituted by s. 28 of Act 3/2011]

(a) the consideration for those shares is regarded as having been received by
the company at any time only to the extent –

(i) that the value of the consideration for any of those shares has been
realised by the company; or
[Subpara. (i) substituted by s. 28 of Act 3/2011]

(ii) that the subscribing party to the agreement has f ulfilled its obligations
in terms of the agreement; and

(b) upon receiving the instrument or entering into the agreement, the company
must –

(i) issue the shares immediately; and

(ii) cause the issued shares to be transferred to a third party, to be held in
trust and later transferred to the subscribing party in accordance with
a trust agreement.

(6) Except to the extent that a trust agreement contemplated in subsection (5)(b)
provides otherwise –

(a) voting rights, and appraisal rights set out in section 164 , associated with
shares that have been issued but are held in trust may not be exercised;

(b) any pre -emptive rights associated with shares that have been issued but are
held in trust may be exercised only to the extent that the instrument has
become negotiable by the company or the subscribing party has fulfilled its
obligations under the agreement;

(c) any distribution with respect to shares that have been issued but are held in
trust –

(i) must be paid or credited by the company to the subscribing party to
the extent that the instrument has become negotiable by the company
or the subscribing party has fulfilled its obligations unde r the
agreement; and

(ii) may be credited against the remaining value at that time of any
services still to be performed by the subscribing party, any future
payment remaining due, or the benefits still to be received by the
company; and

(d) shares tha t have been issued but are held in trust –

(i) may not be transferred by or at the direction of the subscribing party
unless the company has expressly consented to the transfer in
advance;

(ii) may be transferred to the subscribing party on a quarterly basis, to the
extent that the instrument has become negotiable by the company or
the subscribing party has fulfilled its obligations under the agreement;

(iii) must be transferred to the subscribing party when the instrument has
become negotiable by the company, or upon satisfaction of all of the
subscribing party‟s obligations in terms of the agreement; and

(iv) to the extent that the instrument is dishonoured after becoming
negotiable, or that the subscribing party has failed to fulfil its
obligations under the agreement, must be returned to the company
and cancelled, on demand by the company.

(7) A company may not make a demand contemplated in subsection (6)(d)(iv)
unless –

(a) a negotiable instrument is dishonoured after becoming negotiable by the
company; or

(b) in the case of an agreement, the subscribing party has failed to fulfil any
obligation in terms of the agreement for a period of at least 40 business
days after the date on which the obligation was due to be fulfilled.

41. Shareholder approval for issuing shares in certain cases

(1) Subject to subsection (2), an issue of shares or securities convertible into shares,
or a grant of options contemplated in section 42 , or a grant of any other rights
exercisable for securities, must be approved by a special resolution of the
shareholders of a company, if the shares, securities, options or rights are issued to
a-

(a) director, future d irector, prescribed officer, or future prescribed officer of
the company;

(b) person related or inter -related to the company, or to a director or prescribed
officer of the company; or

(c) nominee of a person contemplated in paragraph (a) or (b).

(2) Subsection (1) does not apply if the issue of shares, securities or rights is –

(a) under an agreement underwriting the shares, securities or rights;

(b) in the exercise of a pre -emptive right to be offered and to subscribe shares,
as contemplated in section 39 ;

(c) in proportion to existing holdings, and on the same terms and conditions as
have been offered to all the shareholders of the company or to all the
shareholders of the class or classes of shares being issued;

(d) pursuant to an employee share scheme that satisfies the requirements of
section 97 ; or

(e) pursuant to an offer to the public, as defined in section 95 (1)(h), read with
section 96 .

(3) An issue of shares, securities convertible into shares, or rights exercisable for
shares in a transaction, or a series of integrated transactions, requires approval of
the sharehol ders by special resolution if the voting power of the class of shares
that are issued or issuable as a result of the transaction or series of integrated
transactions will be equal to or exceed 30 percent of the voting power of all the
shares of that class held by shareholders immediately before the transaction or
series of transactions.

(4) In subsection (3) –

(a) for purposes of determining the voting power of shares issued and issuable
as a result of a transaction or series of integrated transactions, the voting
power of shares is the greater of –

(i) the voting power of the shares to be issued; or

(ii) the voting power of the shares that would be issued after giving effect
to the conversion of convertible shares and other securities and the
exercise of rights to be issued;

(b) a series of transactions is integrated if –

(i) consummation of one transaction is made contingent on
consummation of one or more of the other transactions; or

(ii) the transactions are entered into within a 12 -month period, and
involve the same parties, or related persons; and –

(aa) they involve the acquisition or disposal of an interest in one
particular company or asset; or

(bb) taken together, they lead to substantial involvement in a
business activity that di d not previously form part of the
company‟s principal activity.

(5) A director of a company is liable to the extent set out in section 77 (3)(e)(ii) if the
director –

(a) was present at a meeting when the board approved the issue of any
securities as contemplated in this section, or participated in the making of
such a decision in terms of section 74 ; and

(b) failed to vote against the issue of those securities, despite knowing that the
issue of those securities was inconsistent with this section.

(6) In this section, future director‟ or future prescribed officer‟ does not include a
person who becomes a director or prescribed officer of the company more than
six months after acquiring a particular option or right.

42. Options for subscription of securities

(1) A company may issue options for the allotment or subscription of authorised
shares or other securities of the company.

(2) The board of a company must determine the consideration or other benefit for
which, and the terms upon which –

(a) any options are issued; and

(b) the related shares or other securities are to be issued.

(3) A decision by the board that the company may issue –

(a) any options, constitutes also the decision of the board to issue any
authorised shares or other securities for which the options may be
exercised; or

(b) any securities convertible into shares of any class, constitutes also the
decision of the board to issue the authorised shares into which the securities
may be converted.

(4) A director of a company is liable to the extent set out in section 77 (3)(e)(iii) if the
director –

(a) was present at a meeting when the board approved the granting of an option
or a right as contemplated in this sectio n, or participated in the making of
such a decision in terms of section 74 ; and

(b) failed to vote against the granting of the option or right, desp ite knowing
that any shares –

(i) for which the options could be exercised; or

(ii) into which any securities could be converted,

had not been authorised in terms of section 36 .

43. Securities other than shares

(1) In this section –

(a) “debt instrument” –

(i) includes any securities other than the shares of a company,
irrespective of whether or not issued in terms of a security document,
such as a trust deed; but

(ii) does not include promissory notes and loans, whether constituting an
encumbrance on the assets of the company or not; and

(b) “security document” includes any document by which a debt instrument is
offered or proposed to be offered, embodying the terms and conditions of
the debt instrument including, but not limited to, a trust deed or certificate.

(2) The board of a company –

(a) may authorise the company to issue a secured or unsecured debt instrument
at any time, exc ept to the extent provided otherwise by the company‟s
Memorandum of Incorporation; and
[Para. (a) substituted by s. 29 of Act 3/2011]

(b) must determine whether each such debt instrument is secured or unsecured.

(3) Except to the extent that a company‟s Memorandum of Incorporation provides
otherwise, a debt instrument issued by the company may grant special privileges
regarding –

(a) attending and voting at general meetings and the appointment of directors;
or

(b) allotment of securities, red emption by the company, or substitution of the
debt instrument for shares of the company, provided that the securities to be
allotted or substituted in terms of any such privilege, are authorised by or in

terms of the company‟s Memorandum of Incorporation in accordance with
section 36 .

(4) Every security document must clearly indicate, on its first page, whether the
relevant debt instrument is secured or unsecured.

(5) A company may appoint any person, including a juristic person, as trustee for the
holders of the company‟s debt instruments, if –

(a) the person –

(i) is not a director or prescribed officer of the company, or a person
related or int er-related to the company, a director or a prescribed
officer; and

(ii) does not have any interest in, or relationship with, the company that
might conflict with the duties of a trustee; and

(b) the board is satisfied that the person has the requisite knowledge and
experience to carry out the duties of a trustee.

(6) Any new trustee appointed for the purpose of this section must –

(a) satisfy the requirements of subsection (5)(a); and

(b) be approved by the holders of at least 75 percent by value of debt
instruments present at a meeting called for that purpose.

(7) Any provision contained in a trust deed for securing any debt instruments, or in
any agreement with the holders of any debt instruments secured by a trust deed, is
void to the extent t hat it would exempt a trustee from, or indemnify a trustee
against, liability for breach of trust, or failure to exercise the degree of care and
diligence required of the prudent and careful person, having regard to the
provisions of the trust deed respect ing the powers, authorities or discretions of the
trustee.

(8) Subsection (7) does not invalidate –

(a) any release validly given in respect of anything done or omitted to be done
by a trustee before the giving of the release; or

(b) any provision of a debt instrument –

(i) enabling a release to be given with the consent of the majority of not
less than three fourths in value of the holders of debt instruments
present and voting at a meeting called for the purpose; and

(ii) with respect to a specifi c act or omission, or of the trustee dying or
ceasing to act.

44. Financial assistance for subscription of securities

(1) In this section, “financial assistance” does not include lending money in the
ordinary course of business by a company whose prima ry business is the lending
of money.

(2) Except to the extent that the Memorandum of Incorporation of a company
provides otherwise, the board may authorise the company to provide financial
assistance by way of a loan, guarantee, the provision of security or otherwise to
any person for the purpose of, or in connection with, the subscription of any
option, or any securities, issued or to be issued by the company or a related or
inter -related company, or for the purchase of any securities of the company or a
related or inter -related company, subject to subsections (3) and (4).
[Subs. (2) substituted by s. 30 of Act 3/2011]

(3) Despite any provision of a company‟s Memorandum of Incorporation to the
contrary, the board may not authorise any financial assistance contemplated in
subsection (2), unless –

(a) the particular provision of financial assistance is –

(i) pursuant to an employee share scheme that satisfies the requirements
of section 97 ; or

(ii) pursuant to a special resolution of the shareholders, adopted within
the previous two years, which approved such assistance either for the
specific recipient, or generally for a category of potent ial recipients,
and the specific recipient falls within that category; and

(b) the board is satisfied that –

(i) immediately after providing the financial assistance, the company
would satisfy the solvency and liquidity test; and

(ii) the terms under which the financial assistance is proposed to be given
are fair and reasonable to the company.

(4) In addition to satisfying the requirements of subsection (3), the board must ensure
that any conditions or restrictions respecting the granting of financia l assistance
set out in the company‟s Memorandum of Incorporation have been satisfied.

(5) A decision by the board of a company to provide financial assistance
contemplated in subsection (2), or an agreement with respect to the provision of
any such assi stance, is void to the extent that the provision of that assistance
would be inconsistent with –

(a) this section; or

(b) a prohibition, condition or requirement contemplated in subsection (4).

(6) If a resolution or an agreement is void in terms of subsection (5) a director of the
company is liable to the extent set out in section 77 (3)(e)(iv) if the director –
[Words preceding para. (a) substituted by s. 30 of Act 3/2011]

(a) was present at the meeting when the board approved the resolution or
agreement, or participated in the making of such a decision in terms of
section 74 ; and

(b) failed to vote against the resolution or agreement, despite knowing that the
provision of financial assistance was inconsistent with this section or a
prohi bition, condition or requirement contemplated in subsection (4).

45. Loans or other financial assistance to directors

(1) In this section, “financial assistance” –

(a) includes lending money, guaranteeing a loan or other obligation, and
securing any debt or obligation; but

(b) does not include –

(i) lending money in the ordinary course of business by a company
whose primary business is the lending of money;

(ii) an accountable advance to meet –

(aa) legal expenses in relation to a matter concerning the company;
or

(bb) anticipated expenses to be incurred by the person on behalf of
the company; or

(iii) an amount to defray the person‟s expenses for removal at the
company‟s request.

(2) Except to the extent that the Memorandum of Incorporation of a company
provides otherwise, the board may authorise the company to provide direct or
indirect financial assistance to a director or prescribed officer of the company or
of a related or inter -related com pany, or to a related or inter -related company or
corporation, or to a member of a related or inter -related corporation, or to a
person related to any such company, corporation, director, prescribed officer or
member, subject to subsections (3) and (4).

(3) Despite any provision of a company‟s Memorandum of Incorporation to the
contrary, the board may not authorise any financial assistance contemplated in
subsection (2), unless –

(a) the particular provision of financial assistance is –

(i) pursuant to an employee share scheme that satisfies the requirements
of section 97 ; or

(ii) pursuant to a special resolution of the shareholders, adopted within
the previous two years, which approved such assistance either for the
specific recipient, or generally for a category of potential recipients,
and the specific recipient falls within that category; and

(b) the board is satisfied that –

(i) immediately after providing the financial assistance, the company
would satisfy the solvency and liquidity test; and

(ii) the terms under which the financial assistance is proposed to be given
are fair and reasonable to the company.
[Para. (b) substituted by s. 31 of Act 3/2011]

(4) In addition to satisfying the requirements of subsection (3), the board must ensure
that any conditions or restrictions respecting the granting of financial assistance
set out in the company‟s Memorandum of Incorporation have been satisfied.

(5) If the board of a company adopts a resolution to do anything contemplated in
subsection (2), the company must provide written notice of that resolution to all
shareholders, unless every shareholder is also a director of the company, and to
any trade union representing its employees –

(a) within 10 business days after the board adopts the resolution, if the total
value of all loans, debts, obligations or assistance contemplated in that
resolution, together with any previous such resolution during the financial
year, exceeds one -tenth of 1 percent of the company‟s net worth at the time
of the resolution; or

(b) within 30 business days after the end of the financial year, in any other
case.

(6) A resolution by the board of a company to pro vide financial assistance
contemplated in subsection (2), or an agreement with respect to the provision of
any such assistance, is void to the extent that the provision of that assistance
would be inconsistent with –

(a) this section; or

(b) a prohibiti on, condition or requirement contemplated in subsection (4).

(7) If a resolution or an agreement is void in terms of subsection (6) a director of the
company is liable to the extent set out in section 77 (3)(e)(v) if the director –
[Words preceding para. (a) substituted by s. 31 of Act 3/2011]

(a) was present at the meeting when the board approved the resolution or
agreement, or participated in the making of such a decision in terms of
section 7 4; and

(b) failed to vote against the resolution or agreement, despite knowing that the
provision of financial assistance was inconsistent with this section or a
prohibition, condition or requirement contemplated in subsection (4).

46. Distributions mu st be authorised by board

(1) A company must not make any proposed distribution unless –

(a) the distribution –

(i) is pursuant to an existing legal obligation of the company, or a court
order; or

(ii) the board of the company, by resolution, has aut horised the
distribution;

(b) it reasonably appears that the company will satisfy the solvency and
liquidity test immediately after completing the proposed distribution; and

(c) the board of the company, by resolution, has acknowledged that it has
applied the solvency and liquidity test, as set out in section 4 , and
reasonably concluded that the company will satisfy the solvency and
liquidity test immediately after completing the proposed distribution.

(2) When the board of a company has adopted a resolution contemplated in
subsection (1)(c), the relevant distribution must be fully carried out, subject only
to subsection (3).

(3) If the distribution contemplated in a particular board resolution, court order or
existing legal obligation has not been completed within 120 business days after
the board made the acknowledgement re quired by subsection (1)(c), or after a
fresh acknowledgement being made in terms of this subsection, as the case may
be –

(a) the board must reconsider the solvency and liquidity test with respect to the
remaining distribution to be made pursuant to the original resolution, order
or obligation; and

(b) despite any law, order or agreement to the contrary, the company must not
proceed with or continue with any such distribution unless the board adopts
a further resolution as contemplated in subsection (1) (c).

(4) If a distribution takes the form of the incurrence of a debt or other obligation by
the company, as contemplated in paragraph (b) of the definition of „distribution‟
set out in section 1 , the requirements of this section –

(a) apply at the time that the board resolves that the company may incur that
debt or obligation; and

(b) do not apply to any subsequent action of the company in satisfac tion of that
debt or obligation, except to the extent that the resolution, or the terms and
conditions of the debt or obligation, provide otherwise.

(5) If, after considering the solvency and liquidity test as required by this section, it
appears to the company that the section prohibits its immediate compliance with a
court order contemplated in subsection (1)(a)(i) –

(a) the company may apply to a court for an order varying the original order;
and

(b) the court may make an order that –

(i) is just a nd equitable, having regard to the financial circumstances of
the company; and

(ii) ensures that the person to whom the company is required to make a
payment in terms of the original order is paid at the earliest possible
date compatible with the company satisfying its other financial
obligations as they fall due and payable.

(6) A director of a company is liable to the extent set out in section 77 (3)(e)(vi) if the
director –

(a) was present at the meeting when the board approved a distribution as
contemplated in this section, or participated in the making of such a
decision in terms of section 74 ; and

(b) failed to vote against the distribution, despite knowing that the distribution
was contrary to this section.

47. Capitalisation shares

(1) Except to the extent that a company‟s Memorandum of Incorporation provides
otherwise –

(a) the board of that company, by resolution, may approve the issuing of any
authorised shares of the company, as capitalisation shares, on a pro rata
basi s to the shareholders of one or more classes of shares;

(b) shares of one class may be issued as a capitalisation share in respect of
shares of another class; and

(c) subject to subsection (2), when resolving to award a capitalisation share, the
board may at the same time resolve to permit any shareholder entitled to
receive such an award to elect instead to receive a cash payment, at a value
determined by the board.

(2) The board of a company may not resolve to offer a cash payment in lieu of
awardin g a capitalisation share, as contemplated in subsection (1)(c), unless the
board –

(a) has considered the solvency and liquidity test, as required by section 46 , on
the assumption that every such shareholder would elect to receive cash; and

(b) is satisfied that the company would satisfy the solvency and liquidity test
immediately upon the completion of the distribution.

48. Company or subsidiary a cquiring company‟s shares

(1) This section does not apply to –

(a) the making of a demand, tendering of shares and payment by a company to
a shareholder in terms of a shareholder‟s appraisal rights set out in section
164 ; or

(b) the redemption by the company of any redeemable securities in accordance
with the terms and conditions of those securities.
[Subs . (1) substituted by s. 32 of Act 3/2011]

(2) Subject to subsections (3) and (8), and if the decision to do so satisfies the
requirements of section 46 –
[Words preceding para. (a) substituted by s. 32 of Act 3/2011]

(a) the board of a company may determine that the company will acquire a
number of its own shares; and
[Para. (a) substituted by s. 32 of Act 3/2011]

(b) the board of a subsidiary com pany may determine that it will acquire shares
of its holding company, but –
[Para. (b) substituted by s. 32 of Act 3/2011]

(3) Despite any provision of any law, agreement, order or the Memorandum of
Incorporation of a company, the company may not acquir e its own shares, and a
subsidiary of a company may not acquire shares of that company, if, as a result of
that acquisition, there would no longer be any shares of the company in issue
other than –

(a) shares held by one or more subsidiaries of the compan y; or

(b) convertible or redeemable shares.

(4) An agreement with a company providing for the acquisition by the company of
shares issued by it is enforceable against the company, subject to subsections (2)
and (3).

(5) If a company alleges that, as a result of the operation of subsection (2) or (3), it is
unable to fulfil its obligations in terms of an agreement contemplated in
subsection (4) –

(a) the company must apply to a court for an order in terms of paragraph (c);

(b) the company has the bu rden of proving that fulfilment of its obligations
would put it in breach of subsections (2) or (3); and

(c) if the court is satisfied that the company is prevented from fulfilling its
obligations pursuant to the agreement, the court may make an order th at-

(i) is just and equitable, having regard to the financial circumstances of
the company; and

(ii) ensures that the person to whom the company is required to make a
payment in terms of the agreement is paid at the earliest possible date
compatible wi th the company satisfying its other financial obligations
as they fall due and payable.

(6) If a company acquires any shares contrary to section 46 , or this section, the
company must, not more than two years after the acquisition, apply to a court for
an order reversing the acquisition, and the court may order –
[Words preceding para. (a) substituted by s. 32 of Act 3/2011]

(a) the person from whom the shares were acquired to return the amount paid
by the company; and

(b) the company to issue to that person an equivalent number of shares of the
same class as those acquired.

(7) A director of a company is liable to the extent set out in section 77 (3)(e)(vii) if
the director –

(a) was present at the meeting when the board approved an acquisition of
shares contemplated in this section, or participated in the making of such a
decision in terms of section 74 ; and

(b) failed to vote against the acquisition of shares, despite knowing that the
acquisition was contrary to this section or section 46 .

(8) A decision by the board of a company contemplated in subsection (2)(a) –

(a) must be approved by a special resolution of the shareholders of the
company if any shares are to be acquired by the company from a director or
prescri bed officer of the company, or a person related to a director or
prescribed officer of the company; and

(b) is subject to the requirements of sections 114 and 115 if, considered alone,
or together with other transactions in an integrated series of transactions, it

involves the acquisition b y the company of more than 5% of the issued
shares of any particular class of the company‟s shares.
[Subs. (8) inserted by s. 32 of Act 3/2011]

Part E

Securities registration and transfer

49. Securities to be evidenced by certificates or uncertificated

(1) In this Part, “certificated” means evidenced by a certificate, as contemplated in
subsection (2)(a).

(2) Any securities issued by a company must be either –

(a) evidenced by certificates; or

(b) uncertificated, in which case the company must not issue certificates
evidencing or purporting to evidence title to those securities, subject to
subsection (6).

(3) Except to the extent that this Act expressly provides otherwise, –

(a) the rights and obligations of security holders are not different solely on the
basis of their respective securities being certificated or uncertificated; and

(b) any provision of this Act applies with respect to any uncertificated
securities in the same manner as it applies to certificated securities.

(4) Sections 52 to 55 –

(a) apply only to u ncertificated securities; and

(b) prevail in the case of a conflict between any provision of those sections and
any other provision of this Act, any other law, the common law, the
company‟s Memorandum of Incorporation or any agreement.

(5) Any certific ated securities may cease to be evidenced by certificates, and
thereafter be uncertificated, in which case any provision of this Act contemplated
in subsection (4) applies to those securities from the date on which they ceased to
be evidenced by certificat es.

(6) In the manner set out in section 54 , any uncertificated securities may be
withdrawn from the uncertificated securities register, and certifi cates issued
evidencing those securities, in which case from the date on which they became
certificated –

(a) sections 52 to 55 cease to apply to those securities; and

(b) for greater certainty, transfer of ownership in those securities cannot be
effected by a participant or central securities de pository while they remain
in certificated form, unless they are held in certificated form in collective
custody by the participant or central securities depository.
[Para. (b) substituted by s. 33 of Act 3/2011]

(7) The Minister may make regulations regarding matters that are supplementary and
ancillary to the provisions of this Part.

50. Securities register and numbering

(1) Every company must –

(a) establish or cause to be established a register of its issued securities in the
prescribed form; and

(b) maintain its securities register in accordance with the prescribed standards.

(2) As soon as practicable after issuing any securities a company must enter or cause
to be entered in its securities register, in respect of every class of securitie s that it
has issued –

(a) the total number of those securities that are held in uncertificated form; and

(b) with respect to certificated securities –

(i) the names and addresses of the persons to whom the securities were
issued;

(ii) the number of securities issued to each of them;

(iii) the number of, and prescribed circumstances relating to, any
securities –

(aa) that have been placed in trust as contemplated in section
40 (6)(d);or

(bb) whose transfer has been restricted;

(iv) in the case of securities contemplated in section 43 –

(aa) the number of those securities issued and outstanding; and
[Item (aa) substituted by s. 34 of Act 3/2011]

(bb) the names and addresses of the registered owner of the security
and any holders of a beneficial interest in the security; and

(v) any other prescribed information.

(3) If a company has issued uncertificated securities, or has issued securities that
have ceased to be certificated, as contemplated in section 49 (5), a record must be
administered and maintained by a participant or central securities depository in
the prescribed form, as the company‟s uncertificated securities register, which –

(a) forms part of that company‟s securities register; and

(b) must contain, with respect to all securities contemplated in this subsection,
any details –

(i) referred to in subsection (2)(b), read with the changes required by the
context; or

(ii) determined by the rules of the centra l securities depository.

(4) A securities register, or an uncertificated securities register, maintained in
accordance with this Act is sufficient proof of the facts recorded in it, in the
absence of evidence to the contrary.

(5) Unless all the shares of a company rank equally for all purposes, the company‟s
shares, or each class of shares, and any other securities, must be distinguished by
an appropriate numbering system.

51. Registration and transfer of certificated securities

(1) A certificate evidencing any certificated securities of a company –

(a) must state on its face –

(i) the name of the issuing company;

(ii) the name of the person to whom the securities were issued;

(iii) the number and class of shares and the designation of the series, if
any, evidenced by that certificate; and

(iv) any restriction on the transfer of the securities evidenced by that
certificate,

subject to item 6 (4) of Schedule 5 ;

(b) must be signed by two persons authorised by the company‟s board; and

(c) is proof that the named security holder owns the securities, in the absence
of evidence to the contrary.

(2) A signature contemplated in subsection (1)(b) may be affixed to or placed on the
certificate by autographic, mechanical or electronic means.

(3) A certificate remains valid despite t he subsequent departure from office of any
person who signed it.

(4) If, as contemplated in section 50 (5), all of a company‟s shares rank equally fo r all
purposes, and are therefore not distinguished by a numbering system –

(a) each certificate issued in respect of those shares must be distinguished by a
numbering system; and

(b) if the share has been transferred, the certificate must be endorsed w ith a
reference number or similar device that will enable each preceding holder
of the share in succession to be identified.

(5) Subject to subsection (6), a company must enter in its securities register every
transfer of any certificated securities, inc luding in the entry –

(a) the name and address of the transferee;

(b) the description of the securities, or interest transferred;

(c) the date of the transfer; and

(d) the value of any consideration still to be received by the company on each
share or interest, in the case of a transfer of securities contemplated in
section 40 (5) and (6).

(6) A company may make an entry contemplated in subsection (5) only if the
transfer –

(a) is evidenced by a proper instrument of transfer that has been delivered to
the company; or

(b) was effected by operation of law.

52. Registration of uncertificated securities

(1) At the request of a company, and on payment of the prescribed fee, if any, a
participant or central securities depository, as determined in accordance with the
rules of the central securities depository, must furnish that company with all
details of that company‟s uncertificated securities reflected in the uncertificated
securities register.

(2) A person who wishes to inspect an uncertificated securities register may do so
only –

(a) through the relevant co mpany in terms of section 26 ; and

(b) in accordance with the rules of the central securities depository.

(3) Within five business days after the date of a request for inspection, a company
must produce a record of the uncertificated securities register, which record must
reflect at least the details referred to in section 50 (3)(b) at the close of business on
the day on which the request for inspection was made.

(4) A participant or central securities depository, determined in accordance with the
rules of the central securities depository –

(a) must provide a regular statement at prescribed intervals to each person for
whom any uncertificated securities are held in an uncertificated securities
register, setting out the number and identity of the uncertificated securities
held on that person‟s behalf;

(b) must not impose a charge for a statement on the person entitled to the
statement; and

(c) may impose a charge or service fee for such a statement on the relevant
company in accordance with the regulations.

(5) The regulations contemplated in section 49 (7) may provide for a charge or service
fee for statements contemplated in subsection (4 )(c).

53. Transfer of uncertificated securities

(1) The transfer of uncertificated securities in an uncertificated securities register
may be effected only –

(a) by a participant or central securities depository;

(b) on receipt of –

(i) an instruc tion to transfer sent and properly authenticated in terms of
the rules of a central securities depository; or

(ii) an order of a court; and

(c) in accordance with this section and the rules of the central securities
depository.

(2) Transfer of ownership in any uncertificated securities must be effected by –

(a) debiting the account in the uncertificated securities register from which the
transfer is effected; and

(b) crediting the account in the uncertificated securities register to which the
transfer is effected,

in accordance with the rules of a central securities depository.

(3) The requirements of section 51 (5), read with the chan ges required by the context,
apply with respect to a transfer of uncertificated securities.

(4) A transfer of ownership in accordance with this section occurs despite any fraud,
illegality or insolvency that may –

(a) affect the relevant uncertificated securities; or

(b) have resulted in the transfer being effected,

but a transferee who was a party to or had knowledge of the fraud or illegality, or
had knowledge of the insolvency, as the case may be, may not rely on this
subsection.

(5) A court may not order the name of a transferee contemplated in this section to be
removed from an uncertificated securities register, unless that person was a party
to or had knowledge of a fraud or illegality as contemplated in subsection (4).
[Subs. (5) substituted by s. 35 of Act 3/2011]

(6) Nothing in this section prejudices any power of a participant or central securities
depository, as the case may be, to effect a transfer to a person to whom the right
to any uncertificated securities of a company has been tra nsmitted by operation of
law.

54. Substitution of certificated or uncertificated securities

(1) A person who wishes to withdraw all or part of the uncertificated securities held
by that person in an uncertificated securities register, and obtain a cert ificate in
respect of those withdrawn securities, may so notify the relevant participant or
central securities depository, as determined in accordance with the rules of the
central securities depository, which must within five business days –

(a) notify t he relevant company to provide the requested certificate; and

(b) remove the details of the uncertificated securities from the uncertificated
securities register.

(2) After receiving a notice in terms of subsection (1)(a) from a participant or central
securities depository, as the case may be, a company must –

(a) immediately enter the relevant person‟s name and details of that person‟s
holding of securities in the company‟s securities register and indicate on the
register that the securities so withdr awn are no longer held in uncertificated
form; and

(b) within 10 business days, or 20 business days in the case of a holder of
securities who is not resident within the Republic –

(i) prepare and deliver to the relevant person a certificate in respect of
the securities; and

(ii) notify the central securities depository that the securities are no longer
held in uncertificated form.

(3) A company may charge a holder of its securities a reasonable fee to cover the
actual costs of issuing a certificate, as contemplated in this section.

55. Liability relating to uncertificated securities

(1) A person who takes any unlawful action in consequence of which any of the
following events occur in a securities register or uncertificated securities register,
namely –

(a) the name of any person remains in, is entered in, or is removed or omitted;

(b) the number of uncertificated securities is increased, reduced, or remains
unaltered; or

(c) the description of any uncertificated securities is changed,

is liable to any person who has suffered any direct loss or damage arising out of
that action.

(2) A person who gives an instruction to transfer uncertificated securities must –

(a) warrant the legality and correctness of that instruction; and

(b) indemnify the company and the participant or central securities depository
required to effect the transfer in accordance with the rules of the central
securities depository, against any claim and against any direct loss or
damage suffered by them arising o ut of such a transfer by virtue of an
instruction referred to in this subsection.

(3) A participant or central securities depository who may effect the transfer of
uncertificated securities in accordance with the rules of a central securities
depository must indemnify –

(a) a company against any claim made upon it and against any direct loss or
damage suffered by it arising out of a transfer of any uncertificated
securities; and

(b) any other person against any direct loss or damage arising out of a tr ansfer
of any uncertificated securities,

if that transfer was effected by the participant or central securities depository
without instruction, or in accordance with an instruction that was not sent and
properly authenticated in terms of the rules of a c entral securities depository, or in
a manner inconsistent with an instruction that was sent and properly authenticated
in terms of the rules of a central securities depository.

56. Beneficial interest in securities

(1) Except to the extent that a company‟s Memorandum of Incorporation provides
otherwise, the company‟s issued securities may be held by, and registered in the
name of, one person for the beneficial interest of another person.

(2) A person is regarded to have a beneficial interest in a security of a public
company if the security is held nomine officii by another person on that first
person‟s behalf, or if that first person –

(a) is married in community of property to a person who has a beneficial
interest in that security;

(b) is th e parent of a minor child who has a beneficial interest in that security;

(c) acts in terms of an agreement with another person who has a beneficial
interest in that security, and the agreement is in respect of the co -operation
between them for the acquisition, disposal or any other matter relating to a
beneficial interest in that security;

(d) is the holding company of a company that has a beneficial interest in that
security;

(e) is entitled to exercise or control the exercise of the majority o f the voting
rights at general meetings of a juristic person that has a beneficial interest in
that security; or

(f) gives directions or instructions to a juristic person that has a beneficial
interest in that security, and its directors or the trustees are accustomed to
act in accordance with that person‟s directions or instructions.

(3) If a security of a public company is registered in the name of a person who is not
the holder of the beneficial interest in all of the securities in the same company
held by that person, that registered holder of security must disclose –

(a) the identity of the person on whose behalf that security is held; and

(b) the identity of each person with a beneficial interest in the securities so
held, the number and class of securities held for each such person with a
beneficial interest, and the extent of each such beneficial interest.
[Para. (b) substituted by s. 36 of Act 3/2011]

(4) The information required in terms of subsection (3) must –

(a) be disclosed in writin g to the company within five business days after the
end of every month during which a change has occurred in the information
contemplated in subsection (3), or more promptly or frequently to the extent
so provided by the requirements of a central securiti es depository; and
[Para. (a) substituted by s. 36 of Act 3/2011]

(b) otherwise be provided on payment of a prescribed fee charged by the
registered holder of securities.

(5) A company that knows or has reasonable cause to believe that any of its securities
are held by one person for the beneficial interest of another, by notice in writing,
may require either of those persons to –

(a) confirm or deny that fact;

(b) provide particulars of the extent of the beneficial interest held during the
thre e years preceding the date of the notice; and

(c) disclose the identity of each person with a beneficial interest in the
securities held by that person.

(6) The information required in terms of subsection (5) must be provided not later
than 10 business days after receipt of the notice.

(7) A company that falls within the meaning of “regulated company” as set out in
section 117 (1)(i) must –

(a) establish and maintain a register of the disclosures made in terms of this
section; and

(b) publish in its annual financial statements, if it is required to have such
statements audited in terms of section 30 (2), a list of the persons who hold
beneficial interests equal to or in excess of 5 percent of the total number of
securities of that class issued by the company, together with the extent of
those beneficial interests.

(8) Subsections (9) to (11) do not apply in respect of securities that are subject to the
rules of a central securities depository.
[Subs. (8) inserted by s. 36 of Act 3/2011]

(9) A person who holds a beneficial interest in any securities may vote in a matter at
a meeting of shareholders, only to the extent that –

(a) the beneficial interest includes the right to vote on the matter; and

(b) the person‟s name is on the company‟s register of disclosures as the holder
of a beneficial interest, or the person holds a proxy appointment in respect
of that matter from the registered holder of those securities.
[Subs. (9) inserted by s. 36 of Act 3/2011]

(10) The registered holder of any securities in which any person has a ben eficial
interest must deliver to each such person –

(a) a notice of any meeting of a company at which those securities may be
voted on within two business days after receiving such a notice from the
company; and

(b) a proxy appointment to the extent of that person‟s beneficial interest, if the
person so demands in terms of subsection (11).
[Subs. (10) inserted by s. 36 of Act 3/2011]

(11) A person who has a beneficial interest in any securities that are entitled to be
voted on at a meeting of a compa ny‟s shareholders, may demand a proxy
appointment from the registered holder of those securities, to the extent of that
person‟s beneficial interest, by delivering such a demand to the registered holder,
in writing, or as required by the applicable require ments of a central securities
depository.
[Subs. (11) inserted by s. 36 of Act 3/2011]

Part F

Governance of companies

57. Interpretation and application of Part
[Heading of s. 57 substituted by s. 37 of Act 3/2011]

(1) In this Part, “shareholder” has the meaning set out in section 1 , but also includes
a person who is entitled to exercise any voting rights in relation to a company,
irrespective of the form, title or nature of the securities to which those voting
rights are attached.
[Subs. (1) substituted by s. 37 of Act 3/2011]

(2) If a profit company, other than a state -owned company, has only one shareholder –

(a) that shareholder may exercise any or all of the voting rights pertaining to
that company on any matter, at any time, without notice or compliance with
any other internal formalities, except to the extent that the company‟s
Memorandum of Incorporation provides otherwise; and

(b) sections 59 to 65 do not apply to the governance of that company.

(3) If a profit company, other than a state -owned company, has only one director –

(a) that director may exercise any power or perform any function of the board
at any time, without notice or compliance w ith any other internal
formalities, except to the extent that the company‟s Memorandum of
Incorporation provides otherwise; and

(b) sections 71 (3) t o (7), 73 and 74 do not apply to the governa nce of that
company.

(4) If every shareholder of a particular company, other than a state -owned company,
is also a director of that company –

(a) any matter that is required to be referred by the board to the shareholders
for decision may be decided by the shareholders at any time after being
referred by the board, without notice or compliance with any other internal

formalities, except to the extent that the Memorandum of Incorporation
provides otherwise, provided that –

(i) every such person was prese nt at the board meeting when the matter
was referred to them in their capacity as shareholders;

(ii) sufficient persons are present in their capacity as shareholders to
satisfy the quorum requirements set out in section 64 ; and

(iii) a resolution adopted by those persons in their capacity as shareholders
has at least the support that would have been required f or it to be
adopted as an ordinary or special resolution, as the case may be, at a
properly constituted shareholder‟s meeting; and

(b) when acting in their capacity as shareholders, those persons are not subject
to the provisions of section 73 to 78 relating to the duties, oblig ations,
liabilities and indemnification of directors.

(5) The board of a company that holds any securities of a second company may
authorise any person to act as its representative at any shareholders meeting of
that second company.

(6) A person author ised to act as a company‟s representative, as contemplated in
subsection (5), may exercise the same powers as the authorising company could
have exercised if it were an individual holder of securities.

(7) For greater certainty, this section applies to t he exercise of authority within a
company in respect of any matter arising in terms of this Act or a company‟s
Memorandum of Incorporation, irrespective of whether any such particular matter
is expressly addressed in this Part.
[Subs. (7) inserted by s. 37 of Act 3/2011]

58. Shareholder right to be represented by proxy

(1) At any time, a shareholder of a company may appoint any individual, including
an individual who is not a shareholder of that company, as a proxy to –

(a) participate in, and speak and vote at, a shareholders meeting on behalf of
the shareholder; or

(b) give or withhold written consent on behalf of the shareholder to a decision
contemplated in section 60 .
[Subs. (1) substituted by s. 38 of Act 3/2011]

(2) A proxy appointment –

(a) must be in writing, dated and signed by the shareholder; and

(b) remains valid for –

(i) one year after the date on which it was signed; or

(ii) any longer or shorter period expressly set out in the appointment,

unless it is revoked in a manner contemplated in subsection (4)(c), or
expires earlier as contem plated in subsection (8)(d).

(3) Except to the extent that the Memorandum of Incorporation of a company
provides otherwise –

(a) a shareholder of that company may appoint two or more persons
concurrently as proxies, and may appoint more than one proxy to exercise
voting rights attached to different securities held by the shareholder;
[Para. (a) substituted by s. 38 of Act 3/2011]

(b) a proxy may delegate the proxy‟s authority to act on behalf of the
shareholder to another person, subject to any restri ction set out in the
instrument appointing the proxy; and

(c) a copy of the instrument appointing a proxy must be delivered to the
company, or to any other person on behalf of the company, before the proxy
exercises any rights of the shareholder at a sha reholders meeting.

(4) Irrespective of the form of instrument used to appoint a proxy –

(a) the appointment is suspended at any time and to the extent that the
shareholder chooses to act directly and in person in the exercise of any
rights as a sharehol der;

(b) the appointment is revocable unless the proxy appointment expressly states
otherwise; and

(c) if the appointment is revocable, a shareholder may revoke the proxy
appointment by –

(i) cancelling it in writing, or making a later inconsistent appointment of
a proxy; and

(ii) delivering a copy of the revocation instrument to the proxy, and to the
company.

(5) The revocation of a proxy appointment constitutes a complete and final
cancellation of the proxy‟s authority to act on behalf of the shareholder as of the
later of –

(a) the date stated in the revocation instrument, if any; or

(b) the date on which the revocation instrument was delivered as required in
subsection (4)(c)(ii).

(6) If the instrument appointing a proxy or proxies has b een delivered to a company,
as long as that appointment remains in effect, any notice that is required by this
Act or the company‟s Memorandum of Incorporation to be delivered by the
company to the shareholder must be delivered by the company to –

(a) the shareholder; or

(b) the proxy or proxies, if the shareholder has –

(i) directed the company to do so, in writing; and

(ii) paid any reasonable fee charged by the company for doing so.

(7) A proxy is entitled to exercise, or abstain from exercising, any voting right of the
shareholder without direction, except to the extent that the Memorandum of
Incorporation, or the instrument appointing the proxy, provides otherwise.

(8) If a company issues an invitation to shareholders to appoint one or more pe rsons
named by the company as a proxy, or supplies a form of instrument for
appointing a proxy –

(a) the invitation must be sent to every shareholder who is entitled to notice of
the meeting at which the proxy is intended to be exercised;

(b) the invitation, or form of instrument supplied by the company for the
purpose of appointing a proxy, must –

(i) bear a reasonably prominent summary of the rights established by this
section;

(ii) contain adequate blank space, immediately preceding the name or
names of any person or persons named in it, to enable a shareholder to
write in the name and, if so desired, an alternative name of a proxy
chosen by the shareholder; and

(iii) provide adequate space for the shareholder to indicate whether the
appoint ed proxy is to vote in favour of or against any resolution or
resolutions to be put at the meeting, or is to abstain from voting;

(c) the company must not require that the proxy appointment be made
irrevocable; and

(d) the proxy appointment remains valid only until the end of the meeting at
which it was intended to be used, subject to subsection (5).

(9) Subsection (8)(b) and (d) do not apply if the company merely supplies a generally
available standard form of proxy appointment on request by a sha reholder.

59. Record date for determining shareholder rights

(1) The board of a company may set a record date for the purpose of determining
which shareholders are entitled to –

(a) receive notice of a shareholders meeting;

(b) participate in and vo te at a shareholders meeting;

(c) decide any matter by written consent or electronic communication, as
contemplated in section 60 ;

(d) exercise pre -emptive rights, as contemplated in section 39 ;

(e) receive a distribution; or

(f) be allotted or exercise other rights.

(2) A record date determined by the board in terms of subsection (1) –

(a) may not be –

(i) earlier than the date on which the record date is determined; or

(ii) more than 10 business days before the date on which the event or
action, for which the record da te is being set, is scheduled to occur;
and

(b) must be published to the shareholders in a manner that satisfies any
prescribed requirements.

(3) If the board does not determine a record date for any action or event, the record
date is –

(a) in the ca se of a meeting, the latest date by which the company is required to
give shareholders notice of that meeting; or

(b) the date of the action or event, in any other case,

unless the Memorandum of Incorporation or rules of the company provide
otherwise.

60. Shareholders acting other than at meeting

(1) A resolution that could be voted on at a shareholders meeting may instead be –

(a) submitted for consideration to the shareholders entitled to exercise voting
rights in relation to the resolution; and

(b) voted on in writing by shareholders entitled to exercise voting rights in
relation to the resolution within 20 business days after the resolution was
submitted to them.

(2) A resolution contemplated in subsection (1) –

(a) will have been adopted if it is supported by persons entitled to exercise
sufficient voting rights for it to have been adopted as an ordinary or special
resolution, as the case may be, at a properly constituted shareholders
meeting; and

(b) if adopted, has the same effect as i f it had been approved by voting at a
meeting.

(3) An election of a director that could be conducted at a shareholders meeting may
instead be conducted by written polling of all of the shareholders entitled to
exercise voting rights in relation to the el ection of that director.

(4) Within 10 business days after adopting a resolution, or conducting an election of
directors, in terms of this section, the company must deliver a statement
describing the results of the vote, consent process, or election to e very
shareholder who was entitled to vote on or consent to the resolution, or vote in the
election of the director, as the case may be.

(5) For greater certainty, any business of a company that is required by this Act or the
company‟s Memorandum of Incor poration to be conducted at an annual general
meeting of the company, may not be conducted in the manner contemplated in
this section.

61. Shareholders meetings

(1) The board of a company, or any other person specified in the company‟s
Memorandum of Incorporation or rules, may call a shareholders meeting at any
time.

(2) Subject to section 60 , a company must hold a shareholders meeting –

(a) at any time that the board is required by this Act or the Memorandum of
Incorporation to refer a matter to shareholders for decision;

(b) whenever required in terms of section 70 (3) to fill a vacancy on the board;
and

(c) when otherwise required –

(i) in terms of subsection (3) or (7); or

(ii) by the company‟s Memorandum of Incorporation.

(3) Subject to subsection (5) and (6), the board of a comp any, or any other person
specified in the company‟s Memorandum of Incorporation or rules, must call a
shareholders meeting if one or more written and signed demands for such a
meeting are delivered to the company, and –

(a) each such demand describes the specific purpose for which the meeting is
proposed; and

(b) in aggregate, demands for substantially the same purpose are made and
signed by the holders, as of the earliest time specified in any of those
demands, of at least 10% of the voting rights entit led to be exercised in
relation to the matter proposed to be considered at the meeting.
[Para. (b) substituted by s. 39 of Act 3/2011]

(4) A company‟s Memorandum of Incorporation may specify a lower percentage in
substitution for that set out in subsection (3)(b).

(5) A company, or any shareholder of the company, may apply to a court for an order
setting aside a demand made in terms of subsection (3) on the grounds that the
demand is frivolous, calls for a meeting for no other purpose than to re consider a
matter that has already been decided by the shareholders, or is otherwise
vexatious.

(6) At any time before the start of a shareholders meeting contemplated in subsection
(3) –

(a) a shareholder who submitted a demand for that meeting may wit hdraw that
demand; and

(b) the company must cancel the meeting if, as a result of one or more demands
being withdrawn, the voting rights of any remaining shareholders
continuing to demand the meeting, in aggregate, fall below the minimum
percentage of vo ting rights required to call a meeting.

(7) A public company must convene an annual general meeting of its shareholders –

(a) initially, no more than 18 months after the company‟s date of incorporation;
and

(b) thereafter, once in every calendar year , but no more than 15 months after
the date of the previous annual general meeting, or within an extended time
allowed by the Companies Tribunal, on good cause shown.

(8) A meeting convened in terms of subsection (7) must, at a minimum, provide for
the f ollowing business to be transacted:

(a) Presentation of –

(i) the directors‟ report;

(ii) audited financial statements for the immediately preceding financial
year; and

(iii) an audit committee report;

(b) election of directors, to the extent required by this Act or the company‟s
Memorandum of Incorporation;

(c) appointment of –

(i) an auditor for the ensuing financial year; and

(ii) an audit committee; and

(d) any matters raised by shareholders, with or without advance notice to the
com pany.

(9) Except to the extent that the Memorandum of Incorporation of a company
provides otherwise –

(a) the board of the company may determine the location for any shareholders
meeting of the company; and

(b) a shareholders meeting of the company may be held in the Republic or in
any foreign country.

(10) Every shareholders meeting of a public company must be reasonably accessible
within the Republic for electronic participation by shareholders in the manner
contemplated in section 63 (2), irrespective of whether the meeting is held in the
Republic or elsewhere.

(11) If a company is unable to convene a meeting as required in terms of this section
because it has no directors, or because all of its directors are incapacitated –

(a) any other person authorised by the company‟s Memorandum of
Incorporation may convene the meeting; or

(b) if no person has been authorised as co ntemplated in paragraph (a), the
Companies Tribunal, on a request by any shareholder, may issue an
administrative order for a shareholders meeting to be convened on a date,
and subject to any terms, that the Tribunal considers appropriate in the
circumstan ces.

(12) If a company fails to convene a meeting for any reason other than as
contemplated in subsection (11) –

(a) at a time required in accordance with its Memorandum of Incorporation;

(b) when required by shareholders in terms of subsection (3); o r

(c) within the time required by subsection (7),

a shareholder may apply to a court for an order requiring the company to convene
a meeting on a date, and subject to any terms, that the court considers appropriate
in the circumstances.

(13) The com pany must compensate a shareholder who applies to the Companies
Tribunal in terms of subsection (11), or to a court in terms of subsection (12),
respectively, for the costs of those proceedings.

(14) Any failure to hold a meeting as required by this sect ion does not affect the
existence of a company, or the validity of any action by the company.

62. Notice of meetings

(1) The company must deliver a notice of each shareholders meeting in the
prescribed manner and form to all of the shareholders of the company as of the
record date for the meeting, at least –

(a) 15 business days before the meeting is to begin, in the case of a public
company or a non -profit company that has voting members; or

(b) 10 business days before the meeting is to begin, in an y other case.

(2) A company‟s Memorandum of Incorporation may provide for longer or shorter
minimum notice periods than required by subsection (1).
[Subs. (2) substituted by s. 40 of Act 3/2011]

(2A) A company may call a meeting with less notice than r equired by subsection (1) or
by its Memorandum of Incorporation, but such a meeting may proceed only if
every person who is entitled to exercise voting rights in respect of any item on the
meeting agenda –

(a) is present at the meeting; and

(b) votes to waive the required minimum notice of the meeting.
[Subs. (2A) inserted by s. 40 of Act 3/2011]

(3) A notice of a shareholders meeting must be in writing, and must include –

(a) the date, time and place for the meeting, and the record date for the
mee ting;

(b) the general purpose of the meeting, and any specific purpose contemplated
in section 61 (3)(a), if applicable;

(c) a copy of any proposed resolution of which the company has received
notice, and which is to be considered at the meeting, and a notice of the
percentage of voting rights that will be required for that resolution to be
adopted;

(d) in the case of an annual general meeting of a company –

(i) the financial statements to be presented or a summarised form thereof;
and
[Subpara. (i) substituted by s. 40 of Act 3/2011]

(ii) directions for obtaining a copy of the complete annual financial
statements for the preceding financial year ; and

(e) a reasonably prominent statement that –

(i) a shareholder entitled to attend and vote at the meeting is entitled to
appoint a proxy to attend, participate in and vote at the meeting in the
place of the shareholder, or two or more proxies if th e Memorandum
of Incorporation of the company so permits;

(ii) a proxy need not also be a shareholder of the company; and

(iii) section 63 (1) requires that meeting participants provide satisfactory
identification.

(4) If there was a material defect in the giving of the notice of a shareholders
meeting, the meeting may proceed, subject to subsection (5), only if every person
who is entitled to exercise voting rights in respect of any item on the meeting
agenda is present at the meeting and votes to approve the ratification of the
defective notice.
[Subs. (4) substituted by s. 40 of Act 3/2011]

(5) If a material defect in the form or manner of giving notice of a meeting relates
only to one or more particular matters on the agenda for the meeting –

(a) any such matter may be severed from the agenda, and the notice remains
valid with respect to any remaining matters on the agenda; and

(b) the m eeting may proceed to consider a severed matter, if the defective
notice in respect of that matter has been ratified in terms of subsection
(4)(d).

(6) An immaterial defect in the form or manner of giving notice of a shareholders
meeting, or an accidenta l or inadvertent failure in the delivery of the notice to any
particular shareholder to whom it was addressed, does not invalidate any action
taken at the meeting.

(7) A shareholder who is present at a meeting, either in person or by proxy –

(a) is regarded as having received or waived notice of the meeting, if at least
the required minimum notice was given; and

(b) has a right to –

(i) allege a material defect in the form of notice for a particular item on
the agenda for the meeting; and

(ii) participate in the determination whether to waive the requirements for
notice if less than the required minimum notice was given, or to ratify
a defective notice; and

(c) except to the extent set out in paragraph (b), is regarded as having waived
any right based on an actual or alleged defect in the notice of the meeting.
[Subs. (7) substituted by s. 40 of Act 3/2011]

63. Conduct of meetings

(1) Before any person may attend or participate in a shareholders meeting –

(a) that person must present reasonably satisfactory identification; and

(b) the person presiding at the meeting must be reasonably satisfied that the
right of that person to participate and vote, either as a shareholder, or as a
proxy for a shareholder, has been reasonably verified .

(2) Unless prohibited by its Memorandum of Incorporation, a company may provide
for –

(a) a shareholders meeting to be conducted entirely by electronic
communication; or

(b) one or more shareholders, or proxies for shareholders, to participate by
electronic communication in all or part of a shareholders meeting that is
being held in person,

as long as the electronic communication employed ordinarily enables all persons
participating in that meeting to communicate concurrently with each other
without an intermediary, and to participate reasonably effectively in the meeting.
[Subs. (2) substituted by s. 41 of Act 3/2011]

(3) If a company provides for participation in a meeting by electronic
communication, as contemplated in subsection (2) –

(a) the notice of that meeting must inform shareholders of the availability of
that form of participation, and provide any necessary information to enable
shareholders or their proxies to access the available medium or means of
electronic communication; an d

(b) access to the medium or means of electronic communication is at the
expense of the shareholder or proxy, except to the extent that the company
determines otherwise.

(4) At a meeting of shareholders, voting may either be by show of hands, or by
po lling.
[Subs. (4) substituted by s. 41 of Act 3/2011]

(5) If voting is by show of hands, any person who is present at the meeting, whether
as a shareholder or as proxy for a shareholder and entitled to exercise voting
rights has one vote, irrespective of the number of voting rights that person would
otherwise be entitled to exercise.
[Subs. (5) substituted by s. 41 of Act 3/2011]

(6) If voting on a particular matter is by polling, any person who is present at the
meeting, whether as a shareholder or as proxy for a shareholder, has the number
of votes determined in accordance with the voting rights associated with the
securities held by that shareholder.
[Subs. (6) inserted by s. 41 of Act 3/2011]

(7) Despite any provision of a company‟s Memorandum of I ncorporation or
agreement to the contrary, a polled vote must be held on any particular matter to
be voted on at a meeting if a demand for such a vote is made by –

(a) at least five persons having the right to vote on that matter, either as a
shareholder or a proxy representing a shareholder; or

(b) a person who is, or persons who together are, entitled, as a shareholder or
proxy representing a shareholder, to exercise at least 10% of the voting
rights entitled to be voted on that matter.
[Subs. (7) ins erted by s. 41 of Act 3/2011]

64. Meeting quorum and adjournment

(1) Subject to subsections (2) to (8) –

(a) a shareholders meeting may not begin until sufficient persons are present at
the meeting to exercise, in aggregate, at least 25 percent of all of the voting
rights that are entitled to be exercised in respect of at least one matter to be
decided at the meeting; and

(b) a matter to be decided at the meeting may not begin to be considered unless
sufficient persons are present at the meeting to e xercise, in aggregate, at
least 25 percent of all of the voting rights that are entitled to be exercised on
that matter at the time the matter is called on the agenda.

(2) A company‟s Memorandum of Incorporation may specify a lower or higher
percentage i n place of the 25 percent required in either or both of subsection
(1)(a) or (b).

(3) Despite the percentage figures set out in subsection (1), or in any applicable
provisions of a company‟s Memorandum of Incorporation, if a company has more
than two sha reholders, a meeting may not begin, or a matter begin to be debated,
unless –

(a) at least three shareholders are present at the meeting; and

(b) the requirements of subsection (1) or the Memorandum of Incorporation, if
different, are satisfied.

(4) If, within one hour after the appointed time for a meeting to begin, the
requirements of subsections (1), or (3) if applicable,

(a) for that meeting to begin have not been satisfied, the meeting is postponed
without motion, vote or further notice, for on e week;

(b) for consideration of a particular matter to begin have not been satisfied –

(i) if there is other business on the agenda of the meeting, consideration
of that matter may be postponed to a later time in the meeting without
motion or vote; or

(ii) if there is no other business on the agenda of the meeting, the meeting
is adjourned for one week, without motion or vote.

(5) The person intended to preside at a meeting that cannot begin due to the operation
of subsection (1)(a), or (3) if appli cable, may extend the one -hour limit allowed in
subsection (4) for a reasonable period on the grounds that –

(a) exceptional circumstances affecting weather, transportation or electronic
communication have generally impeded or are generally impeding the
ability of shareholders to be present at the meeting; or

(b) one or more particular shareholders, having been delayed, have
communicated an intention to attend the meeting, and those shareholders,
together with others in attendance, would satisfy the requ irements of
subsection (1), or (3) if applicable.

(6) A company‟s Memorandum of Incorporation or rules may specify a different time
in substitution for –

(a) the period of one hour contemplated in subsections (4) and (5),
respectively; or

(b) the period of one week contemplated in subsection (4).

(7) A company is not required to give further notice of a meeting that is postponed or
adjourned in terms of subsection (4), unless the location for the meeting is
different from –

(a) the location of t he postponed or adjourned meeting; or

(b) a location announced at the time of adjournment, in the case of an
adjourned meeting.

(8) If, at the time appointed in terms of this section for a postponed meeting to begin,
or for an adjourned meeting to resu me, the requirements of subsection (1), or (3)

if applicable, have not been satisfied, the shareholders, or in the case of a non –
profit company, the members of the company present in person or by proxy will
be deemed to constitute a quorum.
[Subs. 8 substituted by s. 42 of Act 3/2011]

(9) Unless the company‟s Memorandum of Incorporation or rules provide otherwise,
after a quorum has been established for a meeting, or for a matter to be
considered at a meeting, the meeting may continue, or the matter may be
considered, so long as at least one shareholder with voting rights entitled to be
exercised at the meeting, or on that matter, is present at the meeting.

(10) A shareholders meeting, or the consideration of any matter being debated at the
meeting , may be adjourned from time to time without further notice, subject to
subsection (11), on a motion supported by persons entitled to exercise, in
aggregate, a majority of the voting rights –

(a) held by all of the persons who are present at the meeting a t the time; and

(b) that are entitled to be exercised on at least one matter remaining on the
agenda of the meeting, or on the matter under debate, as the case may be.

(11) An adjournment of a meeting, or of consideration of a matter being debated at t he
meeting, in terms of subsection (10) –

(a) may be either –

(i) to a fixed time and place; or

(ii) until further notice,
[Subpara. (ii) substituted by s. 42 of Act 3/2011]

as agreed at the meeting; and
[Words following subpara. (ii) inserted as part of the substitution of subpara. (ii) by s. 42 of Act 3/2011]

(b) requires that a further notice be given to shareholders only if the meeting
determined that the adjournment was “until further notice”, as contemplated
in paragraph (a)(ii).

(12) Subject to subsection (13), a meeting may not be adjourned beyond the earlier of –

(a) the date that is 120 business days after the record date determined in
accordance with section 59 ; or

(b) the date that is 60 business days after the date on which the adjournment
occurred.

(13) A company‟s Memorandum of Incorporation may provide for different maximum
periods of adjournment of meetings than thos e set out in subsection (12), or for
unlimited adjournment of meetings.

65. Shareholder resolutions

(1) Every resolution of shareholders is either an ordinary resolution or a special
resolution.

(2) The board may propose any resolution to be considered by shareholders, and may
determine whether that resolution will be considered at a meeting, or by vote or
written consent in terms of section 60 .

(3) Any two shareholders of a company –

(a) may propose a resolution concerning any matter in respect of which they
are each entitled to exercise voting rights; and

(b) when proposing a resolution, may require that the resolution be submitted
to shareholders for consideration –

(i) at a meeting demanded in terms of section 61 (3);

(ii) at the next shareholders meeting; or

(iii) by written vote in terms of section 60 .

(4) A proposed resolution is not subject to the requirements of section 6 (4), but must
be –

(a) expressed with sufficient clarity and specificity; and

(b) accompanied by sufficient information or explanatory mater ial

to enable a shareholder who is entitled to vote on the resolution to determine
whether to participate in the meeting and to seek to influence the outcome of the
vote on the resolution.
[Subs. (4) substituted by s. 43 of Act 3/2011]

(5) At any time before the start of the meeting at which a resolution will be
considered, a shareholder or director who believes that the form of the resolution
does not satisfy the requirements of subsection (4) may seek leave to apply to a
court for an order –

(a) restraining the company from putting the proposed resolution to a vote until
the requirements of subsection (4) are satisfied; and

(b) requiring the company, or the shareholders who proposed the resolution, as
the case may be, to –

(i) take appropriate steps to alter the resolution so that it satisfies the
requirements of subsection (4); and

(ii) compensate the applicant for costs of the proceedings, if successful.

(6) Once a resolution has been approved, it may not be challenged or impugned by
any person in any forum on the grounds that it did not satisfy subsection (4).

(7) For an ordinary resolution to be approved by shareholders, it must be supported
by more than 50 percent of the voting rights exercised on the resolution.

(8) Except for an o rdinary resolution for the removal of a director under section 71 , a
company‟s Memorandum of Incorporation may require –

(a) a higher percentage of v oting rights to approve an ordinary resolution; or

(b) one or more higher percentages of voting rights to approve ordinary
resolutions concerning one or more particular matters, respectively,

provided that there must at all times be a margin of at leas t 10 percentage points
between the highest established requirement for approval of an ordinary
resolution on any matter, and the lowest established requirement for approval of a
special resolution on any matter.
[Words following para. (b) substituted by s. 43 of Act 3/2011]

(9) For a special resolution to be approved by shareholders, it must be supported by
at least 75 percent of the voting rights exercised on the resolution.

(10) A company‟s Memorandum of Incorporation may permit –

(a) a different per centage of voting rights to approve any special resolution; or
[Para. (a) substituted by s. 43 of Act 3/2011]

(b) one or more different percentages of voting rights to approve special
resolutions concerning one or more particular matters, respectively,
[Para. (b) substituted by s. 43 of Act 3/2011]

provided that there must at all times be a margin of at least 10 percentage points
between the highest established requirement for approval of an ordinary
resolution on any matter, and the lowest established requirement for approval of a
special resolution on any matter.
[Words following para. (b) substituted by s. 43 of Act 3/2011]

(11) A special resolution is required to –

(a) amend the company‟s Memorandum of Incorporation to the extent required
by section 16 (1)(c) and section 36 (2)(a);

(b) ratify a consolidated revision of a company‟s Memorandum of
Incorporation, as contemplated in section 18 (1)(b);

(c) ratify actions by the company or directors in excess of their authority, as
contemplated in section 20 (2);

(d) approve an issue of shares or grant o f rights in the circumstances
contemplated in section 41 (1);

(e) approve an issue of shares or securities as contemplated in section 41 (3);

(f) authorise the board to grant financial assistance in the circumstances
contemplated in section 44 (3)(a)(ii) or 45 (3)(a)(ii);

(g) approve a decision of the board for re -acquisition of shares in the
circumstances contemplated in section 48 (8);

(h) authorise the basis for compens ation to directors of a profit company, as
required by section 66 (9);

(i) approve the voluntary winding up of the company, as contemplated in
section 80 (1);

(j) approve the winding up of a company in the circumstances contemplated in
section 81 (1);

(k) approve an application to transfer the registration of the company to a
foreign jurisdiction as contemplated in section 82 (5);

(l) approve any proposed fundamental transaction, to the extent required by
Part A of Chapter 5 ; or

(m) revoke a resolution contemplated in section 164 (9)(c).
[Subs. (11) substituted by s. 43 of Act 3/2011]

(12) A company‟s Memorandum of Incorporation may require a special resolution to
approve any other matter not contemplated in subsection (11).

66. Board, directors and prescribed officers

(1) The business and affairs of a company must be managed by or under the direction
of its board, which has the authority to exercise all of the powers and perform any
of the functions of the company, except to the extent that this Ac t or the
company‟s Memorandum of Incorporation provides otherwise.

(2) The board of a company must comprise –

(a) in the case of a private company, or a personal liability company, at least
one director; or

(b) in the case of a public company, or a no n-profit company, at least three
directors,
[Para. (b) substituted by s. 44 of Act 3/2011]

in addition to the minimum number of directors that the company must have to
satisfy any requirement, whether in terms of this Act or its Memorandum of
Incorporati on, to appoint an audit committee, or a social and ethics committee as
contemplated in section 72 (4).
[Words following para. (b) inserted as part of the substitution of para. (b) by s. 44 of Act 3/2011]

(3) A company‟s Memorandum of Incorporation may specify a higher number in
substitution for the minimum number of directors required by subsection (2).

(4) A company‟s Memorandum of Incorporation –

(a) may provide for –

(i) the direct appointment and removal of one or more directors by any
person who is named in, or determined in terms of, the Memorandum
of Incorporation;

(ii) a person to be an ex officio director of the company as a consequence
of that person holding some other office, title, designation or similar
status, subject to subsection (5)(a);or

(iii) the appointment or election of one or more persons as alternate
directors of the company; and

(b) in the case of a profit company other than a state -owned company, must
provide for the election by shareholders of at least 50 percent of the
directors, and 50 percent of any alternate directors.

(5) A person contemplated in subsection (4)(a)(ii) –

(a) may not serve or continue to serve as an ex officio director of a company,
despite holding the relevant office, title, designation or similar status, if that
person is or becomes ineligible or disqualified in terms of section 69 ; and

(b) who holds office or acts in the capacity of an ex officio director of a
company has all the –

(i) powers and functions of any other director of the company, ex cept to
the extent that the company‟s Memorandum of Incorporation restricts
the powers, functions or duties of an ex officio director; and

(ii) duties, and is subject to all of the liabilities, of any other director of
the company.

(6) The election or appointment of a person as a director is a nullity if, at the time of
the election or appointment, that person is ineligible or disqualified in terms of
section 69 .

(7) A person becomes entitled to serve as a director of a company when that person –
[Words preceding para. (a) substituted by s. 44 of Act 3/2011]

(a) has been appointed or elected in accordance with this Part, or holds an
office, title, designation or similar status entitling that person to be an ex
officio director of the company, subject to subsection (5)(a); and

(b) has delivered to the company a written consent to serve as its director.

(8) Except to the extent that the Memorandum of Incorporation of a company
provides otherwise, the company may pay remuneration to its directors for their
service as directors, subject to subsection (9).

(9) Remuneration contemplated in subsection (8) may be paid only in accordance
with a special resolution approved by the shareholders within the previous two
years.

(10) The Minister may make regulations designating any specific functio n or functions
within a company to constitute a prescribed office for the purposes of this Act.

(11) Any failure by a company at any time to have the minimum number of directors
required by this Act or the company‟s Memorandum of Incorporation, does not
limit or negate the authority of the board, or invalidate anything done by the
board or the company.

(12) Save as otherwise provided elsewhere in this Act or in the company‟s
Memorandum of Incorporation, any particular director may be appointed to more
than one committee of the company, and when calculating the minimum number
of directors required for a company in terms of subsections (2) and (3), any such
director who has been appointed to more than one committee must be counted
only once.
[Subs. (12) in serted by s. 44 of Act 3/2011]

67. First director or directors

(1) Each incorporator of a company is a first director of the company, and serves
until sufficient other directors to satisfy the minimum requirements of this Act, or
the company‟s Memorand um of Incorporation, have been –

(a) first appointed, as contemplated in section 66 (4)(a)(i); or

(b) first elected in accordance with section 68 or the company‟s Memorandum
of Incorporation.

(2) If the number of incorporators of a company, together with any ex officio
directors, or d irectors to be appointed as contemplated in section 66 (4)(a)(i), is
fewer than the minimum number of directors required for that company in terms
of t his Act or the company‟s Memorandum of Incorporation, the board must call
a shareholders meeting within 40 business days after incorporation of the
company for the purpose of electing sufficient directors to fill all vacancies on the
board at the time of t he election.

68. Election of directors of profit companies
[Heading of s. 68 substituted by s. 45 of Act 3/2011]

(1) Subject to subsection (3), each director of a profit company, other than the first
director or a director contemplated in section 66 (4)(a)(i) or (ii), must be elected

by the persons entitled to exercise voting rights in such an election, to serve for an
indefinite term, or for a term as set out in the Memorandum of Incorporation.
[Subs. (1) substituted by s. 45 of Act 3/2011]

(2) Unless a profit company‟s Memorandum of Incorporation provides otherwise, in
any election of directors –
[Words preceding para. (a) substituted b y s. 45 of Act 3/2011]

(a) the election is to be conducted as a series of votes, each of which is on the
candidacy of a single individual to fill a single vacancy, with the series of
votes continuing until all vacancies on the board at that time have bee n
filled; and

(b) in each vote to fill a vacancy –

(i) each voting right entitled to be exercised may be exercised once; and

(ii) the vacancy is filled only if a majority of the voting rights exercised
support the candidate.

(3) Unless the Memorandum of Incorporation of a profit company provides
otherwise, the board may appoint a person who satisfies the requirements for
election as a director to fill any vacancy and serve as a director of the company on
a temporary basis until the vacancy h as been filled by election in terms of
subsection (2), and during that period any person so appointed has all of the
powers, functions and duties, and is subject to all of the liabilities, of any other
director of the company.
[Subs. (3) substituted by s. 45 of Act 3/2011]

69. Ineligibility and disqualification of persons to be director or prescribed officer

(1) In this section, “director” includes an alternate director, and –

(a) a prescribed officer; or

(b) a person who is a member of a committee o f a board of a company, or of
the audit committee of a company,

irrespective of whether or not the person is also a member of the company‟s
board.

(2) A person who is ineligible or disqualified, as set out in this section, must not –

(a) be appointed or elected as a director of a company, or consent to being
appointed or elected as a director; or

(b) act as a director of a company.

(3) A company must not knowingly permit an ineligible or disqualified person to
serve or act as a director.

(4) A person who becomes ineligible or disqualified while serving as a director of a
company ceases to be entitled to continue to act as a director immediately, subject
to section 70 (2).
[Subs. (4) substituted by s. 46 of Act 3/2011]

(5) A person who has been placed under probation by a court in terms of section 162 ,
or in terms of section 47 of the Close Corporations Act, 1984 (Act No. 69 of
1984), must not serve as a director except to the extent permitted by the order of
probation.

(6) In addition to the provisions of this section, the Memorandum of Incorporation of
a company may impose –

(a) additional grounds of ineligibility or disqualification of directors; or

(b) minimum qualifications to be met by directors of that company.

(7) A person is ineligible to be a director of a company if the person –

(a) is a juristic person;

(b) is an unemancipated minor, or is under a similar legal disability; or

(c) does not satisfy any qualification set out in the company‟s Memorandum of
Incorporation.

(8) A person is disqualified to be a director of a company if –

(a) a court has prohibited that person to be a director, or declared the person to
be delinquent in terms of section 162 , or in terms of section 47 of the Close
Corporations Act, 1984 (Act No. 69 of 1984); or

(b) subject to subsections (9) to (12), the person –

(i) is an unrehabilitated insolvent;

(ii) is prohibited in terms of any public regulation to be a director of the
company;

(iii) has been removed from an office of trust, on the grounds of
misconduct involving dishonesty; or

(iv) has been convicted, in the Republic or elsewhere, and imprisoned
without the option of a fine, or fined more than the prescribed
amount, for theft, fraud, forgery, perjury or an offence –

(aa) involving fraud, misrepresentation or dishonesty;

(bb) in connection with the promotion, formation or management o f
a company, or in connection with any act contemplated in
subsection (2) or (5); or

(cc) under this Act, the Insolvency Act, 1936 (Act No. 24 of 1936),
the Close Corporations Act, 1984, the Competition Act, the
Financial Intelligence Centre Act, 2001 (Act No. 38 of 2001),
the Securities Services Act, 2004 (Act No. 36 of 2004), or
Chapter 2 of the Prevention and Combating of Corruption
Activities Act, 2004 (Act No. 12 of 2004).

(9) A disqualification in terms of subsection (8)(b)(iii) or (iv) ends at the later of –

(a) five years after the date of removal from office, or the completion of the
sentence imposed for the relevant offence, as the case may be; or

(b) at the end of one or more extensions, as determined by a court from time to
time, on application by the Commission in terms of subsection (10).

(10) At any time before the expiry of a person‟s disqualification in terms of subsection
(8)(b)(iii) or (iv) –

(a) the Commission may apply to a court for an extension contemplated in
subsection (9)(b); and

(b) the court may extend the disqualification for no more than five years at a
time, if the court is satisfied that an extension is necessary to protect the
public, having regard to the conduct of the disqualified person up to the
time of the application.

(11) A court may exempt a person from the application of any provision of subsection
(8)(b).

(11A) The Registrar of the Court must, upon –

(a) the issue of a sequestration order;

(b) the issue of an order for the removal of a person from any office of trust on
the grounds of misconduct involving dishonesty; or

(c) a conviction for an offence referred in subsection (8)(b)(iv),

send a copy of the relevant order or particulars of the conviction, as the case may
be, to the Commission.
[Subs. (11A) inserted by s. 46 of Act 3/2011]

(11B) The Commission must notify each company which has as a director to whom the
order or conviction relates, of the or der or conviction.
[Subs. (11B) inserted by s. 46 of Act 3/2011]

(12) ……….

[Subs. (12) deleted by s. 46 of Act 3/2011]

(13) The Commission must establish and maintain in the prescribed manner a public
register of persons who are disqualified from servi ng as a director, or who are
subject to an order of probation as a director, in terms of an order of a court
pursuant to this Act or any other law.

70. Vacancies on board

(1) Subject to subsection (2), a person ceases to be a director, and a vacancy arises on
the board of a company –

(a) when the person‟s term of office as director expires, in the case of a
company whose Memorandum of Incorporation provides for fixed terms, as
contemplated in section 68 (1); or

(b) in any case, if the person –

(i) resigns or dies;

(ii) in the case of an ex officio director, ceases to hold the office, title,
designation or similar status that entitled the person to be an ex officio
director;

(iii) becomes incapacitated to the extent that the person is unable to
perform the functions of a director, and is unlikely t o regain that
capacity within a reasonable time, subject to section 71 (3);

(iv) is declared delinquent by a court, or placed on probation under
conditions that are inconsistent with continuing to be a director of the
company, in terms of section 162 ;

(v) becomes ineligible or disqualified in terms of section 69 , subject to
section 71 (3); or

(vi) is removed –

(aa) by resolution of the shareholders in terms of sectio n 71 (1);

(bb) by resolution of the board in terms of section 71 (3); or

(cc) by order of the court in terms of section 71 (5) or (6).

(2) If, in terms of section 71 (3), the board of a company has removed a director, a
vacancy on the board does not arise until the later of –

(a) the expiry of the time for filing an application for review in terms of section
71 (5); or

(b) the granting of an order by the court on such an application,

but the director is suspended from office during that time.

(3 ) If a vacancy arises on the board, other than as a result of an ex officio director
ceasing to hold that office, it must be filled by –

(a) a new appointment, if the director was appointed as contemplated in section
66 (4)(a)(i); or

(b) subject to subsection (4), by a new election conducted –

(i) at the next annual general meeting of the company, if the company is
required to hold such a meeting; or

(ii) in any other case, within six months after the vacancy arose –

(aa) at a shareholders meeting called for the purpose of electing the
director; or

(bb) by a poll of the persons entitled to exercise voting rights in an
election of the director, as contemplated in section 60 (3).

(4) If, as a result of a vacancy arising on the board of a company there are no
remaining directors of a company, any holder of voting rights entitled to be
exercised in the election of a director may convene a meeting for the purpose of
such an election.

(5) A person contemplated in subsection (4) may apply to a court for relief, and the
court may grant a superviso ry order relating to a meeting convened in terms of
that paragraph if the court is satisfied that such an order is required to prevent the
oppression, or preserve the rights, of any shareholder.

(6) Every company must file a notice within 10 business day s after a person becomes
or ceases to be a director of the company.

71. Removal of directors

(1) Despite anything to the contrary in a company‟s Memorandum of Incorporation
or rules, or any agreement between a company and a director, or between any
sha reholders and a director, a director may be removed by an ordinary resolution
adopted at a shareholders meeting by the persons entitled to exercise voting rights
in an election of that director, subject to subsection (2).

(2) Before the shareholders of a company may consider a resolution contemplated in
subsection (1) –

(a) the director concerned must be given notice of the meeting and the
resolution, at least equivalent to that which a shareholder is entitled to
receive, irrespective of whether or not t he director is a shareholder of the
company; and

(b) the director must be afforded a reasonable opportunity to make a
presentation, in person or through a representative, to the meeting, before
the resolution is put to a vote.

(3) If a company has more than two directors, and a shareholder or director has
alleged that a director of the company –

(a) has become –

(i) ineligible or disqualified in terms of section 69 , other than on the
grounds contemplated in section 69 (8)(a);or

(ii) incapacitated to the extent that the director is unable to perform the
functions of a director, and is unlikely to regain that capacity within a
reasonable time; or

(b) has neglected, or been derelict in the performance of, the functions of
director,

the board, other than the director concerned, must determine the matter by
resolution, and may remove a director whom it has determined to be ineligible or
disqualified, incapacitated, or negligent or derelict, as the case may be.

(4) Before the board of a company may consider a resolution contemplated in
subsection (3), the director concerned must be given –

(a) notice of the meeting, including a copy of the proposed resolution and a
statement setting out rea sons for the resolution, with sufficient specificity to
reasonably permit the director to prepare and present a response; and

(b) a reasonable opportunity to make a presentation, in person or through a
representative, to the meeting before the resolution is put to a vote.

(5) If, in terms of subsection (3), the board of a company has determined that a
director is ineligible or disqualified, incapacitated, or has been negligent or
derelict, as the case may be, the director concerned, or a person who appo inted
that director as contemplated in section 66 (4)(a)(i), if applicable, may apply
within 20 business days to a court to review the determination of the board.

(6) If, in terms of subsection (3), the board of a company has determined that a
director is not ineligible or disqualified, incapacitated, or has not been negligent
or derelict, as the case may be –

(a) any director who voted otherwise on t he resolution, or any holder of voting
rights entitled to be exercised in the election of that director, may apply to a
court to review the determination of the board; and

(b) the court, on application in terms of paragraph (a), may –

(i) confirm the determination of the board; or

(ii) remove the director from office, if the court is satisfied that the
director is ineligible or disqualified, incapacitated, or has been
negligent or derelict.

(7) An applicant in terms of subsection (6) must compensat e the company, and any
other party, for costs incurred in relation to the application, unless the court
reverses the decision of the board.

(8) If a company has fewer than three directors –

(a) subsection (3) does not apply to the company;

(b) in any circumstances contemplated in subsection (3), any director or
shareholder of the company may apply to the Companies Tribunal, to make
a determination contemplated in that subsection; and

(c) subsections (4), (5) and (6), each read with the changes requir ed by the
context, apply to the determination of the matter by the Companies
Tribunal.

(9) Nothing in this section deprives a person removed from office as a director in
terms of this section of any right that person may have at common law or
otherwise t o apply to a court for damages or other compensation for –

(a) loss of office as a director; or

(b) loss of any other office as a consequence of being removed as a director.

(10) This section is in addition to the right of a person, in terms of section 162 , to
apply to a court for an order declaring a director delinquent, or placing a director
on probation.

72. Board committees

(1) Except to the extent that the Memorandum of Incorporation of a company
provides otherwise, the board of a company may –

(a) appoint any number of committees of directors; and

(b) delegate to any committee any of the authority of the board.

(2) Except to the ext ent that the Memorandum of Incorporation of a company, or a
resolution establishing a committee, provides otherwise, the committee –

(a) may include persons who are not directors of the company, but –

(i) any such person must not be ineligible or disqual ified to be a director
in terms of section 69 ; and

(ii) no such person has a vote on a matter to be decided by the committee;

(b) may consult with or receive advice from any person; and

(c) has the full authority of the board in respect of a matter referred to it.

(3) The creation of a committee, delegation of any power to a committee, or action
taken by a committee, does not alone satisfy or co nstitute compliance by a
director with the required duty of a director to the company, as set out in section
76 .

(4) The Minister, by regulation, may prescribe –

(a) a category of companies that must each have a social and ethics committee,
if it is desirable in the public interest, having regard to –

(i) annual turnover;

(ii) workforce size; or

(iii) the nature and extent of the activities of such companies;

(b) the functions to be performed by social and ethics committees required by
this subsection; and

(c) rules governing the composition and conduct of social and ethics
committees.
[Subs. (4) substituted by s. 47 of Act 3/2011]

(5) A company that falls within a category of companies that are required in terms of
this section and the regulations to appoint a social and ethics committee may
apply to the Tribunal in the prescribed manner and form for an exemption from
that requirement, and the Tribunal may grant such an exemption if it is satisfied
that –

(a) the company is required in terms of other legislation to have, and does have,
some form of formal mechanism within its structures that substantially
performs the function that wou ld otherwise be performed by the social and
ethics committee in terms of this section and the regulations; or

(b) it is not reasonably necessary in the public interest to require the company
to have a social and ethics committee, having regard to the na ture and
extent of the activities of the company.
[Subs. (5) inserted by s. 47 of Act 3/2011]

(6) An exemption granted in terms of subsection (5) is valid for five years, or such
shorter period as the Tribunal may determine at the time of granting the
exemption, unless set aside by the Tribunal in terms of subsection (7).
[Subs. (6) inserted by s. 47 of Act 3/2011]

(7) The Commission, on its own initiative or on request by a shareholder, or a person
who was granted standing by the Tribunal at the hear ing of the exemption
application, may apply to the Tribunal to set aside an exemption only on the
grounds that the basis on which the exemption was granted no longer applies.
[Subs. (7) inserted by s. 47 of Act 3/2011]

(8) A social and ethics committee of a company is entitled to –

(a) require from any director or prescribed officer of the company any
information or explanation necessary for the performance of the
committee‟s functions;

(b) request from any employee of the company any information or explanation
necessary for the performance of the committee‟s functions;

(c) attend any general shareholders meeting;

(d) receive all notices of and other communications relating to any general
shareholders meeting; and

(e) be heard at any general sha reholders meeting contemplated in this
paragraph on any part of the business of the meeting that concerns the
committee‟s functions.
[Subs. (8) inserted by s. 47 of Act 3/2011]

(9) A company must pay all the expenses reasonably incurred by its social and ethics
committee, including, if the social and ethics committee considers it appropriate,
the costs or the fees of any consultant or specialist engaged by the social and
ethics committee in the performance of its functions.
[Subs. (9) inserted by s. 47 of Act 3/2011]

(10) Section 84 (6) and (7), read with the changes required by the context, apply with
respect to a company that fails to appoint a social and ethics committee, as
required by this section and the regulations.
[Subs. (10) inserted by s. 47 of Act 3/2011]

73. Board meetings

(1) A director authorised by the board of a company –

(a) may call a meeting of the board at any time; and

(b) must call such a meeting if required to do so by at least –

(i) 25 percent of the directors, in the case of a board that has at least 12
members; or

(ii) two directors, in any other case.

(2) A company‟s Memorandum of Incorporation may specify a h igher or lower
percentage or number in substitution for those set out in subsection (1)(b).

(3) Except to the extent that this Act or a company‟s Memorandum of Incorporation
provides otherwise –

(a) a meeting of the board may be conducted by electronic communication; or

(b) one or more directors may participate in a meeting by electronic
communication,

so long as the electronic communication facility employed ordinarily enables all
persons participating in that meeting to communicate concurrently with each
other without an intermediary, and to participate effectively in the meeting.

(4) The board of a company may determine the form and time for giving notice of its
meetings, but –

(a) such a determination must comply with any requirements set ou t in the
Memorandum of Incorporation, or rules, of the company; and

(b) no meeting of a board may be convened without notice to all of the
directors, subject to subsection (5).

(5) Except to the extent that the company‟s Memorandum of Incorporation pro vides
otherwise –

(a) if all of the directors of the company –

(i) acknowledge actual receipt of the notice;

(ii) are present at a meeting; or

(iii) waive notice of the meeting,

the meeting may proceed even if the company failed to give the required
notice of that meeting, or there was a defect in the giving of the notice;

(b) a majority of the directors must be present at a meeting before a vote may
be called at a meeting of the directors;

(c) each director has one vote on a matter before the board;

(d) a majority of the votes cast on a resolution is sufficient to approve that
resolution; and

(e) in the case of a tied vote –

(i) the chair may cast a deciding vote, if the chair did not initially have or
cast a vote; or

(ii) the matter being voted on fails, in any other case.

(6) A company must keep minutes of the meetings of the board, and any of its
committees, and include in the minutes –

(a) any declaration given by notice or made by a director as required by section
75 ; and

(b) every resolution adopted by the board.

(7) Resolutions adopted by the board –

(a) must be dated and sequentially numbered; and

(b) are effective as of the date of the resolution, unless the resolution states
otherwise.

(8) Any minutes of a meeting, or a resolution, signed by the chair of the meeting, or
by the chair of the next meeting of the board, is evidence of the proceedings of
tha t meeting, or adoption of that resolution, as the case may be.

74. Directors acting other than at meeting

(1) Except to the extent that the Memorandum of Incorporation of a company
provides otherwise, a decision that could be voted on at a meeting of the board of
that company may instead be adopted by written consent of a majority of the
directors, given in person, or by electronic communication, provided that each
director has received notice of the matter to be decided.

(2) A decision made in the m anner contemplated in this section is of the same effect
as if it had been approved by voting at a meeting.

75. Director‟s personal financial interests

(1) In this section –

(a) “director” includes –

(i) an alternate director;

(ii) a prescribed officer; and

(iii) a person who is a member of a committee of the board of a company,

irrespective of whether the person is also a member of the company‟s
board; and

(b) “related person”, when used in reference to a director, has the meaning
set out in section 1 , but also includes a second company of which the
director or a related person is also a director, or a close corporation of
which the director or a related person is a member.

[Subs. (1) substituted by s. 48 of Act 3/2011]

(2) This section does not apply –

(a) to a director of a company –

(i) in respect of a decision that may generally affect –

(aa) all of the directors of the company in their capacity as directors;
or

(bb) a class of persons, despite the fact that the director is one
member of that class of persons, unless the only members of the
class are the director or persons related or inter -related to the
director; or

(ii) in respect of a proposal to remove that director from office as
contemplated in section 71 ; or

(b) to a company or its director, if one person –

(i) holds all of the beneficial interests of all of the issued securities of the
company; and

(ii) is the only director of that company.

(3) If a person is the only director of a company, but does not hold all of the
beneficial interests of all of the issued securities of the company, that person may
not –

(a) approve or enter into any agreement in which the person or a related person
has a personal financial interest; or

(b) as a director, determine any other matte r in which the person or a related
person has a personal financial interest,

unless the agreement or determination is approved by an ordinary resolution of
the shareholders after the director has disclosed the nature and extent of that
interest to the shareholders.

(4) At any time, a director may disclose any personal financial interest in advance, by
delivering to the board, or shareholders in the case of a company contemplated in
subsection (3), a notice in writing setting out the nature and extent of that interest,
to be used generally for the purposes of this section until changed or withdrawn
by further written notice from that director.

(5) If a director of a company, other than a company contemplated in subsection
(2)(b) or (3), has a personal financial interest in respect of a matter to be
considered at a meeting of the board, or knows that a related person has a
personal financial interest in the matter, the director –

(a) must disclose the interest and its general nature before the matter i s
considered at the meeting;

(b) must disclose to the meeting any material information relating to the matter,
and known to the director;

(c) may disclose any observations or pertinent insights relating to the matter if
requested to do so by the other directors;

(d) if present at the meeting, must leave the meeting immediately after making
any disclosure contemplated in paragraph (b) or (c);

(e) must not take part in the consideration of the matter, except to the extent
contemplated in paragraphs (b ) and (c);

(f) while absent from the meeting in terms of this subsection –

(i) is to be regarded as being present at the meeting for the purpose of
determining whether sufficient directors are present to constitute the
meeting; and

(ii) is not to be regarded as being present at the meeting for the purpose of
determining whether a resolution has sufficient support to be adopted;
and

(g) must not execute any document on behalf of the company in relation to the
matter unless specifically requested or d irected to do so by the board.

(6) If a director of a company acquires a personal financial interest in an agreement
or other matter in which the company has a material interest, or knows that a
related person has acquired a personal financial interest i n the matter, after the
agreement or other matter has been approved by the company, the director must
promptly disclose to the board, or to the shareholders in the case of a company
contemplated in subsection (3), the nature and extent of that interest, an d the
material circumstances relating to the director or related person‟s acquisition of
that interest.

(7) A decision by the board, or a transaction or agreement approved by the board, or
by a company as contemplated in subsection (3), is valid despite any personal
financial interest of a director or person related to the director, only if –

(a) it was approved following disclosure of that interest in the manner
contemplated in this section; or

(b) despite having been approved without disclosure of that interest, it –

(i) has subsequently been ratified by an ordinary resolution of the
shareholders following disclosure of that interest; or

(ii) has been declared to be valid by a court in terms of subsection (8).
[Subs. (7) substituted by s. 48 of Act 3/2011]

(8) A court, on application by any interested person, may declare valid a transaction
or agreement that had been approved by the board, or shareholders, as the case
may be, despite the failure of the director to satisfy the disclosure require ments of
this section.
[Subs. (8) substituted by s. 48 of Act 3/2011]

76. Standards of directors conduct

(1) In this section, “director” includes an alternate director, and –

(a) a prescribed officer; or

(b) a person who is a member of a committee of a board of a company, or of
the audit committee of a company,

irrespective of whether or not the person is also a member of the company‟s
board.

(2) A director of a company must –

(a) not use the position of director, or any information obtained wh ile acting in
the capacity of a director –

(i) to gain an advantage for the director, or for another person other than
the company or a wholly -owned subsidiary of the company; or

(ii) to knowingly cause harm to the company or a subsidiary of the
company ; and

(b) communicate to the board at the earliest practicable opportunity any
information that comes to the director‟s attention, unless the director –

(i) reasonably believes that the information is –

(aa) immaterial to the company; or

(bb) generally available to the public, or known to the other
directors; or

(ii) is bound not to disclose that information by a legal or ethical
obligation of confidentiality.

(3) Subject to subsections (4) and (5), a director of a company, when acting in t hat
capacity, must exercise the powers and perform the functions of director –

(a) in good faith and for a proper purpose;

(b) in the best interests of the company; and

(c) with the degree of care, skill and diligence that may reasonably be expected
of a person –

(i) carrying out the same functions in relation to the company as those
carried out by that director; and

(ii) having the general knowledge, skill and experience of that director.

(4) In respect of any particular matter arising in the exercise of the powers or the
performance of the functions of director, a particular director of a company –

(a) will have satisfied the obligations of subsection (3)(b) and (c) if –

(i) the director has taken reasonably diligent steps to become informed
about the matter;

(ii) either –

(aa) the director had no material personal financial interest in the
subject matter of the decision, and had no reasonable basis to
know that any related person had a personal financial interest in
the matter; or

(bb) the director complied with the requirements of section 75 with
respect to any interest contemplated in subparagraph (aa); and

(iii) the director mad e a decision, or supported the decision of a committee
or the board, with regard to that matter, and the director had a rational
basis for believing, and did believe, that the decision was in the best
interests of the company; and

(b) is entitled to rely on –

(i) the performance by any of the persons –

(aa) referred to in subsection (5); or

(bb) to whom the board may reasonably have delegated, formally or
informally by course of conduct, the authority or duty to
perform one or more of the board‟s functions that are delegable
under applicable law; and

(ii) any information, opinions, recommendations, reports or statements,
including financial statements and other financial data, prepared or
presented by any of the persons specified in subsection (5 ).

(5) To the extent contemplated in subsection (4)(b), a director is entitled to rely on –

(a) one or more employees of the company whom the director reasonably
believes to be reliable and competent in the functions performed or the
information, opinions, reports or statements provided;

(b) legal counsel, accountants, or other professional persons retained by the
company, the board or a committee as to matters involving skills or
expertise that the director reasonably believes are matters –

(i) within the particular person‟s professional or expert competence; or

(ii) as to which the particular person merits confidence; or

(c) a committee of the board of which the director is not a member, unless the
director has reason to believe that the ac tions of the committee do not merit
confidence.

77. Liability of directors and prescribed officers

(1) In this section, “director” includes an alternate director, and –

(a) a prescribed officer; or

(b) a person who is a member of a committee of a board of a company, or of
the audit committee of a company,

irrespective of whether or not the person is also a member of the company‟s
board.

(2) A director of a company may be held liable –

(a) in accordance with the principles of the common law rel ating to breach of a
fiduciary duty, for any loss, damages or costs sustained by the company as a
consequence of any breach by the director of a duty contemplated in section
75 , 76 (2) or 76 (3)(a) or (b);or

(b) in accordance with the principles of the common law relating to delict for
any loss, damages or costs sustained by the company as a consequence of
any breach by the director of –

(i) a duty contemplated in section 76 (3)(c);

(ii) any provision of this Act not otherwise mentioned in this section; or

(iii) any provision of the company‟s Memorandum of Incorporation.

(3) A direc tor of a company is liable for any loss, damages or costs sustained by the
company as a direct or indirect consequence of the director having –

(a) acted in the name of the company, signed anything on behalf of the
company, or purported to bind the company or authorise the taking of any

action by or on behalf of the company, despite knowing that the director
lacked the authority to do so;

(b) acquie sced in the carrying on of the company‟s business despite knowing
that it was being conducted in a manner prohibited by section 22 (1);

(c) been a pa rty to an act or omission by the company despite knowing that the
act or omission was calculated to defraud a creditor, employee or
shareholder of the company, or had another fraudulent purpose;

(d) signed, consented to, or authorised, the publication of –

(i) any financial statements that were false or misleading in a material
respect; or

(ii) a prospectus, or a written statement contemplated in section 101 , that
contained –

(aa) an „untrue statement‟ as defined and described in section 95 ; or

(bb) a statement to the effect that a person h ad consented to be a
director of the company, when no such consent had been given,
[Item (bb) substituted by s. 49 of Act 3/2011]

despite knowing that the statement was false, misleading or untrue, as
the case may be, but the provisions of section 104 (3), read with the
changes required by the context, apply to limit the liability of a
director in terms of
this paragraph; or
[Words following item (bb) substituted by s. 49 of Act 3/2011]]

(e) been present at a meeting, or participated in the making of a decision in
terms of sect ion 74 , and failed to vote against –

(i) the issuing of any unauthorised shares, despite knowing that those
shares had not been authorised in accordance with section 36 ;

(ii) the issuing of any authorised securities, despite knowing that the issue
of those securities was inconsistent with section 41 ;

(iii) the granting of options to any person contemplated in section 42 (4),
despite knowing that any shares –

(aa) for which the options could be exercised; or

(bb) into which any securities could be converted,

had not been authorised in terms of section 36 ;

(iv) the provision of financial assistance to any person contemplated in
section 44 for the acquisition of securities of the company, despite
knowin g that the provision of financial assistance was inconsistent
with section 44 or the company‟s Memorandum of Incorporation;
[Subpara. (iv) substituted by s. 77 of Act 3/2011]

(v) the provision of financial assistance to a director for a purpose
contemplated in section 45 , despite knowing that the provision of
financial assistance was inconsistent with that section or the
company‟s Memorandum of Incorporation;
[Subpara. (v) substituted by s. 77 of Act 3/2011]

(vi) a resolution approving a distribution, despite knowing that the
distribution was con trary to section 46 , subject to subsection (4);

(vii) the acquisition by the company of any of its shares, or the shares of its
holding company, des pite knowing that the acquisition was contrary
to section 46 or 48 ; or

(viii) an allotment by the company, despite knowing that the allotment was
contrary to any provision of Chapter 4 .
[Subpara. (viii) substituted by s. 77 of Act 3/2011]

(4) The liability of a director in terms of subsection (3)(e)(vi) as a consequence of the
director having failed to vote against a distribution in contravention of section 46 –

(a) arises only if –

(i) immediately after making all of the distribution contemplated in a
resolution in terms of section 46 , the company does not satisfy the
solvency and liquidity test; and

(ii) it was unreasonable at the time of the decision to conclude that the
company would satisfy the solvency and liquidity test after making
the relevant distribution; and

(b) does not exceed, in aggregate, the difference between –

(i) the amount by which the value of the distribution exceeded the
amount that could have been distributed without causing the company
to fail to satisfy the solvency and liquidity test; and

(ii) the amount, if any, recovered by the company from persons to whom
the distribution was made.

(5) If the board of a company has made a decision in a manner that contravened this
Act, as contemplated in s ubsection (3)(e) –

(a) the company, or any director who has been or may be held liable in terms of
subsection (3)(e), may apply to a court for an order setting aside the
decision of the board; and

(b) the court may make –

(i) an order setting aside the decision in whole or in part, absolutely or
conditionally; and

(ii) any further order that is just and equitable in the circumstances,
including an order –

(aa) to rectify the decision, reverse any transaction, or restore any
consideration paid or bene fit received by any person in terms of
the decision of the board; and

(bb) requiring the company to indemnify any director who has been
or may be held liable in terms of this section, including
indemnification for the costs of the proceedings under this
subsection.

(6) The liability of a person in terms of this section is joint and several with any other
person who is or may be held liable for the same act.

(7) Proceedings to recover any loss, damages or costs for which a person is or may be
held liable in terms of this section may not be commenced more than three years
after the act or omission that gave rise to that liability.

(8) In addition to the liability set out elsewhere in this section, any person who would
be so liable is jointly and se verally liable with all other such persons –

(a) to pay the costs of all parties in the court in a proceeding contemplated in
this section unless the proceedings are abandoned, or exculpate that person;
and

(b) to restore to the company any amount impro perly paid by the company as a
consequence of the impugned act, and not recoverable in terms of this Act.

(9) In any proceedings against a director, other than for wilful misconduct or wilful
breach of trust, the court may relieve the director, either wh olly or partly, from
any liability set out in this section, on any terms the court considers just if it
appears to the court that –

(a) the director is or may be liable, but has acted honestly and reasonably; or

(b) having regard to all the circumstance s of the case, including those
connected with the appointment of the director, it would be fair to excuse
the director.

(10) A director who has reason to apprehend that a claim may be made alleging that
the director is liable, other than for wilful misco nduct or wilful breach of trust,
may apply to a court for relief, and the court may grant relief to the director on

the same grounds as if the matter had come before the court in terms of
subsection (9).

78. Indemnification and directors‟ insurance

(1) In this section, „„director‟‟ includes a former director and an alternate director,
and –

(a) a prescribed officer; or

(b) a person who is a member of a committee of a board of a company, or of
the audit committee of a company,

irrespective of whether or not the person is also a member of the company‟s
board.

(2) Subject to subsections (4) to (6), any provision of an agreement, the
Memorandum of Incorporation or rules of a company, or a resolution adopted by
a company, whether express or impli ed, is void to the extent that it directly or
indirectly purports to –

(a) relieve a director of –

(i) a duty contemplated in section 75 or 76 ; or

(ii) liability contemplated in section 77 ; or

(b) negate, limit or restrict any legal consequences arising from an act or
omission that constitutes wilful misconduct or wilful breach of trust on the
part of the director.

(3) Subject to subsection (3A), a company may not directly or indirectly p ay any fine
that may be imposed on a director of the company, or on a director of a related
company, as a consequence of that director having been convicted of an offence,
unless the conviction was based on strict liability.
[Subs. (3) substituted by s. 50 of Act 3/2011]

(3A) Subsection (3) does not apply to a private or personal liability company if –

(a) a single individual is the sole shareholder and sole director of that company;
or

(b) two or more related individuals are the only shareholders of that company,
and there are no directors of the company other than one or more of those
individuals.
[Subs. (3A) inserted by s. 50 of Act 3/2011]

(4) Except to the extent that a company‟s Memorandum of Incorporation provides
otherwise, the company –

(a) may advance expenses to a director to defend litigation in any proceedings
arising out of the director‟s service to the company; and

(b) may directly or indirectly indemnify a director for expenses contemplated
in paragraph (a), irrespective of whether it has advanced those expenses, if
the proceedings –

(i) are abandoned or exculpate the director; or

(ii) arise in respect of any liability for which the company may indemnify
the director, in terms of subsections (5) and (6).

(5) Except to the extent that the Memorandum of Incorporation of a company
provides otherwise, a company may indemnify a director in respect of any
liability arising other than as contemplated in subsection (6).

(6) A company may not indemnify a director in respect of –

(a) an y liability arising –

(i) in terms of section 77 (3)(a), (b) or (c);or

(ii) from wilful misconduct or wilful breach of trust on the part of the
director; or
[Subpara. (ii) substituted by s. 50 of Act 3/2011]

(b) any fine contemplated in subsection (3).

(7) Except to the extent that the Memorandum of Incorporation of a company
provides otherwise, a company may purchase insurance to protect –

(a) a director against any liability or expenses for which the company is
permitted to indemnify a director in accordance with subsection (5); or

(b) the company against any contingency including, but not limited to –
[Words preceding subpara. (i) substi tuted by s. 50 of Act 3/2011]

(i) any expenses –

(aa) that the company is permitted to advance in accordance with
subsection (4)(a);or

(bb) for which the company is permitted to indemnify a director in
accordance with subsection (4)(b);or

(ii) any liability for which the company is permitted to indemnify a
director in accordance with subsection (5).

(8) A company is entitled to claim restitution from a director of the company or of a
related company for any money paid directly or indirectly by the company to or
on behalf of that director in any manner inconsistent with this section.

Part G

Winding -up of solvent companies and deregistering companies

79. Winding -up of solvent companies

(1) A solvent company may be dissolved by –

(a) voluntary winding -up initiated by the company as contemplated in section
80 , and conducted either –

(i) by the company; or

(ii) by the company‟s creditors,

as determined by the resolution of the company; or

(b) winding -up and liquidation by court order, as contemplated in section 81 .

(2) The procedures for winding -up and liquidation of a solvent company, whether
voluntary or by court order, are governed by this Part and, to the extent
applicable, by the laws referred to or contemplated in item 9 of Schedule 5 .

(3) If, at any time after a company has adopted a r esolution contemplated in section
80 , or after an application has been made to a court as contemplated in section 81 ,
it is determined that the company to be wound up is or may be insolvent, a court,
on application by any interested person, may order that the company be wound up
as an insolvent comp any in terms of the laws referred to or contemplated in item
9 of Schedule 5 .

80. Voluntary winding -up of solvent company

(1) A solvent company may be wound up voluntarily if the company has adopted a
special resolution to do so, which may provide for the winding -up to be by the
company, or by its creditors.

(2) A resolution providing for the voluntary winding -up of a company must be filed,
together with the prescribed notice and filing fee.

(3) If a resolution contemplated in this section provides for winding -up by the
company, before the resolution and notice are filed the company must –

(a) arrange for security, satisfactory to the Master, for the payment of the
company‟s debts within no more than 12 months after the start of the
winding -up of the company; or

(b) obtain the consent of the Master to dispense with security, which the Master
may do only if the company has submitted to the Master –

(i) a sworn statement by a director authorised by the board of the
company, stating that the company has no debts; and

(ii) a certificate by the company‟s auditor, or if it does not have an
auditor, a person who meets the requirements for appointment as an
auditor, and appointed for the purpose, stating that to the best of the
auditor‟s knowledge and belief and according to the financial record s
of the company, the company appears to have no debts.

(4) Any costs incurred in furnishing the security referred to in subsection (3) may be
paid by the company.

(5) A liquidator appointed in a voluntary winding -up may exercise all powers given
by this Act, or a law contemplated in item 9 of Schedule 5 , to a liquidator in a
winding -up by the court –

(a) without requiring specific order or sanction of the court; and

(b) subject to any dire ctions given by –

(i) the shareholders of the company in a general meeting, in the case of a
winding -up by the company; or

(ii) the creditors, in the case of a winding -up by creditors.

(6) A voluntary winding -up of a company begins when the resolution of the company
has been filed in terms of subsection (2).

(7) When a resolution has been filed in terms of subsection (2), the Commission must
promptly deliver a copy of it to the Master.

(8) Despite any provision to the contrary in a company‟s Memora ndum of
Incorporation –

(a) the company remains a juristic person and retains all of its powers as such
while it is being wound up voluntarily; but

(b) from the beginning of the company‟s winding -up –

(i) it must stop carrying on its business except to the extent required for
the beneficial winding -up of the company; and

(ii) all of the powers of the company‟s directors cease, except to the
extent specifically authorised –

(aa) in the case of a winding -up by the company, by the liquidator or
the shar eholders in a general meeting; or

(bb) in the case of a winding -up by creditors, the liquidator or the
creditors.

81. Winding -up of solvent companies by court order

(1) A court may order a solvent company to be wound up if –

(a) the company has –

(i) resolved, by special resolution, that it be wound up by the court; or

(ii) applied to the court to have its voluntary winding -up continued by the
court;

(b) the practitioner of a company appointed during business rescue proceedings
has applied for liquidation in terms of section 141 (2)(a), on the grounds that
there is no reasonable prospect of the company being rescued; or

(c) one or more of the company‟s creditors have applied to the court for an
order to wind up the company on the grounds that –

(i) the company‟s business rescue proceedings have ended in the manner
contemplated in section 132 (2)(b) or (c)(i) and it appears to the court
that it is just and equitable in the circumstances for the company to be
wound up; or

(ii) it is otherwise just and equitable for the company to be wound up;

(d) the company, one or more directors or one or more shareholders have
applied to the court for an order to wind up the company on the grounds
that –

(i) the directors are deadlocked in the management of the company, and
the shareholders are unable to break the deadlock, and –

(aa) irreparable injury to the company is resulting, or may result,
from the deadlock; or

(bb) the company‟s business cannot be conducted to the advantage
of shareholders generally, as a result of the deadlock;

(ii ) the shareholders are deadlocked in voting power, and have failed for a
period that includes at least two consecutive annual general meeting
dates, to elect successors to directors whose terms have expired; or

(iii) it is otherwise just and equitable fo r the company to be wound up;

(e) a shareholder has applied, with leave of the court, for an order to wind up
the company on the grounds that –

(i) the directors, prescribed officers or other persons in control of the
company are acting in a manner that is fraudulent or otherwise illegal;
or

(ii) the company‟s assets are being misapplied or wasted; or

(f) the Commission or Panel has applied to the court for an order to wind up
the company on the grounds that –

(i) the company, its directors or prescribed officers or other persons in
control of the company are acting or have acted in a manner that is
fraudulent or otherwise illegal, the Commission or Panel, as the case
may be, has issued a compliance notice in respect of that conduct, and
the com pany has failed to comply with that compliance notice; and

(ii) within the previous five years, enforcement procedures in terms of
this Act or the Close Corporations Act, 1984 (Act No. 69 or 1984),
were taken against the company, its directors or prescri bed officers, or
other persons in control of the company for substantially the same
conduct, resulting in an administrative fine, or conviction for an
offence.

(2) A shareholder may not apply to a court as contemplated in subsection (1)(d) or (e)
unless the shareholder –

(a) has been a shareholder continuously for at least six months immediately
before the date of the application; or

(b) became a shareholder as a result of –

(i) acquiring another shareholder; or

(ii) the distribution of the estate o f a former shareholder,

and the present shareholder, and other or former shareholder, in aggregate,
satisfied the requirements of paragraph (a).

(3) A court may not make an order applied for in terms of subsection (1)(e) or (f) if,
before the conclusion of the court proceedings –

(a) any of the directors have resigned, or have been removed in terms of
section 71 , and the court concludes that the remaining directors were not
materially implicated in the conduct on which the application was based; or

(b) one or more shareholders have applied to the court for a declaration in
terms of section 162 to declare delinquent the directors, if any, responsible
for the alleged misconduct, and the court is satisfied that the removal of
those directors would bring the misconduct to an end.

(4) A winding -up of a company by a court begins when –

(a) an application has been made to the court in terms of subsection (1)(a) or
(b); or

(b) the court has made an order applied for in terms of subsection (1)(c), (d),
(e) or (f).

82. Dissolution of co mpanies and removal from register

(1) The Master must file a certificate of winding up of a company in the prescribed
form when the affairs of the company have been completely wound up.
[Subs. (1) substituted by s. 51 of Act 3/2011]

(2) Upon receiving a certificate in terms of subsection (1), the Commission must –

(a) record the dissolution of the company in the prescribed manner; and

(b) remove the company‟s name from the companies register.

(3) In addition to the duty to deregister a company contemplated in subsection (2)(b),
the Commission may otherwise remove a company from the companies register
only if –

(a) the company has transferred its registration to a foreign jurisdiction in terms
of subsection (5), or –
[Words preceding subpara. (i) substituted by s. 51 of Act 3/2011]

(i) has failed to file an annual return in terms of section 33 for two or
more years in succession; and

(ii) on demand by the Commission, has failed to –

(aa) give satisfactory reasons for the failure to file the required
annual returns; or

(bb) show satisfactory cause for the company to remain registered;
or

(b) the Commission –

(i) has determined in the p rescribed manner that the company appears to
have been inactive for at least seven years, and no person has
demonstrated a reasonable interest in, or reason for, its continued
existence; or
[Subpara. (i) substituted by s. 5 of Act 3/2011]

(ii) has received a request in the prescribed manner and form and has
determined that the company –

(aa) has ceased to carry on business; and

(bb) has no assets or, because of the inadequacy of its assets, there is
no reasonable probability of the company being liquidated.

(4) If the Commission deregisters a company as contemplated in subsection (3), any
interested person may apply in the prescribed manner and form to the
Commission, to reinstate the registration of the company.

(5) A company may apply to be deregistered upon the transfer of its registration to a
foreign jurisdiction, if –

(a) the shareholders have adopted a special resolution approving such an
application and transfer of registration; and

(b) the company has satisfied the prescribed requ irements for doing so.
[Subs. (5) inserted by s. 51 of Act 3/2011]

(6) The Minister may prescribe criteria and procedural requirements that must be
satisfied by a company before it may be de -registered in terms of subsection (5).
[Subs. (6) inserted by s. 51 of Act 3/2011]

83. Effect of removal of company from register

(1) A company is dissolved as of the date its name is removed from the companies
register unless the reason for the removal is that the company‟s registration has
been transferred to a foreign jurisdiction, as contemplated in section 82 (5).
[Subs. (1) substituted by s. 52 of Act 3/2011]

(2) The removal of a company‟s name from the companies register does not affect
the liability of any former director or shareholder of the company or any other
person in respect of any act or omission that took place before the company was
removed from the register.

(3) Any liability contemplat ed in subsection (2) continues and may be enforced as if
the company had not been removed from the register.

(4) At any time after a company has been dissolved –

(a) the liquidator of the company, or other person with an interest in the
company, may app ly to a court for an order declaring the dissolution to
have been void, or any other order that is just and equitable in the
circumstances; and

(b) if the court declares the dissolution to have been void, any proceedings may
be taken against the company as might have been taken if the company had
not been dissolved.

CHAPTER 3

ENHANCED ACCOUNTABILITY AND TRANSPARENCY

Part A

Application and general requirements of Chapter

84. Application of Chapter

(1) This Chapter applies to –

(a) every public company, subject to sections 5 (6) and 94 (1);
[Para. (a) substituted by s. 53 of Act 3/2011]

(b) every company that is a state -owned company –

(i) except to the extent that the company has been exempted from the
application of this Chapter, in terms of section 9 ; and

(ii) subject to subsection (3); and

(c) a private company, a personal liability company or a non -profit company –

(i) if the company is required by this Act or the regulations to have its
annual financial statements audited every year: Provided that the
provisions of Parts B and D of this Chapter will not apply to any such
company; or

(ii) otherwise, only to the extent that the company‟s Memorandum of
Incorporation so requires, as contemplated in section 34 (2).
[Para. (c) substituted by s. 53 of Act 3/2011]

(2) ……….
[Subs. (2) deleted by s. 53 of Act 3/2011]

(3) In the case of a state -owned company –

(a) if there is a conflict between a provision of this Chapter and a provision of
the Public Audit Act, 2004 (Act No. 25 of 2004), the provisions of that Act
prevail;

(b) despite the provisions of this Chapter to the contrary, the state -owned
company is not required to appoint an auditor for any financial year in
respect of which the Auditor -General has elected, in terms of the Public
Audit Act, 2004 (Act No. 25 of 2004), to conduct an audit of that
enterprise; and

(c) in any year in which the state -owned company is required by this Chapter to
appoint an auditor, any requirement in terms of the Public Audit Act, 2004
(Act No. 25 of 2004), to have the appointment of the company‟s auditor
approved by the Auditor -General applies to that company, in addition to the
relevant provisions of this Chapter.

(4) Every company contemplated in subsection (1)(a) or (b) must appoint –

(a) a pers on to serve as company secretary, in the manner and for the purposes
set out in Part B ;

(b) a person to serve as auditor, in the manner and for the purposes set out in
Part C ; and

(c) an audit committee, in the manner and for the purposes set out in Part D .

(5) A person who is disqualified in terms of section 69 (8) to serve as a director of any
particular company may not be appointed or continue to serve that company in
any capacity mentioned in subsection (4), irrespective of whether that
appointment is made –

(a) as required by this Cha pter; or

(b) voluntarily, as contemplated in section 34 (2).

(6) If the board of a company fails to make an appointment as required by this Part –
[Words preceding para. (a) substituted by s. 53 of Act 3/2011]

(a) the Commission may issue a notice to that company to show cause why the
Commission should not proceed to convene a shareholders meeting for the
purpose of making that appointment; and

(b) if the company fails to respond to a notice contemplated in paragraph (a) or,
in responding, fails to satisfy the Commission that the board will make the
appointment, or convene a shareholders meeting to make the appointment,
within an acceptable period , the Commission may –

(i) give notice to the holders of the company‟s securities of a general
meeting, and convene such a meeting, to make that appointment; and

(ii) assess a pro -rata share of the cost of convening the general meeting to
each director of the company who knowingly permitted the company
to fail to make the appointment in accordance with this Part.

(7) A company that has been given notice contemplated in subsection (6)(a),or a
director who has been assessed any portion of the costs of a meeting, as
contemplated in subsection (6)(b), may apply to the Companies Tribunal to set
aside the notice, or the assessment, in whole or in part.

85. Registration of company secretary and auditor

(1) Every company that makes an appointment contemplated in section 84 (4),
irrespective of whether the company does so as required by that section or
volu ntarily as contemplated in section 34 (2), must –

(a) maintain a record of its company secretaries and auditors, including, in
respect of each person appointed as company secretary or auditor of the
company –

(i) the name, including any former name, of each such person; and

(ii) the date of every such appointment; and

(b) if a firm or juristic person is appointed –

(i) the name, registration numbe r and registered office address of that
firm or juristic person; and

(ii) the name of any individual contemplated in section 90 (3), if that
section is applicable; and

(c) any changes in the particulars referred to in paragraphs (a) and (b), as they
occur, with the date and nature of each such change.

(2) To protect personal privacy, the Minister, by notice in the Gazette , may exempt
from the appli cation of subsection (1)(a) categories of names as formerly used by
any person –

(a) before attaining majority, or by persons who have been adopted, married,
divorced or widowed; or

(b) in other circumstances prescribed by the Minister.

(3) Within 10 business days after making an appointment contemplated in subsection
(1), or after the termination of service of such an appointment, a company must
file a notice of the appointment or termination, as the case may be, subject to
subsection (4).

(4) The i ncorporators of a company may file a notice of the appointment of the
company‟s first company secretary, auditor or audit committee as part of the
company‟s Notice of Incorporation.

Part B

Company secretary

86. Mandatory appointment of company secretary

(1) A public company or state -owned company must appoint a company secretary.
[Subs. (1) substituted by s. 54 of Act 3/2011]

(2) Every company secretary, irrespective of whether the appointment is made as
required by subsection (1) or in term s of a requirement in a company‟s
Memorandum of Incorporation, as contemplated in sections 34 (2) and
84 (1)(c)(ii), must –

(a) have the requisite knowledge of, or experience in, relevant laws; and

(b) be a permanent resident of the Republic, and remain so while serving in that
capacity.
[Subs. (2) substituted by s. 54 of Act 3/2011]

(3) The first company secretary of a public company or state -owned company may be
appointed by –

(a) the incorporators of the company; or

(b) within 40 business d ays after the incorporation of the company, by either –

(i) the directors of the company; or

(ii) an ordinary resolution of the holders of the company‟s securities.

(3A) The first company secretary of a company that is required only in terms of its
Memorandum of Incorporation to appoint a company secretary as contemplated
in sections 34 (2) and 84 (1)(c)(ii), must be appointed –

(a) in accordance with subsection (3), if the requirement to appoint a company
secretary applies to that company when it is incorporated; or

(b) within 40 business days after the date on which the requirement first applies
to the company, by either –

(i) the directors of the company; or

(ii) an ordinary resolution of the holders of the company‟s securities.
[Subs. (3A) inserted by s. 54 of Act 3/2011]

(4) Within 60 business days after a vacancy arises in the office of company secretary,
the board must fill the vacancy by appointing a person whom the directors
consider to have the requisite knowledge and experience.

87. Juristic person or partnership may be appointed company secretary

(1) A juristic person or partnership may be appointed to hold the office of company
secretary, provided that –

(a) every employee of that juristi c person who provides company secretary
services, or partner and employee of that partnership, as the case may be,
satisfies the requirements contemplated in section 84 (5); and

(b) at least one employee of that juristic person, or one partner or employee of
that partnership, as the case may be, satisfies the requirements contemplated
in section 86 .

(2) A change in the membership of a juristic person or partnership that holds office as
company secretary does not constitute a casual vacancy in the office of company
secretary, if the juristic person or partnership continues to satisfy the requirements
of subsection (1).

(3) If at any time a juristic person or partnership holds office as company secretary of
a particular company –

(a) the juristic person or partnership must immediately notify the d irectors of
the company if the juristic person or partnership no longer satisfies the
requirements of subsection (1), and is regarded to have resigned as
company secretary upon giving that notice to the company;

(b) the company is entitled to assume that the juristic person or partnership
satisfies the requirements of subsection (1), until the company has received
a notice contemplated in paragraph (a); and

(c) any action taken by the juristic person or partnership in performance of its
functions as com pany secretary is not invalidated merely because the
juristic person or partnership had ceased to satisfy the requirements of
subsection (1) at the time of that action.

88. Duties of company secretary

(1) A company‟s secretary is accountable to the com pany‟s board.

(2) A company secretary‟s duties include, but are not restricted to –

(a) providing the directors of the company collectively and individually with
guidance as to their duties, responsibilities and powers;

(b) making the directors aware of any law relevant to or affecting the company;

(c) reporting to the company‟s board any failure on the part of the company or
a director to comply with the Memorandum of Incorporation or rules of the
company or this Act;

(d) ensuring that minutes of all shareholders meetings, board meetings and the
meetings of any committees of the directors, or of the company‟s audit
committee, are properly recorded in accordance with this Act;

(e) certifying in the company‟s annual financial statements whether th e
company has filed required returns and notices in terms of this Act, and
whether all such returns and notices appear to be true, correct and up to
date;

(f) ensuring that a copy of the company‟s annual financial statements is sent, in
accordance with t his Act, to every person who is entitled to it; and

(g) carrying out the functions of a person designated in terms of section 33 (3).

89. Resignation or removal of company secretary

(1) A company secretary may resign from office by giving the company –

(a) one month written notice; or

(b) less than one month written notice, with the approval of the board.

(2) If the company secretary is removed from office by the board, the company
secretary may require the company to include a statement in its annual financial
statements relating to that financial year, not exceeding a reasonable length,
setting out the company secretary‟s contention as to the circumstances that
resulted in the removal.

(3) If the company secretary wishes to exercise the power referred to in subsection
(2), the company secretary must give written notice to that effect to the company
by not later than the end of the f inancial year in which the removal took place and
that notice must include the statement referred to in subsection (2).

(4) The statement of the company secretary referred to in subsection (2) must be
included in the directors‟ report in the company‟s an nual financial statements.

Part C

Auditors

90. Appointment of auditor

(1) Upon its incorporation, and each year at its annual general meeting, a public
company or state -owned company must appoint an auditor.

(1A) A company referred to in section 84 (1)(c)(i), or a company that is required only
in terms of its Memorandum of Incorporation to have its annual financial
statements audited as contemplated in sections 34 (2) and 84 (1)(c)(ii), must
appoint an auditor –

(a) in accordance with subsection (1), if the requirement to have its annual
fina ncial statements audited applies to that company when it is
incorporated; or

(b) at the annual general meeting at which the requirement first applies to the
company, and each annual general meeting thereafter.
[Subs. (1A) inserted by s. 55 of Act 3/2011]

(2) To be appointed as an auditor of a company, whether as required by subsection
(1) or as contemplated in section 34 (2), a person or firm –

(a) must be a registered auditor;

(b) in addition to the prohibition contemplated in section 84 (5), must not be –

(i) a director or prescribed officer of the company;

(ii) an employee or consultant of the company who was or has been
engaged for more than one year in the maintenance of any of the
company‟s financial records or the preparation of any of its financial
statements;

(iii) a director, offic er or employee of a person appointed as company
secretary in terms of Part B of this Chapter;

(iv) a person who, alone or with a partner or emp loyees, habitually or
regularly performs the duties of accountant or bookkeeper, or
performs related secretarial work, for the company;

(v) a person who, at any time during the five financial years immediately
preceding the date of appointment, was a person contemplated in any
of subparagraphs (i) to (iv); or

(vi) a person related to a person contemplated in subparagraphs (i) to (v);
and

(c) must be acceptable to the company‟s audit committee as being independent
of the company, having regard to th e matters enumerated in section 94 (8),
in the case of a company that has appointed an audit committee, whether as
required by section 94 , or voluntarily as contemplated in section 34 (2).

(3) If a company appoints a firm as an auditor, the individual determined by that
firm, in terms of section 44 (1) of the Auditing Profession Act, to be res ponsible
for performing the functions of auditor must satisfy the requirements of
subsection (2).

(4) If a company that is required to appoint an auditor does not do so when it
registers the incorporation of the company, the directors of the company must
appoint the first auditor of the company within 40 business days after the date of
incorporation of the company.

(5) The first auditor of a company holds office until the conclusion of the first annual
general meeting of the company.

(6) A retiring au ditor may be automatically reappointed at an annual general meeting
without any resolution being passed, unless –

(a) the retiring auditor is –

(i) no longer qualified for appointment;

(ii) no longer willing to accept the appointment, and has so notifi ed the
company; or

(iii) required to cease serving as auditor, in terms of section 92 ;

(b) an audit committee appointed by the company in terms of this Act objects
to the reappointment; or

(c) the company has notice of an intended resolution to appoint some other
person or persons in place of the retiring auditor.

(7) If an annual general meeting of a company does not appoint or reappoint an
aud itor the directors must fill the vacancy in the office in terms of the procedure
contemplated in section 91 within 40 business days after the date of the meeting.

91. Resignation of auditors and vacancies

(1) The resignation of an auditor is effective when the notice is filed.

(2) Subject to subsection (3), if a vacancy arises in the office of auditor of a
company, the board of that company –

(a) must appoint a new auditor within 40 business days, if there was only one
incumbent auditor of the company; and

(b) may appoint a new auditor at any time, if there was more than one
incumbent, but while any such vacancy continues, the surviving or
conti nuing auditor may act as auditor of the company.

(3) Before making an appointment in terms of subsection (2) –

(a) the board must propose to the company‟s audit committee, within 15
business days after the vacancy occurs, the name of at least one regist ered
auditor to be considered for appointment as the new auditor; and

(b) may proceed to make an appointment of a person proposed in terms of
paragraph (a) if, within five business days after delivering the proposal, the
audit committee does not give not ice in writing to the board rejecting the
proposed auditor.

(4) If a company appoints a firm as its auditor, any change in the composition of the
members of that firm does not by itself create a vacancy in the office of auditor
for that year, subject to subsection (5).

(5) If, by comparison with the membership of a firm at the time of its latest
appointment, less than one half of the members remain after a change
contemplated in subsection (4), that change constitutes the resignation of the firm
as auditor of the company, giving rise to a vacancy.

(6) Section 89 , read with the changes required by the context, applies with respect to
an auditor of a company, hut a reference in that section to “company secretary”
must be regarded as referring to the company‟s auditor.

[Subs. (6) inserted by s. 56 of Act 3/2011]

92. Rotation of auditors

(1) The same individual may not serve as the auditor or de signated auditor of a
company for more than five consecutive financial years.

(2) If an individual has served as the auditor or designated auditor of a company for
two or more consecutive financial years and then ceases to be the auditor or
designated auditor, the individual may not be appointed again as the auditor or
designated auditor of that company until after the expiry of at least two further
financial years.

(3) If a company has appointed two or more persons as joint auditors, the company
must manage the rotation required by this section in such a manner that all of the
joint auditors do not relinquish office in the same year.

93. Rights and restricted functions of auditors

(1) The auditor of a company –

(a) has the right of access at all times to the accounting records and all books
and documents of the company, and is entitled to require from the directors
or prescribed officers of the company any information and explanations
necessary for the performance of the auditor‟s duties;

(b) in the case of the auditor of a holding company, has the right of access to all
current and former financial statements of any subsidiary of that holding
company and is entitled to require from the directors or officers of the
holding company or subsidiary a ny information and explanations in
connection with any such statements and in connection with the accounting
records, books and documents of the subsidiary as necessary for the
performance of the auditor‟s duties; and

(c) is entitled to –

(i) attend any general shareholders meeting;

(ii) receive all notices of and other communications relating to any
general shareholders meeting; and

(iii) be heard at any general shareholders meeting contemplated in this
paragraph on any part of the business of the m eeting that concerns the
auditor‟s duties or functions.

(2) An auditor may apply to a court for an appropriate order to enforce the rights set
out in subsection (1)(a) or (b), and a court may –

(a) make any order that is just and reasonable to prevent f rustration of the
auditor‟s duties by the company or any of its directors, prescribed officers
or employees; and

(b) make an order of costs personally against any director or prescribed officer
whom the court has found to have wilfully and knowingly frus trated, or
attempted to frustrate, the performance of the auditor‟s functions.

(3) An auditor appointed by a company may not perform any services for that
company –

(a) that would place the auditor in a conflict of interest as prescribed or
determined b y the Independent Regulatory Board for Auditors in terms of
section 44 (6) of the Auditing Profession Act; or

(b) as may be determined by the company‟s audit committee in terms of section
94 (7)(d).

Part D

Audit committees

94. Audit committees

(1) This section –

(a) applies concurrently with section 64 of the Banks Act, to any company that
is subject to that section of that Act, but subsections (2), (3) and (4) of this
section do not apply to the appointment of an audit committee by any such
company; and

(b) does not apply to a company that has been granted an exemption in terms of
section 64 (4) of the Banks Act.

(2) At each annual general meeting, a public company, state -owned company or
other company that is required only by its Memorandum of Incorporation t o have
an audit committee as contemplated in sections 34 (2) and 84 (l)(c)(ii), must elect
an audit committee comprising at least three members, unless –
[Words preceding para. (a) substituted by s. 57 of Act 3/2011]

(a) the company is a subsidiary of another company that has an audit
committee; and

(b) the audit committee of that other company will perform the functions
required under this section on behalf of that subsidiary company.

(3) The first members of the audit committee may be appointed by –

(a) the incorporators of a company; or

(b) by the board, within 40 business days after the incorporation of the
company.

(4) Each member of an audit committee of a company must –

(a) be a director of the company, who satisfies any applicable requirements
prescribed in terms of subsection (5);

(b) not be –

(i) involved in the day -to-day management of the company‟s business or
have been so involved at any time during the previous financial year;

(ii) a prescribed officer, or full -time employee, of the company or another
related or inter -relat ed company, or have been such an officer or
employee at any time during the previous three financial years; or

(iii) a material supplier or customer of the company, such that a
reasonable and informed third party would conclude in the
circumstances that the integrity, impartiality or objectivity of that
director is compromised by that relationship; and

(c) not be related to any person who falls within any of the criteria set out in
paragraph (b).

(5) The Minister may prescribe minimum qualification re quirements for members of
an audit committee as necessary to ensure that any such committee, taken as a
whole, comprises persons with adequate relevant knowledge and experience to
equip the committee to perform its functions.

(6) The board of a company c ontemplated in section 84 (1) must appoint a person to
fill any vacancy on the audit committee within 40 business days after the vacancy
arises.

(7) An audit committee of a company has the following duties:

(a) To nominate, for appointment as auditor of the company under section 90 , a
registered auditor who, in the opinion of the audit committee, is
independent of the company;

(b) to determine the fees to be paid to the auditor and the auditor‟s terms of
engagement;

(c) to ensure that the appointment of the auditor complies with the provisions
of this Act and any other legislation relating to the appointment of auditors;

(d) to determine, subject to the provisions of this Chapter, the nature and extent
of any non -audit services that the auditor may provide to the company, or
that the auditor must not provide to the company, or a related company;

(e) to pre -approve any proposed agreement with the auditor for the provision of
non -audit services to the company;

(f) to prepare a report, to be included in the annual financial statements for tha t
financial year –

(i) describing how the audit committee carried out its functions;

(ii) stating whether the audit committee is satisfied that the auditor was
independent of the company; and

(iii) commenting in any way the committee considers appropr iate on the
financial statements, the accounting practices and the internal
financial control of the company;

(g) to receive and deal appropriately with any concerns or complaints, whether
from within or outside the company, or on its own initiative, rel ating to –

(i) the accounting practices and internal audit of the company;

(ii) the content or auditing of the company‟s financial statements;

(iii) the internal financial controls of the company; or

(iv) any related matter;

(h) to make submissions to the board on any matter concerning the company‟s
accounting policies, financial control, records and reporting; and

(i) to perform such other oversight functions as may be determined by the
board.
[Para. (i) substituted by s. 57 of Act 3/2 011]

(8) In considering whether, for the purposes of this Part, a registered auditor is
independent of a company, the audit committee of that company must –

(a) ascertain that the auditor does not receive any direct or indirect
remuneration or other ben efit from the company, except –

(i) as auditor; or

(ii) for rendering other services to the company, to the extent permitted in
terms of subsection (7)(d);
[Subpara. (ii) substituted by s. 57 of Act 3/2011]

(b) consider whether the auditor‟s independe nce may have been prejudiced –

(i) as a result of any previous appointment as auditor; or

(ii) having regard to the extent of any consultancy, advisory or other work
undertaken by the auditor for the company; and

(c) consider compliance with other criteria relating to independence or conflict
of interest as prescribed by the Independent Regulatory Board for Auditors
established by the Auditing Profession Act,

in relation to the company, and if the company is a member of a group of
companies, any other company within that group.

(9) Nothing in this section precludes the appointment by a company at its annual
general meeting of an auditor other than one nominated by the audit committee,
but if such an auditor is appointed, the appointment is valid only if the audit
committee is satisfied that the proposed auditor is independent of the company.
[Subs. (9) substituted by s. 57 of Act 3/2011]

(10) Neither the appointment nor the duties of an audit committee reduce the functions
and duties of the boa rd or the directors of the company, except with respect to the
appointment, fees and terms of engagement of the auditor.

(11) A company must pay all expenses reasonably incurred by its audit committee,
including, if the audit committee considers it appro priate, the fees of any
consultant or specialist engaged by the audit committee to assist it in the
performance of its functions.

CHAPTER 4

PUBLIC OFFERINGS OF COMPANY SECURITIES

95. Application and interpretation of Chapter

(1) In this Chapter, unless the context indicates otherwise –

(a) “company” , in addition to the meaning set out in section 1 , also includes a
foreign company;

(b) “comp liance officer” means a compliance officer appointed by a company
in respect of its employee share scheme;

(c) “employee share scheme” means a scheme established by a company,
whether by means of a trust or otherwise, for the purpose of offering
particip ation therein solely to employees, officers and other persons closely
involved in the business of the company or a subsidiary of the company,
either –
[Words preceding subpara. (i) substituted by s. 58 of Act 3/2011]

(i) by means of the issue of shares in the company; or

(ii) by the grant of options for shares in the company;

(d) “expert” means –

(i) a geologist, engineer, architect, quantity surveyor, valuer, accountant
or auditor; or

(ii) any person who professes –

(aa) to be a person referred to in subparagraph (i); or

(bb) to have extensive knowledge or experience, or to exercise
special skill which gives or implies authority to a statement
made by that person;

(e) “initial public offering” means an offer to the public of any securities of a
company, if –

(i) no securities of that company have previously been the subject of an
offer to the public; or

(ii) all of the securities of that company that had previously been the
subject of an offer to the public have subsequently been re -acquired
by the company;

(f) “letter of allocation” means any document conferring a right to subscribe
for shares in terms of a rights offer;

(g) “offer” , in relation to securities, means an offer made in any way by any
person with respect to the acquisition, for consideration, of any securities in
a company;

(h) “offer to the public” –

(i) includes an offer of securities to be issued by a company to any
section of the public, whether selected –

(aa) as holders of that company‟s securities;

(bb) as clients of the person issuing the prospectus;

(cc) as the holders of any particular class of property; or

(dd) in any other manner; but

(ii) does not include –

(aa) an offer made in any of the circumstances contemplated in
section 96 ; or

(bb) a secondary offer effected through an exchange;

(i) “primary offering” means an offer to the public, made by or on behalf of a
company, of securities to be issued by that company, or by another
company –

(i) within a group of companies of which the first company is a member;
or

(ii) with which the first company proposes to be amalgamated or to
merge.
[Para. (i) substituted by s. 58 of Act 3/2011]

(j) “promoter” , in relation to civil and criminal liability in respect of an untrue
statement in a prospectus, means –

(i) a person who was a party to the preparation of the prospectus, or of
the portion of it that contains the untrue statement; but

(ii) does not include any person acting in a professional capacity for
persons engaged in procuring the formation of the company or
preparing the prospectus;

(k) “registered prospectus” means a prospectus that complies with this Act
and –

(i) in the case of listed securities, has been approved by the relevant
exchange; or

(ii) otherwise, has been filed;

(l) “rights offer” means an offer, with or without a right to renounc e in favour
of other persons, made to any holders of a company‟s securities for
subscription of any securities of that company, or any other company within
the same group of companies;

(m) “secondary offering” means an offer for sale to the public of an y securities
of a company or its subsidiary, made by or on behalf of a person other than
that company or its subsidiary;

(n) “specified shares” means shares, including options on shares, offered to
employees of a company in terms of an employee share sc heme;

(o) “unit” means any right or interest in any securities; and

(p) “untrue statement” includes a statement that is misleading in the form and
context in which it is made, subject to subsections (3) and (4).

(2) For the purposes of this Chapter , a person is to be regarded, by or in respect of a
company, as being a member of the public, despite that person being a
shareholder of the company or a purchaser of goods from the company.

(3) An untrue statement is regarded to have been included in a prospectus, written
statement, or summary directing a person to either a prospectus or written
statement, if it is contained in any report or memorandum –

(a) that appears on the face of the prospectus, written statement, or summary;
or

(b) that is inco rporated by reference within, or is attached to or accompanies,
the prospectus, written statement or summary.

(4) An omission from a prospectus or written statement of any matter that, in the
context, is calculated to mislead by omission constitutes the making of an untrue
statement in that prospectus or written statement, irrespective of whether this Act
requires that matter to be included in the prospectus or written statement.

(5) A provision of an agreement is void to the extent that it –

(a) requi res an applicant for securities to waive compliance with a requirement
of this Chapter; or

(b) purports to affect an applicant for securities with any notice of any
agreement, document or matter not specifically referred to in a prospectus
or written statement.

(6) Nothing in this Chapter limits any liability that a person may incur under this Act
apart from this Chapter, or under any other public regulation, or under the
common law.

(7) The Minister may make regulations –

(a) establishing genera l or specific requirements respecting the form and
content of rights offers, letters of allocation and prospectuses;

(b) prescribing the manner and form to be followed in filing and publishing of
rights offers, letters of allocation and prospectuses; and

(c) in respect of related or ancillary matters concerning the offering of
company securities.
[Subs. (7) inserted by s. 58 of Act 3/2011]

96. Offers that are not offers to public

(1) An offer is not an offer to the public –

(a) if the offer is made only to –

(i) persons whose ordinary business, or part of whose ordinary business,
is to deal in securities, whether as principals or agents;

(ii) the Public Investment Corporation as defined in the Public Investment
Corporation Act, 2004 (Act No. 23 of 2004);

(iii) a person or entity regulated by the Reserve Bank of South Africa;

(iv) an authorised financial services provider, as defined in the Financial
Advisory and Intermediary Services Act, 2002 (Act No. 37 of 2002);

(v) a financial instit ution, as defined in the Financial Services Board Act,
1990 (Act No. 97 of 1990);

(vi) a wholly -owned subsidiary of a person contemplated in subparagraph
(iii), (iv) or (v), acting as agent in the capacity of an authorised
portfolio manager for a pension fund registered in terms of the
Pension Funds Act, 1956 (Act No. 24 of 1956), or as manager for a
collective investment scheme registered in terms of the Collective
Investment Schemes Control Act, 2002 (Act No. 45 of 2002); or

(vii) any combination of persons contemplated in paragraphs (i) to (vi);

(b) if the total contemplated acquisition cost of the securities, for any single
addressee acting as principal, is equal to or greater than the amount
prescribed in terms of subsection (2)(a);

(c) if it i s a non -renounceable offer made only to –

(i) existing holders of the company‟s securities; or

(ii) persons related to existing holders of the company‟s securities; or

(d) if it is a rights offer that satisfies the prescribed requirements, and –

(i) an exchange has granted or has agreed to grant a listing for the
securities that are the subject of the offer; and

(ii) the rights offer complies with any relevant requirements of that
exchange at the time the offer is made;

(e) if the offer is made on ly to a director or prescribed officer of the company,
or a person related to a director or prescribed officer, unless the offer is
renounceable in favour of a person who is not a director or prescribed
officer of the company or a person related to a direc tor or prescribed
officer;

(f) if it pertains to an employee share scheme that satisfies the requirements of
section 97 ; or

(g) if it is an offer, or one of a series of offers, for subscription, made in
writing, and –

(i) no offer in the series is accompanied by or made by means of an
advertisement and no selling expenses are incurred in connection with
any offer in the series;

(ii) the issue of securities under any one offer in the series is finalised
within six months after the date that the offer was first made;

(iii) the offer, or series of offers in aggregate, is or are accepted by a
maximum of fifty persons acting as principals;

(iv) the subscription price, including any premium, of the securities issued
in respect of the series of offers, does not exceed, in aggregate, the
amount prescribed in terms of subsection (2)(a); and

(v) no similar offer, or offer in a series of offers, has bee n made by the
company within the period prescribed in terms of subsection (2)(b)
immediately before the offer, or first of a series of offers, as the case
may be.

(2) The Minister, by notice in the Gazette , may prescribe –

(a) a value of not less than R 100 000, to be the minimum value for the
purposes of subsection (1)(b) and the maximum value for the purposes of
subsection (1)(g)(iv); and

(b) a minimum period for the purposes of subsection (1)(g)(v), which must not
be less than six months.

97. Stand ards for qualifying employee share schemes

(1) An employee share scheme qualifies for exemptions contemplated in sections
41 (2)(d), 44 (3)(a)(i) or 45 (3)(a)(i) or otherwise contem plated in this Chapter, if –
[Words preceding para. (a) substituted by s. 59 of Act 3/2011]

(a) the company has –

(i) appointed a compliance officer for the scheme to be accountable to
the directors of the company;

(ii) states in its annual financial statements the number of specified shares
that it has allotted during that financial year in terms of its employee
share scheme; and

(b) the compliance officer has complied with the requirements of subsection
(2).

(2) A compliance officer who is appoi nted in respect of any employee share scheme –

(a) is responsible for the administration of that scheme;

(b) must provide a written statement to any employee who receives an offer of
specified shares in terms of that employee scheme, setting out –

(i) full particulars of the nature of the transaction, including the risks
associated with it;

(ii) information relating to the company, including its latest annual
financial statements, the general nature of its business and its profit
history over the last three years; and

(iii) full particulars of any material changes that occur in respect of any
information provided in terms of subparagraph (i) or (ii);

(c) must ensure that copies of the documents containing the information
referred to in paragraph (b ) are filed within 20 business days after the
employee share scheme has been established; and
[Para. (c) substituted by s. 59 of Act 3/2011]

(d) must file a certificate within 60 business days after the end of each financial
year, certifying that the compliance officer has complied with the
obligations in terms of this section during the past financial year.
[Para. (d) substituted by s. 59 of Act 3/2011]

98. Advertisements relating to offers

(1) As an alternative to any other manner of making or presenting an offer to the
public, such an offer may be made or presented by way of an advertisement that –

(a) satisfies all of the requirements of this Act with respect to a registered
prospectus; and

(b) is subject to every provision of this Act rela ting to the making of a
prospectus.

(2) In addition to making or presenting an offer to the public by publishing a
prospectus, such an offer may be drawn to the attention of the public by an
advertisement, but any such advertisement –

(a) must include a statement –

(i) clearly stating that it is not a prospectus; and

(ii) indicating where and how a person may obtain a copy of the full
registered prospectus relating to that offer;

(b) must not contain any untrue statement or, by express statement, omission or
reasonable implication, be such as would reasonably mislead a person
reading the advertisement –

(i) to believe that the advertisement is a prospectus; or

(ii) as to any material particular addressed in the prospectus relating to
that offer; and

(c) is subject to sections 102 to 111 , read with the changes required by the
context.

(3) An advertisement drawing attention to an offer to the public, as contemplated in
subsection (2) –

(a) that satisfies the requirements of subsection (2)(a) and (b) is not required to
be filed, or re gistered with an exchange; or
[Para. (a) substituted by s. 60 of Act 3/2011]

(b) that does not satisfy all of the requirements set out in subsection (2)(a) and
(b) will, despite any statement to the contrary contained in the
advertisement, be regarded as having been intended to be a prospectus
issued by the person responsible for publishing or disseminating the
advertisement, and is subject to every provision of this Act relating to such
a prospectus.
[Para. (b) substituted by s. 60 of Act 3/2011]

99. General restrictions on offers to public

(1) A person must not offer to the public any securities of any person unless that
second person –

(a) is a company; and

(b) in the case of a foreign company, a copy of its Memorandum of
Incorporation or comparable governing document, and a list of the names
and addresses of its directors, has been filed within 90 business days before
the offer to the public is made.
[Para. (b) substituted by s. 61 of Act 3/2011]

(2) A person must not make an initial pub lic offering unless that offer is
accompanied by a registered prospectus.

(3) Except with respect to securities that are the subject of a company‟s initial public
offering, a person must not make a –

(a) primary offer to the public of any –

(i) listed securities of a company, otherwise than in accordance with the
requirements of the relevant exchange; or

(ii) unlisted securities of a company, unless the offer is accompanied by a
registered prospectus that satisfies the requirements of section 100 ; or

(b) secondary offer to the public of any securities of a company, unless the
offer satisfies the requirements of section 101 .

(4) A person must not issue, distribute, deliver or cause to be issued, distributed or
delivered a letter of allocation unless it is accompanied by all documents that are
required, and have been –

(a) filed, in the case of unlisted securities; or

(b) approved by the relevant exchange, in the case of listed securities.

(5) Subject to subsection (6), a person must not issue, distribute or deliver or cause to
be issued, distributed or delivered, any form of application in respect of securities
of a company, unless the form –

(a) is accompanied by –

(i) a registered prospectus in the case of a primary offering; or

(ii) a written statement that satisfies the req uirements of section 101 , in
the case of a secondary offering; and

(b) bears on the face of it the date on which the prospectus in respect of those
securities was filed.

(6) Subsection (5) does not apply if the form of application was issued either –

(a) in connection with a genuine invitation to enter into an underwriting
agreement with respect to the securities; or

(b) in relation to securities that were not offered to the public.

(7) Despite anything contained in a company‟s Memorandum of Incorporation, the
company may exclude from any rights offer any category of holders of the
company‟s securities who are not resident within the R epublic –

(a) if the Commission has approved that exclusion in advance, on application
by the company in the prescribed manner and form on the grounds that the
number of those persons is insignificant relative to –

(i) the number of existing holders of the company‟s securities who are
resident within the Republic; and

(ii) the administrative cost and inconvenience of extending the rights
offer to them; and

(b) subject to any conditions attached to the approval contemplated in
paragraph (a).

(8) A p erson must not issue a prospectus or a document that purports to be a
prospectus, or a document that may reasonably be misapprehended to be intended
as a prospectus, unless it is a registered prospectus.

(9) A prospectus may not be registered unless the requirements of this Act have been
complied with and it has been filed for registration, together with any prescribed
documents, within 10 business days after the date of that prospectus.

(10) As soon as the Commission has registered a prospectus, it mus t send notice of the
registration to the person who filed the prospectus for registration.

(11) A prospectus may not be issued more than three months after the date of its
registration, and if a prospectus is so issued, it is regarded to be unregistered.

100. Requirements concerning prospectus

(1) This section does not apply in respect of listed securities, except listed securities
that are the subject of an initial public offering.

(2) Every prospectus is subject to the requirements and provisions of sections 102 to
111 and, in addition, must –
[Words preceding para. (a) substituted by s. 62 of Act 3/2011]

(a) contain all the information that an investor may reasonably require to
assess –

(i) the assets and liabilities, financial position, profits and losses, cash
flow and prospects of the company in which a right or interest is to be
acquired; and

(ii) the securities being offered and rights attached to them; and

(b) adhere to the prescribed specifications.

(3) The date of registration of a prospectus is the date of the issue of the prospectus
unless the contrary is proven.

(4) A prospectus must not be registered unless there is attached to it –

(a) a copy of any material agreement as prescribed; or

(b) in the case of an unwritten agreement, a memorandum giving full
particulars of the agreement.

(5) If any part of an agreement contemplated in subsection (4) is in a language that is
not an official language, a certified translation, in an official language, of that part
must be attached to the agreement.

(6) A prospectus containing a statement to the effect that the whole or any portion of
the issue of the securities offered to the public has been or is being underwritten
may not be registered until a copy of the underwriting agreement has been filed,
together with a sworn declaration stating that to the best of the deponent‟s

knowledge and belief the underwriter is and will be in a position to carry out the
obligations contemplated in the agreement even if no shares are being applied for.

(7) A declaration c ontemplated in subsection (6) must be sworn by the person named
as underwriter or, if the underwriter is a company, by each of two directors of that
company, or if it has only one director, by that director.

(8) If an offer is made in respect of which no prospectus is required by this Act, the
copy of the agreement and sworn declaration referred to in subsection (6) must be
filed not later than the date of the proposed offer of shares.

(9) The Commission, or an exchange in the case of listed securities, on application
may allow required information to be omitted from a prospectus, if the
Commission or exchange is satisfied –

(a) that publication of the information would be unnecessarily burdensome for
the applicant, seriously detrimental to the company whose securities are the
subject of the prospectus, or against public interest; and

(b) that users will not be unduly prejudiced by the omission.

(10) An application under subsection (9) must be in writing and accompanied by the
prescribed fee.

(11) As long as an initial public offering or other primary offering to the public of
unlisted securities remains open, any person responsible for information in the
prospectus must, when that person becomes aware of it –

(a) correct any error;

(b) report on any new matter; and

(c) report on any change of a matter included in the prospectus,

provided these are relevant or material in terms of this Chapter.

(12) A correction or report under subsection (11) must be registered as a supplement
to the prospectus, simultaneously published to known recipients of the prospectus
and included in future distributions of the prospectus.

(13) If a correction or report has been published, as contemplated in subsections (11)
and (12) –

(a) any person who subsc ribed for the issue of shares as a result of the offer,
before the date of that publication, may withdraw the subscription by
written notice within 20 business days after the date of publication;

(b) the offeror, upon receipt of a notice in terms of para graph (a), may either –

(i) accept the withdrawal, and restore to the person any consideration
already paid in respect of the subscription; or

(ii) apply to the court for an order in terms of paragraph (c); and

(c) the court, on an application in terms of paragraph (b)(ii), may make any
order that is just and equitable in the circumstances including, but not
limited to, an order –
[Words preceding subpara. (i) substituted by s. 62 of Act 3/2011]

(i) negating the right of the subscriber to withdra w the offer; or

(ii) to reverse any transaction, or restore any consideration paid or benefit
received by any person in terms of the offer and subscription.

101. Secondary offers to public

(1) This section does not apply in respect of securities that are –

(a) listed on an exchange; or

(b) in respect of which an exchange has granted permission to deal.

(2) Subject only to subsection (3), a person making a secondary offering of the
securities of a company must ensure that the offer is accompanied by either –

(a) the registered prospectus that accompanied the primary offering of those
securities, together with any revisions required to address changes in any
material matter since the date the prospectus was registered; or

(b) a written statement that satisfies the requirements of subsections (4) to (6).

(3) Subsection (2) does not apply –

(a) if the offer is made or the material is published –

(i) by a person acting in the capacity of an executor or administrator of a
deceased estate or a trus tee of an insolvent estate or a liquidator or
trustee referred to in the Administration of Estates Act, 1965 (Act No.
66 of 1965); or

(ii) for the purpose of a sale in execution or by public auction or by
public tender.

(4) If an offer contemplated in this section is in respect of securities of a public
company, a person publishing or making the offer must –

(a) file a copy of the written statement for registration before it is issued,
distributed or published; and

(b) not issue, distribute or publis h the statement more than three months after
the date on which it is registered.

(5) The written statement referred to in subsection (3) must be dated and signed by –

(a) the person making the offer or issuing, distributing or publishing the
material; a nd

(b) if that person is a company, by every director of the company.

(6) The written statement referred to in subsection (3) must –

(a) not contain any matter other than the particulars required by this section;

(b) not be in characters smaller or less legible than any characters used in –

(i) the written offer, if any; or

(ii) any document that accompanies the statement;

(c) be accompanied by a copy of the last annual financial statements of the
company, together with any subsequent interim report or provisional annual
financial statements of that company; and

(d) contain particulars with respect to the following matters:

(i) Whether the person making the offer is acting as principal or agent
and, if as agent –

(aa) the name of the princ ipal;

(bb) an address in the Republic where that principal can be served
with process; and

(cc) the nature and extent of the remuneration received or receivable
by the agent for the services provided;

(ii) the date on which and the country in which t he company was
incorporated and the address of its registered office in the Republic
or, if there is no such address, the address of its principal office
outside the Republic;

(iii) the classes and number of securities in each class that have been
author ised, and with respect to each class of securities –

(aa) the preferences, rights, limitations and other terms associated
with the class, with respect to capital, dividends and voting;

(bb) the number of securities that have been issued for cash, and th e
total cash consideration received by the company for those
issued securities of that class; and

(cc) the number of securities that have been issued for consideration
other than cash, and the value of the consideration received by
the company for those issued securities of that class;

(iv) the dividends, if any, paid by the company on each class of securities
during each of the five financial years immediately preceding the
offer, and if no dividend has been paid in respect of securities of any
particu lar class during any of those years, a statement to that effect;

(v) the total amount of any securities other than shares issued by the
company and outstanding at the date of the statement, together with
the rate of interest payable thereon;

(vi) the n ames and addresses of the directors of the company;

(vii) whether or not the securities are listed on an exchange, or permission
to deal in those securities has been granted by an exchange, other than
that referred to in subsection (1), and –

(aa) if so, a statement naming that exchange; or

(bb) if not, a statement that they are not so listed and that no such
permission has been granted;
[Subpara. (vii) substituted by s. 63 of Act 3/2011]

(viii) if the offer relates to units, particulars of the names and addresses of
the persons in whom the securities represented by the units are vested,
the date and the parties to any document defining the terms on which
those securities are held, and an address in the Republic where that
document or a copy of i t can be inspected;

(ix) the dates on which and the prices at which the securities offered were
originally issued by the company, and were acquired by the person
making the offer or by that person‟s principal, giving the reasons for
any difference betwee n those prices and the prices at which the
securities are being offered;

(x) if any securities were issued by the company as partly paid -up shares
under the Companies Act, 1973 (Act No. 61 of 1973), to what extent
they are paid up; and

(xi) the date of registration of the written statement by the Commission.

(7) In subsection (6), the expression „company‟ refers to the company that issued the
relevant securities.

102. Consent to use of name in prospectus

(1) In any prospectus relating to securities of a company, a person must not –
[Words preceding para. (a) substituted by s. 64 of Act 3/2011]

(a) name a second person as a director or proposed director of that company
unless, before the registration of that prospectus –

(i) in the case of a company incorporated in the Republic, the second
person consented in writing to act as a director before the prospectus
was filed, and has not withdrawn the consent; and

(ii) the prescribed return reflecting the relevant particulars in regard t o
that second person has been filed; or
[Subpara. (ii) substituted by s. 64 of Act 3/2011]

(b) include any statement made by an expert, or reference to any statement
purporting to be made by an expert, unless –

(i) the expert consented in writing to the use of that statement before the
prospectus was filed, and has not withdrawn the consent;

(ii) the written consent is endorsed on or attached to the copy of the filed
prospectus; and

(iii) the prospectus includes a statement that the expert has consented to
the use of the statement and has not withdrawn that consent.

(2) A prospectus must not name any person as the auditor, attorney, banker or broker
of a company, unless it is accompanied by the written consent of the named
person, agreeing to –

(a) be named to act in the stated capacity; and

(b) the use of that person‟s name in the prospectus .
[Para. (b) substituted by s. 64 of Act 3/2011]

103. Variation of agreement mentioned in prospectus

(1) Subject to subsection (2), within one year after the date of filing a prospectus, a
company must not vary or agree to vary any material terms of an agreement
referred to in the prospectus, other than in the ordinary course of business.

(2) A variation in the terms of an agreement, as contemplated in subsection (1), may
be made or agreed by a company only if –

(a) the variation was contemplated and set out in the prospectus; or

(b) the specific terms of the variation are authorised or ratified by an ordinary
resolution adopted at a general shareholders meeting.

104. Liability for untrue statements in prospectus

(1) If securities are offered to the public for subscription or sale pursuant to a
prospectus, every –

(a) person who becomes a director between the issuing of the prospectus an d
the holding of the first general shareholders meeting at which directors are
elected or appointed;

(b) person who has consented to be named in the prospectus as a director, or as
having agreed to become a director either immediately or after an interva l
of time;

(c) promoter of the company; or

(d) person who –

(i) authorised the issue of the prospectus or, under this Act, is regarded
as having authorised the issue of the prospectus; or

(ii) made that offer to the public,

is liable to compensate any person who acquired securities on the faith of the
prospectus for any loss or damage the person may have sustained as a result of
any untrue statement in the prospectus, or in any report or memorandum
appearing on the face of, issued with, o r incorporated by reference in, the
prospectus.
[Subs. (1) substituted by s. 65 of Act 3/2011]

(2) The liability contemplated in subsection (1) is in addition to the liability of a
director of the company, as set out in section 77 (3)(d)(ii).

(3) Liability contemplated in this section does not attach to a person if –

(a) with respect to every untrue statement not purp orting to be made on the
authority of an expert or of a public official document or statement, that
person had reasonable grounds to believe, and did up to the time of the
allotment of the securities or the acceptance of the offer, as the case may be,
beli eve that the statement was true;

(b) with respect to every untrue statement purporting to be a statement by an
expert or contained in what purports to be a copy of or extract from the
report or valuation of an expert –

(i) the untrue statement fairly re presented the statement or was a correct
and fair copy of or extract from the report or valuation; and

(ii) the person had reasonable grounds to believe and did up to the time of
the issue of the prospectus believe that the expert who made the

statement was competent to make it, and consented, as required by
this Act, to the issue of the prospectus or the making of the offer and
had not withdrawn that consent –

(aa) before the prospectus was filed; or

(bb) to that person‟s knowledge, before any allotme nt under the
prospectus, or before the acceptance of the offer;

(c) any untrue statement purporting to be a statement made by an official
person or contained in what purports to be a copy of or extract from a
public official document was a correct and a fair representation of the
statement or copy of or extract from the document;

(d) that person consented to become a director of the company, but
subsequently withdrew that consent before the issue of the prospectus, and
it was issued without that person‟ s consent;
[Para. (d) substituted by s. 65 of Act 3/2011]

(e) the prospectus was issued without the knowledge or consent of that person
and, on becoming aware of its issue, that person forthwith gave reasonable
public notice that it was issued without th e knowledge or consent of that
person; or

(f) after the issue of the prospectus and before allotment or acceptance
thereunder, that person, on becoming aware of any untrue statement in it,
withdrew any consent to the prospectus and gave reasonable public notice
of the withdrawal and of the reason for it.

(4) If a prospectus contains the name of a person as a director of the company, or as
having agreed to become a director of that company, and that person has not
consented to becoming a director, or has withdrawn consent before the issue of
the prospectus, and has not authorised or consented to the issue of the prospectus,
the directors of the company, except any without whose knowledge or consent the
prospectus was issued –

(a) are liable to the extent set out in section 77 (3)(d)(ii); and

(b) any other person who issued the prospectus or authorised the issue of it, is
liable, together with the directors, to indemnify any person incorrectly
named as a director against any damage, cost or expense arising as a result
of that person having been so named in the prospectus, or incurred in
defending against any action or legal proceedings brought in re spect of
having been so named in the prospectus.

(5) Subsection (4), read with the changes required by the context, applies equally in
respect of any other person whose consent is required in terms of this Act in
connection with any thing contained in a prospectus, and who has either –

(a) not given that consent; or

(b) has withdrawn it before the issue of the prospectus.

(6) A person who, by reason of –

(a) being a director, or having been named as a director;

(b) having agreed to become a director;

(c) having authorised the issue of the prospectus; or

(d) having become a director between the issue of the prospectus and the
holding of the first general shareholders meeting at which directors are
elected or appointed,

has satisfied any liability under this section by making a payment to another
person, may recover a contribution, as in cases of contract, from any other person,
who, if sued separately, would have been liable to make the same payment, unless
the person who has satisfied su ch liability was, and that other person was not,
guilty of fraudulent misrepresentation.

105. Liability of experts and others

(1) If a person has consented to the use of their name, or the inclusion of any material
in a prospectus, as contemplated in this Chapter, that consent does not make the
person liable as one who has authorised the issue of the prospectus under section
104 (1)(d), either –

(a) to compensate persons purchasing on the faith of the prospectus, except in
respect of any untrue statement purporting to be made by that person as an
expert; or

(b) to indemnify any person against liability under section 104 (6).

(2) Despite subsection (1), a person contempla ted in that subsection is liable under
section 104 in respect of any untrue statement purporting to be made by that
person as an expert unless –

(a) the expert person withdrew that consent in writing before the prospectus
was filed for registration;

(b) between the filing of the prospectus for registration and any allotment in
terms of it to a complainant, that expert person became aware of the untrue
statement, withdrew the consent in writing and gave reasonable public
notice of the withdrawal and of the reason for it; or

(c) the expert person –

(i) was competent to make the statement; and

(ii) had reasonable ground to believe and did up to the time of the
allotment of the securities or the acceptance of the offer, as the case
may be, believe that the statement was true.

(3) The defences available to a person in this subsection are in lieu of any applicable
defence available in terms of section 104 (3).

106. Responsibility for untrue statements in prospectus

(1) If a prospectus contains a statement that is untrue, every person refer red to in
section 104 (1) or (2) is equally responsible in terms of the enforcement provisions
of this Act, for that untrue statement, subject to the provisions of subsections (2)
and (3).

(2) If-

(a) a published prospectus contains or is accompanied by a report of an expert,
or an extract from such a report;

(b) the report or extract contains a statement that is untrue; and

(c) the expert has c onsented to the inclusion of the statement in the prospectus
in the form and context in which it appears,

the expert person is solely responsible for that statement, subject to the provisions
of subsection (3).

(3) A person is not responsible for an untrue statement contemplated in this section
if-

(a) the untrue statement was immaterial; or

(b) liability for the untrue statement does not attach to that person for any
reason set out in section 104 (3).

107. Time limit for allotment or acceptance

A company that has offered securities to the public must not allot any of those
securit ies or accept any subscription for any of those securities, more than four months
after filing the prospectus for that offer.

108. Restrictions on allotment

(1) A company that has offered securities to the public must not allot any of those
securities or accept any subscription for any of those securities unless –

(a) the subscription has been made on an application form that has been
attached to or accompanied by a prospectus; or

(b) it is shown that the applicant, at the time of the application, wa s in fact in
possession of a copy of the prospectus or was aware of its contents.

(2) A company that has offered securities to the public must not allot any of those
securities unless the amount stated in that prospectus as the minimum amount
which in the opinion of the directors of the company concerned must be raised by
the issue of securities in order to provide for the matters prescribed to be covered
by minimum subscription and the amount so stated has been paid to and received
by the company.

(3) For the purposes of subsection (2) –

(a) an amount stated in any cheque received by the company must not be
regarded to have been paid to it until the amount of the cheque has been
unconditionally credited to its account with its bankers; and

(b) an y amount paid to and received by the company must be reduced by the
amount of any money, bill, promissory note or cheque that it has at any
time delivered to the payer otherwise than in discharge of a debt bona fide
due by the company.

(4) The minimum am ount contemplated in subsection (2) must be reckoned
exclusively of any amount payable otherwise than in cash.

(5) Until the minimum amount contemplated in subsection (2) has been made up, any
amount paid on an application contemplated in this section mu st-

(a) be paid into a separate account with a banking institution registered under
the Banks Act; and

(b) not be used or made available for the purposes of the company or for the
satisfaction of its debts.

(6) If the circumstances contemplated in su bsection (2) have not been realised within
40 business days after the issue of the prospectus, all amounts received from
applicants must be repaid to them promptly without interest.

(7) If any money required to be repaid to an applicant in terms of subse ction (6) has
not been repaid within 55 business days after the issue of the prospectus, each
director or prescribed officer of the company is jointly and severally liable, with
all other such directors and prescribed officers of the company, to repay that
money with interest, in accordance with the Prescribed Rate of Interest Act, 1975
(Act No. 55 of 1975), from the expiration of the 55th business day, unless the
default in payment was not due to any misconduct or negligence on the part of
that director or prescribed officer.
[Subs. (7) substituted by s. 67 of Act 3/2011]

109. Voidable allotment

(1) If an allotment made by a company to an applicant, or the acceptance of an offer
made by an applicant, is in contravention of section 108 (2), and the relevant offer
was not subsequently subscribed to the minimum extent contemplated in that
section –

(a) that allotment is void able at the instance of the applicant concerned,
irrespective of whether the company concerned may be in the course of
being wound up; and
[Para. (a) substituted by s. 68 of Act 3/20011]

(b) every director of the company concerned and, if the offeror is a company,
every director of that company, is liable to the extent set out in section
77 (3)(e)(vii), if the allotment or acceptance is declared void u nder
paragraph (a).
[Para. (b) substituted by s. 68 of Act 3/20011]

(2) Proceedings to recover any loss, damages or costs contemplated in this section
may not be commenced after the earlier of –

(a) 20 business days after the applicant discovers the contravention; or

(b) three years after the date of the relevant allotment or acceptance.

110. Minimum interval before allotment or acceptance

(1) No allotment of securities or acceptance of an offer in respect of securities of a
company may be made in pursuance of a prospectus, and no proceedings may be
taken on applications made in pursuance of a prospectus, until the beginning of
the third day after that on which the prospectus is first issued or such later time, if
any, specified in the prospectus .

(2) The reference in subsection (1) to the day on which a prospectus was first issued –

(a) is a reference to the day on which it is first issued as a newspaper
advertisement; or

(b) if it is not issued as a newspaper advertisement before the third day after the
day on which it is first issued in any other manner, is a reference to the day
on which it is first issued in that other manner.

(3) A contravention of subsection (1) does not affect the validity of an allotment or
acceptance.

111. Conditional allotment if prospectus states securities to be listed

(1) A prospectus containing a statement to the effect that application has been or will
be made for permission for the securities offered thereby to be listed on an
exchange must not be i ssued unless –

(a) an application has in fact been made in accordance with the requirements of
the relevant exchange on or before the date of issue of that prospectus; and

(b) the prospectus names the particular exchange to which the application has
bee n made.

(2) Any allotment of securities in pursuance of a prospectus referred to in subsection
(1) is subject to the condition that –

(a) the application contemplated in subsection (1)(a) is granted; or

(b) an appeal against a refusal of such an appli cation is upheld.

CHAPTER 5

FUNDAMENTAL TRANSACTIONS, TAKEOVERS AND OFFERS

Part A

Approval for certain fundamental transactions

112. Proposals to dispose of all or greater part of assets or undertaking

(1) This section and section 115 do not apply to a proposal to dispose of all or the
greater part of the assets or undertaking of a company, if that disposal would
constitu te a transaction –

(a) that is pursuant to or contemplated in a business rescue plan adopted in
accordance with Chapter 6 ;

(b) between a wholly -owned subsidiary and its holding company; or

(c) between or among –

(i) two or more wholly -owned subsidiaries of the same holding
company; or

(ii) a wholly -owned subsidiary of a holding company, on the one hand,
and its holding company and one or more wholly -owned subsidiaries
of that holding company, on the other hand.

(2) A company may not dispose of all or the greater part of its assets or undertaking
unless –

(a) the disposal has been approved by a special resolution of the shareholders,
in accordance with section 115 ; and

(b) the company has satisfied all o ther requirements set out in section 115 , to
the extent those requirements are applicable to such a disposal by that
company.

(3) A notice of a sha reholders meeting to consider a resolution to approve a disposal
contemplated in subsection (2)(a) must –

(a) be delivered within the prescribed time, and in the prescribed manner, to
each shareholder of the company, subject to section 62 read with any
changes required by the context;
[Para. (a) substituted by s. 69 of Act 3/2011]

(b) include or be accompanied by a written su mmary of –

(i) the precise terms of the transaction or series of transactions, to be
considered at the meeting; and

(ii) the provisions of section s 115 and 164 ,

in a manner that satisfies the prescribed standards.

(4) Any part of the undertaking or assets of a company to be disposed of, as
contemplated in this section, must be fairly valued, as calculated in the prescribed
manner, as at the date of the proposal, which date must be determined in the
prescribed manner.
[Subs. (4) substituted by s. 69 of Act 3/2011]

(5) A resolution contempla ted in subsection (2)(a) is effective only to the extent that
it authorises a specific transaction
[Subs. (5) substituted by s. 69 of Act 3/2011]

113. Proposals for amalgamation or merger

(1) Two or more profit companies, including holding and subsidia ry companies, may
amalgamate or merge if, upon implementation of the amalgamation or merger,
each amalgamated or merged company will satisfy the solvency and liquidity test.

(2) Two or more companies proposing to amalgamate or merge must enter into a
wri tten agreement setting out the terms and means of effecting the amalgamation
or merger and, in particular, setting out –

(a) the proposed Memorandum of Incorporation of any new company to be
formed by the amalgamation or merger;

(b) the name and identit y number of each proposed director of any proposed
amalgamated or merged company;

(c) the manner in which the securities of each amalgamating or merging
company are to be converted into securities of any proposed amalgamated
or merged company, or exchanged for other property;

(d) if any securities of any of the amalgamating or merging companies are not
to be converted into securities of any proposed amalgamated or merged
company, the consideration that the holders of those securities are to

recei ve in addition to or instead of securities of any proposed amalgamated
or merged company;

(e) the manner of payment of any consideration instead of the issue of
fractional securities of an amalgamated or merged company or of any other
juristic person the securities of which are to be received in the
amalgamation or merger;

(f) details of the proposed allocation of the assets and liabilities of the
amalgamating or merging companies among the companies that will be
formed or continue to exist when the amalgamation or merger agreement
has been implemented;

(g) details of any arrangement or strategy necessary to complete the
amalgamation or merger, and to provide for the subsequent management
and operation of the proposed amalgamated or merged company o r
companies; and

(h) the estimated cost of the proposed amalgamation or merger.

(3) If the securities of one of the amalgamating or merging companies are held by or
on behalf of another of the amalgamating or merging companies, the agreement
required b y subsection (2) must provide for the cancellation of those securities
when the amalgamation or merger becomes effective, without any repayment of
capital in respect thereof, and no provision may be made in the agreement for the
conversion of those securit ies into securities of an amalgamated or merged
company.

(4) Subject to subsection (6), the board of each amalgamating or merging company –

(a) must consider whether, upon implementation of the agreement, each
proposed amalgamated or merged company will satisfy the solvency and
liquidity test; and

(b) if the board reasonably believes that each proposed amalgamated or merged
company will satisfy the solvency and liquidity test, it may submit the
agreement for consideration at a shareholders meeting of t hat amalgamating
or merging company, in accordance with section 115 .

(5) Subject to subsection (6), a notice of a shareholders meeting contemplated in
subsection (4)(b) must be delivered to each shareholder of each respective
amalgamating or merging company, and must include or be accompanied by a
copy or summary of –

(a) the amalgamation or merger agreement; and

(b) the provisions of sections 115 and 164 in a manner that satisfies prescribed
standards.

(6) The requirements of subsections (4) and (5) do not apply to a company engaged
in business rescue proceedings, in respect of any transaction that is pursuant to or
contemplated in the company‟s busines s rescue plan that has been adopted in
accordance with Chapter 6 .

114. Proposals for scheme of arrangement

(1) Unless it is in liquidation or in the course of business rescue proceedings in terms
of Chapter 6 , the board of a company may propose and, subject to s ubsection (4)
and approval in terms of this Part, implement any arrangement between the
company and holders of any class of its securities by way of, among other things –
[Words preceding para. (a) substituted by s. 70 of Act 3/2011]

(a) a consolidation of securities of different classes;

(b) a division of securities into different classes;

(c) an expropriation of securities from the holders;

(d) exchanging any of its securities for other securities;

(e) a re -acquisition by the company of its secu rities; or

(f) a combination of the methods contemplated in this subsection.

(2) The company must retain an independent expert, who meets the following
requirements, to compile a report as required by subsection (3):
[Words preceding para. (a) substitu ted by s. 70 of Act 3/2011]

(a) The person to be retained must be –

(i) qualified, and have the competence and experience necessary to –

(aa) understand the type of arrangement proposed;

(bb) evaluate the consequences of the arrangement; and

(cc) assess the effect of the arrangement on the value of securities
and on the rights and interests of a holder of any securities, or a
creditor of the company; and

(ii) able to express opinions, exercise judgment and make decisions
impartially.

(b) the person to be retained must not –

(i) have any other relationship with the company or with a proponent of
the arrangement, such as would lead a reasonable and informed third
party to conclude that the integrity, impartiality or objectivity of that
person i s compromised by that relationship;

(ii) have had any relationship contemplated in subparagraph (i) within the
immediately preceding two years; or

(iii) be related to a person who has or has had a relationship contemplated
in subparagraph (i) or (ii).

(3) The person retained in terms of subsection (2) must prepare a report to the board,
and cause it to be distributed to all holders of the company‟s securities,
concerning the proposed arrangement, which must, at a minimum –

(a) state all prescribed information relevant to the value of the securities
affected by the proposed arrangement;

(b) identify every type and class of holders of the company‟s securities affected
by the proposed arrangement;

(c) describe the material effects that the proposed arrangement will have on the
rights and interests of the persons mentioned in paragraph (b);

(d) evaluate any material adverse effects of the proposed arrangement against –

(i) the compensation that any of those persons will receive in terms of
that ar rangement; and

(ii) any reasonably probable beneficial and significant effect of that
arrangement on the business and prospects of the company;

(e) state any material interest of any director of the company or trustee for
security holders;
[Para. (e) s ubstituted by s. 70 of Act 3/2001]

(f) state the effect of the proposed arrangement on the interest and person
contemplated in paragraph (e); and

(g) include a copy of sections 115 and 164 .

(4) Section 48 applies to a proposed arrangement contemplated in this section to the
extent that the arrangement would result in any re -acquisition by a company of
any of its previously issued securities.
[Subs. (4) inserted by s. 70 of Act 3/2011]

115. Required approval for transactions contemplated in Part

(1) Despite section 65 , and any provision of a company‟s Memorandum of
Incorporation, or any resolution adopted by its board or holders of its securities,
to the co ntrary, a company may not dispose of, or give effect to an agreement or
series of agreements to dispose of, all or the greater part of its assets or
undertaking, implement an amalgamation or a merger, or implement a scheme of
arrangement, unless –

(a) the disposal, amalgamation or merger, or scheme of arrangement –

(i) has been approved in terms of this section; or

(ii) is pursuant to or contemplated in an approved business rescue plan for
that company, in terms of Chapter 6 ; and

(b) to the extent that Parts B and C of this Chapter, and the Takeover
Regulations, apply to a company that proposes to –

(i) dispose of all or the greater part of its assets or un dertaking;

(ii) amalgamate or merge with another company; or

(iii) implement a scheme of arrangement,

the Panel has issued a compliance certificate in respect of the transaction, in
terms of section 119 (4)(b), or exempted the transaction in terms of section
119 (6).
[Para. (b) substituted by s. 71 of Act 3/2011]

(2) A proposed transaction contemplated in subsection (1) must be approved –

(a) by a special resolution adopted by persons entitled to exercise voting rights
on such a matter, at a meeting called for that purpose and at which
sufficient persons are present to exercise, in aggregate, at least 25% of all of
the voting rights that arc en titled to be exercised on that matter, or any
higher percentage as may be required by the company‟s Memorandum of
Incorporation, as contemplated in section 64 (2); and
[Para. (a) substituted by s. 71 of Act 3/2011]

(b) by a special resolution, also adopted in the manner required by paragraph
(a), by the shareholders of the company‟s holding company if any, if –

(i) the holding company is a company or an external company;

(ii) the proposed transaction concerns a disposal of all or the greater part
of the assets or undertaking of the subsidiary; and

(iii) having regard to the consolidated financial statements of the holding
company, the disposal by t he subsidiary constitutes a disposal of all
or the greater part of the assets or undertaking of the holding
company; and
[Subpara. (iii) substituted by s. 71 of Act 3/2011]

(c) by the court, to the extent required in the circumstances and manner
contemplated in subsections (3) to (6).

(3) Despite a resolution having been adopted as contemplated in subsections (2)(a)
and (b), a company may not proceed to implement that resolution without the
approval of a court if –

(a) the resolution was opposed by at least 15% of the voting rights that were
exercised on that resolution and, within five business days after the vote,
any person who voted against the resolution requires the company to seek
court approval; or
[Para. (a) substituted by s. 71 o f Act 3/2011]

(b) the court, on an application within 10 business days after the vote by any
person who voted against the resolution, grants that person leave, in terms
of subsection (6), to apply to a court for a review of the transaction in
accordance with subsection (7).
[Para. (b) substituted by s. 71 of Act 3/2011]

(4) For the purposes of subsections (2) and (3), any voting rights controlled by an
acquiring party, a person related to an acquiring party, or a person acting in
concert with either of them, must not be included in calculating the percentage of
voting rights –

(a) required to be present, or actually present, in determining whether the
applicable quorum requirements are satisfied; or

(b) required to be voted in support of a resolution , or actually voted in support of
the resolution.
[Subs. (4) substituted by s. 71 of Act 3/2011]

(4A) In subsection (4), “act in concert” has the meaning set out in section 117 (1)(b).
[Subs. (4A) inserted by s. 71 of Act 3/2011]

(5) If a resolution requires approval by a court as contemplated in terms of subsecti on
(3)(a), the company must either –

(a) within 10 business days after the vote, apply to the court for approval, and
bear the costs of that application; or
[Para. (a) substituted by s. 71 of Act 3/2011]

(b) treat the resolution as a nullity.

(6) On an application contemplated in subsection (3)(b), the court may grant leave
only if it is satisfied that the applicant –

(a) is acting in good faith;

(b) appears prepared and able to sustain the proceedings; and

(c) has alleged facts which, if proved, would support an order in terms of
subsection (7).

(7) On reviewing a resolution that is the subject of an application in terms of
subsection (5)(a), or after granting leave in terms of subsection (6), the court may
set aside the resolution only if –

(a) the resolution is manifestly unfair to any class of holders of the company‟s
securities; or

(b) the vote was materially tainted by conflict of interest, inadequate disclosure,
failure to comply with the Act, the Memorandum of Incorporation or any
appl icable rules of the company, or other significant and material
procedural irregularity.

(8) The holder of any voting rights in a company is entitled to seek relief in terms of
section 164 if that person –

(a) notified the company in advance of the intention to oppose a special
resolution contemplated in this section; and

(b) was present at the meeting and voted against that special resolution.

(9) If a transaction contemplated in this Part has been approved, any person to whom
assets are, or an undertaking is, to be transferred, may apply to a court for an
order to effect –

(a) the transfer of the whole or any part of the undertaking, assets and liabilities
of a company contemplated in that transaction;

(b) the allotment and appropriation of any shares or similar interests to be
allotted or appropriated as a consequence of the transaction;

(c) the transfer of shares from one person to anot her;

(d) the dissolution, without winding -up, of a company, as contemplated in the
transaction;

(e) incidental, consequential and supplemental matters that are necessary for
the effectiveness and completion of the transaction; or

(f) any other relief that may be necessary or appropriate to give effect to, and
properly implement, the amalgamation or merger.

116. Implementation of amalgamation or merger

(1) Subject to subsection (2), after a resolution approving an amalgamation or merger
has been adopted by each company that is a party to the agreement –
[Words preceding para. (a) substituted by s. 72 of Act 3/2011]

(a) each of the amalgamating or merging companies must cause a notice of the
amalgamation or merger to be given in the prescribed ma nner and form to
every known creditor of that company;

(b) within 15 business days after delivery of a notice required by paragraph
(a),a creditor may seek leave to apply to a court for a review of the
amalgamation or merger only on the grounds that the creditor will be
materially prejudiced by the amalgamation or merger; and

(c) a court may grant leave contemplated in paragraph (b) only if it is satisfied
that –

(i) the applicant for leave is acting in good faith;

(ii) if implemented, the amalgamation or merger would materially
prejudice the creditor; and

(iii) there are no other remedies available to the creditor.

(2) Subsection (1) does not apply to a company engaged in business rescue
proceedings, in respect of any transaction pursuant to or contemplated in the
company‟s business rescue plan adopted in accordance with Chapter 6 .

(3) A notice of amalgamation or merger must be filed after the transaction has
satisfied all the applicable requirements set out in section 115 , and –
[Words preceding para. (a) substituted by s. 72 of Act 3/2011]

(a) after the time contemplated in subsection (1)(b), if no application has been
made to the court in terms of that subse ction; or

(b) in any other case –

(i) after the court has disposed of any proceedings arising in terms of
subsection (1)(b) and (c); and

(ii) subject to the order of the court.

(4) A notice of amalgamation or merger must include –

(a) confirmation that the amalgamation or merger –

(i) has satisfied the requirements of sections 113 and 115 ;

(ii) has been approved in terms of the Competition Act, if so required by
that Act;

(iii) has been granted the consent of the Minister of Finance in terms of
section 54 of the Banks Act, if so required by that Act; and

(iv) is not subject to –

(aa) further approval by any regulatory authority; or

(bb) any unfulfilled conditi ons imposed by or in terms of any law
administered by a regulatory authority; and

(b) the Memorandum of Incorporation of any company newly incorporated in
terms of the agreement.

(5) After receiving a notice of amalgamation or merger, the Commission mu st-

(a) issue a registration certificate for each company, if any, that has been newly
incorporated in terms of the amalgamation or merger agreement; and

(b) deregister any of the amalgamating or merging companies that did not
survive the amalgamation or merger.

(6) An amalgamation or merger –

(a) takes effect in accordance with, and subject to any conditions set out in the
amalgamation or merger agreement;

(b) does not affect any –

(i) existing liability of a party to the agreement, or of a direc tor of any of
the amalgamating or merging companies, to be prosecuted in terms of
any applicable law;

(ii) civil, criminal or administrative action or proceeding pending by or
against an amalgamating or merging company, and any such
proceeding may contin ue to be prosecuted by or against any
amalgamated or merged company; or
[Subpara. (ii) substituted by s. 72 of Act 3/2011]

(iii) conviction against, or ruling, order or judgment in favour of or
against, an amalgamating or merging company, and any such ru ling,
order or judgment may be enforced by or against any amalgamated or
merged, company.
[Subpara. (iii) substituted by s. 72 of Act 3/2011]

(7) When an amalgamation or merger agreement has been implemented –

(a) the property of each amalgamating or merging company becomes the
property of the newly amalgamated, or surviving merged, company or
companies; and

(b) each newly amalgamated, or surviving merged company is liable for all of
the obligations of every amalgamating or merging company,

in acc ordance with the provisions of the amalgamation or merger agreement, or
any other relevant agreement, but in any case subject to the requirement that each
amalgamated or merged company must satisfy the solvency and liquidity test, and
subject to subsection (8), if it is applicable.
[Subs. (7) substituted by s. 72 of Act 3/2011]

(8) If, as a consequence of an amalgamation or merger, any property that is registered
in terms of any public regulation is to be transferred from an amalgamating or
merging company to an amalgamated or merged company, a copy of the
amalgamation or merger agreement, together with a copy of the filed notice of
amalgamation or merger, constitutes sufficient evidence for the keeper of the
relevant property registry to effect a tr ansfer of the registration of that property.

(9) If, with respect to a transaction involving a company that is regulated in terms of
the Banks Act, there is a conflict between a provision of subsection (7) and a
provision of section 54 of that Act, the provisions of that Act prevail.

Part B

Authority of Panel and Takeover Regulations

117. Definitions applicable to this Part, Par t C and Takeover Regulations

(1) In this Part, Part C , and in the Takeover Regulations –

(a) “acquisition” includes an acquisition by a regulated company of its own
securities as contemplated in section 48 , but does not include the return of
any securities of a regulated company to that company pursuant to the
exercise of appraisal rights in terms of section 164 ;

(b) “act in concert” means any action pursuant to an agreement between or
among two or more persons, in terms of which any of them co -operate for
the purpose of entering into or proposing an affected transaction or offer;

(c) “affected transaction” means –

(i) a transactio n or series of transactions amounting to the disposal of all
or the greater part of the assets or undertaking of a regulated
company, as contemplated in section 112 , subject to section 118 (3);

(ii) an amalgamation or merger, as contemplated in section 113 , if it
involves at least one regulated company, subject to section 118 (3);

(iii) a scheme of arrangement between a regulated company and its
shareholders, as contemplated in secti on 114 , subject to section
118 (3);

(iv) the acquisition of, or announced intention to acquire, a beneficial
interest in any voting securities of a regulated company to the extent
and in the circumstances contemplated in section 122 (1);

(v) the announced intention to acquire a beneficial intere st in the
remaining voting securities of a regulated company not already held
by a person or persons acting in concert;

(vi) a mandatory offer contemplated in section 123 ; or

(vii) compulsory acquisition contemplated in section 124 ;

(d) “Executive Director” means the person appointed under section 200 ;

(e) “holder” includes a person who holds a beneficial interest in any securities
of a regulated company;

(f) “offer” , when used as a noun, means a proposal of any sort, including a
partial offer, which, if accepted, would result in an affected transaction
other than such a transaction that is exempted in terms of section 118 (3);

(g) “offer period” means the period from the time when an announcement is
made or ought to have been made, of a proposed or possible offer until the
first closing date or, if later, the date when the offer becomes or is declared
unconditional as to acceptances or lapses;

(h) “partial offer” means an offer that, if fully accepted, would result in the
offeror, alone or together with a related or inter -related person, or a person
acting in concert with any of them, holding less than 100 percent of the
voting securities of the company whose securities are the subject of the
offer;

(i) “regulated company” means a company to which this Part, Part C and the
Takeover Reg ulations apply, as determined in accordance with section
118 (1) and (2); and

(j) “securities” has the meaning referred to in section 1 , but does not include
any instrument issued by a regulated company unless that instrument –

(i) has associated with it the right to vote gener ally at a general
shareholders meeting; or

(ii) is convertible to a instrument that satisfies the criteria set out in
subparagraph (i).

(2) For the purposes of this Part, Part C and the Takeover Regulations, two or more
related or inter -related persons are regarded to have acted in concert, unless there
is satisfactory evidence that they acted independently in any particular matter.

118. Appl ication of this Part, Part C and Takeover Regulations

(1) Subject to subsections (2) to (4), this Part, Part C and the Takeover Regulations
app ly with respect to an affected transaction or offer involving a profit company
or its securities if the company is –

(a) a public company;

(b) a state -owned company, except to the extent that any such company has
been exempted in terms of section 9 ; or

(c) a private company, but only if –

(i) the percentage of the issued securities of that company that have been
transferred, other than by transfer between or among related or inter –
related persons, within the period of 24 months immediately before
the date of a particular affected transaction or offer exceeds the
percentage prescribed in terms of subsection (2); or
[Subpara. (i) substitut ed by s. 73 of Act 3/2011]

(ii) the Memorandum of Incorporation of that company expressly
provides that the company and its securities are subject to this Part,
Part C and the Takeover Regulations, irrespective of whether the
company falls within the criteria set out in subparagraph (i).

(2) The Minister, after consulting the Panel, may prescribe a minimum percentage,
being not less than 10 per cent, of the issued securities of a private company
which, if transferred within a 24 -month period as contemplated in subsection
(1)(c)(i), would bring that company and its securities within the application of
this Part, Part C , and the Takeover Regulations in terms of that subsection.

(3) Despite the definition of „affected transaction‟ set out in section 117 (1)(c), this
Part, Part C and the Takeover Regulations do not apply to –

(a) a proposal to dispose, or disposal, of all or the greater part of the assets or
undertaking of a regulated company;

(b) a proposed amalgamation or merger involving at least one regulated
company; or

(c) a scheme of arrangement proposed by a regulated company,

to the extent that any such affected transaction is pursuant to or contemplated in
an approved business rescue plan in terms of Chapter 6 .

(4) If there is a conflict between any provision of this Part, Part C , or the Takeover
Regulations, and any provision of another public regulation –

(a) the conflicting provisions apply concurrently to the extent that it is possible
to apply and comply with one of the inconsistent provisions without
contravening the second; and

(b) to the extent that it is impossible to apply or comply with one of the
inconsistent provisions without contravening the second, the provisions of
the other public regulation prevail.

(5) A person granted an option to acquire shares with a voting right in a reg ulated
company is presumed to have acted in concert with the grantor of the option,
unless the voting rights are retained by the grantor.

(6) A presumption under subsection (5) may be rebutted by evidence to the contrary.

119. Panel regulation of affected transactions

(1) The Panel must regulate any affected transaction or offer in accordance with this
Part, Part C and the Takeover Regul ations, but without regard to the commercial
advantages or disadvantages of any transaction or proposed transaction, in order
to-

(a) ensure the integrity of the marketplace and fairness to the holders of the
securities of regulated companies;

(b) ensu re the provision of –

(i) necessary information to holders of securities of regulated companies,
to the extent required to facilitate the making of fair and informed
decisions; and

(ii) adequate time for regulated companies and holders of their securiti es
to obtain and provide advice with respect to offers; and

(c) prevent actions by a regulated company designed to impede, frustrate, or
defeat an offer, or the making of fair and informed decisions by the holders
of that company‟s securities.

(2) Subject to subsection (6), the Panel must regulate any affected transaction or
offer, and the conduct of the parties in respect of any such transaction or offer, in
a manner that promotes the objects set out in subsection (1) and, without limiting
the gene rality of that subsection, ensures –

(a) that no person may enter into an affected transaction unless that person is
ready, able and willing to implement that transaction;

(b) that all holders of –

(i) any particular class of voting securities of an offeree regulated
company are afforded equivalent treatment; and

(ii) voting securities of an offeree regulated company are afforded
equitable treatment, having regard to the circumstances;

(c) that no relevant information is withheld from the holders of relevant
securities; and

(d) that all holders of relevant securities –

(i) receive the same information from an offeror, potential offeror, or
offeree regulated company during the course of an affected
transaction, or when an affected transaction is contemplated; and

(ii) are provided sufficient information, and permitted sufficient time, to
enable them to reach a properly informed decision.

(3) Subsection (2)(d) is not to be construed or applied to prohibit –

(a) the furnishing of information in confidence by an offeree company to a
bona fide potential offeror or vice versa; or

(b) the issue of circulars by brokers or advisers to any party to the transaction
to their own investment clients,

with the prior appro val of the Panel.

(4) In carrying out its mandate, the Panel may –

(a) require the filing, for approval or otherwise, of any document with respect
to an affected transaction or offer, if the document is required to be
prepared in terms of this Part, Part C and the Takeover Regulations;

(b) issue compliance certificates, if the Panel is satisfied that the offer or
transaction satisfies the requirements of this Part , Part C and the Takeover
Regulations; and
[Pra. (b) substituted by s. 74 of Act 3/2011]

(c) initiate or receive complaints, conduct investigations, and issue com pliance
notices, with respect to any affected transaction or offer, in accordance with
Chapter 7 , and the Takeover Regulations.

(5) To the extent nec essary to ensure compliance with this Part, Part C and the
Takeover Regulations, and to fulfil the purposes contemplated in subsection (1), a
compliance notice contemplated in subsection (4)(c) may, among other things –
[Words preceding para. (a) substituted by s. 74 of Act 3/2011]

(a) prohibit or requi re any action by a person; or

(b) order a person to –

(i) divest of an acquired asset; or

(ii) account for profits.

(6) The Panel may wholly or partially, and with or without conditions, exempt an
offeror to an affected transaction or an offer from the application of any provision
of this Part, Part C or the Takeover Regulations if –

(a) there is no reasonable potential of the affected transaction prejudicing the
interests of any existing holder of a regulated company‟s securities;

(b) the cost of compliance is disproportionate relative to the value of the
affected transaction; or

(c) doing so is otherwise reasonable and justifiable in the circumstances having
regard to the principles and purposes of this Part, Part C and the Takeover
Regulations.

120. Takeover regulations

The Minister, in consultation with the Panel, must prescribe regulations, to be known as
the Takeover Regulations, to give effec t to the purposes of this Part and Part C
including, among other things, regulations to provide for –

(a) compliance with and enforcement of the provisions of this Part and Part C
respecting affected transactions and offers;

(b) the administration, operation and procedures of the Panel;

(c) prescribed fees and levies imposed in terms of an Act of Parliament on certain
companies; and

(d) any other matters relating to the powers and functions of the Panel.

Part C

Regulation of affected transactions and offers

121. General requirement concerning transactions and offers

Any person making an offer must –

(a) comply with all reporting or approval requirements, whether set out in this Part or
in the Takeover Regulations, except to the extent that the Panel has granted the
person an exemption from any such requirement; and

(b) not give effect to an affected transaction unless the Panel has –

(i) issued a compliance certificate with respect to the transaction; or
[Subpara. (i) substituted by s. 75 of Act 3/2011]

(ii) granted an exemption for that transaction.

122. Required disclosure concerning certain share transactions

(1) A person must notify a regulated company in the prescribed manner and form
within three business days after that person –
[Words preceding para. (a) substituted by s. 76 of Act 3/2011]

(a) acquires a beneficial interest in sufficient securities of a class issued by that
company such that, as a result of the acquisition, the person holds a
beneficial interest in securities amounting to 5 per cent, 10 percent, 15
percent, or any further whole multiple of 5 percent, of the issued securities
of that class; or

(b) disposes of a beneficial interest in sufficient securities of a class issued by a
company such that, as a result of the disposition, the person no longer holds
a beneficial interest in securities amounting to a particular multiple of 5
percent of the issued securities of that class.

(2) The requirements set out in subsection (1) apply to a person irrespective of
whether –
[Words prece ding para. (a) substituted by s. 76 of Act 3/2011]

(a) the person acquires or disposes of any securities –

(i) directly or indirectly; or

(ii) individually, or in concert with any other person or persons, or

(b) the stipulated percentage of issued securities is held by that person alone, or
in aggregate by that person together with any –

(i) related or inter -related person; and

(ii) person who has acted in concert with any other person.

(3) A regulated company that has received a notice in terms of this section must –

(a) file a copy with the Panel; and

(b) report the information to the holders of the relevant class of securities
unless the notice concerned a disposition of less than 1 percent of the class
of securities.

(4) For the pur poses of this section –

(a) when determining the number of issued securities of a class, a person is
entitled to rely on the most recently published statement by the company,
unless that person knows or has reason to believe that the statement is
inaccura te; and

(b) when determining the number of securities held by –

(i) a person or persons contemplated in subsection (1) –

(aa) to the extent that the person has the entire, or a partial or shared,
beneficial interest in any securities, those interests must be

aggregated, irrespective of the nature of the person‟s interest;
and

(bb) any securities that may be acquired by the pers on if they
exercised any options, conversion privileges or similar rights,
are to be included; and

(ii) any other person, any securities that may be acquired by that other
person if they exercised any options, conversion privileges or similar
rights, are to be excluded.

123. Mandatory offers

(1) In this section, “prescribed percentage” means the percentage prescribed by the
Minister in terms of subsection (5).

(2) This section applies if –

(a) either –

(i) a regulated company reacquires any of its voting securities as
contemplated in section 48 or in terms of a scheme of arrangement
contemplated in section 114 ; or
[Subpara. (i) substituted by s. 77 of Act 3/2011]

(ii) a person acting alone has, or two or more related or inter -related
persons, or t wo or more persons acting in concert, have, acquired a
beneficial interest in voting rights attached to any securities issued by
a regulated company;
[Subpara. (ii) substituted by s. 77 of Act 3/2011]

(b) before that acquisition a person was, or persons contemplated in paragraph
(a)(ii) together were, able to exercise less than the prescribed percentage of
all the voting rights attached to securities of that company; and

(c) as a result of that acquisition, together with any other securities of the
comp any already held by the person or persons contemplated in paragraph
(a)(ii), they are able to exercise at least the prescribed percentage of all the
voting rights attached to securities of that company.

(3) Within one business day after the date of an acquisition contemplated in
subsection (2), the person or persons in whom the prescribed percentage, or more,
of the voting rights beneficially vests must give notice in the prescribed manner
to the holders of the remaining securities, including in that n otice –
[Words preceding para. (a) substituted by s. 77 of Act 3/2011]

(a) a statement that they are in a position to exercise at least the prescribed
percentage of all the voting rights attached to securities of that regulated
company; and

(b) offerin g to acquire any remaining such securities on terms determined in
accordance with this Act and the Takeover Regulations.

(4) Within one month after giving notice in terms of subsection (3), the person or
persons contemplated in subsection (2) must delive r a written offer, in
compliance with the Takeover Regulations, to the holders of the remaining
securities of that company, to acquire those securities on the terms contemplated
in subsection (3)(b).

(5) For the purposes contemplated in this section, the Minister, on the advice of the
Panel, may prescribe a percentage of not more than 35 percent of the voting
securities of a company.

124. Compulsory acquisitions and squeeze out

(1) If, within four months after the date of an offer for the acquisition of any class of
securities of a regulated company, that offer has been accepted by the holders of
at least 90 percent of that class of securities, other than any such securities held
before the offer by the offeror, a related or inter -related person, or pe rsons acting
in concert, or a nominee or subsidiary of any such person or persons –

(a) within two further months, the offeror may notify the holders of the
remaining securities of the class, in the prescribed manner and form –

(i) that the offer has been accepted to that extent; and

(ii) that the offeror desires to acquire all remaining securities of that class;
and

(b) subject to subsection (2), after giving notice in terms of paragraph (a), the
offeror is entitled, and bound, to acquire the secu rities concerned on the
same terms that applied to securities whose holders accepted the original
offer.

(2) Within 30 business days after receiving a notice in terms of subsection (1)(a),a
person may apply to a court for an order –

(a) that the offeror is not entitled to acquire the applicant‟s securities of that
class; or

(b) imposing conditions of acquisition different from those of the original offer.

(3) If an offer to acquire the securities of a particular class has not been accepted to
the ext ent contemplated in subsection (1) –

(a) the offeror may apply to a court for an order authorising the offeror to give
a notice contemplated in subsection (1)(a); and

(b) the court may make the order applied for, if –

(i) after making reasonable enquir ies, the offeror has been unable to trace
one or more of the persons holding securities to which the offer
relates;

(ii) by virtue of acceptances of the original offer, the securities that are
the subject of the application, together with the securities held by the
person or persons referred to in subparagraph (i), amount to not less
than the minimum specified in subsection (1);

(iii) the consideration offered is fair and reasonable; and

(iv) the court is satisfied that it is just and equitable to make the order,
having regard, in particular, to the number of holders of securities
who have been traced but who have not accepted the offer.

(4) If an offer for the acquisition of any class of securities of a regulated company
has resulted in the acqui sition by the offeror or a nominee or subsidiary of the
offeror, or a related or inter -related person of any of them, individually or in
aggregate, of sufficient securities of that class such that, together with any other
securities of that class already h eld by that person, or those persons in aggregate,
they then hold at least 90 percent of the securities of that class –

(a) the offeror must notify the holders of the remaining securities of the class
that the offer has been accepted to that extent;

(b) within three months after receiving a notice in terms of paragraph (a), a
person may demand that the offeror acquire all of the person‟s securities of
the class concerned; and

(c) after receiving a demand in terms of paragraph (b), the offeror is entitl ed,
and bound, to acquire the securities concerned on the same terms that
applied to securities whose holders accepted the original offer.

(5) If an offeror has given notice in terms of subsection (1), and no order has been
made in terms of subsection (3 ), or if the offeror has received a demand in terms
of subsection (4)(b) –

(a) six weeks after the date on which the notice was given or, if an application
to a court is then pending, after the application has been disposed of, or
after the date on which the demand was received, as the case may be, the
offeror must –

(i) transmit a copy of the notice to the regulated company whose
securities are the subject of the offer, together with an instrument of
transfer, executed on behalf of the holder of the thos e securities by
any person appointed by the offeror; and

(ii) pay or transfer to that company the consideration representing the
price payable by the offeror for the securities concerned,

(b) subject to the payment of prescribed fees or duties, the co mpany must
thereupon register the offeror as the holder of those securities.

(6) An instrument of transfer contemplated in subsection (5) is not required for any
securities for which a share warrant is for the time being outstanding.
[Subs. (6) substituted by s. 78 of Act 3/2011]

(7) A regulated company must deposit any consideration received under this section
into a separate interest bearing bank account with a banking institution registered
under the Banks Act and, subject to subsection (8), those deposits must be –

(a) held in trust by the company for the person entitled to the securities in
respect of which the consideration was received; and

(b) paid on demand to the person contemplated in paragraph (a), with interest
to the date of pay ment.

(8) If a person contemplated in subsection (7)(a) fails for more than three years to
demand payment of an amount held in terms of that paragraph, the amount,
together with any accumulated interest, must be paid to the benefit of the
Guardian‟s Fund of the Master of the High Court, to be held and dealt with in
accordance with the rules of that Fund.

(9) In this section any reference to a „„holder of securities who has not accepted the
offer‟‟ includes any holder who has failed or refused to transfe r their securities to
the offeror in accordance with the offer.

125. Comparable and partial offers

(1) In this section –

(a) “independent holder of voting rights” mean a person who –

(i) holds any securities of a company that entitle that person to exercise
general voting rights; and

(ii) is independent of an offeror or any related or inter -related person, or
person acting in concert with any of them; and

(b) “prescribed percentage” means the percentage prescribed in terms of
section 123 (5).

(2) If –

(a) a regulated company that has more than one class of issued securities re –
acquires any of its voting securities of a particular class or one or more
particular classes, as contemplated in section 48 or in terms of a scheme of
arrangement contemplated in section 114 and, as a result, a person or a
number of related persons hold securities of the company entitling the
person or persons to exercise more than the prescribed percentage of the

general voting rights associated with all the issued securities of the
company; or

(b) a person acting alone, o r two or more persons acting in concert, make an
offer for any securities of a regulated company that has more than one class
of issued securities, which, if accepted, could result in a person, or a
number of related or inter -related persons holding securi ties of the company
entitling the person or persons to exercise more than the prescribed
percentage of the general voting rights associated with all issued securities
of the company,

that person or those persons acting in concert must make a comparable offer to
acquire securities of each class of issued securities of that company.
[Subs. (2) substituted by s. 79 of Act 3/2011]

(3) A person making a partial offer for any class of issued securities of a company
must –

(a) make the offer to all of the ho lders of that class of securities;

(b) if the offer could result in the person, together with any related or inter –
related person or person acting in concert with any of them, holding
securities of the company entitling the person or persons to exercise more
than the prescribed percentage of the general voting rights of all issued
securities of the company, make the offer conditional on –

(i) a specified number of acceptances being received; and

(ii) the offer being approved by the independent holders of issued
securities of that class, if all such independent holders, in aggregate,
control more than 50% of the general voting rights of all issued
securities of that class;
[Subpara. (ii) substituted by s. 79 of Act 3/2011]

(c) state in the offer the pr ecise number of shares offered for, if the offer could
result in the person, together with any related or inter -related person or
person acting in concert with any of them, holding securities of the
company entitling the persons or persons to exercise more than the
prescribed percentage, but less than 50 percent, of the general voting rights
of all issued securities of the company; and

(d) if the offer could result in the person, together with any related or inter –
related person or person acting in concer t with any of them, holding
securities of the company entitling the person or persons to exercise more
than the prescribed percentage of the general voting rights of all issued
securities of the company, include a specific and prominent notice that the
off er could result in such circumstances –
[Para. (d) substituted by s. 79 of Act 3/2011]

(4) An offer that is conditional, as contemplated in subsection (3)(b), may not
be declared to be unconditional as to acceptances unless it has been
accepted to the ex tent specified in terms of subsection (3)(b)(i).

(5) If a partial offer has been made for a class of securities –

(a) any holder of those securities is entitled to accept the offer in full for
the relevant percentage of that person‟s holding; and

(b) any securities tendered in excess of the relevant percentage must be
accepted by the offeror from each holder of securities in the same
proportion to the number tendered as will enable the offeror to obtain
the total number of shares for which it has offer ed.

126. Restrictions on frustrating action

(1) If the board of a regulated company believes that a bona fide offer might be
imminent, or has received such an offer, the board must not –

(a) take any action in relation to the affairs of the company that could
effectively result in –

(i) a bona fide offer being frustrated; or

(ii) the holders of relevant securities being denied an opportunity to
decide on its merits;

(b) issue any authorised but unissued securities;

(c) issue or grant options i n respect of any unissued securities;

(d) authorise or issue, or permit the authorisation or issue of, any securities
carrying rights of conversion into or subscription for other securities;

(e) sell, dispose of or acquire, or agree to sell, dispose of or acquire, assets of a
material amount except in the ordinary course of business;

(f) enter into contracts otherwise than in the ordinary course of business; or

(g) make a distribution that is abnormal as to timing and amount,

without the prior written approval of the Panel, and the approval of the holders of
relevant securities, or in terms of a pre -existing obligation or agreement entered
into before the time contemplated in this subsection.

(2) If a regulated company belie ves that it is subject to a pre -existing obligation
contemplated in subsection (1), it may apply to the Panel for consent to proceed.

127. Prohibited dealings before and during an offer

(1) During an offer, or when one is reasonably in contemplation, a n offeror or a
person acting in concert with that offeror, must not –

(a) make arrangements with any holders of the relevant securities;

(b) deal in, or enter into arrangements to deal in, securities of the offeree
regulated company; or

(c) enter into arrangements which involve acceptance of an offer,

if there are favourable conditions attached that are not being extended to all
holders of the relevant securities.

(2) During an offer period, an offeror or a person acting in concert with that offero r
must not –

(a) sell any securities in the offeree company, unless –

(i) the Panel has consented in advance to that sale;

(ii) the person selling those securities has given at least 24 hours notice to
the public that sales of that type might be made, in the manner and
form required by the Takeover Regulations; and

(iii) the sale is on the same terms and conditions as the offer; or

(b) acquire any securities in the offeree company after giving the notice
contemplated in paragraph (a)(ii).

(3) If a n offer has been announced or posted, but has not become or been declared
unconditional, and has, as a result, subsequently been withdrawn or lapsed, then
for a period of 12 months after the date on which the offer was withdrawn or
lapsed, the offeror, any person who acted in concert with the offeror in the course
of the original offer, or any person who is subsequently acting in concert with any
of them, must not –

(a) make an offer for the relevant securities of the offeree company; or

(b) acquire any securities of the offeree company, if as a result of that
acquisition, either the offeror or that person would be required to make a
mandatory offer in terms of section 123 .

(4) Subsection (3) applies equally to a partial offer whether or not the offer has
become or been declared unconditional, but the period of 12 months runs from
that date on which that offer became or was declared to b e unconditional, or is
withdrawn or lapsed, as the case may be.

(5) For a period of six months immediately following the later of the closing date of
an offer, or the date on which the offer became unconditional –

(a) the offeror;

(b) any person who a cted in concert with the offeror; or

(c) any person who is subsequently acting in concert with a person
contemplated in paragraph (a) or (b),

must not make a second offer to any holder of securities of the target company, or
acquire any interest in any such securities, on more favourable terms than those
made under the original offer.

CHAPTER 6

BUSINESS RESCUE AND COMPROMISE WITH CREDITORS

Part A
[Heading of Part renamed to Part A by s. 80 of Act 3/2011]

Business rescue proceedings

128. Application and definitions applicable to Chapter

(1) In this Chapter –

(a) “affected person” , in relation to a company, means –

(i) a shareholder or creditor of the company;

(ii) any registered trade union representing employees of the company;
and

(iii) if any of the employees of the company are not represented by a
registered trade union, each of those employees or their respective
representatives;

(b) “business rescue” means proceedings to facilitate the rehabilitation of a
company that is fin ancially distressed by providing for –

(i) the temporary supervision of the company, and of the management of
its affairs, business and property;

(ii) a temporary moratorium on the rights of claimants against the
company or in respect of property in its possession; and

(iii) the development and implementation, if approved, of a plan to rescue
the company by restructuring its affairs, business, property, debt and
other liabilities, and equity in a manner that maximises the likelihood
of the company cont inuing in existence on a solvent basis or, if it is
not possible for the company to so continue in existence, results in a

better return for the company‟s creditors or shareholders than would
result from the immediate liquidation of the company;

(c) “bus iness rescue plan” means a plan contemplated in section 150 ;

(d) “business rescue practitioner” means a person appointed, or two or more
persons appointed jointly, in terms of this Chapter to oversee a company
during business rescue proceedings and „practitioner‟ has a corresponding
meaning;

(e) “court” , depending on the context, means either –

(i) the High Court that has jurisdiction over the matter; or

(ii) either –

(aa) a designated judge of the High Court that has jurisdiction over
the matter, if the Judge President has designated any judges in
terms of subsection (3); or

(bb) a judge of the High Court that has jurisdiction over the matter,
as assigned by the Judge President to hear the particular matter,
if the Judge President has not designated any judges in terms of
subsection (3);

(f) “financially distressed” , in reference to a parti cular company at any
particular time, means that –

(i) it appears to be reasonably unlikely that the company will be able to
pay all of its debts as they become due and payable within the
immediately ensuing six months; or
[Subpara. (i) substituted by s. 81 of Act 3/2011]

(ii) it appears to be reasonably likely that the company will become
insolvent within the immediately ensuing six months;

(g) “independent creditor” means a person who –

(i) is a creditor of the company, including an employee of the company
who is a creditor in terms of section 144 (2); and

(ii) is not related to the company, a director, or the practitioner, subject to
subsectio n (2);

(h) “rescuing the company” means achieving the goals set out in the
definition of “business rescue” in paragraph (b);

(i) “supervision” means the oversight imposed on a company during its
business rescue proceedings; and

(j) “voting interest” means an interest as recognised, appraised and valued in
terms of section 145 (4) to (6).

(2) For the purpose of subsection (1)(g), an employee of a company is not related to
that company solely as a result of being a member of a trade union that holds
securities of that company.
[Subs. (2) substituted by s. 81 of Act 3/2011]

(3) For the purposes contemplated in subsection (1)(e) or in any other la w, the Judge
President of a High Court may designate any judge of that court generally as a
specialist to determine issues relating to commercial matters, commercial
insolvencies and business rescue.

129. Company resolution to begin business rescue proceedings

(1) Subject to subsection (2)(a), the board of a company may resolve that the
company voluntarily begin business rescue proceedings and place the company
under supervision, if the board has reasonable grounds to believe that –

(a) the compan y is financially distressed; and

(b) there appears to be a reasonable prospect of rescuing the company.

(2) A resolution contemplated in subsection (1) –

(a) may not be adopted if liquidation proceedings have been initiated by or
against the company; and

(b) has no force or effect until it has been filed.

(3) Within five business days after a company has adopted and filed a resolution, as
contemplated in subsection (1), or such longer time as the Commission, on
application by the company, may allow, the company must –

(a) publish a notice of the resolution, and its effective date, in the prescribed
manner to every affected person, including with the notice a sworn
statement of the facts relevant to the grounds on which the board resolution
was founded; and

(b) appoint a business rescue practitioner who satisfies the requirements of
section 138 , and who has consented in writing to accept the appointment.

(4) After appointing a practitioner as required by subsection (3)(b), a company must –

(a) file a notice of the appointment of a practitioner within two business days
after making the appointment; and

(b) publish a copy of the notice of appointment to each affected person within
five business days after the notice was filed.

(5) If a company fails to comply with any provision of subsection (3) or (4) –

(a) its resolution to begin business rescue proceedings and place the company
und er supervision lapses and is a nullity; and

(b) the company may not file a further resolution contemplated in subsection
(1) for a period of three months after the date on which the lapsed
resolution was adopted, unless a court, on good cause shown on an ex parte
application, approves the company filing a further resolution.

(6) A company that has adopted a resolution contemplated in this section may not
adopt a resolution to begin liquidation proceedings, unless the resolution has
lapsed in terms of su bsection (5), or until the business rescue proceedings have
ended as determined in accordance with section 132 (2).

(7) If the board of a company ha s reasonable grounds to believe that the company is
financially distressed, but the board has not adopted a resolution contemplated in
this section, the board must deliver a written notice to each affected person,
setting out the criteria referred to in section 128 (1)(f) that are applicable to the
company, and its reasons for not adopting a resolution contemplated in this
section.
[Subs. (7) substituted by s. 82 of Act 3/2011]

130. Objections to company resolution

(1) Subject to subsection (2), at any time after the adoption of a resolution in terms of
section 129 , until the adoption of a business rescue plan in terms of section 152 ,
an affected person may apply to a court for an order –

(a) setting aside the resolution, on the grounds that –

(i) there is no reasonabl e basis for believing that the company is
financially distressed;

(ii) there is no reasonable prospect for rescuing the company; or

(iii) the company has failed to satisfy the procedural requirements set out
in section 129 ;

(b) setting aside the appointment of the practitioner, on the grounds that the
practitioner –

(i) does not satisfy the requirements of section 138 ;

(ii) is not independent of the company or its management; or

(iii) lacks the necessary skills, having regard to the company‟s
circumstances; or

(c) requiring the practit ioner to provide security in an amount and on terms and
conditions that the court considers necessary to secure the interests of the
company and any affected persons.

(2) An affected person who, as a director of a company, voted in favour of a
resolution contemplated in section 129 may not apply to a court in terms of –

(a) subsection (1)(a) to set aside that resolution; or

(b) subsection (1)(b) to set aside the appointment of the practitioner appointed
by the company,

unless that person satisfies the court that the person, in supporting the resolution,
acted in good faith on the basis of information that has subsequently been found
to be false or misleading.

(3) An applicant in terms of subsection (1) must –

(a) serve a copy of the application on the company and the Commission; and

(b) notify each affected p erson of the application in the prescribed manner.

(4) Each affected person has a right to participate in the hearing of an application in
terms of this section.

(5) When considering an application in terms of subsection (1)(a) to set aside the
company ‟s resolution, the court may –

(a) set aside the resolution –

(i) on any grounds set out in subsection (1); or

(ii) if, having regard to all of the evidence, the court considers that it is
otherwise just and equitable to do so;

(b) afford the practitioner sufficient time to form an opinion whether or not –

(i) the company appears to be financially distressed; or

(ii) there is a reasonable prospect of rescuing the company,

and after receiving a report from the practitioner, may set aside th e
company‟s resolution if the court concludes that the company is not
financially distressed, or there is no reasonable prospect of rescuing the
company; and

(c) if it makes an order under paragraph (a) or (b) setting aside the company‟s
resolution, may make any further necessary and appropriate order,
including –

(i) an order placing the company under liquidation; or

(ii) if the court has found that there were no reasonable grounds for
believing that the company would be unlikely to pay all of its deb ts as
they became due and payable, an order of costs against any director
who voted in favour of the resolution to commence business rescue
proceedings, unless the court is satisfied that the director acted in
good faith and on the basis of information tha t the director was
entitled to rely upon in terms of section 76 (4) and (5).

(6) If, after considering an application in terms of subsection (1)(b), the court makes
an order setting aside the appointment of a practitioner –

(a) the court must appoint an alternate practitioner who satisfies the
requirements of section 138 , recommended by, or acceptable to, the holders
of a majority of the independent creditors‟ voting interests who were
represented in the hea ring before the court; and

(b) the provisions of subsection (5)(b), if relevant, apply to the practitioner
appointed in terms of paragraph (a).

131. Court order to begin business rescue proceedings

(1) Unless a company has adopted a resolution contem plated in section 129 , an
affected person may apply to a court at any time for an order placing the company
under supervision and commencing business rescue proceedings.

(2) An applicant in terms of subsection (1) must –

(a) serve a copy of the application on the company and the Commission; and

(b) notify each affected person of the application in the prescribed manner.

(3) Each affected person has a right to participate in the hearing of an application in
terms of this section.

(4) After considering an application in terms of subsection (1), the court may –

(a) make an order placing the company under supervision and commencing
business rescue proceedings, if the court is satisfied that –

(i) the company is financially distressed;

(ii) the company has failed to pay over any amount in terms of an
obligation under or in terms of a public regulation, or contract, with
respect to employment -related matters; or

(iii) it is otherwise just and equitable to do so for financial reasons,

and there is a reasonable prospect for rescuing the company; or

(b) dismissing the application, together with any further necessary and
appropriat e order, including an order placing the company under
liquidation.

(5) If the court makes an order in terms of subsection (4)(a), the court may make a
further order appointing as interim practitioner a person who satisfies the
requirements of section 138 , and who has been nominated by the affected person
who applied in terms of subsection (1), subject to ratification by the holders of a
majority of t he independent creditors‟ voting interests at the first meeting of
creditors, as contemplated in section 147 .

(6) If liquidation proceedings have a lready been commenced by or against the
company at the time an application is made in terms of subsection (1), the
application will suspend those liquidation proceedings until –

(a) the court has adjudicated upon the application; or

(b) the business res cue proceedings end, if the court makes the order applied
for.

(7) In addition to the powers of a court on an application contemplated in this
section, a court may make an order contemplated in subsection (4), or (5) if
applicable, at any time during the course of any liquidation proceedings or
proceedings to enforce any security against the company.

(8) A company that has been placed under supervision in terms of this section –

(a) may not adopt a resolution placing itself in liquidation until the business
rescue proceedings have ended as determined in accordance with section
13 2(2); and

(b) must notify each affected person of the order within five business days after
the date of the order.

132. Duration of business rescue proceedings

(1) Business rescue proceedings begin when –

(a) the company –

(i) files a resolution to place itself under supervision in terms of section
129 (3); or

(ii) applies to the court for consent to file a resolution in terms of section
129 (5)(b);

(b) an affected person applies to the court for an order placing the company
under supervision in terms of section 131 (1); or
[Para. (b) substituted by s. 83 of Act 3/2011]

(c) a court makes an order placing a company under supervision during the
course of liquidation proceedings, or proceedings to enforce a security
interest, as contemplated in section 131 (7).
[Para. (c) substituted by s. 83 of Act 3/ 2011]

(2) Business rescue proceedings end when –

(a) the court –

(i) sets aside the resolution or order that began those proceedings; or

(ii) has converted the proceedings to liquidation proceedings;

(b) the practitioner has filed with the Commission a notice of the termination of
business rescue proceedings; or

(c) a business rescue plan has been –

(i) proposed and rejected in terms of Part D of this Chapter, and no
affected person has acted to extend the proceedings in any manner
contemplated in section 153 ; or

(ii) adopt ed in terms of Part D of this Chapter, and the practitioner has
subsequently filed a notice of substantial implementation of that plan.

(3) If a company‟s business rescue proceedings have not ended within three months
after the start of those proceedings, or such longer time as the court, on
application by the practitioner, may allow, the practitioner must –

(a) prepare a report on the progress of the business rescue proceedings, and
update it at the end of each subsequent month until the end of those
proceedings; and

(b) deliver the report and each update in the prescribed manner to each affected
person, and to the –

(i) court, if the proceedings have been the subject of a court order; or

(ii) Commission, in any other case.

133. General moratorium on legal proceedings against company

(1) During business rescue proceedings, no legal proceeding, including enforcement
action, against the company, or in relation to any property belonging to the
company, or lawfully in its possession, may be commenced or proceeded with in
any forum, except –

(a) with the written consent of the practitioner;

(b) with the leave of the court and in acco rdance with any terms the court
considers suitable;

(c) as a set -off against any claim made by the company in any legal
proceedings, irrespective of whether those proceedings commenced before
or after the business rescue proceedings began;
[Para. (c) sub stituted by s. 84 of Act 3/2011]

(d) criminal proceedings against the company or any of its directors or officers;
[Para. (d) substituted by s. 84 of Act 3/2011]

(e) proceedings concerning any property or right over which the company
exercises the powers of a trustee; or
[Para. (e) substituted by s. 84 of Act 3/2011]

(f) proceedings by a regulatory authority in the execution of its duties after
written notification to the business rescue practitioner.
[Para. (f) inserted by s. 84 of Act 3/2011]

(2) During business rescue proceedings, a guarantee or surety by a company in
favour of any other person may not be enforced by any person against the
company except with leave of the court and in accordance with any terms the
court considers just and equi table in the circumstances.

(3) If any right to commence proceedings or otherwise assert a claim against a
company is subject to a time limit, the measurement of that time must be
suspended during the company‟s business rescue proceedings.

134. Protect ion of property interests

(1) Subject to subsections (2) and (3), during a company‟s business rescue
proceedings –

(a) the company may dispose, or agree to dispose, of property only –

(i) in the ordinary course of its business;

(ii) in a bona fide transaction at arm‟s length for fair value approved in
advance and in writing by the practitioner; or

(iii) in a transaction contemplated within, and undertaken as part of the
implementation of, a business rescue plan that has been approved in
terms of section 152 ;

(b) any person who, as a result of an agreement made in the ordinary course of
the company‟s business before the business rescue proceedings began, is in
lawful possession of any property owned by the company may continue to
exercise any right in respect of th at property as contemplated in that
agreement, subject to section 136 ; and

(c) despite any provision of an agreement to the contrary, no person may
exercise any right in respect of any property in the lawful possession of the
company, irrespective of whether the property is owned by the company,
except to the extent that the practitioner consents in writing.
[Para. (c) substituted by s. 85 of Act 3/2011] [Subs. numbered as subs. (1) by s. 85 of Act 3/2011] (2) The practitioner may not unreasonably withhold consent in terms of subsection
(1)(c), having regard to –

(a) the purposes of this Chapter;

(b) the circumstances of the company; and

(c) the nature of the property, and the rights claimed in respect of it.

(3) If, during a company‟s business rescue proceedings, the company wishes to
dispose of any property over which another person has any security or title
interest, the company must –

(a) obtain the prior consent of that other person, unless the proceeds of the
disposal would be sufficient to fully discharge the indebtedness protected
by that person‟s security or title interest; and

(b) promptly –

(i) pay to that other person the sale proceeds attributable to that property
up to the amount of the company‟s indebtedness to that other person;
or

(ii) provide security for the amount of those proceeds, to the reasonable
satisfaction of that other person.

135. Post -commencement finance

(1) To the extent that any remuneration, reimbursement for expenses or other amount
of money relating to employment becomes due and payable by a company to an
employee during the company‟s business rescue proceedings, but is not paid to
the employee –

(a) the money is regarded to be post -commencement financing; and

(b) will be paid in the order of preference set out in subsection (3)(a).

(2) During its business rescue proceedings, the company may obtain financing other
than as contemplated is subsect ion (1), and any such financing –

(a) may be secured to the lender by utilising any asset of the company to the
extent that it is not otherwise encumbered; and

(b) will be paid in the order of preference set out in subsection (3)(b).

(3) After payment of the practitioner‟s remuneration and expenses referred to in
section 143 , and other claims arising out of the costs of the business rescue
proceed ings, all claims contemplated –
[Words preceding para. (a) substituted by s. 86 of Act 3/2011]

(a) in subsection (1) will be treated equally, but will have preference over –

(i) all claims contemplated in subsection (2), irrespective of whether or
not they are secured; and
[Subpara. (i) substituted by s. 86 of Act 3/2011]

(ii) all unsecured claims against the company; or

(b) in subsection (2) will have preference in the order in which they were
incurred over all unsecured claims against the company.

(4) If business rescue proceedings are superseded by a liquidation order, the
preference conferred in terms of this section will remain in force, except to the
extent of any claims arising out of the costs of liquidation.

136. Effect of business rescu e on employees and contracts

(1) Despite any provision of an agreement to the contrary –

(a) during a company‟s business rescue proceedings , employees of the
company immediately before the beginning of those proceedings continue
to be so employed on the same terms and conditions, except to the extent
that –
[Words preceding para. (ii) amended by s. 87 of Act 3/2011]

(i) changes occur in the o rdinary course of attrition; or

(ii) the employees and the company, in accordance with applicable labour
laws, agree different terms and conditions; and

(b) any retrenchment of any such employees contemplated in the company‟s
business rescue plan is subject to section 189 and 189A of the Labour
Relations Act, 1995 (Act No. 66 of 1995), and other applicable employment
related legislation.

(2) Subject to subsection (2A), and despite any provision of an agreement to the
contrary, during business rescue proceedings, the practitioner may –

(a) entirely, partially or conditionally suspend, for the duration of the business
rescue proceedings, a ny obligation of the company that –

(i) arises under an agreement to which the company was a party at the
commencement of the business rescue proceedings; and

(ii) would otherwise become due during those proceedings; or

(b) apply urgently to a court to entirely, partially or conditionally cancel, on
any terms that are just and reasonable in the circumstances, any obligation
of the company contemplated in paragraph (a).
[Subs. (2) substituted by s. 87 of Act 3/2011]

(2A) When acting in terms of subse ction (2) –

(a) a business rescue practitioner must not suspend any provision of –

(i) an employment contract; or

(ii) an agreement to which section 35A or 35B of the Insolvency Act,
1936 (Act No. 24 or 1936), would have applied had the company
been liquidated;

(b) a court may not cancel any provision of –

(i) an employment contract, except as contemplated in subsection (1);

(ii) an agreement to which section 35A or 35B of the Insolvency Act,
(Act No. 24 of 1936), would have applied had the company been
liquidated; and

(c) if a business practitioner suspends a provision of an agreement relating to
secu rity granted by the company, that provision nevertheless continues to
apply for the purpose of section 134 , with respect to any proposed disposal
of property by the company.
[Subs. (2A) inserted by s. 87 of Act 3/2011]

(3) Any party to an agreement that has been suspended or cancelled, or any provision
which has been suspended or cancelled, in terms of subsection (2), may assert a
claim against the company only for damages.

(4) If liquidation proceedings have been converted into business rescue proceedings,
the liquidator is a creditor of the company to the extent of any outstanding claim
by the liquidator for any remuneration due for work performe d, or compensation
for expenses incurred, before the business rescue proceedings began.

137. Effect on shareholders and directors

(1) During business rescue proceedings an alteration in the classification or status of
any issued securities of a company , other than by way of a transfer of securities in
the ordinary course of business, is invalid except to the extent –

(a) that the court otherwise directs; or

(b) contemplated in an approved business rescue plan.

(2) During a company‟s business rescue proceedings, each director of the company –

(a) must continue to exercise the functions of director, subject to the authority
of the practitioner;

(b) has a duty to the company to exercise any management function within the
company in accordance with t he express instructions or direction of the
practitioner, to the extent that it is reasonable to do so;

(c) remains bound by the requirements of sec tion 75 concerning personal
financial interests of the director or a related person; and

(d) to the extent that the director acts in accordance with paragraphs (b) and (c),
is relieved from the duties of a director as set out in section 76 , and the
liabilities set out in sec tion 77 , other than section 77 (3)(a), (b) and (c).

(3) During a company‟s business rescue proceedings, each director of the company
must attend to t he requests of the practitioner at all times, and provide the
practitioner with any information about the company‟s affairs as may reasonably
be required.

(4) If, during a company‟s business rescue proceedings, the board, or one or more
directors of the company, purports to take any action on behalf of the company
that requires the approval of the practitioner, that action is void unless approved
by the practitioner.

(5) At any time during the business rescue proceedings, the practitioner may apply to
a court for an order removing a director from office on the grounds that the
director has –

(a) failed to comply with a requirement of this Chapter; or

(b) by act or omission, has impeded, or is impeding –

(i) the practitioner in the performance of the powers and functions of
practitioner;

(ii) the management of the company by the practitioner; or

(iii) the development or implementation of a business rescue plan in
accordance with this Chapter.

(6) Subsection (5) is in addition to any right of a pe rson to apply to a court for
an order contemplated in section 162 .

Part B

Practitioner’s functions and terms of appointment

138. Qualifications of practitioners

(1) A person may be appointed as the business rescue practitioner of a company
only if the person –

(a) is a member in good standing of a legal, accounting or business
management profession accredited by the Commission;

(b) has bee n licensed as such by the Commission in terms of subsection (2);

(c) is not subject to an order of probation in terms of section 162 (7);

(d) would not be disqualified from acting as a director of the company in terms
of section 69 (8);

(e) does not have any other relationship with the com pany such as would lead a
reasonable and informed third party to conclude that the integrity,
impartiality or objectivity of that person is compromised by that
relationship; and

(f) is not related to a person who has a relationship contemplated in parag raph
(d).

(2) For the purposes of subsection (1)(a)(ii), the Commission may license any
qualified person to practice in terms of this Chapter and may suspend or withdraw
any such licence in the prescribed manner.

(3) The Minister may make regulations p rescribing –

(a) standards and procedures to be followed by the Commission in carrying out
its licencing functions and powers in terms of this section; and

(b) minimum qualifications for a person to practice as a business rescue
practitioner, including different minimum qualifications for different
categories of companies.
[S. 138 substituted by s. 88 of Act 3/2011]

139. Removal and replacement of practitioner

(1) A practitioner may be removed only –

(a) by a court order in terms of section 130 ; or

(b) as provided for in this section.

(2) Upon request of an affected person, or on its own motion, the court may remove a
practitioner from office on any of the following grounds:

(a) Incompetence or failure to perform the duties of a business rescue
practitioner of the particular company;
[Para. (2) substituted by s. 89 of Act 3/2011]

(b) failure to exercise the proper d egree of care in the performance of the
practitioner‟s functions;

(c) engaging in illegal acts or conduct;

(d) if the practitioner no longer satisfies the requirements set out in section
138 (1);

(e) conflict of interest or lack of independence; or

(f) the practitioner is incapacitated and unable to perform the functions of that
office, and is unlikely to regain that capacity within a reasonable time.

(3) The company, or the creditor who nominated the practitioner, as the case may be,
must appoint a new practitioner if a practitioner dies, resigns or is removed from
office, subject to the right of an affected person to bring a fresh application in
terms of section 130 (1)(b) to set aside that new appointment.

140. General powers and duties of practitioners

(1) During a company‟s business rescue proceedings, the practitioner, in addition to
any other powers and duties set out in this Chapter –

(a) has full management control of the company in substitution for its board
and pre -existing management;

(b) may delegate any power or function of the p ractitioner to a person who was
part of the board or pre -existing management of the company;

(c) may –

(i) remove from office any person who forms part of the pre -existing
management of the company; or

(ii) appoint a person as part of the management o f a company, whether to
fill a vacancy or not, subject to subsection (2); and

(d) is responsible to –

(i) develop a business rescue plan to be considered by affected persons,
in accordance with Part D of this Chapter; and

(ii) implement any business rescue plan that has been adopted in
accordance with Part D of this Chapter.

(1A) The practitioner must, as soon as practicable after appointment, inform all
relevant regulatory authorities having authority in respect of the activit ies of the
company, of the fact that the company has been placed under business rescue
proceedings and of his or her appointment.
[Subs. (1A) inserted by s. 90 of Act 3/2011]

(2) Except with the approval of the court on application by the practitioner, a
practitioner may not appoint a person as part of the management of the company,
or an advisor to the company or to the practitioner, if that person –

(a) has any other relationship with the company such as would lead a
reasonable and informed third party to conclude that the integrity,
impartiality or objectivity of that person is compromised by that
relationship; or

(b) is related to a person who has a relationship contemplated in paragraph (a).

(3) During a company‟s business rescue proceedings, the practitioner –

(a) is an officer of the court, and must report to the court in accordance with
any applicable rules of, or orders made by, the court;

(b) has the responsibilities, duties and liabilities of a director of the company,
as set out in sections 75 to 77 ; and

(c) other than as contem plated in paragraph (b) –

(i) is not liable for any act or omission in good faith in the course of the
exercise of the powers and performance of the functions of
practitioner; but

(ii) may be held liable in accordance with any relevant law for the
conse quences of any act or omission amounting to gross negligence
in the exercise of the powers and performance of the functions of
practitioner.

(4) If the business rescue process concludes with an order placing the company in
liquidation, any person who has acted as practitioner during the business rescue
process may not be appointed as liquidator of the company.

141. Investigation of affairs of company

(1) As soon as practicable after being appointed, a practitioner must investigate the
company‟s affairs, business, property, and financial situation, and after having
done so, consider whether there is any reasonable prospect of the company being
rescued.

(2) If, at any time during business rescue proceedings, the practitioner concludes
that –

(a) there is no reasonable prospect for the company to be rescued, the
practitioner must –

(i) so inform the court, the company, and all affected persons in the
prescribed manner; and

(ii) apply to the court for an order discontinuing the business rescue
proceedings and placing the company into liquidation;

(b) there no longer are reasonable grounds to believe that the company is
financially distressed, the practitioner must so inform the court, the
company, and all affected persons in the prescribed mann er, and –

(i) if the business rescue process was confirmed by a court order in terms
of section 130 , or initiated by an application to the court in terms of
section 131 , apply to a court for an order terminating the business
rescue proceedings; or

(ii) otherwise, file a notice of termination of the business rescue
proceedings; or

(c) there is evidence, in the dealings of the company before the business rescue
proceedings began, of –

(i) voidable transactions, or the failure by the company or any director to
perform any material obligation rel ating to the company, the
practitioner must take any necessary steps to rectify the matter and
may direct the management to take appropriate steps.
[Subpara. (i) substituted by s. 91 of Act 3/2011]

(ii) reckless trading, fraud or other contravention of any law relating to
the company, the practitioner must –

(aa) forward the evidence to the appropriate authority for further
investigation and possible prosecution; and

(bb) direct the management to take any necessary steps to rectify the
matter, includi ng recovering any misappropriated assets of the
company.

(3) A court to which an application has been made in terms of subsection (2)(a)(ii)
may make the order applied for, or any other order that the court considers
appropriate in the circumstances.

142. Directors of company to co -operate with and assist practitioner

(1) As soon as practicable after business rescue proceedings begin, each director of a
company must deliver to the practitioner all books and records that relate to the
affairs of the co mpany and are in the director‟s possession.

(2) Any director of a company who knows where other books and records relating to
the company are being kept, must inform the practitioner as to the whereabouts of
those books and records.

(3) Within five business days after business rescue proceedings begin, or such longer
period as the practitioner allows, the directors of a company must provide the
practitioner with a statement of affairs containing, at a minimum, particulars of
the following:

(a) Any material transactions involving the company or the assets of the
company, and occurring within 12 months immediately before the business
rescue proceedings began;
[Para. (a) substituted by s. 92 of Act 3/2011]

(b) any court, arbitration or administrative proceedings, including pending
enforcement proceedings, involving the company;
[Para. (b) substituted by s. 92 of Act 3/2011]

(c) the assets and liabilities of the company, and its income and disbursements
within the immediately preceding 12 months;

(d) the number of employees, and any collective agreements or other
agreements relating to the rights of employees;

(e) any debtors and their obligations to the company; and

(f) any creditors and their rights or claims against the company.

(4) No per son is entitled, as against the practitioner of a company, to retain
possession of any books or records of the company, or to claim or enforce a lien
over any such books or records, unless such books or records are in the lawful
possession of such person a nd he or she has made copies available to the
practitioner or has afforded the practitioner a reasonable opportunity to inspect
the books or records concerned. .
[Subs. (4) substituted by s. 92 of Act 3/2011]

143. Remuneration of practitioner

(1) The practitioner is entitled to charge an amount to the company for the
remuneration and expenses of the practitioner in accordance with the tariff
prescribed in terms of subsection (6).

(2) The practitioner may propose an agreement with the company providin g for
further remuneration, additional to that contemplated in subsection (1), to be
calculated on the basis of a contingency related to –

(a) the adoption of a business rescue plan at all, or within a particular time, or
the inclusion of any particular matter within such a plan; or

(b) the attainment of any particular result or combination of results relating to
the business rescue proceedings.

(3) Subject to subsection (4), an agreement contemplated in subsection (2) is final
and binding on the comp any if it is approved by –

(a) the holders of a majority of the creditors‟ voting interests, as determined in
accordance with section 145 (4) to (6), present and voting at a meeting
called for the purpose of considering the proposed agreement; and

(b) the holders of a majority of the voting rights attached to any shares of the
company that entitle the shareholder to a portion of the residual value of the
company on winding -up, present and voting at a meeting called for the
purpose of considering the proposed agreement.

(4) A creditor or shareholder who voted against a proposal contemplated in this
section may apply to a court within 10 business days after the date of voting on
that proposal, for an order setting aside the agreement on the grounds that –

(a) the agreement is not just and equitable; or

(b) the remuneration provided for in the agreement is unreasonable having
regard to the financial circumstances of the company.
[Para. (b) substituted by s. 93 of Act 3/2011]

(5) To the extent that the practitioner‟s remuneration and expenses are not fully paid,
the practitioner‟s claim for those amounts will rank in priority before the claims
of all other secured and unsecured creditors.

(6) The Minister may make regulations prescribing a tariff of fees and expenses for
the purpose of subsection (1).

Part C

Rights of affected persons during business rescue proceedings

144. Rights of employees

(1) During a company‟s business rescue proceedings any employees of the company
who are –

(a) represented by a registered trade union may exercise any rights set out in
this Chapter –

(i) collectively through their trade union; and

(ii) in accordanc e with applicable labour law; or

(b) not represented by a registered trade union may elect to exercise any rights
set out in this Chapter either directly, or by proxy through an employee
organisation or representative.

(2) To the extent that any remune ration, reimbursement for expenses or other amount
of money relating to employment became due and payable by a company to an
employee at any time before the beginning of the company‟s business rescue
proceedings, and had not been paid to that employee imme diately before the

beginning of those proceedings, the employee is a preferred unsecured creditor of
the company for the purposes of this Chapter.

(3) During a company‟s business rescue process, every registered trade union
representing any employees of the company, and any employee who is not so
represented, is entitled to –

(a) notice, which must be given in the prescribed manner and form to
employees at their workplace, and served at the head office of the relevant
trade union, of each court proceeding, decision, meeting or other relevant
event concerning the business rescue proceedings;
[Para. (a) substituted by s. 94 of Act 3/2011]

(b) participate in any court proceedings arising during the business rescue
proceedings;

(c) form a committee of employees‟ representatives;

(d) be consulted by the practitioner during the development of the business
rescue plan, and afforded sufficient opportunity to review any such plan and
prepare a submission contemplated in section 152 (1)(c);

(e) be present and make a submission to the meeting of the holders of voting
interests before a vote is taken on any proposed business rescue plan, as
contemplated in section 152 (1)(c);

(f) vote with creditors on a motion to approve a proposed business plan, to the
extent that the employee is a cr editor, as contemplated in subsection (2);
and
[Para. (f) substituted by s. 94 of Act 3/2011]

(g) if the proposed business rescue plan is rejected, to –

(i) propose the development of an alternative plan, in the manner
contemplated in section 153 ; or

(ii) present an offer to acquire the interests of one or more affected
persons, in the manner contemplated in section 153 .

(4) A medical scheme, or a pension scheme including a provident scheme, for the
benefit of the past or present employees of a company is an unsecured creditor of
the company for the purposes of this Chapter to the extent of –

(a) any amount that was due and payable by the company to the trustees of the
scheme at any time before the beginning of the company‟s business rescue
proceedings, and that had no t been paid immediately before the beginning
of those proceedings; and

(b) in the case of a defined benefit pension scheme, the present value at the
commencement of the business rescue proceedings of any unfunded
liability under that scheme.

(5) The ri ghts set out in this section are in addition to any other rights arising or
accruing in terms of any law, contract, collective agreement, shareholding,
security or court order.

145. Participation by creditors

(1) Each creditor is entitled to –

(a) notice of each court proceeding, decision, meeting or other relevant event
concerning the business rescue proceedings;

(b) participate in any court proceedings arising during the business rescue
proceedings;

(c) formally participate in a company‟s busi ness rescue proceedings to the
extent provided for in this Chapter; and

(d) informally participate in those proceedings by making proposals for a
business rescue plan to the practitioner.

(2) In addition to the rights set out in subsection (1), each cr editor has –

(a) the right to vote to amend, approve or reject a proposed business rescue
plan, in the manner contemplated in section 152 ; and

(b) if the proposed business rescue plan is rejected, a further right to –

(i) propose the development of an alternative plan, in the manner
contemplated in section 153 ; or

(ii) present an offer to acquire the interests of any or all of the other
creditors in the manner contemplated in section 153 .

(3) The creditors of a company are entitled to form a creditors‟ committee, and
through that committee are entitled to be consulted by the practitioner during the
development of the business rescue plan.

(4) In respect of any decision contemplated in this Chapter that requires the support
of the holders of creditors‟ voting interests –

(a) a secured or unsecured creditor has a voting interest equal to the value of
the amount owed to that creditor by the company; and

(b) a concurrent creditor who would be subordinated in a liquidation has a
voting interest, as independently and expertly appraised and valued at the

request of the practitioner, equal to the amount, if any, that the creditor
could reasonably expect to receive in such a liquidation of the company.

(5) The practitioner of a company must –

(a) determine whether a creditor is independent for the purposes of this
Chapter;

(b) request a suitably qualified person to independently and expertly appraise
and value an interest contemplated in subsection (4)(b); and

(c) give a written notice of the determination, or appraisal and valuation, to the
person concerned at least 15 business days before the date of the meeting to
be convened in terms of section 151 .

(6) Within five business days after receiving a notice of a determination
contemplated in subsection (5), a person may apply to a court to –

(a) review the practitioner‟s determination that the person is, or is not, an
independent creditor; or

(b) review, re -appraise and re -value that person‟s voting interest, as determined
in terms of subsection (5)(b).

146. Participation by holders of company‟s secu rities

During a company‟s business rescue proceedings, each holder of any issued security of
the company is entitled to –

(a) notice of each court proceeding, decision, meeting or other relevant event
concerning the business rescue proceedings;

(b) participate in any court proceedings arising during the business rescue
proceedings;

(c) formally participate in a company‟s business rescue proceedings to the extent
provided for in this Chapter;

(d) vote to approve or reject a proposed business rescu e plan in the manner
contemplated in section 152 , if the plan would alter the rights associated with the
class of securities held by that person; and

(e) if the business rescue plan is rejected, to –

(i) propose the development of an alternative plan, in the manner contemplated
in section 153 ; or

(ii) present an offer to acquire the interests of any or all of the creditors or other
holders of the company‟s securities in the manner contemplated in section
153 .

147. First meeting of creditors

(1) Within 10 business days after being appointed, the practitioner must convene, and
preside over, a first meeting of creditors, at which –

(a) the practitioner –

(i) must inform the creditors whether the practitioner believes that there
is a reasonable prospect of rescuing the company; and

(ii) may receive proof of claims by creditors; and

(b) the creditors may determine whether or not a committee of creditors should
be appointed and, if so, may appoint the members of the committee.

(2) The practitioner must give notice of the first meeting of creditors to every creditor
of the company whose name and address is known to, or can reasonably be
obtained by, the practitioner, setting out the –

(a) date, time and place of the meeting; and

(b) agenda for the meeting.

(3) At any meeting of creditors, other than the meeting contemplated in section 151 ,
a decision supported by the holders of a simple majority of the independent
creditors‟ voting interests voted on a matter, is the decision of the m eeting on that
matter.

148. First meeting of employees‟ representatives

(1) Within 10 business days after being appointed, the practitioner must convene, and
preside over, a first meeting of employees‟ representatives, at which –

(a) the practitioner must inform the employees‟ representatives whether the
practitioner believes that there is a reasonable prospect of rescuing the
company; and

(b) the employees‟ representatives may determine whether or not an
employees‟ committee should be appointed and, if so, may appoint the
members of the committee.

(2) The practitioner must give notice of the meeting to every registered trade union
representing employees of the company and, if there are any employees who are
not represented by such a registered trad e union, to those employees, or their
representatives, setting out the –

(a) date, time and place of the meeting; and

(b) agenda for the meeting.

149. Functions, duties and membership of committees of affected persons

(1) A committee of employees, o r of creditors, appointed in terms of section 147 or
148 , respectively –

(a) may consult with the practitioner about any matter relating to the business
rescue proceedings, but may not direct or instruct the practitioner;

(b) may, on behalf of the general body of creditors or employees, respectively,
receive and consider reports relating to the business rescue proceedings;
and

(c) must act independently of the practitioner to ensure fair and unbiased
representation of creditors‟ or employees‟ interests.

(2) A person may be a member of a committee of creditors or employees,
respectively, only if the person is –

(a) an independent creditor, or an employee, of the company;

(b) an agent, proxy or attorney of an independent creditor or employee, or other
person acting under a general pow er of attorney; or

(c) authorised in writing by an independent creditor or employee to be a
member.

Part D

Development and approval of business rescue plan

150. Proposal of business rescue plan

(1) The practitioner, after consulting the creditors, other affected persons, and the
management of the company, must prepare a business rescue plan for
consideration and possible adoption at a meeting held in terms of section 151 .

(2) The business rescue plan must contain all the information reasonably required to
facilitate affected persons in deciding whether or not to accept or reject the plan,
and m ust be divided into three Parts, as follows:

(a) Part A -Background , which must include at least –

(i) a complete list of all the material assets of the company, as well as an
indication as to which assets were held as security by creditors when
the business rescue proceedings began;

(ii) a complete list of the creditors of the company when the business
rescue proceedings began, as well as an indication as to which
creditors would qualify as secured, statutory preferent and concurrent

in terms of th e laws of insolvency, and an indication of which of the
creditors have proved their claims;

(iii) the probable dividend that would be received by creditors, in their
specific classes, if the company were to be placed in liquidation;

(iv) a complete lis t of the holders of the company‟s issued securities;

(v) a copy of the written agreement concerning the practitioner‟s
remuneration; and

(vi) a statement whether the business rescue plan includes a proposal
made informally by a creditor of the company.

(b) Part B -Proposals , which must include at least –

(i) the nature and duration of any moratorium for which the business
rescue plan makes provision;

(ii) the extent to which the company is to be released from the payment of
its debts, and the extent to which any debt is proposed to be converted
to equity in the company, or another company;

(iii) the ongoing role of the company, and the treatment of any existing
agreements;

(iv) the property of the company that is to be available to pay creditors‟
claims in terms of the business rescue plan;

(v) the order of preference in which the proceeds of property will be
applied to pay creditors if the business rescue plan is adopted;

(vi) the benefits of adopting the business rescue plan as opposed to the
benefits that would be received by creditors if the company were to be
placed in liquidation; and

(vii) the effect that the business rescue plan will have on the holders of
each class of the company‟s issued securities.

(c) Part C -Assumptions and c onditions , which must include at least –

(i) a statement of the conditions that must be satisfied, if any, for the
business rescue plan to –

(aa) come into operation; and

(bb) be fully implemented;

(ii) the effect, if any, that the business rescue p lan contemplates on the
number of employees, and their terms and conditions of employment;

(iii) the circumstances in which the business rescue plan will end; and

(iv) a projected –

(aa) balance sheet for the company; and

(bb) statement of income and expenses for the ensuing three years,

prepared on the assumption that the proposed business plan is
adopted.

(3) The projected balance sheet and statement required by subsection (2)(c)(iv) –

(a) must include a notice of any material assumptions on which the projections
are based; and

(b) may include alternative projections based on varying assumptions and
contingencies.

(4) A proposed business rescue plan must conclude with a certificate by the
practitioner stating that a ny –

(a) actual information provided appears to be accurate, complete, and up to
date; and

(b) projections provided are estimates made in good faith on the basis of factual
information and assumptions as set out in the statement.

(5) The business resc ue plan must be published by the company within 25 business
days after the date on which the practitioner was appointed, or such longer time
as may be allowed by –

(a) the court, on application by the company; or

(b) the holders of a majority of the cre ditors‟ voting interests.

151. Meeting to determine future of company

(1) Within 10 business days after publishing a business rescue plan in terms of
section 150 , the practitioner must convene and preside over a meeting of creditors
and any other holders of a voting interest, called for the purpose o f considering
the plan.
[Subs. (1) substituted by s. 95 of Act 3/2011]

(2) At least five business days before the meeting contemplated in subsection (1), the
practitioner must deliver a notice of the meeting to all affected persons, setting
out –

(a) the date, time and place of the meeting;

(b) the agenda of the meeting; and

(c) a summary of the rights of affected persons to participate in and vote at the
meeting.

(3) The meeting contemplated in this section may be adjourned from time to time, as
necessary or expedient, until a decision regarding the company‟s future has been
taken in accordance with sections 152 and 153 .

152. Consideration of business rescue plan

(1) At a meeting convened in terms of section 151 , the practitioner must –

(a) introduce the proposed business rescue plan for consideration by the
creditors and, if applicable, by the sha reholders;
[Para. (a) substituted by s. 96 of Act 3/2011]

(b) inform the meeting whether the practitioner continues to believe that there
is a reasonable prospect of the company being rescued;

(c) provide an opportunity for the employees‟ representatives to address the
meeting;

(d) invite discussion, and entertain and conduct a vote, on any motions to –

(i) amend the proposed plan, in any manner moved and seconded by
holders of creditors‟ voting interests, and satisfactory to the
practit ioner; or

(ii) direct the practitioner to adjourn the meeting in order to revise the
plan for further consideration; and

(e) call for a vote for preliminary approval of the proposed plan, as amended if
applicable, unless the meeting has first been adjo urned in accordance with
paragraph (d)(ii).

(2) In a vote called in terms of subsection (1)(e), the proposed business rescue plan
will be approved on a preliminary basis if –

(a) it was supported by the holders of more than 75 percent of the creditors‟
voting interests that were voted; and

(b) the votes in support of the proposed plan included at least 50 percent of the
independent creditors‟ voting interests, if any, that were voted.

(3) If a proposed business rescue plan –

(a) is not approved on a preliminary basis, as contemplated in subsection (2),
the plan is rejected, and may be considered further only in terms of section
153 ;

(b) does n ot alter the rights of the holders of any class of the company‟s
securities, approval of that plan on a preliminary basis in terms of
subsection (2) constitutes also the final adoption of that plan, subject to
satisfaction of any conditions on which that p lan is contingent; or

(c) does alter the rights of any class of holders of the company‟s securities –

(i) the practitioner must immediately hold a meeting of holders of the
class, or classes of securities who rights would be altered by the plan,
and call for a vote by them to approve the adoption of the proposed
business rescue plan; and

(ii) if, in a vote contemplated in subparagraph (i), a majority of the voting
rights that were exercised –

(aa) support adoption of the plan, it will have been fin ally adopted,
subject only to satisfaction of any conditions on which it is
contingent; or

(bb) oppose adoption of the plan, the plan is rejected, and may be
considered further only in terms of section 153 .

(4) A business rescue plan that has been adopted is binding on the company, and on
each of the creditors of the company and every holder of the company‟s
securities, whether or not such a person –

(a) was present at the meeting;

(b) voted in favour of adoption of the plan; or

(c) in the case of creditors, had proven their claims against the company.

(5) The company, under the direction of the practitioner, must take all necessary
steps to –

(a) attempt to satisfy any conditions on which the business rescue plan is
contingent; and

(b) implement the plan as adopted.

(6) To the extent necessary to implement an adopted business rescue plan –

(a) the practitioner may, in accordance with that plan, determine the
consideration for, and issue, any authorised securities of the company,
despite sect ion 38 or 40 to the contrary; and

(b) if the business rescue plan was approved by the shareholders of the
company, as contemplated in subsection (3)(c), the practitioner may amend
the company‟s Memorandum of Incorporation to authorise, and determine
the preferences, rights, limitations and oth er terms of, any securities that are
not otherwise authorised, but are contemplated to be issued in terms of the
business rescue plan, despite any provision of section 16 , 36 or 37 to the
contra ry.
[Para. (b) substituted by s. 96 of Act 3/2011]

(7) Except to the extent that an approved business rescue plan provides otherwise, a
pre -emptive right of any shareholder of the company, as contemplated in section
39 , does not apply with respect to an issue of shares by the company in terms of
the business rescue plan.

(8) When the business rescue plan has been substantially implemented, the
practitioner must file a notice of the substantial implementation of the business
rescue plan.

153. Failure to adopt business rescue plan

(1)
(a) If a business rescue plan has been rejected as contemplated in section
152 (3)(a) or (c)(ii)(bb) the practitioner may –

(i) seek a vote of approval from the holders of voting interests to prepare
and publish a revised plan; or

(ii) advise the meeting that the company will apply to a court to set aside
the result of the vote by the holders of voting interests or
shareholders, as the case may be, on the grounds that it was
inappropriate.

(b) If the practitioner does not take any act ion contemplated in paragraph (a) –

(i) any affected person present at the meeting may –

(aa) call for a vote of approval from the holders of voting interests
requiring the practitioner to prepare and publish a revised plan;
or

(bb) apply to the court to set aside the result of the vote by the
holders of voting interests or shareholders, as the case may be,
on the grounds that it was inappropriate; or

(ii) any affected person, or combination of affected persons, may make a
binding offer to purchase the voting interests of one or more persons
who opposed adoption of the business rescue plan, at a value
independently and expertly determined, on the request of the
practitioner, to be a fair and reasonable estimate of the return to that
person, or those persons, if the company were to be liquidated.

(2) If the practitioner, acting in terms of subsection (1)(a)(ii), or an affected person,
acting in terms of subsection (1)(b)(i)(bb), informs the meeting that an application
will be made to the court as con templated in those provisions, the practitioner
must adjourn the meeting –

(a) for five business days, unless the contemplated application is made to the
court during that time; or

(b) until the court has disposed of the contemplated application.

(3) If, on the request of the practitioner in terms of subsection (1)(a)(i), or a call by an
affected person in terms of subsection (1)(b)(i)(aa), the meeting directs the
practitioner to prepare and publish a revised business rescue plan –

(a) the practitione r must –

(i) conclude the meeting after that vote; and

(ii) prepare and publish a new or revised business rescue plan within 10
business days; and

(b) the provisions of this Part apply afresh to the publishing and consideration
of that new or revised plan.

(4) If an affected person makes an offer contemplated in subsection (1)(b)(ii), the
practitioner must –

(a) adjourn the meeting for no more than five business days, as necessary to
afford the practitioner an opportunity to make any necessary revis ions to the
business rescue plan to appropriately reflect the results of the offer; and

(b) set a date for resumption of the meeting, without further notice, at which the
provisions of section 152 and this section will apply afresh.

(5) If no person takes any action contemplated in subsection (1), the practitioner must
promptly file a notice of the termination of the business rescue proceedings.

(6) A holder of a voting interest, or a person acquiring that interest in terms of a
binding offer, may apply to a court to review, re -appraise and re -value a
determination by an independent expert in terms of subsection (1)(b)(ii).

(7) On an application contemplated in subsection (l)(a)(ii), or (1)(b)(i)(bb), a court
may order that the vote on a business rescue plan be set aside if the court is
satisfied that it is reasonable and just to do so, having regard to –

(a) the interests represent ed by the person or persons who voted against the
proposed business rescue plan;

(b) the provision, if any, made in the proposed business rescue plan with
respect to the interests of that person or those persons; and

(c) a fair and reasonable estimate of the return to that person, or those persons,
if the company were to be liquidated.
[Subs. (7) inserted by s. 97 of Act 3/2011]

154. Discharge of debts and claims

(1) A business rescue plan may provide that, if it is implemented in accordance with
its terms and conditions, a creditor who has acceded to the discharge of the whole
or part of a debt owing to that creditor will lose the right to enforce the relevant
debt or part of it.

(2) If a business rescue plan has been approved and implemented in accordance with
this Chapter, a creditor is not entitled to enforce any debt owed by the company
immediately before the beginning of the business rescue process, except to the
extent provided for in the business rescue plan.

Part E

Compromise with cred itors

155. Compromise between company and creditors

(1) This section applies to a company, irrespective of whether or not it is financially
distressed as defined in section 128 (1)(f), unless it is engaged in business rescue
proceedings in terms of this Chapter.

(2) The board of a company, or the liquidator of such a company if it is being wound
up, may propose an arrangement or a compromise of its financial obligations to
all of its creditors, or to all of the members of any class of its creditors, by
delivering a copy of the proposal, and notice of meeting to consider the proposal,
to-

(a) every creditor of the company, or every member of the relevant class of
creditors whose name or address is known to, or can reasonably be obtained
by, the company; and

(b) the Commission.

(3) A proposal contemplated in subsection (2) must contain all information
reasonably required to facilitate creditor s in deciding whether or not to accept or
reject the proposal, and must be divided into three Parts, as follows:

(a) Part A -Background , which must include at least –

(i) a complete list of all the material assets of the company, as well as an
indication as to which assets are held as security by creditors as of the
date of the proposal;

(ii) a complete list of the creditors of the company as of the date of the
proposal, as well as an indication as to which creditors would qualify
as secured, statutory preferent and concurrent in terms of the laws of
insolvency, and an indication of which of the creditors have proved
their claims;

(iii) the probable dividend that would be received by creditors, in their
specific classes, if the company were to be place d in liquidation;

(iv) a complete list of the holders of the company issued securities, and
the effect that the proposal would have on them, if any; and

(v) whether the proposal includes a proposal made informally by a
creditor of the company.

(b) Pa rt B -Proposals , which must include at least –

(i) the nature and duration of any proposed debt moratorium;

(ii) the extent to which the company is to be released from the payment of
its debts, and the extent to which any debt is proposed to be converted
to equity in the company, or another company;

(iii) the treatment of contracts and ongoing role of the company;

(iv) the property of the company that is proposed to be available to pay
creditors‟ claims;

(v) the order of preference in which the proceeds of property of the
company will be applied to pay creditors if the proposal is adopted;
and

(vi) the benefits of adopting the proposal as opposed to the benefits that
would be received by creditors if the company were to be placed in
liquidation .

(c) Part C -Assumptions and conditions , which must include at least –

(i) a statement of the conditions that must be satisfied, if any, for the
proposal to –

(aa) come into operation; and

(bb) be fully implemented;

(ii) the effect, if any, that t he plan contemplates on the number of
employees, and their terms and conditions of employment; and

(iii) a projected –

(aa) balance sheet for the company; and

(bb) statement of income and expenses for the ensuing three years,

prepared on the assumption that the proposal is accepted.

(4) The projected balance sheet and statement required by subsection (3)(c)(iii) –

(a) must include a notice of any significant assumptions on which the
projections are based; and

(b) may include alternative p rojections based on varying assumptions and
contingencies.

(5) A proposal must conclude with a certificate by an authorised director or
prescribed officer of the company stating that any –

(a) factual information provided appears to be accurate, complete, and up to the
date; and

(b) projections provided are estimates made in good faith on the basis of factual
information and assumptions as set out in the statement.

(6) A proposal contemplated in this section will have been adopted by the creditors
of the company, or the members of a relevant class of creditors, if it is supported
by a majority in number, representing at least 75 percent in value of the creditors
or class, as the case may be, present and voting in person or by proxy, at a
meeting called for that purpose.

(7) If a proposal is adopted as contemplated in subsection (6) –

(a) the company may apply to the court for an order approving the proposal;
and

(b) the court, on an application in terms of paragraph (a) may sanction th e
compromise as set out in the adopted proposal, if it considers it just and
equitable to do so, having regard to –

(i) the number of creditors of any affected class of creditors, who were
present or represented at the meeting, and who voted in favour of the
proposal; and

(ii) in the case of a compromise in respect of a company being wound up,
the report of the Master required in terms of the laws contemplated in
item 9 of Schedule 5 .

(8) A copy of an order of the court sanctioning a compromise –

(a) must be filed by the company within five b usiness days;

(b) must be attached to each copy of the company‟s Memorandum of
Incorporation that is kept at the company‟s registered office, or elsewhere
as contemplated in section 25 ; and

(c) is final and binding on all of the company‟s creditors or all of members of
the relevant class of creditors, as the case may be, as of the date on which it
is filed.

(9) An arrangement or a compromise conte mplated in this section does not affect the
liability of any person who is a surety of the company.

CHAPTER 7

REMEDIES AND ENFORCEMENT

Part A

General principles

156. Alternative procedures for addressing complaints or securing rights

A person referred to in section 157 (1) may seek to address an alleged contravention of
this Act, or to enforce any provision of, or right in terms of this Act, a company‟s
Memorandum of Incorporation or rules, or a transaction or agreement contemplated in
this Act, the company‟s Memorandum of Incorporation or rules, by –

(a) attempting to resolve any dispute with or within a company through alternativ e
dispute resolution in accordance with Part C of this Chapter;

(b) applying to the Companies Tribunal for adjudication in respect of any matte r for
which such an application is permitted in terms of this Act;

(c) applying for appropriate relief to the division of the High Court that has
jurisdiction over the matter; or

(d) filing a complaint in accordance with Part D of this Chapter within the time
permitted by section 219 with –

(i) the Panel, if the complaint concerns a matter within its jurisdiction; or

(ii) the Commission in respect of any matter arising in terms of this Act,

other than a matter contemplated in subparagraph (i).

157. Extended standing to apply for remedies

(1) When, in terms of this Act, an application can be made to, or a matter can be
brought before, a court, the Companies Tribunal, the Panel or the Commission,
the right to make the application or bring the matter may be exercised by a
person –

(a) directly contemplated in the particular provision of this Act;

(b) acting on behalf of a person contemplated in paragraph (a), who cannot act
in their own name;

(c) acting as a member of, or in the interest of, a group or class of affected
persons , or an association acting in the interest of its members; or

(d) acting in the public interest, with leave of the court.

(2) The Commission or the Panel, acting in either case on its own motion and in its
absolute discretion, may –

(a) commence any p roceedings in a court in the name of a person who, when
filing a complaint with the Commission or Panel, as the case may be, in
respect of the matter giving rise to those proceedings, also made a written
request that the Commission or Panel do so; or

(b) apply for leave to intervene in any court proceedings arising in terms of this
Act, in order to represent any interest that would not otherwise be
adequately represented in those proceedings.

(3) For greater certainty, nothing in this section creates a right of any person to
commence any legal proceedings contemplated in section 165 (1), other than –

(a) on behalf of a person entitled to make a demand in terms of section 165 (2);
and

(b) in the manner set out in section 165 .

158. Remedies to promote purpose of Act

When determining a matter brought before it in terms of this Act, or making an order
contempl ated in this Act –

(a) a court must develop the common law as necessary to improve the realisation and
enjoyment of rights established by this Act; and

(b) the Commission, the Panel, the Companies Tribunal or a court –

(i) must promote the spirit, purp ose and objects of this Act; and

(ii) if any provision of this Act, or other document in terms of this Act, read in
its context, can be reasonably construed to have more than one meaning,

must prefer the meaning that best promotes the spirit and purpose of this
Act, and will best improve the realisation and enjoyment of rights.

159. Protection for whistle -blowers

(1) To the extent that this section creates any right of, or establishes any protection
for, an employee, as defined in the Protected Disclo sures Act, 2000 (Act No. 26
of 2000) –

(a) that right or protection is in addition to, and not in substitution for, any right
or protection established by that Act; and

(b) that Act applies to a disclosure contemplated in this section by an
employee, as defined in that Act, irrespective of whether that Act would
otherwise apply to that disclosure.
[Para. (b) substituted by s. 98 of Act 3/2011]

(2) Any provision of a company‟s Memorandum of Incorporation or rules, or an
agreement, is void to the extent that it is inconsistent with, or purports to limit, set
aside or negate the effect of this section.

(3) This section applies to any disclosure of information by a person contemplated in
subsection (4) if –

(a) it is made in good faith to the Commission, the Companies Tribunal, the
Panel, a regulatory authority, an exchange, a legal adviser, a director,
prescribed officer, company secretary, auditor, a person performing the
function of internal audit, board or committee of the company concerned;
and
[Para . (a) substituted by s. 98 of Act 3/2011]

(b) the person making the disclosure reasonably believed at the time of the
disclosure that the information showed or tended to show that a company or
external company, or a director or prescribed officer of a co mpany acting in
that capacity, had –
[Words preceding subpara. (i) substituted by s. 98 of Act 3/2011]

(i) contravened this Act, or a law mentioned in Schedule 4 ;

(ii) failed or was failing to comply with any statutory obligation to which
the company was subject;
[Subpara. (ii) substituted by s. 98 of Act 3/2011]

(iii) engaged in conduct that had endangered, or was likely to endanger,
the health or safety of any individual, or had harmed or was likely to
harm the environment;
[Subpara. (iii) substituted by s. 98 of Act 3/2011]

(iv) unfairly discriminated, or condoned unfair discrimination, against any
person, as contemplated in section 9 of the Constitution and the

Promotion of Equality and Prevention of Unfair Discrimination Act,
2000 (Act No. 4 of 2000); or

(v) contravened any other legislation in a manner that could expose the
company to an actual or contingent risk of liability, or is inherently
prejudicial to the interests of the company.

(4) A shareholder, director, company secretary, prescribed officer or employee of a
company, a registered trade union that represents employees of the company or
another representative of the employees of that company, a supplier of goods or
services to a company, or an employee of such a su pplier, who makes a disclosure
contemplated in this section –

(a) has qualified privilege in respect of the disclosure; and

(b) is immune from any civil, criminal or administrative liability for that
disclosure.

(5) A person contemplated in subsection (4) is entitled to compensation from another
person for any damages suffered if the first person is entitled to make, or has
made, a disclosure contemplated in this section and, because of that possible or
actual disclosure, the second person –

(a) engag es in conduct with the intent to cause detriment to the first person, and
the conduct causes such detriment; or

(b) directly or indirectly makes an express or implied threat, whether
conditional or unconditional, to cause any detriment to the first perso n or to
another person, and –

(i) intends the first person to fear that the threat will be carried out; or

(ii) is reckless as to causing the first person to fear that the threat will be
carried out,

irrespective of whether the first person actually fears or feared that the
threat will or would be carried out.
[Para. (b) substituted by s. 98 of Act 3/2011]

(6) Any conduct or threat contemplated in subsection (5) is presumed to have
occurred as a result of a possible or actual disclosure that a pers on is entitled to
make, or has made, unless the person who engaged in the conduct or made the
threat can show satisfactory evidence in support of another reason for engaging in
the conduct or making the threat.

(7) A public company or a state -owned compa ny must directly or indirectly –
[Words preceding para. (a) substituted by s. 98 of Act 3/2011]

(a) establish and maintain a system to receive disclosures contemplated in this
section confidentially, and act on them; and

(b) routinely publicise the ava ilability of that system to the categories of
persons contemplated in subsection (4).

Part B

Rights to seek specific remedies

160. Disputes concerning reservation or registration of company names

(1) A person to whom a notice is delivered in terms of this Act with respect to an
application for reservation of a name, registration of a defensive name,
application to transfer the reservation of a name or the registration of a defensive
name, or the registration of a company‟s name, or any other person with an
interest in the name of a company, may apply to the Companies Tribunal in the
prescribed manner and form for a determination whether the name, or the
reservation, registration or use of the name, or the transfer of any such reservation
or registra tion of a name, satisfies the requirements of this Act.
[Subs. (1) substituted by s. 99 of Act 3/2011]

(2) An application in terms of subsection (1) may be made –

(a) within three months after the date of a notice contemplated in subsection
(1), if the applicant received such a notice; or

(b) on good cause shown at any time after the date of the reservation or
registration of the name that is the subject of the application, in any other
case.

(3) After considering an application made in terms of sub section (1), and any
submissions by the applicant and any other person with an interest in the name or
proposed name that is the subject of the application, the Companies Tribunal –

(a) must make a determination whether that name, or the reservation,
regi stration or use of the name, or the transfer of the reservation or
registration of the name, satisfies the requirements of this Act; and
[Para. (a) substituted by s. 99 of Act 3/2011]

(b) may make an administrative order directing –

(i) the Commission t o –

(aa) reserve a contested name, or register a particular defensive
name that had been contested, for the applicant;

(bb) register a name or amended name that had been contested as the
name of a company;

(cc) cancel the reservation of a name, or the registration of a
defensive name; or

(dd) transfer, or cancel the transfer of, the reservation of a name, or
the registration of a defensive name; or
[Subpara. (i) substituted by s. 99 of Act 3/2011]

(ii) a company to choose a new name, and to file a notice of an
amendment to its Memorandum of Incorporation, within a period and
on any conditions that the Tribunal considers just, equitable and
expedient in the circumstances, including a condition exempting the
company from the requirement to pay the prescribed fee for filing the
notice of amendment contemplated in this paragraph.

(4) Within 20 business days after receiving a notice or a decision issued by the
Companies Tribunal in terms of this section, an incorporator of a company, a
company, a person who received a notice in terms of section 12 (3) or 14 (3), an
applicant under subsection (1) or and any other person with an interest in the
name or proposed name that is the subject of the application, as the case may be,
may apply to a court to review the notice or decision.

161. Applicat ion to protect rights of securities holders

(1) A holder of issued securities of a company may apply to a court for –

(a) an order determining any rights of that securities holder in terms of this Act,
the company‟s Memorandum of Incorporation, any rule s of the company, or
any applicable debt instrument; or

(b) any appropriate order necessary to –

(i) protect any right contemplated in paragraph (a);or

(ii) rectify any harm done to the securities holder by –

(aa) the company as a consequence of an act or omission that
contravened this Act or the company‟s Memorandum of
Incorporation, rules or applicable debt instrument, or violated
any right contemplated in paragraph (a);or

(bb) any of its directors to the exten t that they are or may be held
liable in terms of section 77 .

(2) The right to apply to a court in terms of this section is in addition to any othe r
remedy available to a holder of a company‟s securities –
[Words preceding para. (a) substituted by s. 100 of Act 3/2011]

(a) in terms of this Act; or

(b) in terms of the common law, subject to this Act.

162. Application to declare director delinquent or under probation

(1) In this section, “legislation” means any national or provincial legislation –

(a) relating to the promotion, formation or management of a juristic person;

(b) regulating an industry or sector of an industry; or

(c) imposing obligations on, prohibiting any conduct by, or otherwise
regulating the activities of, a juristic person.

(2) A company, a shareholder, director, company secretary or prescribed officer of a
company, a registered trade union that represents empl oyees of the company or
another representative of the employees of a company may apply to a court for an
order declaring a person delinquent or under probation if –
[Words preceding para. (a) substituted by s. 101 of Act 3/2011]

(a) the person is a direc tor of that company or, within the 24 months
immediately preceding the application, was a director of that company; and

(b) any of the circumstances contemplated in –

(i) subsection (5)(a) to (c) apply, in the case of an application for a
declaration of delinquency; or

(ii) subsections (7)(a) and (8) apply, in the case of an application for
probation.

(3) The Commission or the Panel may apply to a court for an order declaring a
person delinquent or under probation if –

(a) the person is a director of a company or, within the 24 months immediately
preceding the application, was a director of a company; and

(b) any of the circumstances contemplated in –

(i) subsection (5) apply, in the case of an application for a declaration of
delinquency; or

(ii) subsections (7) and (8) apply, in the case of an application for
probation.

(4) Any organ of state responsible for the administration of any legislation may apply
to a court for an order declaring a person delinquent if –

(a) the person is a directo r of a company or, within the 24 months immediately
preceding the application, was a director of a company; and

(b) any of the circumstances contemplated in subsection (5)(d) to (f) apply with
respect to any legislation administered by that organ of stat e.

(5) A court must make an order declaring a person to be a delinquent director if the
person –

(a) consented to serve as a director, or acted in the capacity of a director or
prescribed officer, while ineligible or disqualified in terms of section 69 ,
unless the person was acting –

(i) under the protection of a court order contemplated in section 69 (11);
or

(ii) as a director as contemplated in section 69 (12);

(b) while under an order of probation in terms of this section or section 47 of
the Close Corporations Act, 1984 (Act No. 69 of 1984), acted as a director
in a manner that contravened that order;

(c) while a director –

(i) grossly abused the position of director;

(ii) took personal advantage of information or an opportunity, contrary to
section 76 (2)(a);

(iii) intentionally, or by gross negligence, inflicted harm upon the
company or a subsidiary of the company, contrary to section 76 (2)(a);

(iv) acted in a manner –

(aa) that amounted to gross negligence, wilful misconduct or breach
of trust in relation to the performance of the director‟s functions
within, and duties to, the company; or

(bb) contemplated in section 77 (3)(a), (b) or (c);

(d) has repeatedly been personally subject to a compliance notice o r similar
enforcement mechanism, for substantially similar conduct, in terms of any
legislation;

(e) has at least twice been personally convicted of an offence, or subjected to
an administrative fine or similar penalty, in terms of any legislation; or

(f) within a period of five years, was a director of one or more companies or a
managing member of one or more close corporations, or controlled or
participated in the control of a juristic person, irrespective of whether
concurrently, sequentially or at u nrelated times, that were convicted of an
offence, or subjected to an administrative fine or similar penalty, in terms of
any legislation, and –
[Words preceding subpara. (i) substituted by s. 101 of Act 3/2011]

(i) the person was a director of each such company, or a managing
member of each such close corporation or was responsible for the
management of each such juristic person, at the time of the
contravention that resulted in the conviction, administrative fine or
other penalty; and

(ii) the court i s satisfied that the declaration of delinquency is justified,
having regard to the nature of the contraventions, and the person‟s
conduct in relation to the management, business or property of any
company, close corporation or juristic person at the time.

(6) A declaration of delinquency in terms of –

(a) subsection (5)(a) or (b) is unconditional, and subsists for the lifetime of the
person declared delinquent; or

(b) subsection (5)(c) to (f) –

(i) may be made subject to any conditions the court consi ders
appropriate, including conditions limiting the application of the
declaration to one or more particular categories of companies; and

(ii) subsists for seven years from the date of the order, or such longer
period as determined by the court at the ti me of making the
declaration, subject to subsections (11) and (12);

(7) A court may make an order placing a person under probation, if –

(a) while serving as a director, the person –

(i) was present at a meeting and failed to vote against a resolution despite
the inability of the company to satisfy the solvency and liquidity test,
contrary to this Act;

(ii) otherwise acted in a manner materially inconsistent with the duties of
a director; or

(iii) acted in, or supported a decision of the company to act in, a manner
contemplated in section 163 (1); or

(b) within any period of 10 years after the effective date –

(i) the person has been a director of more than one company, or a
managing member of more than one close corporation, irrespective of
whether concurrently, sequentially or at unrelated times; and
[Subpara. (i) substituted by s. 101 of Ac t 3/2011]

(ii) during the time that the person was a director of each such company
or managing member of each such close corporation, two or more of

those companies or close corporations each failed to fully pay all of
its creditors or meet all of its ob ligations, except in terms of –

(aa) a business rescue plan resulting from a resolution of the board
in terms of section 129 ; or

(bb) a compromise with creditors in terms of section 155 .

(8) The court may declare a person under probation in the circumstances
contemplated in –

(a) subsection (7)(a)(iii), only if the court is satisfied that the declaration is
justified having regard to the circumstances of the company‟s or close
corporation‟s conduct, if applicable, and the person‟s conduct in relation to
the management, business or property of the company or close corporation
at the time; or

(b) subsection (7)(b), only if the court is satisfied that –

(i) the manner in which the company or close corporation was managed
was wholly or partly responsible for it failing to meet its o bligations;
and

(ii) the declaration is justified, having regard to the circumstances of the
company‟s or close corporation‟s failure, and the person‟s conduct in
relation to the management, business or property of the company or
close corporation at the time.

(9) A declaration placing a person under probation –

(a) may be made subject to any conditions the court considers appropriate,
including conditions limiting the application of the declaration to one or
more particular categories of companies; an d

(b) subsists for a period not exceeding five years, as determined by the court at
the time it makes the declaration, subject to subsections (11) and (12).

(10) Without limiting the powers of the court, a court may order, as conditions
applicable or a ncillary to a declaration of delinquency or probation, that the
person concerned –

(a) undertake a designated programme of remedial education relevant to the
nature of the person‟s conduct as director;

(b) carry out a designated programme of community s ervice;

(c) pay compensation to any person adversely affected by the person‟s conduct
as a director, to the extent that such a victim does not otherwise have a legal
basis to claim compensation; or

(d) in the case of an order of probation –

(i) be supervised by a mentor in any future participation as a director
while the order remains in force; or

(ii) be limited to serving as a director of a private company, or of a
company of which that person is the sole shareholder.

(11) A person who has been declared delinquent, other than as contemplated in
subsection (6)(a), or is subject to an order of probation, may apply to a court –

(a) to suspend the order of delinquency, and substitute an order of probation,
with or without conditions, at any tim e more than three years after the order
of delinquency was made; or

(b) to set aside an order of –

(i) delinquency at any time more than two years after it was suspended as
contemplated in paragraph (a);or

(ii) of probation, at any time more than two years after it was made.

(12) On considering an application contemplated in subsection (11), the court may –

(a) not grant the order applied for unless the applicant has satisfied any
conditions that were attached to the original order, or imposed in te rms of
subsection (11)(a); and

(b) grant an order if, having regard to the circumstances leading to the original
order, and the conduct of the applicant in the ensuing period, the court is
satisfied that –

(i) the applicant has demonstrated satisfactory progress towards
rehabilitation, and

(ii) there is a reasonable prospect that the applicant would be able to serve
successfully as a director of a company in the future.

(13) An applicant in terms of subsection (4) must serve the Commission with a cop y
of the application.

163. Relief from oppressive or prejudicial conduct or from abuse of separate juristic
personality of company

(1) A shareholder or a director of a company may apply to a court for relief if –

(a) any act or omission of the company, or a related person, has had a result
that is oppressive or unfairly prejudicial to, or that unfairly disregards the
interests of, the applicant;

(b) the business of the company, or a related person, is being or has been
carried on or conducted in a manner that is oppressive or unfairly
prejudicial to, or that unfairly disregards the interests of, the applicant; or

(c) the powers of a director or prescribed officer of the company, or a person
related to the company, are being or have been exerc ised in a manner that is
oppressive or unfairly prejudicial to, or that unfairly disregards the interests
of, the applicant.

(2) Upon considering an application in terms of subsection (1), the court may make
any interim or final order it considers fit, i ncluding –

(a) an order restraining the conduct complained of;

(b) an order appointing a liquidator, if the company appears to be insolvent;

(c) an order placing the company under supervision and commencing business
rescue proceedings in terms of Chapter 6 , if the court is satisfied that the
circumstances set out in section 131 (4)(a) apply;

(d) an order to regulate the company‟s affairs by directing the company to
amend its Memorandum of Incorporation or to create or amend a
unanimous shareholder agreement;

(e) an order directing an issue or exchange of shares;

(f) an order –

(i) appointing directors in place of or in addition to all or any of the
directors then in office; or

(ii) declaring any person delinquent or under probation, as contemplated
in section 162 ;

(g) an order directing the company or any other person to restore to a
shareholder any part of the consideration that the shareholder paid for
shares, or pay the equival ent value, with or without conditions;

(h) an order varying or setting aside a transaction or an agreement to which the
company is a party and compensating the company or any other party to the
transaction or agreement;

(i) an order requiring the company, within a time specified by the court, to
produce to the court or an interested person financial statements in a form
required by this Act, or an accounting in any other form the court may
determine;

(j) an order to pay compensation to an aggriev ed person, subject to any other
law entitling that person to compensation;

(k) an order directing rectification of the registers or other records of a
company; or

(l) an order for the trial of any issue as determined by the court.

(3) If an order made under this section directs the amendment of the company‟s
Memorandum of Incorporation –

(a) the directors must promptly file a notice of amendment to give effect to that
order, in accordance with section 16 (4); and

(b) no further amendment altering, limiting or negating the effect of the court
order may be made to the Memorandum of Incorporation, until a court
orders otherwise.

(4) ……….
[Subs. (4) deleted by s. 102 of Act 3/2011]

164. Dissenting shareholders appraisal rights

(1) This section does not apply in any circumstances relating to a transaction,
agreement or offer pursuant to a business rescue plan that was approved by
shareholders of a company, in terms of section 152 .

(2) If a company has given notice to shareholders of a meeting to consider adopting a
resolution to –

(a) amend its Memorandum of Incorporation by altering the preferences, rights,
limitations or oth er terms of any class of its shares in any manner materially
adverse to the rights or interests of holders of that class of shares, as
contemplated in section 37 (8); or

(b) enter into a transaction contemplated in section 112 , 113 , or 114 ,

that notice must include a statement informing shareholders of their rights under
this section.

(3) At any time before a resolution referred to in subsection (2) is to be voted on, a
dissenting shareholder may give the company a written notice objecting to the
resolution.

(4) Wi thin 10 business days after a company has adopted a resolution contemplated
in this section, the company must send a notice that the resolution has been
adopted to each shareholder who –

(a) gave the company a written notice of objection in terms of subse ction (3);
and

(b) has neither –

(i) withdrawn that notice; or

(ii) voted in support of the resolution.

(5) A shareholder may demand that the company pay the shareholder the fair value
for all of the shares of the company held by that person if –

(a) the shareholder –

(i) sent the company a notice of objection, subject to subsection (6); and

(ii) in the case of an amendment to the company‟s Memorandum of
Incorporation, holds shares of a class that is materially and adversely
affected by the amend ment;

(b) the company has adopted the resolution contemplated in subsection (2); and

(c) the shareholder –

(i) voted against that resolution; and

(ii) has complied with all of the procedural requirements of this section.

(6) The requirement of subsection (5)(a)(i) does not apply if the company failed to
give notice of the meeting, or failed to include in that notice a statement of the
shareholders rights under this section.

(7) A shareholder who satisfies the requirements of subsection (5) may make a
demand contemplated in that subsection by delivering a written notice to the
company within –

(a) 20 business days after receiving a notice under subsection (4); or

(b) if the shareholder does not receive a notice under subsection (4), within 2 0
business days after learning that the resolution has been adopted.

(8) A demand delivered in terms of subsections (5) to (7) must also be delivered to
the Panel, and must state –
[Words preceding para. (a) substituted by s. 103 of Act 3/2011]

(a) the shareholder‟s name and address;

(b) the number and class of shares in respect of which the shareholder seeks
payment; and

(c) a demand for payment of the fair value of those shares.

(9) A shareholder who has sent a demand in terms of subsections (5) to (8) has no
further rights in respect of those shares, other than to be paid their fair value,
unless –

(a) the shareholder withdraws that demand before the company makes an offer
under subsection (11), or allows an offer made by the company to lapse, as
contemplated in subsection (12)(b);

(b) the company fails to make an offer in accordance with subsection (11) and
the shareholder withdraws the demand; or

(c) the company, by a subsequent special resolution, revokes the adopted
resolution that gave rise to the shareholder‟s rights under this section.
[Para. (c) substituted by s. 103 of Act 3/2011]

(10) If any of the events contemplated in subsection (9) occur, all of the shareholder‟s
rights in respect of the shares are reinstated without interrupt ion.

(11) Within five business days after the later of –

(a) the day on which the action approved by the resolution is effective;

(b) the last day for the receipt of demands in terms of subsection (7)(a);or

(c) the day the company received a demand as contemplated in subsection
(7)(b), if applicable, the company must send to each shareholder who has
sent such a demand a written offer to pay an amount considered by the
company‟s directors to be the fair value of the relevant shares, subject to
subsect ion (16), accompanied by a statement showing how that value was
determined.

(12) Every offer made under subsection (11) –

(a) in respect of shares of the same class or series must be on the same terms;
and

(b) lapses if it has not been accepted within 30 business days after it was made.

(13) If a shareholder accepts an offer made under subsection (12) –

(a) the shareholder must either in the case of –

(i) shares evidenced by certificates, tender the relevant share certificates
to the company or the company‟s transfer agent; or

(ii) uncertificated shares, take the steps required in terms of section 53 to
direct the transfer of those shares to t he company or the company‟s
transfer agent; and

(b) the company must pay that shareholder the agreed amount within 10
business days after the shareholder accepted the offer and –

(i) tendered the share certificates; or

(ii) directed the transfer to th e company of uncertificated shares.

(14) A shareholder who has made a demand in terms of subsections (5) to (8) may
apply to a court to determine a fair value in respect of the shares that were the
subject of that demand, and an order requiring the company to pay the
shareholder the fair value so determined, if the company has –

(a) failed to make an offer under subsection (11); or

(b) made an offer that the shareholder considers to be inadequate, and that offer
has not lapsed.

(15) On an applic ation to the court under subsection (14) –

(a) all dissenting shareholders who have not accepted an offer from the
company as at the date of the application must be joined as parties and are
bound by the decision of the court;

(b) the company must notif y each affected dissenting shareholder of the date,
place and consequences of the application and of their right to participate in
the court proceedings; and

(c) the court –

(i) may determine whether any other person is a dissenting shareholder
who shou ld be joined as a party;

(ii) must determine a fair value in respect of the shares of all dissenting
shareholders, subject to subsection (16);

(iii) in its discretion may –

(aa) appoint one or more appraisers to assist it in determining the
fair value in respect of the shares; or

(bb) allow a reasonable rate of interest on the amount payable to
each dissenting shareholder from the date the action approved
by the resolution is effective, until the date of payment;

(iv) may make an appropriate order of costs, having regard to any offer
made by the company, and the final determination of the fair value by
the court; and

(v) must make an order requiring –

(aa) the dissenting shareholders to either withdraw their respective
demands or to comply with s ubsection (13)(a); and
[Item (aa) substituted by s. 103 of Act 3/2011]

(bb) the company to pay the fair value in respect of their shares to
each dissenting shareholder who complies with subsection
(13)(a), subject to any conditions the court considers ne cessary
to ensure that the company fulfils its obligations under this
section.

(15A) At any time before the court has made an order contemplated in subsection
(15)(c)(v), a dissenting shareholder may accept the offer made by the company
in terms of subse ction (11), in which case –

(a) that shareholder must comply with the requirements of subsection 13(a);
and

(b) the company must comply with the requirements of subsection 13(b).
[Subs. (15A) inserted by s. 103 of Act 3/2011]

(16) The fair value in respect of any shares must be determined as at the date on
which, and time immediately before, the company adopted the resolution that
gave rise to a shareholder‟s rights under this section.

(17) If there are reasonable grounds to believe that compliance by a company with
subsection (13)(b), or with a court order in terms of subsection (15)(c)(v)(bb),
would result in the company being unable to pays its debts as they fall due and
payable for the ensuing 12 months –

(a) the company may apply to a court fo r an order varying the company‟s
obligations in terms of the relevant subsection; and

(b) the court may make an order that –

(i) is just and equitable, having regard to the financial circumstances of
the company; and

(ii) ensures that the person to whom the company owes money in terms
of this section is paid at the earliest possible date compatible with the
company satisfying its other financial obligations as they fall due and
payable.

(18) If the resolution that gave rise to a shareholder‟s right s under this section
authorised the company to amalgamate or merge with one or more other
companies, such that the company whose shares are the subject of a demand in
terms of this section has ceased to exist, the obligations of that company under
this sec tion are obligations of the successor to that company resulting from the
amalgamation or merger.

(19) For greater certainty, the making of a demand, tendering of shares and payment
by a company to a shareholder in terms of this section do not constitute a
distribution by the company, or an acquisition of its shares by the company within
the meaning of section 48 , and therefore are not subject to –

(a) the provisions of that section; or

(b) the application by the company of the solvency and liquidity test set out in
section 4 .

(20) Except to the extent –

(a) expressly provided in this section; or

(b) that the Panel rules otherwise in a particular case,

a payment by a company to a shareholder in terms of this section docs not
obligate any person to make a comparable offer under section 125 to any other
person.
[Subs. (20) inserted by s. 103 of Act 3/2011]

165. Derivative actions

(1) Any right at common law of a person other than a company to bring or prosecute
any legal proceedings on behalf of that company is abolished, and the rights in
this section are in substitution for any such abolished right.

(2) A person may serve a demand upon a company to commence or contin ue legal
proceedings, or take related steps, to protect the legal interests of the company if
the person –

(a) is a shareholder or a person entitled to be registered as a shareholder, of the
company or of a related company;

(b) is a director or prescrib ed officer of the company or of a related company;

(c) is a registered trade union that represents employees of the company, or
another representative of employees of the company; or

(d) has been granted leave of the court to do so, which may be granted only if
the court is satisfied that it is necessary or expedient to do so to protect a
legal right of that other person.

(3) A company that has been served with a demand in terms of subsection (2) may
apply within 15 business days to a court to s et aside the demand only on the
grounds that it is frivolous, vexatious or without merit.

(4) If a company does not make an application contemplated in subsection (3), or the
court does not set aside the demand in terms of that subsection, the company
mu st-

(a) appoint an independent and impartial person or committee to investigate the
demand, and report to the board on –

(i) any facts or circumstances –

(aa) that may gave rise to a cause of action contemplated in the
demand; or

(bb) that may relate to any proceedings contemplated in the demand;

(ii) the probable costs that would be incurred if the company pursued any
such cause of action or continued any such proceedings; and

(iii) whether it appears to be in the best interests of the company to pursue
any such cause of action or continue any such proceedings; and

(b) within 60 business days after being served with the demand, or within a
longer time as a court, on application by the company, may allow, either –

(i) initiate or continue legal proceedings, or take related legal steps to
protect the legal interests of the company, as contemplated in the
demand; or

(ii) serve a notice on the person who made the demand, refusing to
comply with it.

(5) A person who has made a demand in terms of subsection (2) may apply to a court
for leave to bring or continue proceedings in the name and on behalf of the
company, and the court may grant leave only if –

(a) the company –

(i) has failed to take any particular step required by subsection (4);

(ii) appointed an investigator or committee who was not independent and
impartial;

(iii) accepted a report that was inadequate in its preparation, or was
irrational or unreasonable in its conclusions or recommendations;

(iv) acted in a manner that was in consistent with the reasonable report of
an independent, impartial investigator or committee; or

(v) has served a notice refusing to comply with the demand, as
contemplated in subsection (4)(b)(ii); and

(b) the court is satisfied that –

(i) the applicant is acting in good faith;

(ii) the proposed or continuing proceedings involve the trial of a serious
question of material consequence to the company; and

(iii) it is in the best interests of the company that the applicant be granted
leave to c ommence the proposed proceedings or continue the
proceedings, as the case may be.

(6) In exceptional circumstances, a person contemplated in subsection (2) may apply
to a court for leave to bring proceedings in the name and on behalf of the
company witho ut making a demand as contemplated in that subsection, or
without affording the company time to respond to the demand in accordance with
subsection (4), and the court may grant leave only if the court is satisfied that –

(a) the delay required for the pro cedures contemplated in subsections (3) to (5)
to be completed may result in –

(i) irreparable harm to the company; or

(ii) substantial prejudice to the interests of the applicant or another
person;

(b) there is a reasonable probability that the compa ny may not act to prevent
that harm or prejudice, or act to protect the company‟s interests that the
applicant seeks to protect; and

(c) that the requirements of subsection (5)(b) are satisfied.

(7) A rebuttable presumption that granting leave is not i n the best interests of the
company arises if it is established that –

(a) the proposed or continuing proceedings are by –

(i) the company against a third party; or

(ii) a third party against the company;

(b) the company has decided –

(i) not to bring the proceedings;

(ii) not to defend the proceedings; or

(iii) to discontinue, settle or compromise the proceedings; and

(c) all of the directors who participated in that decision –

(i) acted in good faith for a proper purpose;

(ii) did not h ave a personal financial interest in the decision, and were not
related to a person who had a personal financial interest in the
decision;

(iii) informed themselves about the subject matter of the decision to the
extent they reasonably believed to be app ropriate; and

(iv) reasonably believed that the decision was in the best interests of the
company.

(8) For the purposes of subsection (7) –

(a) a person is a third party if the company and that person are not related or
inter -related; and
[Para. (a) substituted by s. 104 of Act 3/2011]

(b) proceedings by or against the company include any appeal from a decision
made in proceedings by or against the company.

(9) If a court grants leave to a person under this section –

(a) the court must also make an order stating who is liable for the remuneration
and expenses of the person appointed;

(b) the court may vary the order at any time;

(c) the persons who may be made liable under the order, or the order as varied,
are –

(i) all or any of the parties to the proceedings or application; and

(ii) the company;

(d) if the order, or the order as varied, makes two or more persons liable, the
order may also determine the nature and extent of the liability of each of
those persons; and

(e) the person to whom leave has been granted is entitled, on giving reasonable
notice to the company, to inspect any books of the company for any
purpose connected with the legal proceedings.

(10) At any time, a court may make any order it considers appropriate about the costs
of the following persons in relation to proceedings brought or intervened in with
leave under this section, or in respect of an application for leave under this
section:

(a) The person who applied for or was granted leave;

(b) the company; or

(c) any other party to the proceedings or application.

(11) An order under this section may require security for costs.

(12) At any time after a court has granted leave in terms of this section, a person
contemplated in subsection (2) may apply to a co urt for an order that they be
substituted for the person to whom leave was originally granted, and the court
may make the order applied for if it is satisfied that –

(a) the applicant is acting in good faith; and

(b) it is appropriate to make the order in all the circumstances.

(13) An order substituting one person for another has the effect that –

(a) the grant of leave is taken to have been made in favour of the substituting
person; and

(b) if the person originally granted leave has already brough t the proceedings,
the substituting person is taken to have brought those proceedings or to
have made that intervention.

(14) If the shareholders of a company have ratified or approved any particular conduct
of the company –

(a) the ratification or approval –

(i) does not prevent a person from making a demand, applying for leave,
or bringing or intervening in proceedings with leave under this
section; and

(ii) does not prejudice the outcome of any application for leave, or
proceedings brought or i ntervened in with leave under this section; or

(b) the court may take that ratification or approval into account in making any
judgment or order.
[Para. (b) substituted by s. 104 of Act 3/2011]

(15) Proceedings brought or intervened in with leave under this section must not be
discontinued, compromised or settled without the leave of the court.

(16) For greater certainty, the right of a person in terms of this section to serve a
demand on a company, or apply to a court for leave, may be exercised by t hat
person directly, or by the Commission or Panel, or another person on behalf of
that first person, in the manner permitted by section 157 .

Part C

Voluntary resolution of disputes

166. Alternative dispute resolution

(1) As an alternative to applying for relief to a court, or filing a complaint with the
Commission in terms of Part D , a person who would be entitled to apply for
relief, or file a complaint in terms of this Act, may refer a matter that could be the
subject of such an application or complaint for resolution by mediation,
conciliation or arbitration to –

(a) the Companies Tribunal;

(b) an accredited entity, as defined in subsection (3); or

(c) any other person.
[Subs. (1) substituted by s. 105 of Act 3/ 2011]

(2) If the Companies Tribunal, or an accredited entity, to whom a matter is referred
for alternative dispute resolution concludes that either party to the conciliation,
mediation or arbitration is not participating in that process in good faith, or that
there is no reasonable probability of the parties resolving their dispute through
that process, the Companies Tribunal or accredited entity must issue a certificate
in the prescribed form stating that the process has failed.

(3) In this section, “a ccredited entity” means –

(a) a juristic person or an association of persons accredited by the Commission
in terms of subsection (4); or

(b) an organ of state, or entity established by or in terms of a public regulation
that –

(i) is mandated, among other things, to perform mediation, conciliation
or arbitration; and

(ii) has been designated by the Minister in terms of subsection (5) as an
accredited entity for the purposes of this Part.

(4) For the purposes of this Part, the Commission –

(a) may accredit, with or without conditions, a juristic person or an association
that –

(i) functions predominantly to provide conciliation, mediation or
arbitration services;

(ii) has the demonstrated capacity to perform such services within the
context of c ompany law; and

(iii) satisfies the prescribed requirements for accreditation;

(b) must monitor the effectiveness of any accredited person or an association
relative to the purposes and policies of this Act; and

(c) may –

(i) reasonably require any person or association accredited by it to
provide information necessary for the purpose of monitoring in terms
of paragraph (b); and

(ii) with reasonable notice, withdraw any accreditation granted by it in
terms of this section if the person or associati on no longer satisfies the
criteria set out in paragraph (a).

(5) The Minister, after consulting the Commission –

(a) may designate any organ of state or other entity contemplated in subsection
(3)(b) as an accredited entity for the purposes of this Part; and

(b) must prescribe criteria for the Commission to follow in assessing whether
an applicant for accreditation in terms of subsection (4) meets the
requirements of this section.

167. Dispute resolution may result in consent order

(1) If the Companies Tribunal, or an entity accredited in terms of section 166 , has
resolved, or assisted parties in resolving, a dispute in terms of thi s Part the
Tribunal or accredited entity may –

(a) record the resolution of that dispute in the form of an order; and

(b) if the parties to the dispute consent to that order, submit it to a court to be
confirmed as a consent order, in terms of its rules .

(2) After hearing an application for a consent order, the court may –

(a) make the order as agreed and proposed in the application;

(b) indicate any changes that must be made to the draft order before it will be
made an order of the court; or

(c) refuse to make the order.

(3) A consent order confirmed in terms of subsection (2) –

(a) may include an award of damages; and

(b) does not preclude a person applying for an award of civil damages, unless
the consent order includes an award of damages to that person.

(4) A court hearing any proceedings concerning a dispute arising out of a consent
order may order the proceedings closed to the public if it is the interest of the
confidentiality of the parties to the consent order to do so.

Part D

Complaints to Commission or Panel

168. Initiating a complaint

(1) Any person may file a complaint in writing –

(a) with the Panel in respect of a matter contemplated in Part B or C of Chapter
5, or in the Takeover Regulations; or

(b) with the Commission in respect of any provision of this Act not referred to
in paragraph (a),

alle ging that a person has acted in a manner inconsistent with this Act, or that the
complainant‟s rights under this Act, or under a company‟s Memorandum of
Incorporation or rules, have been infringed.
[Subs. (1) substituted by s. 106 of Act 3/2011]

(2) A complaint may be initiated directly by the Commission, or the Panel, as the
case may be, on its own motion or on the request of another regulatory authority.

(3) The Minister may direct the Commission, as contemplated in section 190 (2)(b),or
the Panel to investigate –

(a) an alleged contravention of this Act; or

(b) other specified circumstances.

169. Investigation by Commission or Panel

(1) Upon initiating or receiving a complaint, or receiving a direction from the
Minister, in terms of this Act, the Commission or Panel, as the case may be, may –

(a) except in the case of a direction from the Minister, issue a notice to the
complainant in th e prescribed form indicating that it will not investigate the
complaint, if the complaint appears to be frivolous or vexatious, or does not
allege any facts that, if proven, would constitute grounds for remedy under
this Act;

(b) if they think it expedie nt as a means of resolving the matter, refer the
complainant to the Companies Tribunal, or to an accredited entity, as
defined in section 166 (3), wit h a recommendation that the complainant seek
to resolve the matter with the assistance of that agency or person; or
[Para. (b) substituted by s. 107 of Act 3/2011]

(c) direct an inspector or investigator to investigate the complaint as quickly as
practicable, in any other case.

(2) At any time during an investigation, the Commission or Panel, as the case may
be, may –

(a) designate one or more persons to assist the inspector or investigator
conducting the investigation; or

(b) if a complaint concerns a dispute that is internal to a particular company,
and does not appear to implicate a party other than the company, the
holders of its securities, its directors, committees, prescribed officers,
company secretary, or auditor –

(i) submit a propo sal to the company seeking an agreement to jointly
appoint an independent investigator –

(aa) at the expense of the company, or on a cost -shared basis; and

(bb) to report to both the company, and to the Commission or Panel,
as the case may be; or

(ii) apply to a court for an order appointing an independent investigator –

(aa) at the expense of the company; and

(bb) to report to both the Commission or Panel, as the case may be,
and the company.

(3) In conducting an investigation contemplated in this section an inspector or
investigator may investigate any person –

(a) named in the complaint, or related to a person named in the complaint; or

(b) whom the inspector reasonably considers may have information relevant to
the investigation of the co mplaint.

170. Outcome of investigation

(1) After receiving the report of an inspector or independent investigator, the
Commission or Panel, as the case may be, may –

(a) excuse any person as a respondent in the complaint, if the Commission or
Panel considers it reasonable to do so, having regard to the person‟s
conduct, and the degree to which the person has cooperated with the
Commission or Panel in the investigation;

(b) refer the complaint to the Companies Tribunal, or to the Commission or the
Panel as the case may be, if the matter falls within their respective
jurisdictions in terms of this Act;

(c) issue a notice of non -referral to the complainant, with a statement advising
the complainant of any rights they may have under this Act to seek a
remedy in court;

(d) in the case of the Commission, propose that the complainant and any
affected person meet with the Commission or with the Companies Tribunal,
with a view to resolving the matter by consent order;

(e) commence proceedings in a court in the name of the complainant, if the
complainant –

(i) has a right in terms of this Act to apply to a court in respect of that
matter; and

(ii) has consented to the Commission or Panel, as the case may be, doing
so;

(f) refer the matter to the Nati onal Prosecuting Authority, or other regulatory
authority concerned, if the Commission or Panel, as the case may be,
alleges that a person has committed an offence in terms of this Act or any
other legislation; or

(g) in the case of –

(i) the Commission, issue a compliance notice in terms of section 171 ; or

(ii) the Panel, refer the matter to the Executive Director, who may, among
other things, issue a compliance notice in terms of section 171 .

(2) The Comm ission or Panel, as the case may be –

(a) in its sole discretion, may publish a report contemplated in subsection (1);
and

(b) irrespective whether it publishes such a report, must deliver a copy of the
report to –

(i) the complainant, or a regulatory authority that requested the initiation
of the complaint;

(ii) any person who was a subject of the investigation;

(iii) any court, if requested or ordered to do so by the court; and

(iv) any holder of securities, or creditor, of a company that was th e subject
of the report, or any other person implicated in the report, upon
payment of the prescribed fee.

171. Issuance of compliance notices

(1) Subject to subsection (3), the Commission, or the Executive Director of the Panel,
may issue a compliance notice in the prescribed form to any person whom the
Commission or Executive Director, as the case may be, on reasonable grounds
believes –

(a) has contravened this Act; or

(b) assented to, was implicated in, or directly or indirectly benefited from, a
contravention of this Act,

unless the alleged contravention could otherwise be addressed in terms of this Act
by an application to a court or to the Companies Tribunal.
[Subs. (1) substituted by s. 108 of Act 3/2011]

(2) A compliance notice may requ ire the person to whom it is addressed to –

(a) cease, correct or reverse any action in contravention of this Act;

(b) take any action required by this Act;

(c) restore assets or their value to a company or any other person;

(d) provide a community service, in the case of a notice issued by the
Commission; or

(e) take any other steps reasonably related to the contravention and designed to
rectify its effect.

(3) When issuing a notice in terms of subsection (1) to a regulated person or entity,
the Commission or Executive Director, as the case may be, must send a copy of
the notice to the regulatory authority that granted a licence or similar authority to
that regulated person or entity, and in terms of which that person is authorised to
conduct bus iness.

(4) A compliance notice contemplated in subsection (1) must set out –

(a) the person or association to whom the notice applies;

(b) the provision of this Act that has been contravened;

(c) details of the nature and extent of the non -compliance;

(d) any steps that are required to be taken and the period within which those
steps must be taken; and

(e) any penalty that may be imposed in terms of this Act if those steps are not
taken.
[Subs. (4) substituted by s. 108 of Act 3/20 11]

(5) A compliance notice issued in terms of this section, or any part of it, remains in
force until –

(a) it is set aside by –

(i) the Companies Tribunal, or a court upon a review of the notice, in the
case of a notice issued by the Commission; or

(ii) the Takeover Special Committee, or a court upon a review of the
notice, in the case of a notice issued by the Executive Director; or

(b) the Commission, or Executive Director, as the case may be, issues a
compliance certificate contemplated in subsection (6).

(6) If the requirements of a compliance notice issued in terms of subsection (1) have
been satisfied, the Commission or the Executive Director, as the case may be,
must issue a compliance certificate.

(7) If a person to whom a complianc e notice has been issued fails to comply with the
notice, the Commission or the Executive Director, as the case may be, may either

(a) apply to a court for the imposition of an administrative fine; or

(b) refer the matter to the National Prosecuting Authority for prosecution as an
offence in terms of section 214 (3),

but may not do both in respect of any particular compliance notice.
[Subs. (7) substituted by s. 108 of Act 3/2011]

172. Objection to notices

(1) Any person issued with a compliance notice in terms of this Act may apply to the
Companies Tribunal in the case of a notice issued by the Commission, or to the
Takeover Special Committee in the case of a notice issued by the Executive
Director, or to a court in either case, to review the notice within –
[Words preceding para. (a) substituted by s. 109 of Act 3/2011]

(a) 15 business days after receiving that notice; or

(b) such longer period as may be allowed on good cause shown.

(2) After considering any representations by the applicant and any other relevant
information, the Companies Tribunal, the Takeover Special Committee, or a court
may confirm, modify or cancel all or part of a compliance notice.

(3) If the Companies Tribunal, the Takeover Special Committee or a court confirms
or modifies all or part of a notice, the applicant must comply with that notice as
confirmed or modified, within the time period specified i n it, subject to
subsection (4).

(4) A decision by the Companies Tribunal or the Takeover Special Committee in
terms of this section is binding, subject to any right of review by or appeal to a
court.
[Subs. (4) substituted by s. 109 of Act 3/2011]

173. Consent orders

(1) If a matter has been investigated in terms of this Part, and the Commission and
the respondent have agreed a resolution of the complaint, the Commission may –

(a) record the resolution in the form of an order; and

(b) if the pe rson who is the subject of the complaint consents to that order,
apply to the High Court to have it confirmed as a consent order, in terms of
its rules.

(2) Section 167 (2) to (4), read with the changes required by the context, applies to an
application contemplated in subsection (1).

174. Referral of complaints to court

(1) If the Commission or Panel, as the case may be, issues a notice of non -referral in
response to a complaint, the complainant concerned may apply to a court for
leave to refer the matter directly to the court, but no such complaint may be
referred directly t o a court in respect of a person who has been excused as a
respondent, as contemplated in section 170 (1)(a).

(2) A court –

(a) may grant leave con templated in subsection (1) only if it appears that the
applicant has no other remedy available in terms of this Act; and

(b) if it grants leave, and after conducting a hearing, determines that the
respondent has contravened the Act, may –

(i) require t he Commission or Executive Director, as the case may be, to
issue a compliance notice sufficient to address that contravention; or

(ii) make any other order contemplated in this Act that is just and
reasonable in the circumstances.

175. Administrative fines

(1) A court, on application by the Commission or Panel, may impose an
administrative fine –

(a) only for failure to comply with a compliance notice, as contemplated in
section 171 (7); and

(b) not exceeding the greater of –

(i) 10 percent of the respondent‟s turnover for the period during which
the company failed to comply with the compliance notice; and

(ii) the maximum prescribed in terms of subsection (5).

(2) When determining the amount of an appropriate administrative fine, the
following factors must be considered:

(a) The nature, duration, gravity and extent of the contravention;

(b) any loss or damage suffered as a result of the contravention;

(c) the behaviour of the respondent;

(d) the market circumstances in which the contravention took place;

(e) the level of profit derived from the contrav ention;

(f) the degree to which the respondent has co -operated with the Commission or
Panel, as the case may be, and the court; and
[Para. (f) substituted by s. 110 of Act 3/2011]

(g) whether the respondent has previously been found in contravention of this
Act.

(3) For the purpose of this section, the annual turnover of any person, is the amount
determined in the prescribed manner.

(4) A fine payable in terms of this section must be paid into the National Revenue
Fund referred to in section 213 of the Constitution.

(5) The Minister may make a regulation prescribing the maximum amount of an
administrative fine, which amount must be not less than R1 000 000.

Part E

Powers to support investigations and inspections

176. Summons

(1) At any time during an investigation being conducted by it, the Commission, or
the Panel, as the case may be, may issue a summons to any person who is
believed to be able to furnish any information on the subject of the investigation,
or to have possession or control of any book, document or other object that has a
bearing on that subjec t to –

(a) appear before the Commission or Panel, or before an inspector or
independent investigator, to be questioned at a time and place specified in
the summons; or

(b) deliver or produce to the Commission or Panel, or to an inspector or
independent investigator, any book, document or other object referred to in
paragraph (a) at a time and place specified in the summons.

(2) A summons contemplated in subsection (1) –

(a) must be signed by the Commissioner or the Executive Director, as the case
may be, or by an employee of the Commission or Panel designated by the
Commissioner or the Executive Director, as the case may be; and

(b) may be served in the same manner as a subpoena in a criminal case issued
by the magistrate‟s court.

(3) An inspector or investigator before whom a person is summoned to appear, or to
whom a person is required to deliver any book, document or other object, may –

(a) interrogate and administer an oath to, or accept an affirmation from, the
person named in the summons; and

(b) retain any such book, document or other object for examination, for a
period not exceeding two months, or such longer period as the court, on
good cause shown, may allow.

(4) A person questioned by the Commission, the Panel, or an inspector or
ind ependent investigator conducting an investigation must answer each question
truthfully and to the best of that person‟s ability, but –

(a) a person is not obliged to answer any question if the answer is self –
incriminating; and

(b) the person asking the questions must inform that person of the right set out
in paragraph (a).

(5) No self -incriminating answer given or statement made by any person to the
Commission, Panel, or an inspector or independent investigator exercising
powers in terms of this Act w ill be admissible as evidence against that person in
criminal proceedings against that person instituted in any court, except in criminal
proceedings for perjury or in which that person is tried for an offence
contemplated in section 215 (2)(e), and then only to the extent that the answer or
statement is relevant to prove the offence charged.

177. Authority to enter and search under warrant

(1) A ju dge of the High Court or a magistrate, may issue a warrant to enter and
search any premises that are within the jurisdiction of that judge or magistrate, if,

from information on oath or affirmation, there are reasonable grounds to believe
that –

(a) a contravention of this Act has taken place, is taking place, or is likely to
take place on or in those premises; or

(b) that anything connected with an investigation in terms of this Act is in the
possession of, or under the control of, a person who is on or in those
premises.

(2) A warrant to enter and search may be issued at any time and must specifically –

(a) identify the premises that may be entered and searched; and

(b) authorise an inspector or a police officer to enter and search the premises
and to do anything listed in section 178 .

(3) A warrant to enter and se arch is valid until one of the following events occurs:

(a) The warrant is executed;

(b) the warrant is cancelled by the person who issued it or, in that person‟s
absence, by a person with similar authority;

(c) the purpose for issuing it has lapsed; or

(d) the expiry of one month after the date it was issued.

(4) A warrant to enter and search may be executed only during the day, unless the
judge or magistrate who issued it authorises that it may be executed at night at a
time that is reasonable i n the circumstances.

(5) A person authorised by a warrant issued in terms of subsection (2) may enter and
search premises named in that warrant.

(6) Immediately before commencing with the execution of a warrant, a person
executing that warrant must eit her –

(a) if the owner, or person in control, of the premises to be searched is present –

(i) provide identification to that person and explain to that person the
authority by which the warrant is being executed; and

(ii) hand a copy of the warrant to that person or to the person named in it;
or

(b) if none of those persons is present, affix a copy of the warrant to the
premises in a prominent and visible place.

178. Powers to enter and search

(1) A person who is authorised under section 177 to enter and search premises may –

(a) enter upon or into those premises;

(b) search those premises;

(c) search any person on those premises if there are reasonable grounds for
believing that the person has personal possession of an article or document
that has a bearing on the investigation;

(d) examine any article or document that is on or in those premises that has a
bearing on the investigation;

(e) request information about any article or document from the owner of, or
person in control of, the premises or from any person who has control of the
article or document, or from any other person who may have the
information;

(f) take extracts from, or make copies of, any book or document that is on or in
the premises that has a bearing on the investigation;

(g) use any computer system on the premises, or require assistance of any
person on the premises to use that computer system, to –

(i) search any data contained in or available to that computer system; or

(ii) reproduce any record from that data; and

(h) seize any output from that computer for examination and copying; and

(i) attach, and, if necessary, remove from the premises for examina tion and
safekeeping, anything that has a bearing on the investigation.

(2) Section 176 (4) and (5) apply to –

(a) any person questioned by an insp ector or police officer in terms of this
section; or

(b) to any answer given or statement made to an inspector or police officer in
terms of this section.

(3) An inspector authorised to conduct an entry and search in terms of section 177
may be accompanied and assisted by a police officer.

179. Conduct of entry and search

(1) A person who enters and searches any premises under section 178 must conduct
the entry and search with strict regard for decency and order, and with regard for
each person‟s right to dignity, freedom, se curity and privacy.

(2) During any search under section 178 (1)(c), only a female inspector or police
officer may search a female person, and only a male inspector or police officer
may search a male person.

(3) A person who enters and searches premises under section 178 , before questioning
any one –

(a) must advise that person of the right to be assisted at the time by an advocate
or attorney; and

(b) allow that person to exercise the right contemplated in paragraph (a).

(4) A person who removes anything from premises being searched must –

(a) issue a receipt for it to the owner of, or person in control of, the premises;
and

(b) return it as soon as practicable after achieving the purpose for which it was
removed.

(5) During a search, a person may refuse to permit the inspection or remo val of an
article or document on the grounds that it contains privileged information.

(6) If the owner or person in control of an article or document refuses in terms of
subsection (5) to give that article or document to the person conducting the
search, the person conducting the search may request the registrar or sheriff of the
High Court that has jurisdiction to attach and remove the article or document for
safe custody until that court determines whether or not the information is
privileged.

(7) A p olice officer who is authorised to enter and search premises under section 177 ,
or who is assisting an inspector who is authorised to enter and searc h premises
under section 178 may overcome resistance to the entry and search by using as
much force as is reasonably required, including breaking a d oor or window of the
premises.

(8) Before using force in terms of subsection (7), a police officer must audibly
demand admission and must announce the purpose of the entry, unless it is
reasonable to believe that doing so may induce someone to destroy or dispose of
an article or document that is the object of the search.

(9) The Commission may compensate anyone who suffers damage because of a
forced entry during a search when no one responsible for the premises was
present.

Part F

Companies Tribunal adjudication procedures

180. Adjudication hearings before Tribunal

(1) The Companies Tribunal –

(a) must conduct its adjudication proceedings contemplated in this Act
expeditiously and in accordance with the principles of natural justice; and

(b) may conduct those proceedings informally.

(2) If adjudication proceedings before the Tribunal are open to the public, the
Tribunal may exclude members of the public, or specific persons or categories of
persons, from attending the proceedings –

(a) if e vidence to be presented is confidential information, but only to the
extent that the information cannot otherwise be protected;

(b) if the proper conduct of the hearing requires it; or

(c) for any other reason that would be justifiable in civil proceed ings in a High
Court.

(3) At the conclusion of adjudication proceedings, the presiding member must issue a
decision together with written reasons for the decision.

181. Right to participate in hearing

The following persons may participate in an adjudication hearing contemplated in this
Part, in person or through a representative, and may put questions to witnesses and
inspect any books, documents or items presented at the hearing:

(a) The Commission;

(b) the applicant or complainant; and

(c) any other person who has a material interest in the hearing, unless that interest is
adequately represented by another participant.

182. Powers of Tribunal adjudication hearing

The Companies Tribunal may –

(a) direct or summon any person to appear at any specified time and place;

(b) question any person under oath or affirmation;

(c) summon or order any person –

(i) to produce any book, document or item necessary for the purposes of the
hearing; or

(ii) to perform any other act in relation to this Act; and

(d) give directions prohibiting or restricting the publication of any evidence given to
the Tribunal.

183. Rules of procedure

Subject to the requirements of the applicable sections of this Act, the Companies
Tribunal may determine any matter of procedure for an adjudication hearing, with due
regard to the circumstances of the case.

184. Witnesses

(1) Every person giving evidence before the Companies Tribunal at an adjudication
hearing must answer any relevant question.

(2) The law regarding a witness‟s privilege in a criminal case in a court of law
applies equally to a person who provides information during an adjudication
hearing.

(3) During an adjudication hearing, the Companies Tribunal may order a person to
answer any questio n, or to produce any article or document, subject to subsection
(4).

(4) Section 176 (4) and (5) apply to any person questioned, or any evidence given,
before the Companies Tribunal in terms of this section.

CHAPTER 8

REGULATORY AGENCIES AND ADMINISTRATION OF ACT

Part A

Companies and Intellectual Property Commission

185. Establishment of Companies and Intellectual Property Commission

(1) The Commission is hereby established as a juristic person to function as an organ
of state within the public administration, but as an institution outside the public
service.

(2) The Commission –

(a) has jurisdiction throughout the Republic;

(b) is independent, and subject only to –

(i) the Constitution and the law; and

(ii) any policy statement, directive or request issued to it by the Minister
in terms of this Act;

(c) must be impartial and perform its functions without fear, favour, or
prejudice; and

(d) must exercise the functions assigned to it in terms of this Act or any other
law, or by the Minister, in –

(i) the most cost -efficient and effective manner; and

(ii) in accordance with the values and principles mentioned in section 195
of the Constitution.

(3) Each organ of state must assist the Commission to maintain its independence and
impartiality, and to exercise its authority and perform its functions effectively.

(4) Except to the extent prescribed otherwise by or in terms of this Act, a certificate,
notice, decision, determination or ruling issued or made with respect to any
particular matter contemplated in this Act by –

(a) the Commissioner; or

(b) a person designated by the Commissioner to perform a particular function
of the Commission,

is the certificate, notice, decision, determination or ru ling of the Commission with
respect to that matter.

186. Commission objectives

(1) The objectives of the Commission are –

(a) the efficient and effective registration of –

(i) companies, and external companies, in terms of this Act;

(ii) other juristic persons, in terms of any applicable legislation referred to
in Schedule 4 ; and

(iii) intellectual property rights, in terms of any re levant legislation;

(b) the maintenance of accurate, up -to-date and relevant information
concerning companies, foreign companies and other juristic persons
contemplated in subsection (1)(a)(ii), and concerning intellectual property
rights, and the provis ion of that information to the public and to other
organs of state;

(c) the promotion of education and awareness of company and intellectual
property laws, and related matters;

(d) the promotion of compliance with this Act, and any other applicable
leg islation; and

(e) the efficient, effective and widest possible enforcement of this Act, and any
other legislation listed in Schedule 4 .

(2) To ach ieve its objectives, the Commission may –

(a) have regard to international developments in the field of company and
intellectual property law; or

(b) consult any person, organisation or institution with regard to any matter.

187. Functions of Commission

(1) In this section, “this Act” has the meaning set out in section 1 , but also includes
any legislation listed in Schedule 4 .

(2) Other than with respect to matters within the jurisdiction of the Takeover
Regulation Panel, the Commission must enforce this Act, by, among other
things, –

(a) promoting voluntary resolution of disputes arising in terms of this Act
between a company on the one hand and a shareholder or director on the
other, as contemplated in Part C of Chapter 7 , without intervening in, or
adjudicating any such dispute;

(b) monitoring proper compliance with th is Act;

(c) receiving or initiating complaints concerning alleged contraventions of this
Act, evaluating those complaints, and initiating investigations into
complaints;

(d) receiving directions from the Minister in terms of section 190 , concerning
investigations to be conducted into alleged contraventions of this Act, or
other circumstances, and conducting any such investi gation;

(e) ensuring that contraventions of this Act are promptly and properly
investigated;

(f) negotiating and concluding undertakings and consent orders contemplated
in section 169 (1)(b) and 173 ;

(g) issuing and enforcing compliance notices;

(h) referring alleged offences in terms of th is Act to the National Prosecuting
Authority; and

(i) referring matters to a court, and appearing before the court or the
Companies Tribunal, as permitted or required by this Act.

(3) The Commission must promote the reliability of financial statements by, among
other things –

(a) monitoring patterns of compliance with, and contraventions of, financial
reporting standards; and

(b) making recommendations to the Council for amendments to financial
reporting standards, to secure better reliability and co mpliance.

(4) The Commission must –

(a) establish and maintain in the prescribed manner and form –

(i) a companies register; and

(ii) any other register contemplated in this Act, or in any other legislation
that assigns a registry function to the Commission;

(b) receive and deposit in the registry any documents required to be filed in
terms of this Act;

(c) make the information in those registers efficiently and effectively available
to the public, and to other organs of state;

(d) register a nd deregister companies, directors, business names and intellectual
property rights, in accordance with relevant legislation; and

(e) perform any related functions assigned to it by legislation, or reasonably
necessary to carry out its assigned registry functions.

(5) Subject to the provisions of subsections (6) and (7), any person, on payment of
the prescribed fee, may –

(a) inspect a document filed under this Act;

(b) obtain a certificate from the Commission as to the contents or part of the
conten ts of any document that –

(i) has been filed under this Act in respect of any company; and

(ii) is open to inspection; or

(c) obtain a copy of or extract from any document contemplated in paragraph
(b); or

(d) through any electronic medium approved by the Commission –

(i) inspect, or obtain a copy of or extract from, any document
contemplated in paragraph (b) that has been converted into electronic
format; or

(ii) obtain a certificate contemplated in paragraph (b).

(6) Subsection (5) does not ap ply to any part of a filed document if that part has been
determined to be confidential, or contain confidential information, in accordance
with sect ion 212 .

(7) The Commission –

(a) must waive any prescribed registry fee contemplated in subsection (5) if the
Commission is satisfied –

(i) that an inspection, certificate, copy or extract is required on behalf of
a foreign government accredited to the Republic; and

(ii) that no fees are payable in the foreign country concerned in respect of
such inspection, certificate, copy or extract required on behalf of the
Republic; and

(b) may waive any such fee if satisfied that any inspection, certificat e, copy or
extract is required for the purposes of research by or under the control of an
institution for higher education.

188. Reporting, research, public information and relations with other regulators

(1) In addition to any other advice or reportin g requirements set out in this Part, the
Commission is responsible to –

(a) advise the Minister on matters of national policy relating to company and
intellectual property law, and recommend to the Minister changes to bring
the law and the administration of this Act up to date and in line with
international best practice;

(b) report to the Minister annually on the volume and nature of registration and
enforcement activities in terms of this Act and on any other matter as
prescribed by the Minister; and

(c) enquire into and report to the Minister on any matter concerning the
purposes of this Act, and advise the Minister in respect of any matter
referred to it by the Minister.

(2) The Commission must increase knowledge of the nature and dynamics of
comp any and intellectual property law, and promote public awareness of
company and intellectual property law matters, by –

(a) implementing education and information measures to develop public
awareness of the provisions of this Act, and in particular to advance the
purposes of this Act;

(b) providing guidance to the public by –

(i) issuing explanatory notices outlining its procedures, or its non –
binding opinion on the interpretation of any provision of this Act; or

(ii) applying to a court for a decl aratory order on the interpretation or
application of any provision of this Act;

(c) conducting research relating to its mandate and activities and, from time to
time, publishing the results of that research; and

(d) over time, reviewing legislation and public regulations, and reporting to the
Minister concerning matters relating to company and intellectual property
law.

(3) The Commission may –

(a) liaise with any regulatory authority on matters of common interest, and
without limiting the general ity of this paragraph, may exchange information
with, and receive information from any such regulatory authority pertaining
to-

(i) matters of common interest; or

(ii) a specific complaint or investigation;

(b) negotiate agreements with any regulator y authority, and exercise its
authority through any such agreement, to –

(i) co -ordinate and harmonise the exercise of jurisdiction over company
and intellectual property law matters within the relevant industry or
sector; and

(ii) ensure the consistent application of the principles of this Act;

(c) participate in the proceedings of any regulatory authority; and

(d) advise, or receive advice from, any regulatory authority.

(4) The Commission may liaise with any foreign or international authorities having
any objects similar to the functions and powers of the Commission.

(5) The Commission may refer to –

(a) the Competition Commission any concerns regarding conduct that may be
prohibited or regulated in terms of the Competition Act;

(b) the Sout h Africa Revenue Service any concerns regarding behaviour or
conduct that may be prohibited or regulated in terms of legislation within
the jurisdiction of that Service;

(c) the Independent Regulatory Board for Auditors any concerns regarding
behaviour o r conduct that may be prohibited or regulated in terms of the
Auditing Profession Act; or

(d) any other regulatory authority any concerns regarding behaviour or conduct
that may be prohibited or regulated in terms of legislation within the
jurisdiction o f that regulatory authority.

189. Appointment of Commissioner

(1) The Minister must appoint a suitably qualified and experienced person to be –

(a) the Commissioner of the Commission, who –

(i) holds office for an agreed term not exceeding five years; and

(ii) is responsible for all matters pertaining to the functions of the
Commission; and

(b) the Deputy Commissioner of the Commission, who –

(i) holds office for an agreed term not exceeding five years; and

(ii) may perform any function of the Commissioner when the office of the
Commissioner is vacant, or when the Commissioner is absent or is for
any reason unable to perform the functions of that office.

(2) A person may be reappointed as Commissioner or Deputy Commissioner on the
expiry of an agreed term of office.

(3) The Commissioner is the accounting authority of the Commission, and as such, is
responsible for –

(a) the proper control and management of the Commission;

(b) the effectiveness and efficiency of the Commission;

(c) all income and expenditure of the Commission;

(d) all revenue collected by the Commission;

(e) all assets, and the discharge of all liabilities, of the Commission; and

(f) the proper and diligent implementation of the Public Finance Management
Act, 1999 (Act No. 1 of 1999), with respect to the Commission.

(4) The Commissioner may –

(a) assign management or other duties to employees of the Commission, who
have appropriate skills to assist in the management, or control over any
function of the Commi ssion; and

(b) delegate, with or without conditions, any of the powers or functions of the
Commissioner to the Deputy Commissioner or any other suitably qualified
employee of the Commission, but any such delegation does not divest the
Commissioner of res ponsibility for the exercise or any power or
performance of any duty.

190. Minister may direct policy and require investigation

(1) In this section, “this Act” has the meaning set out in section 1 , but also includes
any legislation listed in Schedule 4 .

(2) The Minister –

(a) by notice in the Gazette , may issue policy directives to the Commission
with respect to the application, administration and enforcement of this Act,
but any such directive must be consistent with this Act; and

(b) may at any time direct the Commission to investigate –

(i) an alleged contravention of this Act; or

(ii) any matter or circumstances with respect to the administration of one
or more companies in terms of this Act, whether or not those
circumstances appear at the time of the direction to amount to a
possible contravention of this Act.

191. Establishment of specialist committees

(1) The Minister may appoint one or more specialist committees to advise the –

(a) Minister on any matter relating to company law or policy; or

(b) Commission on the management of the Commission‟s resources, or the
performance of any of its functions.
[Para. (b) substituted by s. 111 of Act 3/2011]

(2) The Minister may assign specific powers to the members of a specialist
committee for the purposes of performing any function contemplated in
subsection (1).

(3) A specialist committee may –

(a) be established for an indefinite term, or for a period determined by the
Minister when the committee is established; and

(b) determine its own procedures.

192. Constitution of specialist committees

(1) A specialist committee established under section 191 must –

(a) perform its functions impartially and without fear, favour or prejudice; and

(b) consist of –

(i) not more than eight persons who are independent from the
Commission and are appointed by the Minister to serve for a period
of not more than five years, as determined by the Minister when the
person is appoi nted; and

(ii) not more than two senior employees of the Commission designated
by the Commissioner.

(2) To be appointed or designated as a member of a specialist committee in terms of
this section, a person must –

(a) be a fit and proper person;

(b) have appropriate expertise or experience; and

(c) have the ability to perform effectively as a member of that committee.

(3) The members of a specialist committee must not –

(a) act in any way that is inconsistent with subsection (1)(a) or expose
themselves to any situation in which the risk of a conflict may arise
between their responsibilities and any personal financial interest; or

(b) use their position or any information entrusted to them to enrich themselves
or improperly benefit any other person.

(4) A member ceases to be a member of a specialist committee if the –

(a) person resigns from the committee;

(b) Minister terminates the person‟s membership because the member no
longer complies with subsection (2) or has contravened subsectio n (3); or

(c) member‟s term has expired.

(5) A member of a specialist committee who has a personal or financial interest in
any matter on which the committee gives advice must disclose that interest and

withdraw from the proceedings of the specialist c ommittee when that matter is
discussed.

(6) The Commission must remunerate and compensate for expenses –

(a) a member mentioned in subsection (1)(b)(i), as determined by the Minister;
and

(b) a member designated as contemplated in (1)(b)(ii), to the extent that the
member‟s remuneration and expense compensation as an employee of the
Commission does not extend to that person‟s services as a member of the
specialist committee.

Part B

Companies Tribunal

193. Establishment of Companies Tribunal

(1) There is hereby established a juristic person to be known as the Companies
Tribunal, which –

(a) has jurisdiction throughout the Republic;

(b) is independent, and subject only to the Constitution and the law;

(c) must exercise its functions in accordance with this Act; and

(d) must perform its functions impartially and without fear, favour, or
prejudice, and in as transparent a manner as is appropriate having regard to
the nature of the specific function.

(2) Each organ of state must assist the Companies Tribunal to maintain its
independence and impartiality, and to perform its functions effectively.

(3) In carrying out its functions, the Companies Tribunal may –

(a) have regard to international developments in the field of company law; or

(b) consult any person, organisation or institution with regard to any matter.

(4) The Companies Tribunal consists of a chairperson and not less than 10 other
women or men appointed by the Minister, on a full or part -time basis.

194. Appointment of Companies Tribunal

(1) The Minister must –

(a) appoint the chairperson and other members of the Companies Tribunal no
later than the date on which this Act comes into operation; and

(b) appoint a person to fill any vacancy on the Tribunal.

(2) A per son may not be –

(a) appointed as chairperson or member of the Tribunal unless the person
satisfies the requirements of section 205 ; or

(b) reappointed to a second term as chairperson of the Tribunal.

(3) The Tribunal must comprise –

(a) persons with suitable qualifications and experience in economics, law,
commerce, industry or public affairs; and

(b) sufficient persons with legal traini ng and experience to satisfy the
requirements of section 195 (3)(a).
[Para. (b) substituted by s. 112 of Act 3/2011]

(4) The Minister must designate a member of the Tribunal as deputy chairperson of
the Tribunal.

(5) The deputy chairperson performs the functions of chairperson whenever –

(a) the office of chairperson is vacant; or

(b) the chairperson is for any other reason temporarily unable to perform those
functions.

(6) Sections 206 and 207 apply to the chairperson and other members of the Tribunal.

(7) The chairperson and each other member of the Tribunal serves for a term of five
years and may, subject to subsection (2)(b), be reappointed for a second term.
[Subs. (7) inserted b y s. 112 of Act 3/2011]

195. Functions of Companies Tribunal

(1) The Companies Tribunal, or a member of the Tribunal acting alone in accordance
with this Act, may –

(a) adjudicate in relation to any application that may be made to it in terms of
this Act, and make any order provided for in this Act in respect of such an
application;

(b) assist in the resolution of disputes as contemplated in Part C of Chapter 7 ;
and

(c) perform any other function assigned to it by or in terms of this Act, or any
law mentioned in Schedule 4 .

(2) The chairperson is responsible to manage the caseload of the Companies
Tribunal, and must assign each matter referred to the Tribunal to-

(a) a member of the Tribunal, to the extent that this Act provides for a matter to
be considered by a single member of the Tribunal; or

(b) a panel composed of any three members of the Tribunal, in any other case.

(3) When assigning a matter to a panel in terms of subsection (2)(b), the chairperson
must –

(a) ensure that at least one member of the panel is a person who has suitable
legal qualifications and experience; and

(b) designate a member of the panel to preside over the panel‟s proceedin gs.

(4) If, because of resignation, illness, death, or withdrawal from a hearing in terms of
section 206 (3), a member of the panel is unable to com plete the proceedings in a
matter assigned to that panel, the chairperson must –

(a) direct that the hearing of that matter proceed before the remaining members
of the panel, subject to the requirements of subsection (3)(a);or

(b) terminate the proceedi ngs before that panel and constitute another panel,
which may include any member of the original panel, and direct that panel
to conduct a new hearing.

(5) The decision of a panel on a matter referred to it must be in writing and include
reasons for that decision.

(6) A decision of a single member of the Companies Tribunal hearing a matter as
contemplated in subsection (1)(a), or of a majority of the members of a panel in
any other case, is the decision of the Tribunal.

(7) A decision by the Companies Tribunal with respect to a decision of, or a notice or
order issued by, the Commission is binding on the Commission, subject to any
review by, or appeal to, a court.
[Subs. (7) substituted by s. 113 of Act 3/2011]

(8) An order of the Companies Tribunal may be filed in the High Court as an order of
the court, in accordance with its rules.

(9) A member of the Tribunal may not represent any person before the Tribunal.

(10) If, on the expiry of the term of office of a member of the Companies Tribunal,
that member is still considering a matter before the Tribunal, that member may
continue to act as a member in respect of that matter only.

Part C

Takeover Regulation Panel

196. Establishment of Takeover Regulation Panel

(1) The Takeover Regulation Panel is hereby established as a juristic person, to
function as an organ of state within the public administration, but as an institution
outside the public service.

(2) The Panel –

(a) has jurisdiction throughout the Republic;

(b) is independent, and subject only to –

(i) the Constitution and the law; and

(ii) any policy statement, directive or request issued to it by the Minister
in terms of this Act;

(c) must be impartial and perform its functions without fear, favour, or
prejudice; and

(d ) must exercise the functions assigned to it in terms of this Act or any other
law, or by the Minister, in –

(i) the most cost -efficient and effective manner; and

(ii) in accordance with the values and principles mentioned in section 195
of the Constitution.

(3) Each organ of state must assist the Panel to maintain its independence and
impartiality, and to exercise its authority and perform its functions effectively.

(4) In carrying out its functions, the Panel may –

(a) have regard to international developments in the field of company law; or

(b) consult any person, organisation or institution with regard to any matter.

197. Composition of Panel

(1) The Panel comprises –

(a) the Commissioner, or a person designated by the Commissioner;

(b) the Commissioner of the Competition Commission established by section
19 of the Competition Act, or a person designated by that Commissioner;

(c) three persons designated by each exchange n amed for the purpose by the
Minister by notice in the Gazette ; and

(d) not more than a number, being 15 minus the total number of persons
designated in terms of paragraph (c), of other persons appointed by the
Minister on the basis of their knowledge and experience in the regulation of
securities and takeovers.

(2) At any time, the Panel may co -opt additional members for a particular purpose
and a limited period.

(3) Persons designated, appointed or co -opted to be members of the Panel –

(a) must have the qualifications, and satisfy the further requirements set out in
section 205 ; and

(b) are subject to the provisions of sections 206 and 207 .

(4) Members of the Panel –

(a) contemplat ed in subsection (1)(a) or (b) serve so long as they hold the
relevant office referred to in that subsection;

(b) designated in terms of subsection (1)(c), serve for a term of five years
unless replaced earlier by the designating exchange;

(c) appointed in terms of subsection (1)(d), serve for a term not exceeding five
years, as determined by the Minister at the time the person is appointed; or

(d) co -opted in terms of subsection (2), serve until the completion of the
purpose for which they were co -opted.

(5) A person whose term of service as a member of Panel has expired may be
designated, appointed or co -opted to serve for a further term, or terms without
limit, subject to the requirements of subsection (3) and section 205 .

198. Chairperson and deputy chairpersons

(1) The Minister may designate –

(a) one of the members of the Panel to be the chairperson of the Panel; and

(b) tw o of its members to be deputy chairpersons of the Panel.

(2) Either deputy chairperson may exercise and perform the powers and duties of the
chairperson whenever the chairperson is unable to do so or while the office of
chairperson is vacant.

199. Meet ings of Panel

(1) The chairperson of the Panel –

(a) may determine the date, time and place for meetings of the Panel; and

(b) presides at meetings of the Panel, if present.

(2) In the absence of the chairperson, and both deputy chairpersons, at a meeting of
the Panel the members present may choose one of their number to preside at the
meeting.

(3) The Takeover Regulations must determine the quorum for a meeting of the Panel.

(4) The member presiding at a meeting of the Panel may determine the p rocedure at
the meeting.

(5) The decision of a majority of the members of the Panel present at any meeting at
which there is a quorum is the decision of the Panel.

(6) If there is an equality of votes on any question before a meeting of the Panel –

(a) the member presiding at the meeting may cast a deciding vote, if that
presiding member did not initially have or cast a vote; or

(b) the matter being voted on fails, in any other case.

(7) Proceedings of the Panel are valid despite any vacancy that e xisted on the Panel
at the time, or the absence of any member during any part of those proceedings.

(8) The Panel may delegate the exercise of any of its powers or performance of any
of its functions to the chairperson, any member of the Executive as con templated
in terms of section 200 , any committee that the Panel may establish, or any
member of the Panel.

200. Executive of Panel

(1) The Panel may subject to subsection (4) appoint –

(a) an Executive Director; and

(b) one or more deputy Executive Directors,

on terms and conditions determined by the Panel.
[Subs. (1) substituted by s. 114 of Act 3/2011]

(2) The Executive Director may –

(a) perform any function of the Panel, subject to –

(i) this Act and the Takeover Regulations; and

(ii) the policies and direction of the Panel; and

(b) appoint other officers and employees as are required for the proper
performance of functions of th e Panel.

(3) A deputy Executive Director may perform any function of the Executive Director
when the office of the Executive Director is vacant, or when the Executive
Director is absent or is for any reason unable to perform the functions of that
office.

(4) The chairperson of the Panel, designated in terms of section 198 , in consultation
with the Minister and with the concurrence of the Minister o f Finance, may
determine the remuneration, allowances, benefits, and conditions of appointment
of –

(a) the Executive Director;

(b) each member of the Panel, and

(c) each member of the Takeover Special Committee.
[Subs. (4) inserted by s. 114 of Act 3/2011]

201. Functions of Panel

(1) The Panel is responsible to –

(a) regulate affected transactions and offers to the extent provided for, and in
accordance with, Parts B and C of Chapter 5 and the Takeover Regulations;

(b) investigate complaints with respect to affected transactions and offers in
accordance with Part D of Chapter 7 ;

(c) apply for a court order to wind up a company, in the manner contemplated
in section 81 (1)(f); and

(d) consult with the Minister in respect of additions, deletions or amendments
to the Takeover Regulations.

(2) The Panel may –

(a) consult with any person at the request of any interested party with a view to
advising on the application of a provision of Parts B and C of Chapter 5 , or
the Takeover Regulations;

(b) issue, amend or withdraw information on current policy in regard to
proposed affected transactions contemplated in Parts B and C of Chapter 5 ,
to serve as guidelines for the benefit of persons concerned in such proposed
transactions;

(c) receive and deal with representations relating to any matter with whi ch it
may deal in terms of this Act; and

(d) perform any other function assigned to it by legislation.

(3) In exercising its powers and performing its functions the Panel must not express
any view or opinion on the commercial advantages or disadvantage s of any
transaction or proposed transaction.

202. The Takeover Special Committee

(1) There is hereby established a committee of the Panel, to be known as the
Takeover Special Committee.

(2) The Takeover Special Committee consists of –

(a) a chairperson, who must be an attorney or advocate whether practicing or
not; and

(b) at least two other persons,

each of whom must be designated from time to time by the Panel from among
those of its members appointed by the Minister in terms of section 197 (1)(d).
[Subs. (2) substituted by s. 115 of Act 3/2011]

(3) The Takeover Special Committee may –

(a) hear and decide –

(i) any matter referred to it by the Panel; and

(ii) any matter that the Executive Director, or a deputy Executive Director
acting in the capacity of the Executive Director, may refer to it; and

(b) review compliance notices issued by the Executive Director, or a dep uty
Executive Director acting in the capacity of the Executive Director.

(4) Subject to this Act and the Takeover Regulations, the chairperson of the Takeover
Special Committee may determine the procedure relating to any hearing of any
matter referred to the Takeover Special Committee.

(5) The decision of a majority of the members of the Takeover Special Committee is
the decision of the Takeover Special Committee.

(6) If there is an equality of votes on any question before a meeting of the Takeover
Sp ecial Committee –

(a) the member presiding at the meeting may cast a deciding vote, if that
presiding member did not initially have or cast a vote; or

(b) the matter being voted on fails, in any other case.

Part D

Financial Reporting Standards Council

203. Establishment and composition of Council

(1) The Minister must establish a council, to be known as the Financial Reporting
Standards Council, consisting of –

(a) four persons, each of whom is registered and practicing as an auditor;

(b) two persons, each of whom is responsible for preparing financial statements
on behalf of public companies;

(c) two persons responsible for preparing financial statements for private
companies, or personal liability companies;

(d) four persons who, in their capacity as holders of securities issued by a
company, or as creditors of a company, arc reasonably expected to rely on
financial statements, as contemplated in the definition of “financial
statement” in section (1);

(e) two pe rsons knowledgeable in company law;

(f) one person nominated by the executive officer of the Financial Services
Board as defined in the Financial Services Board Act, 1990 (Act No. 97 of
1990), or any successor body to it;

(g) one person nominated by the Governor of the South African Reserve Bank,
or any successor body to it; and

(h) a number of persons, nominated one each by any exchange that imposes
adherence to financial reporting standards as a listing requirement,

each of whom must be appoint ed by the Minister, to serve for a term of three
years.
[Subs. (1) substituted by s. 116 of Act 3/2011]

(2) The Minister must select candidates –

(a) with the qualifications, knowledge and experience necessary to further the
functions of the Council; an d

(b) appoint the chairperson and deputy chairperson of the Council.

(3) Persons appointed as members of the Council –

(a) must satisfy the requirements of section 205 ; and

(b) are subject to sectio ns 206 and 207 .

(4) A person may be reappointed to the Council, subject to section 205 .

(5) The Minister may require the Council to be a member of a relevant international
accounting standards setting organisation.

204. Functions of Financial Reporting Standards Council

The Financial Reporting Standards Council must –

(a) receive and consider any relevant information relating to the reliability of, and
compliance with, financial reporting standards and adapt international reporting
standards for local circumstances and consider inform ation from the Commission
as contemplated in section 187 (3)(b);

(b) advise the Minister on matters relating to financial reporting standards; and

(c) consult with the Minister on the making of regulations establishing financial
reporting standards, subject to the requirements set out in section 29 (5).

Part E

Administrative provisions applicable to agencies

205. Qualifications for membership

(1) To be eligible for appointment, designation or co -option as a member of the
Companies Tribunal, the Panel, or the Council, and to continue to hold that
office, a person must, in addition to satisfying any other specific requirements set
out in this Act –

(a) not be subject to any disqualification set out in subsection (2); and

(b) have submitted to the Minister a written declaration stating that the person
is not disqualified in terms of subsection (2).

(2) A person may not become, or continue to be, a member of the Companies
Tribunal, the Panel, or the Council, if that person –

(a) is an office -bearer of any party, movement, organisation or body of a
partisan political nature;

(b) personally or through a related person has or acquires a personal financial
interest that may conflict or interfere with the proper performance of the
duties of a member of the Tribunal, Panel, or Council;

(c) is disqualified in terms of section 69 from serving as a director of a
company; or

(d) is subject to an order of a competent court holding that person to be
mentally unfit or disordered.

206. Conflicting interests of agency members

(1) A member of the Companies Tribunal, the Panel or the Council, must promptly
inform the Minister in writing after that person or a related persons acquires a
per sonal financial interest that is, or is likely to become, an interest contemplated
in section 205 (2)(b).

(2) A member of the Companies Tribunal, th e Panel or the Council, must not –

(a) engage in any activity that may undermine the integrity of the Companies
Tribunal, the Panel or the Council, as the case may be;

(b) attend, participate in or influence the proceedings during a meeting of the
Compa nies Tribunal, the Panel, or the Council, as the case may be if, in
relation to the matter being considered, that member has a personal
financial interest –

(i) contemplated in section 205 (2)(b);or

(ii) that precludes that person from performing the functions of a member
of the Companies Tribunal, the Panel or the Council, in a fair,
unbiased and proper manner;

(c) vote at any meeting of the Tribunal, Panel or Council, as the case may be,
in connection with a matter contemplated in paragraph (b);

(d) make private use of, or profit from, any confidential information obtai ned
as a result of performing that person‟s functions as a member of the
Companies Tribunal, the Panel or the Council; or

(e) divulge any confidential information referred to in paragraph (d) to any
third party, except as contemplated in section 212 (6), or –
[Words preceding subpara. (i) substituted by s. 117 of Act 3/2011]

(i) to-

(aa) the Commission, the Minister, or the National Treasury to the
extent required by this Act or a law mentioned in Schedule 4 ;

(bb) the South African Reserve Bank;

(cc) the Independent Regulatory Board for Auditors, in terms of the
Auditing Profession Act;

(dd) the Financial Intelligence Centre established by the Financial
Intelligence Centre Act, 2001 (Act No. 38 of 2001); or

(ii) as otherwise required as part of that person‟s official functions as a
member of the Companies Tribunal, the Panel or the Council.

(3) If, at any time, it appears to a member of the Companies Tribunal, Panel, or
Council that a matter being considered at a meeting concerns a personal fin ancial
interest of that member or a related person, as contemplated in subsection (2)(b),
that member must –

(a) immediately and fully disclose the nature of that interest to the meeting; and

(b) withdraw from the meeting to allow the remaining members to discuss the
matter and determine whether the member should be prohibited from
participating in any further proceedings concerning that matter.

(4) The disclosure by a person in terms of subsection (3)(a), and the decision by the
Companies Tribunal, th e Panel, or the Council in terms of subsection (3)(b), must
be expressly recorded in the minutes of the meeting in question.

(5) Proceedings of the Companies Tribunal, the Panel, or the Council, and any
decisions taken by a majority of the members presen t and entitled to participate in
those decisions, are valid despite the fact that –

(a) a member failed to disclose an interest as required by subsection (3); or

(b) a member who had such an interest attended those proceedings, participated
in them in a ny way, or directly or indirectly influenced those proceedings.

207. Resignation, removal from office and vacancies

(1) A member of the Companies Tribunal or the Council may resign by giving to the
Minister –

(a) one month written notice; or

(b) less than one month written notice, with the approval of the Minister.

(2) A member of the Panel may resign by giving written notice jointly to the Minister
and the relevant entity responsible for the designation of that member, if any.

(3) The Ministe r, after taking the steps required by subsection (4), may remove a
member of the Companies Tribunal, Panel or Council only if that member has –

(a) become disqualified in terms of section 205 (2);

(b) acted contrary to section 206 (2);

(c) failed to disclose an interest or withdraw from a meeti ng as required by
section 206 (3); or

(d) neglected to properly perform the functions of their office.

(4) Before removing a person from office in terms of subsection (3), the Minister
must afford the person an opportunity to state a case in defence of their position.

208. Conflicting interests of employees

The Commissioner, and each other employee of the Commission, and the Executive
Director, and each other employee of the Panel and members and employees of the
Council, must not –

(a) engage in any activity that may undermine the integrity of the Commission or
Panel, as the case may be;

(b) participate in any investigation, hearing, or decision concerning a matter in
respect of which that person has a personal financial interest;

(c) make private use of, or profit from, any confidential information obtained as a
result of performing that person‟s official functions in the Commission or panel;
or

(d) divulge any information referred to in paragraph (c) to any third party, except as
required as part of that person‟s official functions within the Commission or
panel.

209. Appointment of inspectors

(1) The Commissioner and the Executi ve Director –

(a) may each appoint any suitable employee of the Commission or Panel, as the
case may be, or any other suitable person employed by the State, as an
inspector; and

(b) must issue each inspector with a certificate in the prescribed form sta ting
that the person has been appointed as an inspector in terms of this Act.

(2) When an inspector performs any function of an inspector in terms of this Act, the
inspector –

(a) must be in possession of a certificate of appointment issued to that insp ector
in terms of subsection (1); and

(b) must show that certificate to any person who –

(i) is affected by the inspector‟s actions in terms of this Act; and

(ii) requests to see the certificate; and

(c) has the powers –

(i) set out in Part E of Chapter 7 ; and

(ii) of a peace officer as defined in section 1 of the Criminal Procedure
Act, 1977 (Act No. 51 of 1977), and may exercise the powers
conferred on a peace officer by law.

(3) The Commissioner and Executive Director may each appoint or contract with any
suitably qualified person to assist the Commission, or the Panel, as the case may
be, in carrying out its functions, including, but not limited to, conducting
research, audits, inquiries or other investigations on behalf of the Commission or
Panel, as the case may be, but a person appointed in terms of this subsection is
not an inspector within the meaning of this Act.

(4) The Minister, with the concurrence of the Minister of Finance, may determine the
remuneration to be paid to a person appointed in terms of this section, if that
person is not in the full -time service of the Commission or Panel, as the case may
be.

210. Finances

(1) The Commission, the Companies Tribunal and the Panel, are each financed from –

(a) money appropriated by Parliament;

(b) any fees payable in terms of this Act;

(c) income derived from their respective investment and deposit of surplus
money in terms of subsection (2); and

(d) other money accruing from any source.

(2) The financial year of each of the Commission, the Companies Tribunal, and the
Panel is the period of 12 months beginning 1 April each year, and ending on the
following 31 March, except that, in each case, the first financial year –

(a) begins on the date that the section of this Act establishing that entity came
into operation; and

(b) ends on the next following 31 March.

(3) The Commissioner or Executive Director, as the cas e may be, in consultation
with the Minister and with the concurrence of the Minister of Finance, may
determine the remuneration, allowances, benefits, and conditions of appointment
of each employee of the Commission or Panel, as the case may be.

211. Rev iews and reports to Minister

(1) At least once every five years, the Minister must conduct an audit review of the
exercise of the functions and powers of the Commission, the Companies
Tribunal, the Panel and the Council.

(2) In addition to any other re porting requirement set out in this Act, the
Commission, Tribunal, Council and Panel must each report to the Minister at
least once every year on its activities, as required by the Public Finance
Management Act, 1999 (Act No. 1 of 1999).

(3) As soon as p racticable after receiving a report of a review contemplated in
subsection (1), or after receiving a report contemplated in subsection (2), the
Minister must table it in Parliament.

212. Confidential information

(1) When submitting information to the C ommission, the Panel, the Companies
Tribunal, the Council, or an inspector or investigator appointed in terms of this
Act, a person may claim that all or part of that information is confidential.

(2) Any claim contemplated in subsection (1) must be supported by a written
statement explaining why the information is confidential.

(3) The Commission, Panel, Companies Tribunal, Council, inspector or investigator,
as the case may be, must –

(a) consider a claim made in terms of subsection (1); and

(b) as soon as practicable, make a decision on the confidentiality of the
information and access to that information, and provide written reasons for
that decision.

(4) Section 172 , read with the changes required by the context, applies to a decision
in terms of subsection (3).

(5) When making any ruling, decision or order in terms of this Act, the Commission,
the Panel, the Companies Tribunal or t he Council may take confidential
information into account.

(6) If any reasons for a decision in terms of this Act would reveal any confidential
information, the Commission, the Panel, the Companies Tribunal or the Council,
as the case may be, must provid e a copy of the proposed reasons to the party
claiming confidentiality at least 10 business days before publishing those reasons.
[Subs. (6) substituted by s. 118 of Act 3/2011]

(7) Within five business days after receiving a copy of proposed reasons in terms of
subsection (6), a party may apply to a court for an appropriate order to protect the
confidentiality of the relevant information.

CHAPTER 9

OFFENCES, MISCELLANEOUS MATTERS AND GENERAL PROVISIONS

Part A

Offences and penalties

213. Breach of confidence

(1) It is an offence to disclose any confidential information concerning the affairs of
any person obtained –

(a) in carrying out any function in terms of this Act; or

(b) as a result of initiating a complaint, or participating in any proceedings in
terms of this Act.

(2) Subsection (1) does not apply to information disclosed –

(a) as contemplated in section 206 (2)(e)(i) or (ii) or 212 (5) to (7);

(b) for the purpose of the proper administration or enforcement of this Act;

(c) for the purpose of the administration of just ice;

(d) at the request of the Commission, the Panel, an inspector or investigator,
the Companies Tribunal, or a court entitled to receive the information; or

(e) when required to do so by any court or under any law.

214. False statements, reckless conduct and non -compliance

(1) A person is guilty of an offence if the person –

(a) is a party to the falsification of any accounting records of a company;

(b) with a fraudulent purpose, knowingly provided false or misleading
information in any circumstances in which this Act requires the person to
provide information or give notice to another person;

(c) was knowingly a party to an act or omission by a company calculated to
defraud a creditor or employee of the company, or a holder of the
comp any‟s securities, or with another fraudulent purpose; or
[Para. (c) substituted by s. 119 of Act 3/2011]

(d) is a party to the preparation, approval, dissemination or publication of a
prospectus or a written statement contemplated in section 101 , that contains
an “untrue statement” as defined and described in section 95 .
[Para. (d) substituted by s. 119 of Act 3/2011]

(2) For the purposes of subsection (1)(d) and section 29 (6), a person is a party to the
preparation of a document contemplated in that subsection if –
[Words preceding para. (a) substituted by s. 119 of Act 3/2011]

(a) the document includes or is otherwise based on a scheme, structure or form
of words or numbers devised, prepared or recommended by that person; and

(b) the scheme, structure or form of words is of such a nature that the person
knew, or ought reasonably to have known, that its inclusion or other use in
connection with the preparation of the document would cause it to be false
or misleading.

(3) It is an offence to fail to satisfy a compliance notice issued in terms of this Act,
but no person may be prosecuted for suc h an offence in respect of a particular
compliance notice if the Commission or Panel, as the case may be, has applied to
a court in terms of section 171 (7)(a) for the imposition of an administrative fine
in respect of that person‟s failure to comply with that notice.

(4) A person who contravenes section 99 (1), (2), (3), (4), (5), (8) or (9) and, if that
person is a company, every director or prescribed officer of the company who
knowingly was a party to the contravention, is –

(a) guilty of an offence; and

(b) liable to any other person for an y losses sustained as a consequence of that
contravention.
[Subs. (4) inserted by s. 119 of Act 3/2011]

215. Hindering administration of Act

(1) It is an offence to hinder, obstruct or improperly attempt to influence the
Commission, the Panel, the Companies Tribunal, an inspector or investigator, or a
court when any of them is exercising a power or performing a duty delegated,
conferred or imposed by this Act.

(2) A person commits an offence who –

(a) does anything calculated to improperly influe nce –

(i) the Commission, the Panel, the Companies Tribunal, an inspector or
investigator concerning any matter connected with an investigation;
or

(ii) the Companies Tribunal in any matter before it;

(b) anticipates any findings of the Commission, the Panel, the Companies
Tribunal, an inspector or investigator in a way that is calculated to
improperly influence the proceedings or findings;

(c) does anything in connection with an investigation or hearing that would
have been contempt of court if th e proceedings had occurred in a court of
law;

(d) refuses to attend when summoned, or after attending, refuses to answer any
question or produce any document as required by the summons, other than
as contemplated in section 176 )(a);

(e) knowingly provides false information to the Commission, the Panel, the
Companies Tribunal, an inspector or investigator;

(f) improperly frustrates or impedes the execution of a warrant to enter and
search, or attempts to do so;

(g) acts contrary to or in excess of a warrant to enter and search; and

(h) without authority, but claiming to have authority in terms of section 177 –

(i) enters or searches premises; or

(ii) attaches or removes an article or document.

216. Penalties

Any person convicted of an offence in terms of this Act, is liable –

(a) in the case of a contravention of section 213 (1) or 214 (1), to a fine or to
imprisonment for a period not exceeding 10 years, or to both a fine and
imprisonment; or

(b) in any other case, to a fine or to imprisonment for a period not exceeding 12
months, or to both a fine and imprisonment.

217. Magistrate‟s Court jurisdiction to impose penalties

Despite anything to the contrary contained in any other law, a Magistrate‟s Court has
jurisdiction to imp ose any penalty provided for in section 216 .

Part B

Miscellaneous matters

218. Civil actions

(1) Subject to any provision in this Act specifically declaring void an agreement,
resolution or provision of an agreement, Memorandum of Incorporation, or rules
of a company, nothing in this Act renders void any other agreement, resolution or
provision of an agreement, Memorandum of Incorporatio n or rules of a company
that is prohibited, voidable or that may be declared unlawful in terms of this Act,
unless a court has made a declaration to that effect regarding that agreement,
resolution or provision.
[Subs. (1) substituted by s. 120 of Act 3/2 011]

(2) Any person who contravenes any provision of this Act is liable to any other
person for any loss or damage suffered by that person as a result of that
contravention.

(3) The provisions of this section do not affect the right to any remedy that a person
may otherwise have.

219. Limited time for initiating complaints

(1) A complaint in terms of this Act may not be initiated by, or made to, the
Commission or the Panel, more than three years after –

(a) the act or omission that is the cause of the complaint; or

(b) in the case of a course of conduct or continuing practice, the date that the
conduct or practice ceased.

(2) A complaint may not be prosecuted in terms of this Act against any person that is,
or has been, a respondent in proceedin gs under another section of this Act relating
substantially to the same conduct.

220. Serving documents

Unless otherwise provided in this Act, a notice, order or other document that, in terms
of this Act, must be served on a person, will have been prop erly served when it has
been either –

(a) delivered to that person; or

(b) sent by registered mail to that person‟s last known address.

221. Proof of facts

(1) In any proceedings in terms of this Act, if it is proved that a false statement, entry
or record or false information appears in or on a book, document, plan, drawing
or computer storage medium, the person who kept that item must be presumed to
have made the statement, entry, record or information, unless the contrary is
proved.

(2) A stat ement, entry or record, or information, in or on any book, document, plan,
drawing or computer storage medium is admissible in evidence as an admission
of the facts in or on it by the person who appears to have made, entered, recorded
or stored it unless i t is proved that that person did not make, enter, record or store
it.

222. State liability

The State, the Commission, the Commissioner, the Companies Tribunal, the Panel, an
inspector, or any state employee or similar person having duties to perform under this
Act, is not liable for any loss sustained by or damage caused to any person as a resul t of
any bona fide act or omission relating to the performance of any duty under this Act,
unless gross negligence is proved.

Part C

Regulations, consequential matters and commencement

223. Regulations

(1) The Minister –

(a) may make any regulations expressly authorised or contemplated elsewhere
in this Act, in accordance with subsection (2);

(b) in consultation with the Commission, and by notice in the Gazette , may
make regulations for matters relating to the functions of the Commission ,
including –

(i) forms;

(ii) time periods;

(iii) information required;

(iv) additional definitions applicable to those regulations;

(v) filing fees;

(vi) access to confidential information;

(vii) manner and form of participation in Commission procedures; and

(viii) forms of Memorandum of Incorporation and requirements concerning
the offering of securities;

(c) in consultation with the Chairperson of the Panel, and by notice in the
Gazette , may make –

(i) regulations for matters relating t o the functions of the panel,
respectively; and

(ii) rules for the conduct of matters before the Panel; and

(d) may make regulations regarding –

(i) any forms required to be used for the purposes of this Act; and

(ii) in general, any ancillary or in cidental matter that is necessary for the
proper implementation and administration of this Act.

(2) Before making any regulations in terms of this Act, the Minister must publish the
proposed regulations for public comment, subject to subsection (3).

(3) In the case of regulations prescribing financial reporting standards as
contemplated in section 29 (4)(a), the provisions of subsection (2) do not apply.

(4) A regulation in terms of this Act must be made by notice in the Gazette .

224. Consequential amendments, repeal of laws and transitional arrangements

(1) The Companies Act, 1973 (Act No. 61 of 1973), is hereby repealed, subject to
subsection (3).

(2) The laws referred to in Schedule 3 are hereby amended in the manner set out in
that Schedule.

(3) The repeal of the Companies Act, 1973 (Act No. 61 of 1973), does not affect the
transitional arrangements, which are set out in Schedule 5 .

225. Short title and commencement

(1) This Act is called the Companies Act, 2008, and, subject to subsection (2), comes
into operation on a date fixed by the President by proclamation in the Gazette.

(2) Section 11 (1)(a)(ii) and (iii) shall come into operation three years from the date of
commencement of this Act.
[S. 225 substituted by s. 121 of Act 3/2011]

SCHEDULE 1

Provisions concerning non -profit companies

1. Objects and policies

(1) The Memorandum of Incorporation of a non -profit company must –

(a) set out at least one object of the company, and each such object must be
either –

(i) a public benefit object; or

(ii) an object relating to one or more cultural or socia l activities, or
communal or group interests; and

(b) be consistent with the principles set out in sub -items (2) to (9).
[Para. (b) amended by s. 122 of Act 3/2011]

(2) A non -profit company –

(a) must apply all of its assets and income, however derived, to advance its
stated objects, as set out in its Memorandum of Incorporation; and

(b) subject to paragraph (a), may –

(i) acquire and hold securities issued by a profit company; or

(ii) directly or indirectly, alone or with any other person, carry on any
business, trade or undertaking consistent with or ancillary to its stated
objects.

(3) A non -profit company must not, directly or indirectly, pay any portion of its
income or transfer any of its assets, regardless how the income or asset was
derived, to any person who is or was an incorporator of the company, or who is a
member or director, or person appointing a director, of the company, except –
[Words preceding para. (a) substituted by s. 122 of Act 3/2011]

(a) as reasonable –

(i) remun eration for goods delivered or services rendered to, or at the
direction of, the company; or

(ii) payment of, or reimbursement for, expenses incurred to advance a
stated object of the company;

(b) as a payment of an amount due and payable by the compan y in terms of a
bona fide agreement between the company and that person or another;

(c) as a payment in respect of any rights of that person, to the extent that such
rights are administered by the company in order to advance a stated object
of the company; or

(d) in respect of any legal obligation binding on the company.

(4) Despite any provision in any law or agreement to the contrary, upon the winding –
up or dissolution of a non -profit company –

(a) no past or present member or director of that company, or person
appointing a director of that company, is entitled to any part of the net value
of the company after its obligations and liabilities have been satisfied; and

(b) the entire net value of the company must be distributed to one or mo re non –
profit companies, registered external non -profit companies carrying on
activities within the Republic, voluntary associations or non -profit trusts –
[Words preceding subpara. (i) amended by s. 122 of Act 3/2011]

(i) having objects similar to its ma in object; and

(ii) as determined –

(aa) in terms of the company‟s Memorandum of Incorporation;

(bb) by its members, if any, or its directors, at or immediately before
the time of its dissolution; or

(cc) by the court, if the Memorandum of Incorporation, or the
members or directors fail to make such a determination.

(5) The Commission may apply to the court, on behalf of a non -profit company, for a
determination contemplated in sub -item (4)(b)(ii)(cc) if the non -profit company
has –
[Words preceding para. (a) amended by s. 122 of Act 3/2011]

(a) no remaining members or directors; and

(b) failed to –

(i) make a determination contemplated in sub -item (4)(b)(ii)(bb);or
[Subpara. (i) amended by s. 122 of Act 3/2011]

(ii) apply to the cour t for such a determination.

(6) Incorporation as a non -profit company in terms of this Act, or registration as an
external non -profit company in terms of this Act, and compliance by either with
the provisions of this Act does not necessarily qualify that non -profit company, or
external non -profit company, for any particular status, category, classification or
treatment in terms of the Income Tax Act, 1962 (Act No. 58 of 1962), or any
other legislation, except to the extent that any such legislation provid es otherwise.

(7) Each voting member of a non -profit company has at least one vote.

(8) The vote of each member of a non -profit company is of equal value to the vote of
each other voting member on any matter to be determined by vote of the
members, except to the extent that the company‟s Memorandum of Incorporation
provides otherwise.

(9) If a non -profit company has members, the requirement in section 24 (4) to
maintain a securities register must be read as requiring the company to maintain a
membership register.

2. Fundamental transactions

(1) A non -profit company may not –

(a) amalgamate or merge with, or convert to, a profit company; or

(b) dispose of any part of its assets, undertaking or business to a profit
company, other than for fair value, except to the extent that such a
disposition of an asset occurs in the ordinary course of the activities of the
non -profit company.

(2) If a non -profit company has voting members, any proposal to –

(a) dispose of all or the greater party of its assets or undertaking; or

(b) amalgamate or merge with another non -profit company,

must be submitted to the voting members for approval, in a mann er comparable to
that required of profit companies in accordance with sections 112 and 113 ,
respectively.

(3) Sections 115 and 116 , read with the changes required by the context, apply with
respect to the approval of a proposal contemplated in sub -item (2).
[Sub -item (3) amended by s. 122 of Act 3/2011]

3. Incorporators of non -profit company

The incorporators of a non -profit company are its –

(a) first directors; and

(b) its first members, if its Memorandum of Incorporation provides for it to have
members.

4. Members

(1) A non -profit company is not required to have members, but its Memorandum of
Incorporation may provide for it to do so.

(2) If the Memorandum of Incorporation of a non -profit company provides for the
company to have members, it –

(a) must n ot restrict or regulate, or provide for any restriction or regulation of,
that membership in any manner that amounts to unfair discrimination in
terms of section 9 of the Constitution;

(b) must not presume the membership of any person, regard a person to be a
member, or provide for the automatic or ex officio membership of any
person, on any basis other than life -time membership awarded to a person –

(i) for service to the company or to the public benefit objects set out in
the company‟s Memorandum of Incorporation; and

(ii) with that person‟s consent;

(c) may allow for membership to be held by juristic persons, including profit
companies;

(d) may provide for no more than two classes of members, that is voting and
non -voting members, respectively; and

(e) must set out –

(i) the qualifications for me mbership;

(ii) the process for applying for membership;

(iii) any initial or periodic cost of membership in any class;

(iv) the rights and obligations, if any, of membership in any class; and

(v) the grounds on which membership may, or will, be sus pended or lost.

5. Directors

(1) If a non -profit company has members, the Memorandum of Incorporation must –

(a) set out the basis on which the members choose the directors of the
company; and

(b) if any directors are to be elected by the voting members, provide for the
election each year of at least one -third of those elected directors.

(2) If a non -profit company has no members, the Memorandum of Incorporation
must set out the basis on which directors are to be appointed by its board, or other
persons.

(3) A non -profit company must not provide a loan to, secure a debt or obligation of,
or otherwise provide direct or indirect financial assistance to, a director of the
company or of a related or inter -related company, or to a person related to any
such director.

(4) Sub -item (3) does not prohibit a transaction if it –
[Words preceding para. (a) amended by s. 122 of Act 3/2011]

(a) is in the ordinary course of the company‟s business and for fair value;

(b) constitutes an accountable advance to meet –

(i) legal expenses in relation to a matter concerning the company; or

(ii) anticipated expenses to be incurred by the person on behalf of the
company;

(c) is to defray the person‟s expenses for removal at the company‟s request; or

(d) is in terms of an employee benefit scheme generally available to all
employees or a specific class of employees.

SCHEDULE 2

CONVERSION OF CLOSE CORPORATIONS TO COMPANIES

1. Notice of conversion of close corporation

(1) A close corporation may file a notice of conversion in the prescribed manner and
form, at any time.

(2) A notice of conversion must be accompanied by –

(a) a written statement of consent approving the conversion of the close
corporation signed by members of the corporation holding i n aggregate, at
least 75% of the members‟ interest in the corporation;

(b) a Memorandum of Incorporation consistent with the requirements of this
Act; and

(c) the prescribed filing fee .
[Sub -item (2) substituted by s. 123 of Act 3/2011]

(3) Section 14 , read with the changes required by the context, applies with respect to
the filing of a notice of conversion, as if it were a Notice of Incor poration in
terms of this Act.

(4) Upon conversion of a close corporation in terms of this Schedule the Commission
must –

(a) cancel the registration of that close corporation in terms of the Close
Corporations Act, 1984 (Act No. 69 of 1984);

(b) give notice in the Gazette of the conversion of a close corporation into a
company; and

(c) enable the Registrar of Deeds to effect the necessary changes resulting from
conversions and name changes.

2. Effect of conversion on legal status

(1) Every member of a close corporation converted under this Schedule is entitled to
become a shareholder of the company resulting from that conversion, but the
shares to be held in the company by the shareholders individually need not
necessarily be in proportion t o the members‟ interests as stated in the founding
statement of the close corporation concerned.

(2) On the registration of a company converted from a close corporation –

(a) the juristic person that existed as a close corporation before the conversion
continues to exist as a juristic person, but in the form of a company;

(b) all the assets, liabilities, rights and obligations of the close corporation vest
in the company;

(c) any legal proceedings instituted before the registration by or against the
corporation, may be continued by or against the company, and any other

thing done by or in respect of the close corporation, is deemed to have been
done by or in respect of the company;

(d) any enforcement measures that could have been commenced with res pect to
the close corporation in terms of the Close Corporations Act, 1984 (Act No.
69 of 1984), for conduct occurring before the date of registration, may be
brought against the company on the same basis, as if the conversion had not
occurred; and

(e) any liability of a member of the corporation for the corporation‟s debts, that
had arisen in terms of the Close Corporations Act, 1984 (Act No. 69 of
1984), and existed immediately before the date of registration, survives the
conversion and continues as a liability of that person, as if the conversion
had not occurred.

SCHEDULE 3

AMENDMENT OF LAWS

SCHEDULE 3

AMENDMENT OF LAWS

A: Close Corporations Act, 1984

Act No. and Year Short title Extent of amendment or repeal
1. Amendments to definitions of Close Corporations Act
Act No. 69 of 1984 Close Corporations
Act, 1984
Amendment of section 1 of Act 69 of 1984, as
amended by section 1 of Act 38 of 1986,
section 1 of Act 26 of 1997, section 1 of Act
22 of 2001 and section 57 of Act 24 of 2006

1. Section 1 of the Close Corporations Act is
hereby amended by –

(a) the insertion before the definition of
“Companies Act” of the following definition:

“„Commission‟ means the Companies and
Intellectual Property Commission, established
by section 185 of the Companies Act; ”;=
==
(b) the substitution for the definition of=
“Companies Act” of the following definition:

“ „Companies Act‟ means the Companies Act,
[1973 (Act No. 61 of 1973)] 2008 ;”; =
==
(c) the substitution for the definition of=
„company‟ of the following definition:

“ „company‟ [means a company as defined
in] has the meaning set out in section 1 of the
Companies Act;”;

(d) the substitution for the definition of
“director” of the following definition:

“„director‟ , in relation to a co mpany, [means a
director as defined] has the meaning set out in
section 1 [(1)] of the Companies Act;”;

(e) the substitution for the definition of
“holding
company” of the following definition:

“ „holding company‟ , in relation to a company,
[means a holding company as defined] has
the meaning set out in section 1 [(1)] of the
Companies Act;”;

(f) the substitution for paragraph (b) of the
definition of “officer” of the following
paragraph:

“(b) a company, means [an] a prescribed
officer as defined in section 1 [(1)] of the
Companies Act;”;

(g) the substitution for the definition of
„Registrar‟ of the following definition:

“„Registrar‟ means the [Registrar of Close
Corporations referred to in section 4] Commissioner, appointed in terms of section
189 of the Companies Act ;”;

(h) the substitution for the definition of
„Registration Office‟ of the following
definition:

“„Registration Office‟ means the [Close
Corporations Registration Office referred to
in section 3] office of the Commission ;”;

(i) the substitution for the definition of
„subsidiary‟ of the following definition:

“„subsidiary‟ , in relation to a company,
[means a subsidiary as defined in section

1(1)] has the meaning determined in
accordance with section 3 of the C ompanies
Act.”; and

(j) the substitution for the definition of „this
Act‟ of the following definition:

“„this Act‟ includes the regulations , and any
regulations made in terms of the Companies
Act, to the extent that they apply to this Act .”.
2. Limitation of period to incorporate close corporations or convert companies
Amendment of section 2 of Act 69 of 1984

Section 2 of the Close Corporations Act is
hereby amended by the substitution for
subsection (1) of the following subsection:

“(1) [Any] At any time before section 13 of the
Companies Act comes into operation, any one
or more persons, not exceeding ten, who
qualify for membership of a close corporation
in terms of this Act, may form a close
corporation and secure its incorporation by
complying with the requirements of this Act in
respect of the registration of its founding
statement referred to in section 12.”.
Amendment of section 13 of Act 69 of 1984

Section 13 of the Close Corporations Act is
hereby substituted for the following section:

“Registration of founding statement

13. If a founding statement referred to in
section 12 complying with the requirements of
this Act is lodged with the Registrar in the
manner prescribed at any time before section 13
of the Companie s Act comes into operation,
and if the business to be carried on by the
corporation is lawful, the Registrar shall upon
payment of the prescribed fee register such
statement in his or her registers and shall give
notice of the registration in the prescribe d
manner.”.
Repeal of section 27 of Act 69 of 1984

(3) Section 27 of the Close Corporations Act is
hereby repealed with effect from the date on
which Schedule 2 of the Companies Act comes
into operation.

3. Legal status of close corporations
Amendment of section 2 of Act 69 of 1984

(1) Section 2 of the Close Corporations Act is
hereby amended by the substitution for
subsection (2) of the following subsection:

“(2) A corporation formed in accordance with
the
provisions of this Act is on re gistration in terms
of
those provisions a juristic person and continues,
subject to the provisions of this Act, to exist as
a juristic person notwithstanding changes in its
membership, or its conversion to a company in
terms of Schedule 2 of the Companies Act ,
until it is [in terms of this Act] deregistered or
dissolved –

(a) in terms of this Act; or

(b) in terms of the Companies Act, in the case
of
a juristic person that has been converted to a
company. ”.
4. Names of corporations
Amendment of section 19 of Act 69 of 1984,
as substituted by section 5 of Act 26 of 1997

(1) Section 19 of the Close Corporations Act is
hereby amended by the substitution of the
following section:

“Undesirable names and reservation of
names

19. (1) [No founding statement containing a
name for a corporation to be incorporated
and no amended founding statement
containing a new name for a corporation
shall be registered if the name is in the
opinion of the Registrar undesirable] Part A
of Chapter 2 of the Companies Act, read with
the changes required by the context, applies to a
corporation and to an applicant for name
reservation in terms of subsection (2), but –

(a) a reference in any of those provisions to a
company must be regarded as a reference to a
corporatio n for the purposes of this Act; and

(b) the application of section 11(3) of the
Companies Act to a corporation is subject to
the provisions of section 22(1) of this Act.

(2) Any person who intends to form a
corporation or any corporation which intends to
change its name [shall] may apply to the
Registrar for the reservation of a name , on the
prescribed form and on payment of the
prescribed fee [, apply to the Registrar for the
reservation of a name: Provided that a
company being converted into a corpora tion
in terms of this Act shall not be required to
so reserve its name if the name remains
identical] .”;
Amendment of section 20 of Act 69 of 1984,
as inserted by section 3 of Act 81 of 1992 and
substituted by section 8 of Act 22 of 2001

(2) Section 20 of the Close Corporations Act is
hereby amended by the substitution of the
following subsection:

“[Order to change name] Objections to names

20. Sections 14 (2) and (3) , 16(8), and 160 of
the Companies Act, each read with the changes
required by the context, apply to a corporation
or with respect to a reserved name, or an
application to reserve a name in terms of
section 19(2), but a reference in any of those
provisions to a company must be regarded as a
reference to a corporation for the purposes of
this Act. ”.
Item 4 amended by s. 124 of Act 3/2011
Amendment of section 22 of Act 69 of 1984,
as amended by section 6 of Act 26 of 1997

(3) Section 22(2) and (4) of the Close
Corporations Act is hereby repealed.
Amendment of section 23 of Act 69 of 1984,
as amended by section 5 of Act 81 of 1992,
section 8 of Act 26 of 1997 and section 9 of
Act 22 of 2001

(4) The Close Corporations Act is hereby
amended by the substitution for section 23 of
the following section:

“Use and publication of na mes

23. Section 32 of the Companies Act, read with
the changes required by the context, applies to a
corporation, but a reference in that section to a
company must be regarded as a reference to a
corporation for the purposes of this Act. ”.
Repeal of section 41 of Act 69 of 1984

(5) Section 41 of the Close Corporations Act is
hereby repealed.
5. Transparency and accountability of close corporations
Amendment of section 10 of Act 69 of 1984,
as amended by section 2 of Act 38 of 1986
and section 4 of Act 22 of 2001 and
substituted by section 20 of Act 16 of 2003

(1) Section 10 of the Close Corporations Act is
hereby amended by the insertion of the
following subsection after subsection (2):

“(3) Regulations made by the Minister in terms
of sec tion 29(4) and (5), and 30(7) of the
Companies Act apply to a corporation as if
those regulations had been made in terms of
this Act, but any reference in those regulations
to a company must be read as a reference to a
corporation. ”.
Amendment of section 47 of Act 69 of 1984,
as amended by section 11 of Act 26 of 1997,
section 13 of Act 22 of 2001 and substituted
by section 36 of Act 12 of 2004

(2) Section 47 of the Close Corporations Act is
amended by –

(a) the repeal of subparagraphs (ii) and (iii) of
paragraph (b) of subsection(1);

(b) the substitution for paragraph (c) of
subsection
(1) the following paragraph:

“(c) any person who is [subject to any order
of a
court under] disqualified from being a director
of a company in terms of sect ion 69(8) to (11)
of the Companies Act , subject to subsection
(1B) [disqualifying him or her from being a
director of a company] .”; and

(c) the insertion of the following subsections
after subsection (a):

“(1A) A person who has been placed under
probation by a court in terms of section 162 of
the Companies Act or subsection (1C), must
not
participate in the management of the business
of a
corporation, except to the extent permitted in
the
order of probati on.

(1B) Despite being disqualified in terms of
section 69(8)(b) of the Companies Act, read
with subsection (1)(c),a person may participate
in the
management of a corporation if 100 percent of
the members‟ interest in the corporation is held
by –

(a) that person; or

(b) that person and other persons, all of whom
are
related to that disqualified person, and each
such person has consented in writing to that
disqualified person participating in the
management of the corporation.

(1C) Section 162 of the Companies Act, read
with
the changes required by the context, applies to a
corporation, but a reference in that section to –

(a) a company must be regarded as referring to
a
company or a corporation; or

(b) a director, must be regarded as referri ng to a
director of a company, or a member
participating
in the management of a corporation. ”.
Repeal of section 55 of Act 69 of 1984

(3) Section 55 of the Close Corporations Act is
hereby repealed.
Amendment of section 58 of Act 69 of 1984,
as substituted by section 12 of Act 38 of 1986

and amended by section 4 of Act 64 of 1988

(4) Section 58 of the Close Corporations Act is
hereby amended by –

(a) the substitution for subsection (1) of the
follo wing subsection:

“(1) The members of a corporation shall within
[nine] six months after the end of every
financial year of the corporation cause annual
financial statements in respect of that financial
year to be made out in one of the official
languages of the Republic.

(b) the insertion, of the following subsection
after subsection (2),

“(2A) Section 30(2)(b), and (3) to (6) of the
Companies Act, read with the changes required
by the context, apply to a corporation that is
required by the regulations made in terms of
section 30(7) of the Companies Act, to have its
annual financial statements audited.
Amendment of section 62 of Act 69 of 1984,
as amended by section 13 of Act 38 of 1986
and section 4 of Act 17 of 1990

(5) Section 62 of the Close Corporations Act is
hereby amended by the insertion of the
following section after section 62:

“Application of accountability provisions of
Companies Act

62A. (1) Section 34(2) of the Companies Act,
read with the changes required by the cont ext,
apply to a corporation.

(2) Chapter 3 of the Companies Act, read with
the changes required by the context –

(a) applies to a corporation that has voluntarily
determined to take any action contemplated in
section 34(2)of the Companies Act; and

(b) prevails over any conflicting provision of
this Act, with respect to a corporation
contemplated in paragraph (a).”.
6. Rescue of financially distressed close corporations

Amendment of section 66 of Act 69 of 1984,
as substituted by section 16 of Act 26 of 1997

Section 66 of the Close Corporations Act is
hereby amended by the insertion of the
following subsection after subsection (1):

“(1A) The provisions of Chapter 6 of the
Companies Act, read with the changes required
by the context, apply to a corporation, but any
reference in that Chapter to –

(a) a company must be regarded as a reference
to a corporation; or

(b) a shareholder of a company, or the holder
of securities issued by a company, must be read
as a reference to a member of a corpo ration. ”.
7. Dissolution of corporations
Amendment of section 66 of Act 69 of 1984,
as substituted by section 16 of Act 26 of 1997

Section 66 of the Close Corporations Act is
hereby amended by the substitution for
subsection (1) of the following subsection:

“(1) The [provisions] laws mentioned or
contemplated in item 9 of Schedule 5 of the
Companies Act, [which relate to the winding –
up of a company, including the regulations
made thereunder, (except sections 311, 312,
313, 337, 338, 344, 345, 34 6(2), 347(3), 349,
364, 365(2), 367 to 370, inclusive, 377, 387,
389, 390, 395 to 399, inclusive, 400(1)(b), 401,
402, 417, 418,419(4), 421, 423 and 424),] read
with the changes required by the context ,
[shall] apply [mutatis mutandis and in so far
as they can be applied] to the liquidation of a
corporation in respect of any matter not
specifically provided for in this Part or in any
other provision of this Act.”.
Amendment of section 67 of Act 69 of 1984

(2) Section 67 of the Close Corporations Act is
hereby substituted for the following section –

“Dissolution of corporations

67. (1) Part G of Chapter 2 of the Companies
Act, read with the changes required by the

context, applies to a solvent corporation.

(2) This Part of this Act must be administered
in accordance with the laws mentioned or
contemplated in item 9 of Schedule 5 of the
Companies Act. ”.
Repeal of 68 of Act 69 of 1984

(3) Section 68 of the Close Corporations Act is
hereby repealed.
8. Deregistration of corporations
Amendment of section 26 of Act 69 of 1984,
as amended by section 6 of Act 38 of 1986,
section 14 of Act of 22 of 2001, section 9 of
Act 39 of 2002 and section 62 of Act 24 of
2001

(1) Section 26 of the Close Corporations Act is
hereby, substituted for the following section:

“Deregistration

26. Sections 81(1)(f), 81(3), 82(3) to (4), and
83 of the Companies Act, each read with the
changes required by the context, apply with
respect to the deregistration of a corporation,
but a reference in any of tho se provisions to a
company must be regarded as a reference to a
corporation for the purposes of this Act. ”.
Repeal of section 3(1) of Act 69 of 1984

(2) Section 3(1) of the Close Corporations Act
is hereby repealed.
Amendment of section 4 of Act 69 of 1984

(3) Section 4 of the Close Corporations Act is
hereby amended by –

(a) the substitution for subsection (1) of the
following subsection:

“(1) [ The Minister shall, subject to the laws
governing the public service, appoint a
Registrar of Close Corporations, who shall] The Commission –

(a) may exercise the powers and must perform
the duties assigned to the Registrar by this Act;
and

(b) [subject to the directions of the Minister,
be] is responsible for the administration of the
Registration Office.”;

(b) the repeal of subsection (2); and

(c) the substitution for subsection (3) of the
following subsection:

“(3) The [Registrar] Commission may
delegate any of the powers and entrust any
of the duties [assigned to him or her by this
Act] of the Registrar to any officer or employee
in the [public service] Commission .”.
Repeal of sections 11 and 16 of Act 69 of
1984

(4) Sections 11 and 16(3) of the Close
Corporations Act are hereby repealed.
Repeal of sections 47(7), 49(5) and 58(4) of
Act 69 of 1984

(5) Sections 47(2), 49(5) and 58(4) of the Close
Corporations Act are hereby repealed.
Amendment of section 64 of Act 69 of 1984

(6) Section 64 of the Close Corporations Act is
hereby amended by the substitution for
subsection (2) of the following subsection:

“(2) [Without prejudice to any other
criminal
liability incurred where] If any business of a
corporation is carried on in any manner
contemplated in subsection (1), every person
who is knowingly a party to the carrying on of
the business in any such manner, shall be guilty
of an offence.”.
Amendment of section 82 of Act 69 of 1984

(7) Section 82 of the Close Corporations Act is
hereby substituted for the following section:

“Application of Companies Act to
enforcement of Act

82. Parts D, E, and F of Chapter 7, and Part A
of Chapter 9 of the Companies Act, read with
the changes required by the context, apply with
respect to any alleged contravention of this Act

or contravention of any provision of the
Companies Act to the extent the provision
applies to a corporation or its members. ”.

B: Consequential Amendments to certain other Acts listed in Schedule 4

Act No. and Year Short title Extent of amendment or repeal
Act No. 62 of
1977
Registration of
Copyright in
Cinematograph films
Act, 1977
Amendment of section 1 of Act 62 of 1977

1. Section 1 of the Registration of Copyright in
Cinematograph Films Act, 1977, is hereby
amended by –

(a) the insertion after the definition of
“assignment” of the following definition:

“„Comm ission‟ means the Companies and
Intellectual Property Commission, established
by section 185 of the Companies Act, 2008 ”;

(b) by the substitution for the definition of
“legal practitioner” of the following
definition:

“„legal practitioner‟ means an attorney of the
[Supreme] High Court of South Africa or an
advocate of such Court duly instructed by an
attorney or patent agent to appear before the
Registrar [or his deputy] ;

(c) by the substitution for the definition of
“Registrar” of the fo llowing definition:

“=„Registrar‟ means the [Registrar of
Copyright appointed under this Act] Commissioner appointed in terms of section
189 of the Companies Act, 2008 ;”;

(d) by the substitution for the definition of
“registration office” for the follo wing
definition:

“ „registration office‟ means the [registration
office for copyright in cinematograph films
referred to in section 2] office of the
Commission ;
Repeal of section 2 of Act 62 of 1977

2. Section 2 of the Registration of Copyright in
Cinematograph Films Act, 1977, is hereby

repealed.
Amendment of section 3 of Act 62 of 1977

3. Section 3 of the Registration of Copyright in
Cinematograph Films Act, 1977, is hereby
amended by the sub stitution for subsections (1)
and (2) of the following subsections:

“(1) The Commission may exercise the powers
and must perform the duties assigned to the
registrar by this Act and is responsible for the
administration of the registration office.

(2) The [Registrar] Commission may delegate
any of the powers and entrust any of the duties
assigned to [him] the registrar by this Act, to
any officer or employee in the [public service] Commission .
Act No. 57 of
1978
Patents Act, 1978 Amendment of section 2 of Act 57 of 1978, as
amended by section 1 of Act 76 of 1988,
section 1 of Act 49 of 1996, section 27 of Act
38 of 1997 and section 1 of Act 20 of 2005

1. Section 2 of the Patents Act, 1993, is hereby
amended by –

(a) the insertion after the definition of
“application in a convention country” of the
following definition:

“„Commission‟ means the Companies and
Intellectual Property Commission, established
by section 185 of the Companies Act, 2008 ”;

(b) by the subs titution for the definition of
“patent office” of the following definition:

“„patent office‟ means the [patent office
established in terms of section 5] office of the
Commission ; and

(c) by the substitution for the definition of
“registrar” of the foll owing definition:

“„registrar‟ means the [registrar of patents
appointed under section 7] Commissioner,
appointed in terms of section 189 of the
Companies Act, 2008 ;”;
Repeal of section 5 of Act 57 of 1978

2. Section 5 of the Patents Act, 1978, is hereby
repealed.
Amendment of section 7 of Act 57 of 1978

3. Section 7 of the Patents Act, 1978, is hereby
amended by –

(a) the substitution for subsection (1) of the
following subsection:

“(1) The [Minister shall, subject to the laws
governing the public service, appoint a
registrar of patents, who shall] Commission –

(a) may exercise the powers and must perform
the duties conferred or imposed upon the
registrar by this Act; and

(b) [and who shall, subject to the directions
of the Minister, have the chief control] is
responsible for the administration of the patent
office.

(b) by the repeal of subsection (2);

(c) by the substitution for subsection (3) of the
following subsection:

“(3) The Commission may delegate any of the
powers and en trust any of the duties assigned to
the registrar by this Act, to any officer or
employee in the Commission. ”

Act No. 98 of
1978
Copyright Act, 1978 Amendment of section 1 of Act 98 of 1978, as
amended by section 1 of Act 56 of 1980,
section 1 of Act 66 of 1983, section 1 of Act
52 of 1984, section 1 of Act 13 of 1988,
section 1 of Act 125 of 1992, section 50 of Act
38 of 1997 and section 1 of Act 9 of 2002

1. Section 1 of the Copyright Act, 1978, is
hereby amended by the substitution for the
definit ion of “Registrar” of the following
definition:

“„Registrar‟ means the [Registrar of
Copyright, who shall be the person
appointed as Registrar of Patents under
section 7 of the Patents Act, 1978]

Commissioner appointed in terms of section
189 of the Companies Act, 2008; ”.
Act No. 59 of
1980
Share Blocks Control
Act, 1980
Amendment of section 1 of Act 59 of 1980

1. Section 1 of the Share Blocks Control
Act, 1980, is hereby amended by –

(a) the substitution for the definition of
“Companies Act” of the following definition:

“„Companies Act‟ means the Companies Act,
[1973 (Act No. 61 of 1973)] 2008 ;”; and

(b) the insertion after the definition of
purchaser‟ of the following definition:

“„Registrar‟ means the Commissioner,
appointed in terms of section 189 of the
Companies Act; ”.
Act No. 194 of
1993
Trade Marks Act,
1993
Amendment of section 2 of Act 194 of 1993

1. Section 2 of the Trade Marks Act, 1993, is
hereby amended by –

(a) the insertion after the definition of
“collective trade mark” of the following
definition:

“„Commission‟ means the Companies and
Intellectual Property Commission, established
by section 185 of the Companies Act, 2008 ”;

(b) the substitution for the definition of
“registrar” of the following definition:

„registrar‟ means the [registrar of trade
marks appointed or deemed to have been
appointed under section 6] Commissioner,
appointed in terms of section 189 of the
Companies Act, 2008 ;”; and

(c) the insertion after the definition of “trade
mark” of the following definition:

“„trade marks office‟ means the office of the
Commission ;”.
Repeal of section 5 of Act 194 of 1993

2. Section 5 of the Trade Marks Act, 1993, is
hereby repealed.

Amendment of section 6 of Act 194 of 1993

3. Section 6 of the Trade Marks Act, 1993, is
hereby amended by –

(a) the substitution for subsection (1) of the
following subsection:

“(1) The Commission –

(a) may exercise the powers and must perform
the duties conferred or imposed upon the
registrar by this Act; and

(b) is responsible for the administration of the
trade marks office. ”.

(b) the repeal of subsections (2) and (4).
Act No. 195 of
1993
Designs Act, 1993 Amendment of section 1 of Act 1 95 of 1993
as amended by section 69 of Act 38 of 1997

1. Section 1 of the Designs Act, 1993, is hereby
amended by –

(a) the insertion after the definition of “article”
of the following definition:

“„Commission‟ means the Companies and
Intellectual Property Commission, established
by section 185 of the Companies Act, 2008 ;”;

(b) the substitution for the definition of
“designs office” of the following definition:

“„designs office‟ means the [designs office
ref erred to in section 4 ] office of the
Commission ;

(c) by the substitution for the definition of
“registrar” of the following definition:

“„registrar‟ means the [registrar of designs
appointed or deemed to have been appointed
under section 6] Commissioner, appointed in
terms of section 189 of the Companies Act,
2008 ;”;
Repeal of section 4 of Act 195 of 1993

2. Section 4 of the Designs Act, 1993, is hereby
repealed.

Amendment of section 6 of Act 195 of 1993

3. Section 6 of the Designs Act, 1993 is hereby
amended by –

(a) the substitution for subsection (1) of the
following subsection:

“(1) The [Minister shall, subject to the laws
governing the public service, appoint a
registrar of designs, who shall] Commission –

(a) may exercise the powers and must perform
the duties conferred or imposed upon the
registrar by this Act; and

(b) [and who shall, subject to the directions
of the Minister, have the chief control] is
responsible for the administration of the designs
office.

(b) by the repeal of subsections (2) and (3);

(c) by the substitution for subsection (4) of the
following subsection:

“(4) The Commission may delegate any of the
powers and entrust any of the duties assigned
to the registrar by this Act, to any offi cer or
employee in the Commission. ”
Act No. 14 of
2005
Co -operatives Act,
2005
Amendment of section 1 of Act 14 of 2005

1. Section 1 of the Co -operatives Act, 2005, is
hereby amended by –

(a) the insertion after the definition of
„agricultural co -operative‟ of the following
definitions:

“„Commission‟ means the Companies and
Intellectual Property Commission, established
by section 185 of the Companies Act;

„Companies Act‟ means the Companies Act,
2008 ;

(b) the deletion of the definitions of “deputy
registrar” and “Director -General” ; and

(c) by the substitution for the definition of

“registrar” of the following definition:

“„registrar‟ means the [Registrar of Co –
operatives] Commissioner, appointed in terms
of section 189 of the Companies Act; ”.
Amendment of section 78 of Act 14 of 2005

1. Section 78 of the Co -operatives Act, 2008, is
hereby amended by –

(a) by the substitution for subsection (1) of the
following subsection:

“(1) The [Minister] Commission –

(a) [must appoint an officer in the public
service as the Registrar of Co -operatives,
with the authority to] may exercise the
powers and must perform the functions
conferred on the registrar by or in terms of this
Act;

(b) the r epeal of subsection (1)(b) and (c);

(c) the substitution for subsection (2) of the
following subsection:

“(2) The [registrar] Commission may, from
time to time, delegate any power conferred on
[him or her] the registrar by or under this Act
to any offi cer or employee in the [public
service] Commission .

SCHEDULE 4

LEGISLATION TO BE ENFORCED BY COMMISSION

As contemplated in section 188, the Commission is responsible for the administration and
enforcement of the following Acts:

Close Corporations Act, 1984 (Act No. 69 of 1984)

Share Blocks Control Act, 1980 (Act No. 59 of 1980)

Co -operatives Act, 2005 (Act No. 14 of 2005)

Copyright Act, 1978 (Act No. 98 of 1978)

Performers Protection Act, 1967 (Act No. 11 of 1967)

Registration of Copyright in Cinematograph Films Act, 1977 (Act No. 62 of 1977)

Counterfeit Goods Act, 1977 (Act No. 37 of 1997)

Designs Act, 1993 (Act No. 195 of 1993)

Merchandise Marks Act, 1941 (Act No. 17 of 1941)

Patents Act, 1978 (Act No. 57 of 1978)

Trade Marks Act, 1993 (Act No. 194 of 1993)

Unauthorised Use of Emblems Act, 1961 (Act No. 37 of 1961)

“Vlaglied” Copyright Act, 1974 (Act No. 9 of 1974)

Protection of Businesses Act, 1987 (Act No. 99 of 1978)

Part A of Chapter 4 of the Consumer Protection Act, 2008 (Act No. 68 of 2008)
[Schedule 4 amended by s. 125 of Act 3/2011]

SCHEDULE 5

TRANSITIONAL ARRANGEMENTS

1. Interpretation

(1) In this Schedule –

(a) “general effective date” means the date on which section 1 of this Act
came into operation; and

(b) “previous Act” means the Companies Act, 1973 (Act No. 61 of 1973).

(2) A reference in this Schedul e-

(a) to a section by number, is a reference to the corresponding section of –

(i) the previous Act, if the number is followed by the words “of the
previous Act”; or

(ii) this Act, in any other case; or

(b) to an item or a subitem by number is a re ference to the corresponding item
or subitem of this Schedule.

(3) Despite any other provision of this Act –

(a) the Minister, by notice in the Gazette , may determine a date on which the
Commission may assume the exercise of any particular function or power
assigned to it in terms of this Act; and

(b) until a date determined by the Minister in terms of paragraph (a) –

(i) the Commission may not perform that particular function or exercise
that particular power; and

(ii) the Minister has the authority to, and bears the responsibility of,
exercising any such function or performing any such power assigned
by this Act to the Commission.

2. Continuation of pre -existing companies

(1) As of the general effective date, every pre -existing company that was,
immediately before that date, –

(a) incorporated or registered in terms of the Companies Act, 1973 (Act No. 61
of 1973); or

(b) recognised as an “existing company” in terms of the Companies Act, 1973
(Act No. 61 of 1973),

continues to exist as a company, as if it had been incorporated and registered in
terms of this Act, with the same name and registration number previously
assigned to it, subject to item 4.
[Subs. numbered as subs. (1) by s. 126 of Act 3/2011]

(2) Despite section 11 , a pre -existing company –

(a) whose name, immediately before the effective date, satisfied the
requirements of section 49 of the previous Act is not required to change its
name to comply with section 11 (3)(c) solely on the ground that any part of
its name was in an official language other than English; and

(b) may continue to use a translated name that, immediately before the
effective date, was registered and otherwise met the requirements of section
50 (2) of the previous Act.
[Sub -item (2) inserted by s. 126 of Act 3/2011]

(3) Despite the repeal of the previous Act, section 49 (5) to (7) of the previou s Act
continues to apply to a pre -existing company that was, immediately before the
effective date, engaged in any circumstances contemplated in those provisions.
[Sub -item (3) inserted by s. 126 of Act 3/2011]

(4) Despite the repeal of the previous Act , a pre -existing company retains all of the
powers set out in that Act in respect of its shares that were issued and outstanding
immediately before the effective date, to the extent necessary to give full effect to

(a) section 35 (6); and

(b) item 6 (2) of this Schedule.
[Sub -item (4) inserted by s. 126 of Act 3/2011]

(5) If, as a consequence of the coming into effect of the Act and the repeal of the
previous Act, a conflict, dispute or doubt arises within two years after the
effective date concerning the particular manner or form in which, o r time by
which, a pre -existing company is required to –

(a) prepare its annual financial statements, convene an annual general meeting,
provide to its shareholders copies of its annual financial statements, any
notice or any other document;

(b) file a ny particular document with the Commission; or

(c) take any other particular action required in terms of this Act or the
company‟s Memorandum of Incorporation,

the company may apply to the Tribunal for directions, and a member of the
Tribunal may make an administrative order that is appropriate and reasonable in
the circumstances.
[Sub -item (5) inserted by s. 126 of Act 3/2011]

(6) An external company that, immediately before the effective date, was registered
as such in terms of the previous Act must be regarded as having registered on the
effective date as an external company in terms of this Act.
[Sub -item (6) inserted by s. 126 of Act 3/2011]

(7) If, immediately before the general effective date, a particular pre -existing
company has passed i ts financial year end but has not completed the requirements
in terms of the previous Act for publishing, audit and approval of its annual
financial statements for that financial year –

(a) the provisions of the previous Act continue to apply with respec t to the
publishing, audit and approval of those statements; and

(b) the provisions of this Act will apply to each subsequent financial year end
and annual financial statements of that company.
[Sub -item (7) inserted by s. 126 of Act 3/2011]

3. Pendin g matters
[Heading of item 3 substituted by s. 126 of Act 3/2011]

(1) Any matter pending before the Registrar under the previous Act, or a provision of
the Close Corporations Act, (Act No. 69 of 1984), amended by this Act, before
the effective date and not fully addressed at that time, must be concluded by the
Registrar in terms of such Act, despite its repeal or amendment.
[Sub -item (1) substituted by s. 126 of Act 3/2011]

(2) Any conversion of a company to a close corporation in terms of section 27 of the
Close Corporations Act 1984 (Act No. 69 of 1984), filed with the Registrar
before the effective date and not fu lly addressed at that time must be concluded
by the Registrar in terms of that Act, despite the repeal of that section.

(3) A company that is incorporated and registered in terms of subitem (1) is regarded
to-

(a) have been registered in terms of the previous Act; and

(b) be a pre -existing company for all purposes of this Act.

4. Memorandum of Incorporation and Rules

(1) Every pre -existing company –

(a) incorporated in terms of section 21 of the previous Act is deemed to have
amended its Memorandum of Incorporation as of the general effective date
to expressly state that it is a non -profit company, and to have changed it s
name in so far as required to comply with section 11 (3) ;
[Para. (a) amended by s. 126 of Act 3/2011]

(b) the Articles of which imposed personal liability on its directors or past
directors, as contemplated in section 53 (b) of the prev ious Act, is deemed to
have amended its Memorandum of Incorporation as of the general effective
date to expressly state that it is a personal liability company, and to have
changed its name in so far as required to comply with section 11 (3) ;
[Para. (b) amended by s. 126 of Act 3/2011]

(c) registered in terms of the previous Act, and falling within the definition of a
state -owned company in terms of th is Act, is deemed to have amended its
Memorandum of Incorporation as of the general effective date to have
changed its name in so far as required to comply with section 11 (3) ;or
[Para. (c) amended by s. 126 of Act 3/2011]

(d) limited by guarantee, other than in terms of section 21 of the previous Act –

(i) may file a notice within 20 business days after the general effective
date electing to become a profit company, as from the general
effective date, and to change its name in so far as required to comply
with section 11 (3) ;or

(ii) if it fails to file a notice in terms of subparagraph (i), is deemed to
have amended its Memorandum of Incorporation as of the g eneral
effective date to expressly state that it is a non -profit company, and
have changed its name in so far as required to comply with section
11 (3) .
[Para. (d) amended by s. 126 of Act 3/2011]

(2) At any time within two years immediately following the general effective date, a
pre -existing company may file, without charge –

(a) an amendment to its Memorandum of Incorporation to bring it in harmony
with this Act; and

(b) if necessary, a notice of name change and copy of a special resolution
contemplated in section 16 , to alter its name to meet the requirements of
this Act.

(3) If, before the general effective date, a pre -existing company had adopted any
binding provisions, under whatever style or title, comparable in purpose and
effect to the rules of a company contemplated in section 15 (3), those provisions
continue to have the same force and effect –

(a) as of the general effective date, for a period of two years, or until changed
by th e company; and

(b) after the two year period, to the extent that they are consistent with this Act.

(3A) If, before the general effective date, the shareholders of a pre -existing company
had adopted any agreement between or among themselves, under what ever style
or title, comparable in purpose and effect to an agreement contemplated in section
15 (7), any such agreement continues to have the same for ce and effect –

(a) as of the general effective date, for a period of two years, despite section
15 (7), or until changed by the shareholders who arc parties to the
agreement; and

(b) after the two -year period contemplated in paragraph (a), to the extent that
the agreement is consistent with this Act and the company’s Memorandum
of Incorporation.
[Sub -item (3A) inserted by s. 126 of Act 3/2011]

(4) During the period of two years immediately following the general effective date –

(a) if there is a conflict between –

(i) a provision of this Act, and a provision of a pre -existing company‟s
Memorandum of Incorporation, the latter provision pre vails, except to
the extent that this Schedule provides otherwise;

(ii) a binding provision contemplated in sub -item (3), and this Act, the
binding provision prevails; or

(iii) a provision of an agreement contemplated in sub -item (3A), and this
Act o r the company‟s Memorandum of Incorporation, the provision
of the agreement prevails, except to the extent that the agreement, or
the Memorandum of Incorporation, provides otherwise; and

(b) despite Chapter 7 , until a pre -existing company has filed an amendment
contemplated in sub -item (2)(a), neither the Commission nor the Panel may
issue a compliance notice to that company with respect to conduct th at is –

(i) inconsistent with this Act; but

(ii) consistent with a provision that prevails over this Act in terms of
paragraph (a).
[Sub -item (4) substituted by s. 126 of Act 3/2011]

5. Pre -incorporation contracts

Section 21 does not apply with respect to a pre -existing company.

6. Par value of shares, treasury shares, capital accounts and share
certificates

(1) Section 35 (2) does not apply to a bank, as defined in the Banks Act, 1993 (Act
No. 124 of 1993), until a date declared by the Minister, after cons ulting the
member of the Cabinet responsible for national financial matters.

(2) Despite section 35 (2) any shares of a pre -existing company that hav e been issued
with a nominal or par value, and are held by a shareholder immediately before the
effective date, continue to have the nominal or par value assigned to them when
issued, subject to any regulations made in terms of subitem (3).

(3) The Mini ster, in consultation with the member of Cabinet responsible for national
financial matters, must make regulations, to take effect as of the general effective
date, providing for the optional conversion and transitional status of any nominal
or par value s hares, and capital accounts of a pre -existing company, but any such
regulations must preserve the rights of shareholders associated with such shares,
as at the effective date, to the extent doing so is compatible with the purposes of
this item.
[Sub -item (3) substituted by s. 126 of Act 3/2011]

(4) A failure of any share certificate issued by a pre -existing company to satisfy the
requirements of sect ion 51 (1) to (4) –

(a) is not a contravention of that section; and

(b) does not invalidate that share certificate.

(5) Section 164 does not apply with respect to the conversion by a company of par
value or nominal value shares of a pre -existing company in terms of this item,
and in accordance with the regulations.
[Sub -item (5) inserted by s. 126 of Act 3/2011]

7. Company finance and governance

(1) A person holding office as a director, prescribed officer, company secretary or
auditor of a pre -existing company immediately before the effective date,

continues to hold that office as from the effective date, subject to the company‟s
Memorandum of Incorporation, and this Act.
[Sub -item (1) amended by s. 126 of Act 3/2011]

(2) A person contemplated in sub -item (1) who, in terms of this Act, is ineligible to
be, or disqualified from being, a director, alternate director, prescribed o fficer,
company secretary or auditor is regarded as having resigned from every such
office in any company as from the effective date.
[Sub -item (2) substituted by s. 126 of Act 3/2011]

(3) As from the effective date , a pre -existing company is deemed to h ave a number of
vacancies on the board equal to the difference between –

(a) the minimum number of directors required by or in terms of this Act; and

(b) the actual number of directors of that pre -existing company immediately
before the effective date , if that number is less than the minimum referred
to in paragraph (a).
[Sub -item (3) amended by s. 126 of Act 3/2011]

(4) A vacancy in the office of director, company secretary or auditor of a pre -existing
company as from the effective date, irrespective whether arising by operation of
subitem (2) or (3), or otherwise, is to be filled in accordance with this Act.

(5) Despite anything to the contrary in a company‟s Memorandum of Incorporation,
the provisions of this Act respecting –

(a) the duties, conduct and liability of directors apply to every director of a pre –
existing company as from the effective date;

(b) rights in terms of this Act of shareholders to receive any notice or have
access to any information apply as from the effective date to e very pre –
existing company;

(c) meetings of shareholders or directors, and adoption of resolutions apply as
from the effective date to every pre -existing company; and

(d) Chapter 5 applies as from the effective date to every pre -existing company,
except to the extent it is exempted by or in terms of that Chapter.

(6) Approval of any distribution, financial assistance, insider share issues, or options,
are subject to this Act, even if any such action had been approved by a company‟s
shareholders before the effective date, despite anything to the contrary in the
company‟s Memorandum of Incorporation.

(7) A right of any person to seek a remedy i n terms of this Act applies with respect to
conduct pertaining to a pre -existing company and occurring before the effective
date, unless the person had commenced proceedings in a court in respect of the
same conduct before the effective date.

(8) A pre -existing company is not in contravention of this Act by reason only of a
failure to –

(a) maintain any record for the duration required by section 24 (1), if –

(i) the company disposed of that record before the effective date; and

(ii) at the time the company disposed of the record it was not required, by
or in terms of any public regulation, to continue to maintain that
record; or

(b) include in it s notice of incorporation in terms of the previous Act a
prominent statement comparable to that required by section 13 (3) of this
Act.

(9) A provision of the Memorandum of Incorporation of a pre -existing company
comparable to a provision contemplated in section 15 (2) has the same validity
after the effective date that it had immediately before that date, despite any failure
of the company to have drawn attention to that provision in the manner required
by section 13 (3).

(10) Section 19 (4) applies to any provision of the Memorandum of Incorporation of a
pre -existing company that is comparable to a provision contemplated in section
15 (2), from the time that the company files a notice of that provision.

(11) The five consecutive financial years contemplated in section 92 (1) must be
calculated from the date of commencement of this Act.
[Sub -item (11) substi tuted by s. 126 of Act 3/2011]

8. Company names and name reservations

(1) Any reservation by the Registrar of a name in terms of section 42 of the previous
Act that was in effect immediately before the effective date, is regarded as having
been a reservation i n terms of section 12 of this Act, as from the effective date,
subject to subitem (2).

(2) If the Commission believes that a reserved name contempla ted in subitem (1)
does not satisfy the requirements of section 11 –

(a) the Commission must notify the person for whose use the name was
reserved, i nviting the person to request the reservation of a substitute name
that does satisfy the requirements of this Act; and

(b) the person concerned may file a request contemplated in paragraph (a),at no
charge, any time within 120 business days after the dat e of the
Commission‟s notice.

(3) Any registration by the Registrar of –

(a) a translation or shortened form of a name, in terms of section 43 of the
previous Act that was in effect immediately before the effective date, is
deemed to be a registration of that name, as if it had been registered as a
name of the company concerned in terms of this Act; or

(b) a defensive name, or renewal of the registration of a defensive name, in
terms of section 43 of the previous Act that was in effect immediately
before the effective date must be regarded as if it had been registered in
terms of section 12 (9) of this Act, as from the actual date on which that
registration or renewal was granted.
[Para. (b) substituted by s. 126 of Act 3/2011]

9. Continued application of previous Act to winding -up and liquidation

(1) Despite the repeal of the previous Act, until the date determined in terms of
subitem (4), Chapter 14 of that Act continues to ap ply with respect to the
winding – up and liquidation of companies under this Act, as if that Act had not
been repealed subject to subitems (2) and (3).

(2) Despite subitem (1), sections 343 , 344 , 346 , and 348 to 353 do not apply to the
winding -up of a solvent company, except to the extent necessary to give full
effect to the provisions of Part G of Chapter 2 .

(3) If there is a conflict between a provision of the previ ous Act that continues to
apply in terms of subitem (1), and a provision of Part G of Chapter 2 of this Act
with respect to a solvent company, the provision of this Act prevails.

(4) The Minister, by notice in the Gazette , may –

(a) det ermine a date on which this item ceases to have effect, but no such
notice may be given until the Minister is satisfied that alternative legislation
has been brought into force adequately providing for the winding -up and
liquidation of insolvent companies; and

(b) prescribe ancillary rules as may be necessary to provide for the efficient
transition from the provisions of the repealed Act, to the provisions of the
alternative legislation contemplated in paragraph (a).

10. Preservation and continuation of court proceedings and orders

(1) Any proceedings in any court in terms of the previous Act immediately before the
effective date are continued in terms of that Act, as if it had not been repealed.

(2) Any order of a court in terms of the previous Act, and in force immediately
before the effective date, continues to have the same force and effect as if that Act
had not been repealed, subject to any further order of the court.

11. General preservation of regulations, rights, duties, notices and other instruments

(1) Any right or entitlement enjoyed by, or obligation imposed on, any person in
terms of any provision of the previous Act, that had not been spent or fulfilled
immediately before the effective date is a valid right or entitlement of, or
obl igation imposed on, that person in terms of any comparable provision of this
Act, as from the date that the right, entitlement or obligation first arose, subject to
the provisions of this Act.

(2) A notice given by any person to another person in terms o f any provision of the
previous Act must be considered as notice given in terms of any comparable
provision of this Act, as from the date that the notice was given under the
previous Act.

(3) A document that, before the effective date, had been served or filed in accordance
with the previous Act must be regarded as having been satisfactorily served or
filed for any comparable purpose of this Act.
[Sub -item (3) substituted by s. 126 of Act 3/2011]

(4) An order given by an inspector, in terms of any provi sion of the previous Act, and
in effect immediately before the effective date, continues in effect, subject to the
provisions of this Act.

12. Transition of regulatory agencies

(1) The person who occupied the post of chief executive officer of the Companies
and Intellectual Property Registration Office immediately before the general
effective date, must be regarded as having been appointed on the general effective
date as the Commiss ioner in terms of section 189 , for a term to be determined by
the Minister.

(2) A person in the employ of the Companies and Intellectual Property R egistration
Office or the Office of Companies and Intellectual Property Enforcement in the
Department of Trade and Industry becomes an employee of the Commission on
the effective date.

(3) The transfer of departmental employees to the Commission must be effected in
accordance with –

(a) section 197 of the Labour Relations Act, 1995 (Act No. 66 of 1995); and

(b) any co llective agreement reached between the State and the trade union
parties of the Departmental Chamber of the Public Service Bargaining
Council before the effective date.

(4) A person referred to in sub -items (1) and (2) remains subject to any decisions,
proceedings, rulings and directions applicable to that person immediately before
the effective date, and any proceedings against such a person, that were pending
immediately before the effective date, must be disposed of as if this Act had not
been enacted.
[Sub -item (4) amended by s. 126 of Act 3/2011]

(5) Any person transferred in terms of sub -items (1) and (3) –

(a) remains a member of the Government Employees‟ Pension Fund mentioned
in section 2 of the Government Employees‟ Pension Law, 1996 (Act No. 21
of 1996); and

(b) is entitled to pensi on and retirement benefits as if that person were in
service in a post classified in a division of the public service mentioned in
section 8 (1)(a)(i) of the Public Service Act, 1994 (Proclamation No. 103 of
1994).
[Sub -item (5) amended by s. 126 of ACt 3/2011]

(6) As of the general effective date –

(a) all movable assets of the state which were used by or which were at the
disposal of the Companies and Intellectual Property Registration Office and
the Office of Company and Intellectual Property Enforcement in the
Department immediately before the effective date, except those assets
excluded by the Minister, become the proper ty of the Commission;

(b) all contractual rights, obligations and liabilities of the Company and
Intellectual Property Registration Office are vested in the Commission;

(c) all financial, administrative and other records of the Company and
Intellectual Property Registration Office, including all relevant documents
in the possession of that office immediately before the effective date, are
transferred to the Commission; and

(d) the assets and liabilities of the Securities Regulation Panel established b y
section 440B of the Companies Act, 1973, are transferred to and are assets
and liabilities, respectively, of the Panel.

(7) Subject to subitem (8), on the general effective date –

(a) the person, if any, holding office immediately before that date, as a
member, chairperson, deputy chairperson or Executive Director of the
Securities Regulation Panel appointed in terms of the Companies Act, 1973,
is regarded to have been appointed as a member, chairperson, deputy
chairperson or Executive Director, respectively of the Panel in terms of this
Act;

(b) any person in the employ of the Securities Regulation Panel becomes an
employe e of the Panel;

(c) the terms and conditions of office or employment of a person contemplated
in this subitem are identical to the terms and conditions of office or
employment subsisting between that person and the Securities Regulation
Panel immediately before the general effective date, subject to any further
determination by the Panel in the exercise of its authority set out in sections
200 (1), 200 (2)(b) and 210 (3); and

(d) any person c ontemplated in this subitem who, as an employee or office
holder of the Securities Regulation Panel immediately before the general
effective date, had any rights to participate in, or vested rights in terms of,
any pension scheme or medical scheme, retains those rights, subject to any
further determination by the Panel in the exercise of its authority set out in
sections 200 (1), 200 (2)(b) and 210 (3).

(8) If, after the general effective date, a person referred to in subitem (7)(c) or (d) –

(a) resigns from an office in, or terminates that person‟s employment by, the
Panel; and

(b) is subsequently appointed to an office within, or re -employed by, the Panel,
sections 200 (1), 200 (2)(b) and 210 (3) apply with respect to that person as
if the person were being so appointed or employed by the Panel for the first
time.

(9) The registers of companies, external companies, reserv ed names, and delinquent
directors, respectively, as maintained by the Companies and Intellectual Property
Registration Office in terms of the previous Act are each continued as the register
of companies, external companies, reserved names, and directors, respectively,
required to be established by the Commission in terms of this Act.

13. Continued investigation and enforcement of previous Act

(1) Despite the repeal of the previous Act –

(a) any investigation by the Minister or the Registrar in terms of the previous
Act and pending immediately before the effective date, may be continued
by the Commission;

(b) any investigation or other matter being considered by the Securities
Regulation Panel in terms of the previous Act and pending immediately
befo re the effective date, may be continued by the Panel; and

(c) for a period of three years after the effective date –

(i) the Commission may exercise any power of the Minister, the
Registrar, or the Panel may exercise any power of the Securities
Regulation Panel, in terms of the previous Act to investigate and
prosecute any breach of that Act that occurred during the period of
three years immediately before the effective date, subject to sub -item
(2); and
[Subpara. (i) substituted by s. 126 of Act 3/2011]

(ii) a court may make any order that could have been made in the
circumstances by a court under that Act.

(2) In exercising authority under subsection (1), the Commission or Panel,
respectively, must conduct the investigation or other matter i n accordance with
the previous Act.

14. Regulations

On the effective date, and for a period of 60 business days after the effective date, the
Minister may make any regulation contemplated in this Act without meeting the
procedural requirements set out in section 223 or elsewhere in this Act, provided the
Minister has published those proposed regulations in the Gazette for comment for at
least 30 business days.