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The Treaty for the Establishment of the East African Community

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The Treaty for
the Establishment
of the East African
Community
EAST AFRICAN COMMUNITY (EAC)
EAC Publication 1

PUBLICATION OF
THE EAST AFRICAN COMMUNITY

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THE TREATY FOR THEESTABLISHMENT OF
THE EAST AFRICAN COMMUNITY
* The amendments in Chapters One, Five, Six Eight,
Nine and Twenty Nine are shown in bold italic
characters Signed on 30th November 1999
Entered into force on 7th July 2000
(Amended on 14th December, 2006 and on 20th August, 2007) *
Published by East African Community

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Cataloguing-in-Publication Data: East African Community,
The Treaty for the Establishment of the East African Community, Arusha. EAC: 2002 xiv, 111p.: 230mm (EAC Publication, No.1) ISBN: 9987 – 666-01-9
Copyright 2002, East African Community. All rights reserved to EAC Secretariat, P. O. Box 1096, Arusha, Tanzania
(Email: eac@eachq.org: Website://www.eac.int)
Printed at Colourprint Ltd. Nairobi, Kenya. Email: info@colourprint.co.k
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
PREAMBLE ………………………………………………………………
……………………………… 1
CHAPTER ONE:
INTERPRETATION ………………………………………………………………
…………………….. 5
ARTICLE 1 Interpretation
CHAPTER TWO: ESTABLISHMENT AND PRINCIPLES
OF THE COMMUNITY ………………………………………………………………
……………… 11
ARTICLE 2 Establishment
ARTICLE 3 Membership of the Community
ARTICLE 4 Legal Capacity of the Community
ARTICLE 5 Objectives of the Community
ARTICLE 6 Fundamental Principles of the Community
ARTICLE 7 Operational Principles
ARTICLE 8 General Undertaking as to Implementation
CHAPTER THREE: ESTABLISHMENT OF THE ORGANS
AND INSTITUTIONS OF THE COMMUNITY …………………………………………..17
ARTICLE 9 Establishment of the Organs and Institutions of the Community
CHAPTER FOUR: THE SUMMIT ………………………………………………………………
18
ARTICLE 10 Membership of the Summit
ARTICLE 11 Functions of the Summit
ARTICLE 12 Meetings of the Summit
CHAPTER FIVE: THE COUNCIL ………………………………………………………………
20
ARTICLE 13 Membership of the Council
ARTICLE 14 Functions of the Council
ARTICLE 15 Meetings of the Council
ARTICLE 16 Effects of Regulations, Directives, Decisions and Recommendations of the
Council
CHAPTER SIX: THE CO-ORDINATION COMMITTEE …………………………… 23
ARTICLE 17 Composition of the Co-ordination Committee
ARTICLE 18 Functions of the Co-ordination Committee
ARTICLE 19 Meetings of the Co-ordination Committee
CHAPTER SEVEN: SECTORAL COMMITTEES ……………………………………… 25
ARTICLE 20 Establishment and Composition of Sectoral Committees

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ARTICLE 21 Functions of the Sectoral Committees
ARTICLE 22 Meetings of the Sectoral Committees
CHAPTER EIGHT: THE EAST AFRICAN COURT OF JUSTICE ………………26
ARTICLE 23 Role of the Court
ARTICLE 24 Judges of the Court
ARTICLE 25 Tenure of Office of Judges
ARTICLE 26 Removal from Office and Temporary Membership of the Court
ARTICLE 27 Jurisdiction of the Court
ARTICLE 28 Reference by Partner States
ARTICLE 29 Reference by the Secretary General
ARTICLE 30 Reference by Legal and Natural Persons
ARTICLE 31 Disputes between the Community and its Employees
ARTICLE 32 Arbitration Clauses and Special Agreements
ARTICLE 33 Jurisdiction of National Courts
ARTICLE 34 Preliminary Rulings of National Courts
ARTICLE 35 Judgment of the Court
ARTICLE 35A Appeals.
ARTICLE 36 Advisory Opinions of the Court
ARTICLE 37 Appearance before the Court
ARTICLE 38 Acceptance of Judgments of the Court
ARTICLE 39 Interim Orders
ARTICLE 40 Intervention
ARTICLE 41 Proceedings
ARTICLE 42 Rules of the Court and Oaths of Office
ARTICLE 43 Immunity of the Judges and Holding of Other Offices
ARTICLE 44 Execution of Judgments
ARTICLE 45 Registrar of the Court and Other Staff .
ARTICLE 46 Official Language of the Court
ARTICLE 47 Seat of the Court
CHAPTER NINE: THE EAST AFRICAN LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY ……….38
ARTICLE 48 Membership of the Assembly
ARTICLE 49 Functions of the Assembly
ARTICLE 50 Election of Members of the Assembly
ARTICLE 51 Tenure of Office of Elected Members
ARTICLE 52 Questions as to Membership of the Assembly
ARTICLE 53 Speaker of the Assembly
ARTICLE 54 Invitation of Persons to Assist the Assembly
ARTICLE 55 Meetings of the Assembly.
ARTICLE 56 Presiding in the Assembly
ARTICLE 57 Quorum and Vacancies in the Assembly
ARTICLE 58 Voting in the Assembly
ARTICLE 59 Bills and Motions in the Assembly
ARTICLE 60 Rules of Procedure of the Assembly
ARTICLE 61 Powers, Privileges and Immunities of the Members of the Assembly

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ARTICLE 62 Acts of the Community
ARTICLE 63 Assent to Bills
ARTICLE 64 Publication of Acts of the Community
ARTICLE 65 Relations Between the Assembly and the National Assemblies of the Partner
States
CHAPTER TEN: SECRETARIAT AND STAFF OF THE COMMUNITY ………………….47
ARTICLE 66 Establishment of the Secretariat
ARTICLE 67 Secretary General
ARTICLE 68 Deputy Secretaries General
ARTICLE 69 Counsel to the Community
ARTICLE 70 Other Officers and Staff of the Secretariat
ARTICLE 71 Functions of the Secretariat
ARTICLE 72 Relationship Between the Secretariat and the Partner States
ARTICLE 73 Immunities
CHAPTER ELEVEN: CO-OPERATION IN TRADE LIBERALIZATION AND
DEVELOPMENT ………………………………………………………………
…………………………………….. 52
ARTICLE 74 East African Trade Regime
ARTICLE 75 Establishment of a Customs Union’
ARTICLE 76 Establishment of a Common Market
ARTICLE 77 Measures to Address Imbalances Arising from the Application of the
Provisions for the Establishment of a Customs Union and a Common Market
ARTICLE 78 Safeguard Clause
CHAPTER TWELVE: CO-OPERATION IN INVESTMENT AND INDUSTRIAL
DEVELOPMENT ………………………………………………………………
…………………………………….. 55
ARTICLE 79 Industrial Development
ARTICLE 80 Strategy and Priority Areas
CHAPTER THIRTEEN: CO-OPERATION IN QUALITY, ASSURANCE,
METROLOGY AND TESTING ………………………………………………………………
………………… 57
ARTICLE 81 Standardisation, Quality Assurance, Metrology and Testing
CHAPTER FOURTEEN: MONETARY AND FINANCIAL CO-OPERATION ………….. 58
ARTICLE 82 Scope of Co-operation
ARTICLE 83 Monetary and Fiscal Policy Harmonisation
ARTICLE 84 Macro-economic Co-ordination Within the Community
ARTICLE 85 Banking and Capital Market Development
ARTICLE 86 Movement of Capital
ARTICLE 87 Joint Project Financing
ARTICLE 88 Safeguard Measures

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CHAPTER FIFTEEN: CO-OPERATION IN INFRASTRUCTURE
AND SERVICES ………………………………………………………………
………………………………………. 62
ARTICLE 89 Common Transport and Communication Policies
ARTICLE 90 Roads and Road Transport
ARTICLE 91 Railways and Rail Transport
ARTICLE 92 Civil Aviation and Civil Air Transport
ARTICLE 93 Maritime Transport and Ports
ARTICLE 94 Inland Waterways Transport
ARTICLE 95 Multimodal Transport
ARTICLE 96 Freight Booking Centres
ARTICLE 97 Freight Forwarders, Customs Clearing Agents and Shipping Agents
ARTICLE 98 Postal Services
ARTICLE 99 Telecommunications
ARTICLE 100 Meteorological Services
ARTICLE 101 Energy
CHAPTER SIXTEEN: CO-OPERATION IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF HUMAN
RESOURCES, SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY ……………………………………………………….76
ARTICLE 102 Education and Training
ARTICLE 103 Science and Technology
CHAPTER SEVENTEEN: FREE MOVEMENT OF PERSONS, LABOUR, SERVICES,
RIGHT OF ESTABLISHMENT AND RESIDENCE …………………………………………………..79
ARTICLE 104 Scope of Co-operation
CHAPTER EIGHTEEN: AGRICULTURE AND FOOD SECURITY …………………………81
ARTICLE 105 Scope of Co-operation
ARTICLE 106 Seed Multiplication and Distribution
ARTICLE 107 Livestock Multiplication and Distribution
ARTICLE 108 Plant and Animal Diseases Control
ARTICLE 109 Irrigation and Water Catchment Management
ARTICLE 110 Food Security
CHAPTER NINETEEN: CO-OPERATION IN ENVIRONMENT AND NATURAL
RESOURCES MANAGEMENT ………………………………………………………………
……………….. 85
ARTICLE 111 Environmental Issues and Natural Resources
ARTICLE 112 Management of the Environment
ARTICLE 113 Prevention of Illegal Trade in and Movement Toxic Chemicals, Substances
and Hazardous Wastes.
ARTICLE 114 Management of Natural Resources
CHAPTER TWENTY: CO-OPERATION IN TOURISM AND WILDLIFE
MANAGEMENT ………………………………………………………………
……………………………………… 90

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ARTICLE 115 Tourism
ARTICLE 116 Wildlife Management
CHAPTER TWENTY ONE: HEALTH, SOCIAL AND CULTURAL ACTIVITIES ……92
ARTICLE 117 Scope of Co-operation
ARTICLE 118 Health
ARTICLE 119 Culture and Sports
ARTICLE 120 Social Welfare
CHAPTER TWENTY TWO: ENHANCING THE ROLE OF WOMEN IN SOCIO-
ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ………………………………………………………………
……………….. 95
ARTICLE 121 The Role of Women in Socio-Economic Development
ARTICLE 122 Role of Women in Business
CHAPTER TWENTY THREE: CO-OPERATION IN POLITICAL MATTERS ……….. 97
ARTICLE 123 Political Affairs
ARTICLE 124 Regional Peace and Security
ARTICLE 125 Defence
CHAPTER TWENTY FOUR: LEGAL AND JUDICIAL AFFAIRS ………………………….101
ARTICLE 126 Scope of Co-operation
CHAPTER TWENTY FIVE: THE PRIVATE SECTOR AND THE
CIVIL SOCIETY ………………………………………………………………
……………………………………. 102
ARTICLE 127 Creation of an Enabling Environment for the Private Sector and the Civil

Society
ARTICLE 128 Strengthening the Private Sector
ARTICLE 129 Co-operation Among Business Organisations and Professional Bodies
CHAPTER TWENTY SIX: RELATIONS WITH OTHER REGIONAL AND
INTERNATIONAL ORGANISATIONS AND DEVELOPMENT PARTNERS …………. 105
ARTICLE 130 International Organisations and Development Partners
CHAPTER TWENTY SEVEN: CO-OPERATION IN OTHER FIELDS …………………..106
ARTICLE 131 Other Fields
CHAPTER TWENTY EIGHT: FINANCIAL PROVISIONS ……………………………………107
ARTICLE 132 Budget

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ARTICLE 133 Other Resources
ARTICLE 134 Audit of Accounts
ARTICLE 135 Financial Rules and Regulations
CHAPTER TWENTY NINE: GENERAL, TRANSITIONAL
AND FINAL PROVISIONS ………………………………………………………………
……………………. 109
ARTICLE 136 Headquarters and Other Offices of the Community
ARTICLE 137 Official Language
ARTICLE 138 Status, Privileges and Immunities
ARTICLE 139 Dissolution of the Permanent Tripartite Commission and its Secretariat
ARTICLE 140 Transitional Provisions
ARTICLE 140(A) Transition
ARTICLE 141 Transfer of Assets and Liabilities
ARTICLE 142 Saving Provisions
ARTICLE 143 Sanctions
ARTICLE 144 Duration of the Treaty
ARTICLE 145 Withdrawal of a Member
ART1CLL 146 Suspension of a Member
ARTICLE 147 Expulsion of a Member
ARTICLE 148 Exception to the Rule of Consensus
ARTICLE 149 Rights over Property and Assets of the Community and Cessation of
Membership
ARTICLE’150 Amendment of the Treaty
ARTICLE 151 Annexes and Protocols to the Treaty
ARTICLE 152 Entry into Force
ARTICLE 153 Depository and Registration

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PREAMBLE WHEREASAND WHEREAS AND WHEREASAND
WHEREASAND WHEREASAND WHEREASAND WHEREASAND WHEREASAND WHEREASAND WHEREASAND
WHEREASAND WHEREASAND WHEREASNOW
THEREFOREDETERMINEDCONVINCEDAGREE AS FOLLOWS:

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3

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CHAPTER ONE
INTERPRETATION
ARTICLE 1
Interpretation
1. In this Treaty, except where the context otherwise requires –
“Act of the Community” means an Act of the Community in accordance with
this Treaty;
“Audit Commission” means the Audit Commission established by Article 134 of
this Treaty;
“Assembly” means the East African Legislative Assembly established by Article
9 of this Treaty;
“Attorney General” means the Attorney General of a Partner State;
“Bill” means a Bill of the East African Legislative Assembly;
“civil society” means a realm of organised social life that is voluntary, self
generating, self-supporting, autonomous from the state, and bound by a legal set
of shared rules;
“Clerk of the Assembly” means the Clerk of the East African Legislative
Assembly appointed under Article 48 of this Treaty;
“common carrier” includes a person or an undertaking engaged in the business of
providing services for the carriage of goods and passengers for hire and operating
as such under the laws of a Partner State;
“Common external tariff” means an identical rate of tariff imposed on goods
imported from third countries;
“common market” means the Partner States’ markets integrated into a single
market in which there is free movement of capital, labour, goods and services;
“common standard travel document” means a passport or any other valid
travel document establishing the identity of the holder, issued by or on behalf of

6the Partner State of which he or she is a citizen and shall also include inter-state
passes;
“Community” means the East African Community established by Article 2 of this
Treaty;
“Contracting Parties” means the Republic of Uganda, the Republic of Kenya
and the United Republic of Tanzania;
“co-operation” includes the undertaking by the Partner States in common, jointly
or in concert, of activities undertaken in furtherance of the objectives of the
Community as provided for under this Treaty or under any contract or agreement
made thereunder or in relation to the objectives of the Community;
“Co-ordination Committee” means the Co-ordination Committee established by
Article 9 of this Treaty;
“Council” means the Council of Ministers of the Community established by Article 9 of this Treaty;
“Counsel to the Community” means the Counsel to the Community provided for
under Article 69 of this Treaty;
“countervailing duty” means a specific duty levied for purposes of offsetting
a subsidy bestowed directly or indirectly upon the manufacture, production or
export of that product;
“Court” means the East African Court of Justice established by Article 9 of this
Treaty;
“customs clearing agent” means a person who is licensed in any of the Partner
States to provide a service at a fee, in connection with documentation and customs
clearance of import and export of consignments of goods;

“designated airline” means an airline which has been designated and authorised
by a competent authority of a Partner State to operate the agreed servic
es;
“duty drawback” means a refund of all or part of any excise or import duty paid
in respect of goods confirmed to have been exported or used in a manner or for a
purpose prescribed as a condition for granting duty drawback.
“East African Industrial Development Strategy” means the strategy provided
for under Article 80 of this Treaty;

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“East African Law Reports” means the published reports of the judgements of
the former Court of Appeal for East Africa and the High Courts of Uganda, Kenya
and Tanzania;
“East African Trade Regime” means a trade regime provided for under Article
74 of this Treaty;
“elected member” means an elected member of the Assembly elected under
Article 50 of this Treaty;
“environment” means the natural resources of air, water, soil, fauna and flora, eco-
systems, land, the man-made physical features, cultural heritage, the characteristic
aspects of the landscape and the socio-economic interaction between the said
factors and any living and non-living organisms;
“equitable distribution of benefits” means fair and proportionate distribution of
benefits;
“financial year” means the financial year referred to under Article 132 of this
Treaty;
“foreign country” means any country other than a Partner State;
“freight forwarder” means a person engaged at a fee, either as an agent for other
transport operators or on his own account, in the management of transport services
and related documentation;
“Gazette” means the Official Gazette of the Community;
“gender” means the role of women and men in society;
“Head of Government” means a person designated as such by a Partner State’s
Constitution;
“Head of State” means a person designated as such by a Partner State’s
Constitution;
“import” with its grammatical variations and cognate expressions means to bring
or cause to be brought into the territories of the Partner States from a foreign
country;
“indigenous entrepreneur” means a citizen who is a business person of a Partner
State but who does not possess a foreign nationality;

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“institutions of the Community” means the institutions of the Community
established by Article 9 of this Treaty;
“international standards” means standards that are adopted by international
standardising or standards organisations made available to the public;
“Judge” means a Judge of the Court serving on the First Instance Division or th
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Appellate Division;
“judgment” shall where appropriate include a ruling, an opinion, an order, a
directive or a decree of the Court;
“Minister” in relation to a Partner State, means a person appointed as a Minister
of the Government of that Partner State and any other person, however en
titled,
who, in accordance with any law of that Partner State, acts as or performs the
functions of a Minister in that State;
“multimodal transport” means the transport of goods and services from one
point to another by two or more modes of transport on the basis of a single contract
issued by the person organising such services and while such person assumes
responsibility for the execution of the whole operation and also includes any other
similar equipment or facility which may hereafter be used;
“multimodal transport facilities” includes items such as heavy lift swinging
devices, twin deck cranes, gantry cranes, elevators, large carriers, mechanised
storage, low loaders, access facilities, low-profile straddle carriers, mobile cranes,
container gantry cranes, side loaders, heavy duty forklifts, heavy duty
tractors,
heavy duty trailers, portable ramps, flat wagons (flats) for containers, low tare
special user wagons and trucks for containers, pallets, web-slings for pre-slung
cargoes for different commodities and any other similar equipment or facility
which may hereafter be used.”
“National Assemblies” with its grammatical variation and cognate expression
means the national legislatures however designated of the Partner States
;
“non-tariff barriers” means administrative and technical requirements imposed
by a Partner State in the movement of goods;
“organs of the Community” means the organs of the Community established by
Article 9 of this Treaty;

“other charges of equivalent effect” means any tax, surtax, levy or charge
imposed on imports and not on like locally produced products but does not include

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fees and similar charges commensurate with the cost of services rendered;
“Partner States” means the Republic of Uganda, the Republic of Kenya and the
United Republic of Tanzania and any other country granted membership to the
Community under Article 3 of this Treaty;
“person” means a natural or legal person;
“principle of asymmetry” means the principle which addresses variances in the
implementation of measures in an economic integration process for purposes of
achieving a common objective;
“principle of complementarity” means the principle which defines the extent to
which economic variables support each other in economic activity;
“principle of subsidiarity” means the principle which emphasises multi-level
participation of a wide range of participants in the process of economic integration;

“principle of variable geometry” means the principle of flexibility which
allows for progression in co-operation among a sub-group of members in a larger
integration scheme in a variety of areas and at different speeds;
“private sector” means the part of the economy that is not owned or directly
controlled by a state;
“protocol” means any agreement that supplements, amends or qualifies this
Treaty;
“Registrar” means the Registrar of the Court appointed under Article 45 of this
Treaty;
“safeguard measures” means the measures taken by any Partner State as provided
under Article 78 and 88 of this Treaty as the case may be;
“salary” and “terms and conditions of service” includes wages, overtime pay,
salary and wage structures, leave, passages, transport for leave purposes, pensions
and other retirement benefits, redundancy and severance payments, hours of duty,
grading of posts, medical arrangements, housing, arrangements for transport and
travelling on duty, and allowances;
“Secretariat” means the Secretariat of the Community established by Article 9 of
this Treaty’

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“Secretary General” means the Secretary General of the Community provided
for under Article 67 of this Treaty;
“Sectoral Committees” means Sectoral Committees established by Article 20 of
this Treaty;
“Sectoral Council” means the Sectoral Council provided for under Article 14 of
this Treaty;
“shipping agent” means a local representative of a shipping company;
“Speaker of the Assembly” means the Speaker of the Assembly provided for
under Article 53 of this Treaty.
“subsidy” means a financial contribution by Government or any public body
within the territory of a Partner State or where there is any form of in
come or price
support in the sense of Article XVI of GATT 1994;
“Summit” means the Summit established by Article 9 of this Treaty.

“surviving institutions of the former East African Community” means the
East African Civil Aviation Academy, Soroti, the East African Development Bank,
the East African School of Librarianship and the Inter-University Council for East
Africa;
“telecommunications” means any form of transmission, emission or reception
signal, writing, images and sounds or intelligence of any nature by wire, radio,
optical or other electro-magnetic systems;
“trade procedure” means activities related to the collection, presentation,
processing and dissemination of data and information concerning all activities
constituting international trade;
“Treaty” means this Treaty establishing the East African Community and any
annexes and protocols thereto;
2. In this Treaty, a reference to a law or protocol shall be construed as a reference to
the law or protocol as from time to time amended, added to or repealed.

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CHAPTER TWO
ESTABLISHMENT AND PRINCIPLESOF THE COMMUNITY
ARTICLE 2
Establishment of the Community
1. By this Treaty the Contracting Parties establish among themselves an East African
Community hereinafter referred to as “the Community”.
2. In furtherance of the provisions of paragraph 1 of this Article and in accordance
with the protocols to be concluded in this regard, the Contracting Parties shall
establish an East African Customs Union and a Common Market as transitional
stages to and integral parts of the Community.
ARTICLE 3
Membership of the Community
1. The members of the Community, in this Treaty referred to as “the Partner States”,
shall be the Republic of Uganda, the Republic of Kenya and the United Republic
of Tanzania and any other country granted membership to the Community under
this Article.
2. The Partner States may, upon such terms and in such manner as they may determine,
together negotiate with any foreign country the granting of membership to, or
association of that country with, the Community or its participation in any of the
activities of the Community.
3. Subject to paragraph 4 of this Article, the matters to be taken into account by
the Partner States in considering the application by a foreign country to become
a member of, be associated with, or participate in any of the activities of the
Community, shall include that foreign country’s:
(a) acceptance of the Community as set out in this Treaty;
(b) adherence to universally acceptable principles of good governance,
democracy, the rule of law, observance of human rights and social justice;
(c) potential contribution to the strengthening of integration within the East
African region;

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(d) geographical proximity to and inter-dependence between it and the Partner
States;
(e) establishment and maintenance of a market driven economy; and
(f) social and economic policies being compatible with those of the Community.
4. The conditions and other considerations that shall govern the membership
or
association of a foreign country with the Community or its participation in any of
the activities of the Community shall be as those prescribed in this Article.
5. The granting of observer status with respect to the Community shall:
(a) in case of a foreign country, be the prerogative of the Summit; and
(b) in case of an inter-governmental organization or civil society organisation,
be the prerogative of the Council.
6. The procedure to be followed with respect to the foregoing provisions of
this
Article shall be prescribed by the Council.
ARTICLE 4
Legal Capacity of the Community
1. The Community shall have the capacity, within each of the Partner States, of a
body corporate with perpetual succession, and shall have power to acquire, hold,
manage and dispose of land and other property, and to sue and be sued in its own
name.
2. The Community shall have power to perform any of the functions conferred upon
it by this Treaty and to do all things, including borrowing, that are necessary or
desirable for the performance of those functions.
3. The Community shall, as a body corporate, be represented by the Secretary
General.
ARTICLE 5
Objectives of the Community
1. The objectives of the Community shall be to develop policies and programmes
aimed at widening and deepening co-operation among the Partner States in
political, economic, social and cultural fields, research and technology, defence,

13
security and legal and judicial affairs, for their mutual benefit.
2. In pursuance of the provisions of paragraph 1 of this Article, the Partner States
undertake to establish among themselves and in accordance with the provisions
of this Treaty, a Customs Union, a Common Market, subsequently a Monetary
Union and ultimately a Political Federation in order to strengthen and regulate the
industrial, commercial, infrastructural, cultural, social, political and other relations
of the Partner States to the end that there shall be accelerated, harmonious and
balanced development and sustained expansion of economic activities, the benefit
of which shall be equitably shared.
3. For purposes set out in paragraph 1 of this Article and as subsequently provided in
particular provisions of this Treaty, the Community shall ensure:
(a) the attainment of sustainable growth and development of the Partner States
by the promotion of a more balanced and harmonious development of the
Partner States;
(b) the strengthening and consolidation of co-operation in agreed fields that
would lead to equitable economic development within the Partner States
and which would in turn, raise the standard of living and improve the
quality of life of their populations;
(c) the promotion of sustainable utilisation of the natural resources of the
Partner States and the taking of measures that would effectively protect the
natural environment of the Partner States;
(d) the strengthening and consolidation of the long standing political, economic,
social, cultural and traditional ties and associations between the peoples of
the Partner States so as to promote a people-centered mutual development
of these ties and associations;
(e) the mainstreaming of gender in all its endeavours and the enhancement of
the role of women in cultural, social, political, economic and technological
development;
(f) the promotion of peace, security, and stability within, and good
neighbourliness among, the Partner States;
(g) the enhancement and strengthening of partnerships with the private sector
and civil society in order to achieve sustainable socio-economic and
political development; and
(h) the undertaking of such other activities calculated to further the objectives

14of the Community, as the Partner States may from time to time decide to
undertake in common.
ARTICLE 6
Fundamental Principles of the Community
The fundamental principles that shall govern the achievement of the objectives of the
Community by the Partner States shall include:
(a) mutual trust, political will and sovereign equality;
(b) peaceful co-existence and good neighbourliness;
(c) peaceful settlement of disputes;
(d) good governance including adherence to the principles of democracy, the
rule of law, accountability, transparency, social justice, equal opportunities,
gender equality, as well as the recognition, promotion and protection of
human and peoples rights in accordance with the provisions of the African
Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights;

(e) equitable distribution of benefits; and
(f) co-operation for mutual benefit.
ARTICLE 7
Operational Principles of the Community
1. The principles that shall govern the practical achievement of the objectives of the
Community shall include:
(a) people-centered and market-driven co-operation;
(b) the provision by the Partner States of an adequate and appropriate enabling
environment, such as conducive policies and basic infrastructure;

(c) the establishment of an export oriented economy for the Partner States in
which there shall be free movement of goods, persons, labour, services,
capital, information and technology;
(d) the principle of subsidiarity with emphasis on multi-level participation

15
and the involvement of a wide range of stake- holders in the process of
integration;
(e) the principle of variable geometry which allows for progression in co-
operation among groups within the Community for wider integration
schemes in various fields and at different speeds;
(f) the equitable distribution of benefits accruing or to be derived from the
operations of the Community and measures to address economic imbalances
that may arise from such operations;
(g) the principle of complementarity; and
(h) the principle of asymmetry.
2. The Partner States undertake to abide by the principles of good governan
ce,
including adherence to the principles of democracy, the rule of law, social justice
and the maintenance of universally accepted standards of human rights.
ARTICLE 8
General Undertaking as to Implementation
1. The Partner States shall:
(a) plan and direct their policies and resources with a view to creating conditions
favourable for the development and achievement of the objectives of the
Community and the implementation of the provisions of this Treaty;
(b) co-ordinate, through the institutions of the Community, their economic
and other policies to the extent necessary to achieve the objectives of the
Community; and
(c) abstain from any measures likely to jeopardise the achievement of those
objectives or the implementation of the provisions of this Treaty.
2. Each Partner State shall, within twelve months from the date of signing this Treaty,
secure the enactment and the effective implementation of such legislation as is
necessary to give effect to this Treaty, and in particular –
(a) to confer upon the Community the legal capacity and personality required
for the performance of its functions; and
(b) to confer upon the legislation, regulations and directives of the Community

16and its institutions as provided for in this Treaty, the force of law within its
territory.

3. Each Partner State shall –
(a) designate a Ministry with which the Secretary General may communicate
in connection with any matter arising out of the implementation or the
application of this Treaty, and shall notify the Secretary General of that
designation;
(b) transmit to the Secretary General copies of all relevant existing and proposed
legislation and its official gazettes; and
(c) where it is required under this Treaty, to supply to or exchange with another
Partner State any information, send copies of such information to the
Secretary General.
4. Community organs, institutions and laws shall take precedence over similar
national ones on matters pertaining to the implementation of this Treaty.
5. In pursuance of the provisions of paragraph 4 of this Article, the Partner States
undertake to make the necessary legal instruments to confer precedence of
Community organs, institutions and laws over similar national ones.

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CHAPTER THREE
ESTABLISHMENT OF THE ORGANS ANDINSTITUTIONS OF THE COMMUNITY
ARTICLE 9
Establishment of the Organs and Institutions of the Community
1. There are hereby established as organs of the Community:
(a) the Summit;
(b) the Council;
(c) the Co-ordination Committee;
(d) Sectoral Committees;
(e) the East African Court of Justice;
(f) the East African Legislative Assembly;
(g) the Secretariat; and
(h) such other organs as may be established by the Summit.
2. The institutions of the Community shall be such bodies, departments and services
as may be established by the Summit.
3. Upon the entry into force of this Treaty, the East African Development Bank
established by the Treaty Amending and Re-enacting the Charter of the East
African Development Bank, 1980 and the Lake Victoria Fisheries Organisation
established by the Convention (Final Act) for the Establishment of the Lake
Victoria Fisheries Organisation, 1994 and surviving institutions of the former East
African Community shall be deemed to be institutions of the Community an
d shall
be designated and function as such.
4. The organs and institutions of the Community shall perform the functions, and act
within the limits of the powers conferred upon them by or under this Treaty.
5. In the appointment of staff and composition of the organs and institutions of the
Community, gender balance shall be taken into account.

18
CHAPTER FOUR
THE SUMMIT
ARTICLE 10
Membership of the Summit
1. The Summit shall consist of the Heads of State or Government of the Part
ner
States.
2. If a member of the Summit is unable to attend a meeting of the Summit and it is
not convenient to postpone the meeting, that member may, after consultation with
other members of the Summit, appoint a Minister of Government to attend the
meeting. A Minister so appointed shall, for purposes of that meeting, have all the
powers, duties and responsibilities of the member of the Summit for whom that
person is acting.
ARTICLE 11
Functions of the Summit
1. The Summit shall give general directions and impetus as to the development and
achievement of the objectives of the Community.
2. The Summit shall consider the annual progress reports and such other rep
orts
submitted to it by the Council as provided for by this Treaty.
3. The Summit shall review the state of peace, security and good governance
within
the Community and the progress achieved towards the establishment of a Political
Federation of the Partner States.
4. The Summit shall have such other functions as may be conferred upon it b
y this
Treaty.
5. Subject to this Treaty, the Summit may delegate the exercise of any of its functions,
subject to any conditions which it may think fit to impose, to a member of the
Summit, to the Council or to the Secretary General.
6. An Act of the Community may provide for the delegation of any powers, including
legislative powers, conferred on the Summit by this Treaty or by any Act of the
Community, to the Council or to the Secretary General.

19
7.
Subject to the provisions of any Act of the Community, the acts and decisions of
the Summit may be signified under the hand of the Secretary General or of any
officer in the service of the Community authorised in that behalf by the Summit.
8. The Summit shall cause all rules and orders made by it under this Treaty to be
published in the Gazette; and any such rules or orders shall come into force on the
date of publication unless otherwise provided in the rule or order.
9. The delegation of powers and functions referred to in paragraphs 5 and 6 of this
Article, shall not include:
(a) the giving of general directions and impetus;
(b) the appointment of Judges to the East African Court of Justice;
(c) the admission of new Members and granting of Observer Status to foreign
countries; and
(d) assent to Bills.
ARTICLE 12
Meetings of the Summit
1. The Summit shall meet at least once in every year and may hold extraordinary
meetings at the request of any member of the Summit.
2. The tenure of office of the Chairperson of the Summit is one year and the office of
the Chairperson shall be held in rotation among the Partner States.
3. The decisions of the Summit shall be by consensus.
4. The Summit shall discuss business submitted to it by the Council and any
other
matter which may have a bearing on the Community.
5. Subject to the provisions of this Treaty, the Summit shall determine its own
procedure, including that for convening its meetings, for the conduct of business
thereat and at other times, and for the rotation of the office of Chairperson among
the members of the Summit.

20
CHAPTER FIVE
THE COUNCIL
ARTICLE 13
Membership of the Council
The Council shall consist of:
(a) the Minister responsible for East African Community affairs of each Partner
State;
(b) such other Minister of the Partner States as each Partner State may dete
rmine;
and
(c) the Attorney General of each Partner State.
ARTICLE 14
Functions of the Council
1. The Council shall be the policy organ of the Community.

2. The Council shall promote, monitor and keep under constant review the
implementation of the programmes of the Community and ensure the proper
functioning and development of the Community in accordance with this Treaty.
3. For purposes of paragraph 1 of this Article, the Council shall:
(a) make policy decisions for the efficient and harmonious functioning and
development of the Community;
(b) initiate and submit Bills to the Assembly;
(c) subject to this Treaty, give directions to the Partner States and to all other
organs and institutions of the Community other than the Summit, Court and
the Assembly;
(d) make regulations, issue directives, take decisions, make recommendations

and give opinions in accordance with the provisions of this Treaty;
(e) consider the budget of the Community;

21

(f) consider measures that should be taken by Partner States in order to promote
the attainment of the objectives of the Community;

(g) make staff rules and regulations and financial rules and regulations of the
Community;
(h) submit annual progress reports to the Summit and prepare the agenda for
the meetings of the Summit;
(i) establish from among its members, Sectoral Councils to deal with such
matters that arise under this Treaty as the Council may delegate or assign
to them and the decisions of such Sectoral Councils shall be deemed to be
decisions of the Council;
(j) establish the Sectoral Committees provided for under this Treaty;
(k) implement the decisions and directives of the Summit as may be addressed
to it;
(l) endeavour to resolve matters that may be referred to it; and
(m) exercise such other powers and perform such other functions as are veste
d
in or conferred on it by this Treaty.
4. The Council may request advisory opinions from the Court in accordance with this
Treaty.
5. The Council shall cause all regulations and directives made or given by it under
this Treaty to be published in the Gazette; and such regulations or directives shall
come into force on the date of publication unless otherwise provided the
rein.
ARTICLE 15
Meetings of the Council
1. The Council shall meet twice in each year, one meeting of which shall be held
immediately preceding a meeting of the Summit. Extraordinary meetings of t he
Council may be held at the request of a Partner State or the Chairperson of the
Council.
2. The Council shall determine its own procedure including that for convening its
meetings, for the conduct of business thereat and at other times, and for the rotation
of the office of Chairperson among its members who are Ministers responsible for
regional co-operation in the Partner States.

223.
A member of the Council who is the leader of his or her Partner State’s delegation
to a meeting of the Council, may record his or her objection to a proposal submitted
for the decision of the Council and, if any such objection is recorded, the Council
shall not proceed with the proposal and shall, unless the objection is withdrawn
refer the matter to the Summit for decision.
4. Subject to a protocol on decision-making, the decisions of the Council shall be by
consensus.
5. The protocol referred to in paragraph 4 of this Article shall be concluded within a
period of six months from the entry into force of this Treaty.
ARTICLE 16
Effects of Regulations, Directives, Decisions and Recommendations of the Council
Subject to the provisions of this Treaty, the regulations, directives and decisions of the
Council taken or given in pursuance of the provisions of this Treaty shall be binding
on the Partner States, on all organs and institutions of the Community other than the
Summit, the Court and the Assembly within their jurisdictions, and on those to whom
they may under this Treaty be addressed.

23
CHAPTER SIX
THE CO-ORDINATION COMMITTEE
ARTICLE 17
Composition of the Co-ordination Committee
The Co-ordination Committee shall consist of the Permanent Secretaries responsible
for East African Community affairs in each Partner State and such other Permanent
Secretaries of the Partner States as each Partner State may determine. ARTICLE 18
Functions of the Co-ordination Committee
The Co-ordination Committee:
(a) shall submit from time to time, reports and recommendations to the Council
either on its own initiative or upon the request of the Council, on the
implementation of this Treaty;
(b) shall implement the decisions of the Council as the Council may direct;
(c) shall receive and consider reports of the Sectoral Committees and co-
ordinate their activities;
(d) may request a Sectoral Committee to investigate any particular matter; and
(e) shall have such other functions as are conferred upon it by this Treaty.
ARTICLE 19
Meetings of the Co-ordination Committee
1. Subject to any directions which may be given by the Council, the Co-ordi
nation
Committee shall meet at least twice in each year preceding the meetings of the
Council and may hold extraordinary meetings at the request of the Chairperson of
the Co-ordination Committee.

242.
The Co-ordination Committee shall determine its own procedure including that
for convening its meetings, for the conduct of business thereat and at other times,
and for the rotation of the office of Chairperson among its members who are
Permanent Secretaries responsible for East African Community affairs in each
Partner State.

25
CHAPTER SEVEN
SECTORAL COMMITTEES
ARTICLE 20
Establishment and Composition of Sectoral Committees
The Co-ordination Committee shall recommend to the Council the establishment,
composition and functions of such Sectoral Committees as may be necessary for the
achievement of the objectives of this Treaty. ARTICLE 21
Functions of the Sectoral Committees
Subject to any directions the Council may give, each Sectoral Committee
shall:
(a) be responsible for the preparation of a comprehensive implementation
programme and the setting out of priorities with respect to its sector;
(b) monitor and keep under constant review the implementation of the
programmes of the Community with respect to its sector;
(c) submit from time to time, reports and recommendations to the Co-
ordination Committee either on its own initiative or upon the request of the
Co-ordination Committee concerning the implementation of the provisions
of this Treaty that affect its sector; and
(d) have such other functions as may be conferred on it by or under this Treaty.
ARTICLE 22
Meetings of the Sectoral Committees
Subject to any directions that may be given by the Council, the Sectoral Committees
shall meet as often as necessary for the proper discharge of their functions and shall
determine their own procedure.

26
CHAPTER EIGHT
THE EAST AFRICAN COURT OF JUSTICE
ARTICLE 23
Role of the Court
1. The Court shall be a judicial body which shall ensure the adherence to law in the
interpretation and application of and compliance with this Treaty.
2. The Court shall consist of a First Instance Division and an Appellate Division.
3. The First Instance Division shall have jurisdiction to hear and determin
e, at
first instance, subject to a right of appeal to the Appellate Division under Article
35A, any matter before the Court in accordance with this Treaty.
ARTICLE 24
Judges of the Court
1. Judges of the Court shall be appointed by the Summit from among persons
recommended by the Partner States who are of proven integrity, impartiality and
independence and who fulfil the conditions required in their own countries for the
holding of such high judicial office, or who are jurists of recognised competence,
in their respective Partner States:
Provided that no more than–
(a) two Judges of the First Instance Division; or
(b) one Judge of the Appellate Division,
shall be appointed on the recommendation of the same Partner State.
2. The Court shall be composed of a maximum of fifteen Judges of whom not more
than ten shall be appointed to the First Instance Division and not more than five
shall be appointed to the Appellate Division:
Provided that of the Judges first appointed to the Court, the terms of one third
of the Judges shall expire at the end of five years, the terms of another one third
of the Judges shall expire at the end of six years and the remaining one
third of
the Judges shall serve their full terms of seven years.

27
3.
The Judges whose terms are to expire at the end of each of the initial periods
mentioned in paragraph 2 of this Article shall be chosen by lot to be drawn by the
Summit immediately after their first appointment.
4. The Summit shall designate two of the Judges of the Appellate Division as the
President and Vice-President respectively, who shall be responsible for the
performance of such functions as are set out in this Treaty.
5. The Summit shall designate two of the Judges of the First Instance Division
as the Principal Judge and Deputy Principal Judge respectively, who shall be
responsible for the performance of such functions as may be set out in t
his
Treaty.
6. The President and Vice-President, the Principal Judge and the Deputy Principal
Judge, shall not be nationals of the same Partner State.
7. The President shall:
(a) be the Head of the Court and shall be responsible for the administration

and supervision of the Court;
(b) direct work of the Appellate Division, represent it, regulate the disposition
of the matters brought before the Court and preside over its sessions.
8. The Principal Judge shall direct work of the First Instance Division, represent
it, regulate the disposition of the matters brought before the Court and preside
over its sessions.
9. The office of President of the Court shall be held in rotation after the completion
of any one term.
10. The President of the Court shall direct the work of the Court, represent it, regulate
the disposition of matters brought before the Court, and preside over it
s sessions.

28ARTICLE 25
Tenure of Office of Judges
1. Subject to paragraph 2 of Article 24, a Judge appointed under paragraph 1 of
Article 24 of this Treaty, shall hold office for a maximum period of seven years.
2. A Judge shall hold office for the full term of his or her appointment unless he or
she resigns or attains seventy (70) years of age or dies or is removed from office
in accordance with this Treaty.
3. Where the term of office of a Judge comes to an end by effluxion of time or on
resignation before a decision or opinion of the Court with respect to a matter which
has been argued before the Court of which he or she was a member is delivered,
that Judge shall, only for the purpose of completing that particular matter, continue
to sit as a Judge.
4. A Judge may, at any time, resign his or her office by giving three months’ written
notice to the Chairman of the Summit through the Secretary General.
5. The salary and other terms and conditions of service of a Judge not prov
ided for
in this Treaty shall be determined by the Summit on the recommendation of the
Council.
ARTICLE 26
Removal from Office and Temporary Membership of the Court
1. A Judge shall not be removed from office except by the Summit–
(a) for misconduct or for inability to perform the functions of his or her office
due to infirmity of mind or body;
Provided that a Judge shall only be removed from office under this sub
paragraph if the question of his or her removal from office has been
referred to an ad hoc independent tribunal appointed for this purpose by
the Summit and the tribunal has recommended that the Judge be removed
from office for misconduct or inability to perform the functions of his or
her office; or
(b) in the case of a Judge who also holds judicial office or other public office
in a Partner State–

29

(i) is removed from that office for misconduct or due to inability to
perform the functions of the office for any reason; or
(ii) resigns from that office following allegation of misconduct or of
inability to perform the functions of the office for any reason;
(c) if the Judge is adjudged bankrupt under any law in force in a Partner
State; or
(d) if the Judge is convicted of an offence involving dishonesty or fraud or
moral turpitude under any law in force in a Partner State.
2. Where–
(a) the question of removing a Judge has been referred to a tribunal under
paragraph 1(a); or
(b) a Judge is subject to investigation by a tribunal or other relevant authority
of a Partner State with a view to his or her removal from an office referred
to in paragraph 1(b); or
(c) a Judge is charged with an offence referred to in paragraph 1(d) under
any law in force in a Partner State,
the Summit may, subject to paragraph 2B, suspend the Judge from the exercise
of the functions of his or her office
2A. Where a Judge is suspended under paragraph 2, his or her respective Partner
State shall recommend a person qualified in terms of Article 24 to the Summit
for appointment as a temporary Judge for the duration of such suspension
.
2B. The suspension of a Judge under paragraph 2 may, at any time, be revoked by
the Summit and shall, in any case, cease to have effect if–
(a) the tribunal appointed under paragraph 1(a) recommends to the Summit
that the Judge should not be removed from office; or
(b) a tribunal or other relevant authority of a Partner State recommends that
the Judge should not be removed from an office referred to in paragraph
1(b); or
(c) the Judge is acquitted of an offence referred to in paragraph 1(d) by a
court of competent jurisdiction in a Partner State.

303.
The tribunal appointed under paragraph 1(a) of this Article shall consist of three
eminent Judges drawn from within the Commonwealth of Nations.
4. At any time when the President of the Appellate Division, or the Principal Judge
of the First Instance Division of the Court is for any reason unable to perform
the functions of his or her office, those functions shall be performed by the Vice-
President or the Deputy Principal Judge, as the case may be.
5. The procedure for filling vacancies in the Court shall be prescribed in rules of the
Court.
6. If a Judge is directly or indirectly interested in a case before the Court, and if
he or she considers that the nature of his or her interest is such that it would
be prejudicial for him or her to take part in that case, such a Judge shall, if
in the First Instance Division, make a report to the Principal Judge, or
, if in
the Appellate Division, make a report to the President, and if the President

or Principal Judge considers the Judge’s interest in the case prejudicial, the
President or Principal Judge, as the case may be, shall make a report to
the
Chairperson of the Summit, and the Summit shall appoint a temporary Judge to
act for that case only in place of the substantive Judge.
7. If the President or Principal Judge of the Court is directly or indirectly interested
in a case before the Court he or she shall, if he or she considers that
the nature of
his or her interest is such that it would be prejudicial for him or her to take part
in that case, make a report to the Chairperson of the Summit and the Summit shall
appoint a temporary President or Principal Judge of the Court to act as President
or Principal Judge of the Court for that case only in place of the substantive
President or Principal Judge of the Court.
ARTICLE 27
Jurisdiction of the Court
1. The Court shall initially have jurisdiction over the interpretation and application
of this Treaty:
Provided that the Court’s jurisdiction to interpret under this paragraph shall not
include the application of any such interpretation to jurisdiction conferred by
the Treaty on organs of Partner States.
2. The Court shall have such other original, appellate, human rights and other
jurisdiction as will be determined by the Council at a suitable subsequent date. To
this end, the Partner States shall conclude a protocol to operationalise the extended
jurisdiction.

31
ARTICLE 28
Reference by Partner States
1. A Partner State which considers that another Partner State or an organ or
institution of the Community has failed to fulfil an obligation under this Treaty
or has infringed a provision of this Treaty, may refer the matter to the Court for
adjudication.
2. A Partner State may refer for determination by the Court, the legality of any
Act, regulation, directive, decision or action on the ground that it is ultra vires
or unlawful or an infringement of the provisions of this Treaty or any rule of law
relating to its application or amounts to a misuse or abuse of power.
ARTICLE 29
Reference by the Secretary General
1. Where the Secretary General considers that a Partner State has failed to fulfil
an obligation under this Treaty or has infringed a provision of this Treaty, the
Secretary General shall submit his or her findings to the Partner State concerned
for that Partner State to submit its observations on the findings.
2. If the Partner State concerned does not submit its observations to the Secretary
General within four months, or if the observations submitted are unsatisfactory, the
Secretary General shall refer the matter to the Council which shall decide whether
the matter should be referred by the Secretary General to the Court immediately
or be resolved by the Council.
3. Where a matter has been referred to the Council under the provisions of paragraph
2 of this Article and the Council fails to resolve the matter, the Council shall direct
the Secretary General to refer the matter to the Court.
ARTICLE 30
Reference by Legal and Natural Persons
1. Subject to the provisions of Article 27 of this Treaty, any person who is resident in
a Partner State may refer for determination by the Court, the legality of any Act,
regulation, directive, decision or action of a Partner State or an institution of the
Community on the grounds that such Act, regulation, directive, decision or action
is unlawful or is an infringement of the provisions of this Treaty.

322.
The proceedings provided for in this Article shall be instituted within two
months of the enactment, publication, directive, decision or action complained
of, or in the absence thereof, of the day in which it came to the knowle
dge of the
complainant, as the case may be;
3. The Court shall have no jurisdiction under this Article where an Act, regulation,
directive, decision or action has been reserved under this Treaty to an institution
of a Partner State.
ARTICLE 31
Disputes between the
Community and its Employees
The Court shall have jurisdiction to hear and determine disputes between the Community
and its employees that arise out of the terms and conditions of employment of the
employees of the Community or the application and interpretation of the staff rules and
regulations and terms and conditions of service of the Community. ARTICLE 32
Arbitration Clauses
and Special Agreements
The Court shall have jurisdiction to hear and determine any matter:
(a) arising from an arbitration clause contained in a contract or agreement which
confers such jurisdiction to which the Community or any of its instituti
ons
is a party; or
(b) arising from a dispute between the Partner States regarding this Treaty if
the dispute is submitted to it under a special agreement between the Partner
States concerned; or
(c) arising from an arbitration clause contained in a commercial contract or
agreement in which the parties have conferred jurisdiction on the Court.

33
ARTICLE 33
Jurisdiction of National Courts
1. Except where jurisdiction is conferred on the Court by this Treaty, disputes to
which the Community is a party shall not on that ground alone, be excluded from
the jurisdiction of the national courts of the Partner States.
2. Decisions of the Court on the interpretation and application of this Treaty shall
have precedence over decisions of national courts on a similar matter.
ARTICLE 34
Preliminary Rulings of National Courts
Where a question is raised before any court or tribunal of a Partner Sta
te concerning
the interpretation or application of the provisions of this Treaty or the validity of the
regulations, directives, decisions or actions of the Community, that court or tribunal
shall, if it considers that a ruling on the question is necessary to ena
ble it to give
judgment, request the Court to give a preliminary ruling on the question
. ARTICLE 35
Judgment of the Court
1. The Court shall consider and determine every reference made to it pursuant to this
Treaty in accordance with rules of the Court and shall deliver in public session, a
reasoned judgment:
Provided that if the Court considers that in the special
circumstances of the case it is undesirable that its judgment
be delivered in open court, the Court may make an order to that
effect and deliver its judgment before the parties privately.
2. The Court shall deliver one judgment only in respect of every reference to it,
which shall be the judgment of the Court reached in private by majority
verdict:
Provided that a Judge may deliver a dissenting judgment.
3. An application for review of a judgment may be made to the Court only if it
is based upon the discovery of some fact which by its nature might have
had a
decisive influence on the judgment if it had been known to the Court at the time
the judgment was given, but which fact, at that time, was unknown to both the

34Court and the party making the application, and which could not, with reasonable
diligence, have been discovered by that party before the judgment was made, or
on account of some mistake, fraud or error on the face of the record or because an
injustice has been done.
ARTICLE 35 AAppeals
An appeal from the judgment or any order of the First Instance Division
of the Court
shall lie to the Appellate Division on-
(a) points of law;
(b) grounds of lack of jurisdiction; or
(c) procedural irregularity.
ARTICLE 36
Advisory Opinions of the Court
1. The Summit, the Council or a Partner State may request the Court to give
an
advisory opinion regarding a question of law arising from this Treaty which affects
the Community, and the Partner State, the Secretary General or any other Partner
State shall in the case of every such request have the right to be repre
sented and
take part in the proceedings.
2. A request for an advisory opinion under paragraph 1 of this Article shall contain
an exact statement of the question upon which an opinion is required and shall be
accompanied by all relevant documents likely to be of assistance to the
Court.
3. Upon the receipt of the request under paragraph 1 of this Article, the Registrar
shall immediately give notice of the request, to all the Partner States, and shall
notify them that the Court shall be prepared to accept, within a time fixed by the
President of the Court, written submissions, or to hear oral submissions relating to
the question.
4. In the exercise of its advisory function, the Court shall be governed by
this Treaty
and rules of the Court relating to references of disputes to the extent that the Court
considers appropriate.

35
ARTICLE 37
Appearance before the Court
1. Every party to a dispute or reference before the Court may be represented by an
advocate entitled to appear before a superior court of any of the Partner States
appointed by that party.
2. The Counsel to the Community shall be entitled to appear before the Court in any
matter in which the Community or any of its institutions is a party or in respect of
any matter where the Counsel to the Community thinks that such an appearance
would be desirable.
ARTICLE 38
Acceptance of Judgments of the Court
1. Any dispute concerning the interpretation or application of this Treaty or any of
the matters referred to the Court pursuant to this Chapter shall not be subjected to
any method of settlement other than those provided for in this Treaty.
2. Where a dispute has been referred to the Council or the Court, the Partner States
shall refrain from any action which might be detrimental to the resolution of the
dispute or might aggravate the dispute.
3. A Partner State or the Council shall take, without delay, the measures required to
implement a judgment of the Court.
ARTICLE 39
Interim Orders
The Court may, in a case referred to it, make any interim orders or issue any directions
which it considers necessary or desirable. Interim orders and other directions issued by
the Court shall have the same effect ad interim as decisions of the Court. ARTICLE 40Intervention
A Partner State, the Secretary General or a resident of a Partner State who is not a
party to a case before the Court may, with leave of the Court, intervene in that case,
but the submissions of the intervening party shall be limited to evidence supporting or
opposing the arguments of a party to the case.

36ARTICLE 41
Proceedings
1. The quorum for deliberations of the Court shall be prescribed in rules of the Court.
2. The proceedings before the Court shall be either written or oral.
3. The record of each hearing shall be signed by the President or Vice President of
the Court and shall be kept and maintained by the Registrar.
ARTICLE 42
Rules of the Court and Oaths of Office
1. The Court shall make rules of the Court which shall, subject to the prov
isions of
this Treaty, regulate the detailed conduct of the business of the Court.
2. The Secretary General shall prepare the oath and declarations that the Judges and
the Registrar of the Court shall take before the Summit upon their appoi
ntment or
make upon entering into their duties.
ARTICLE 43
Immunity of the
Judges and the Holding of Other Offices
1. The Judges of the Court shall be immune from legal action for any act or omission
committed in the discharge of their judicial functions under this Treaty.
2. A Judge of the Court shall neither hold any political office or any office in the
service of a Partner State or the Community nor engage in any trade, vocation
or profession that is likely to interfere or create a conflict of interest to his or her
position.
ARTICLE 44
Execution of Judgments
The execution of a judgment of the Court which imposes a pecuniary oblig
ation on a
person shall be governed by the rules of civil procedure in force in the Partner State
in which execution is to take place. The order for execution shall be appended to the
judgment of the Court which shall require only the verification of the authenticity of the

37
judgment by the Registrar whereupon, the party in whose favour execution
is to take
place, may proceed to execute the judgment.
ARTICLE 45
Registrar of the Court and Other Staff
1. The Council shall appoint a Registrar of the Court from among citizens of the
Partner States qualified to hold such high judicial office in their respective Partner
States.
2. The Court shall employ such other staff as may be required to enable it to perform
its functions and who shall hold office in the service of the Court.
3. The salary and other conditions of service of the Registrar and other staff of the
Court shall be determined by the Council.
4. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph 1 of this Article the Registrar shall be
responsible to the President of the Court for the day to day administrat
ion of the
business of the Court. The Registrar shall also carry out the duties imposed upon
him by this Treaty and rules of the Court.
ARTICLE 46
Official Language of the Court
The official language of the Court shall be English. ARTICLE 47
Seat of the Court
The Seat of the Court shall be determined by the Summit.

38
CHAPTER NINE
THE EAST AFRICAN LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY
ARTICLE 48
Membership of the Assembly
1. The membership of the Assembly shall comprise-
(a) nine members elected by each Partner State; and
(b) ex-officio members consisting of:
(i) the Minister responsible for East African Community affairs from
each Partner State; and
(ii) the Assistant Minister or Deputy Minister or Minister of State
responsible for East African Community affairs from each Partner
State:
Provided that an Assistant Minister, Deputy Minister or Minister of
State may only participate in the meetings of the Assembly when
the substantive Minister responsible for East African Community
affairs is for any reason unable to participate; and
(iii) the Secretary General and the Counsel to the Community.
2. The Speaker of the Assembly shall preside over and take part in its proceedings in
accordance with the rules of procedure of the Assembly.
3. The Assembly shall have committees which shall be constituted in the manner
provided in the rules of procedure of the Assembly and shall perform the functions
provided in respect thereof in the said rules of procedure.
4. The Council shall appoint a Clerk of the Assembly and other officers of the
Assembly whose salaries and other terms and conditions of service shall be
determined by the Council.

39
ARTICLE 49
Functions of the Assembly
1. The Assembly shall be the legislative organ of the Community.
2. The Assembly:
(a) shall liaise with the National Assemblies of the Partner States on matters
relating to the Community;
(b) shall debate and approve the budget of the Community;
(c) shall consider annual reports on the activities of the Community, annual
audit reports of the Audit Commission and any other reports referred to it
by the Council;
(d) shall discuss all matters pertaining to the Community and make
recommendations to the Council as it may deem necessary for the
implementation of the Treaty;
(e) may for purposes of carrying out its functions, establish any committee or
committees for such purposes as it deems necessary;
(f) shall recommend to the Council the appointment of the Clerk and other
officers of the Assembly; and
(g) shall make its rules of procedure and those of its committees.
3. The Assembly may perform any other functions as are conferred upon it by thi
s
Treaty.
ARTICLE 50
Election of Members of the Assembly
1. The National Assembly of each Partner State shall elect, not from among its
members, nine members of the Assembly, who shall represent as much as it is
feasible, the various political parties represented in the National Assembly, shades
of opinion, gender and other special interest groups in that Partner State, in
accordance with such procedure as the National Assembly of each Partner State
may determine.
2. A person shall be qualified to be elected a member of the Assembly by the National
Assembly of a Partner State in accordance with paragraph 1 of this Article if such
a person:
(a) is a citizen of that Partner State;
(b) is qualified to be elected a member of the National Assembly of that Partner
State under its Constitution;

40
(c) is not holding office as a Minister in that Partner State;
(d) is not an officer in the service of the Community; and
(e) has proven experience or interest in consolidating and furthering the aims
and the objectives of the Community.
ARTICLE 51
Tenure of Office of Elected Members
1. Subject to this Article, an elected member of the Assembly shall hold office for
five years and be eligible for re-election for a further term of five years.
2. The terms and conditions of service of the Members of the Assembly shall be
determined by the Summit on the recommendation of the Council.
3. An elected member of the Assembly shall vacate his or her seat in the Assembly
upon the happening of any of the following events:
(a) upon the delivery of his or her resignation in writing to the Speaker of the
Assembly;
(b) upon his or her ceasing to be qualified for election as an elected member;
(c) upon his or her election or nomination as a member of the National
Assembly of a Partner State;
(d) upon his or her appointment as a Minister in the Government of a Partner

State;
(e) upon his or her having been absent from the Assembly for such period and
in such circumstances as are prescribed by the rules of procedure of the
Assembly; or
(f) upon his or her conviction by a Court of competent jurisdiction of an offence
and sentenced to imprisonment for a term exceeding six months and if no
appeal has been preferred against such a decision.
ARTICLE 52
Questions as to Membership of the Assembly
1. Any question that may arise whether any person is an elected member of the

41
Assembly or whether any seat on the Assembly is vacant shall be determined
by the institution of the Partner State that determines questions of the election of
members of the National Assembly responsible for the election in question.
2. The National Assembly of the Partner States shall notify the Speaker of the
Assembly of every determination made under paragraph 1 of this Article.
ARTICLE 53
Speaker of the Assembly
1. The Speaker of the Assembly shall be elected on rotational basis by the elected
members of the Assembly from among themselves to serve for a period of five
years.
2. The Speaker of the Assembly shall vacate his or her office:
(a) upon the expiry of the period for which he or she was elected;
(b) if he or she delivers his or her resignation in writing to the elected members;
or
(c) if he or she ceases to be qualified for election as Speaker of the Assembly.
3. The Speaker of the Assembly may be removed from office by a resolution
supported by not less than two thirds majority of the elected members for inability
to perform the functions of his or her office, whether arising from infirmity of
mind or body or for misconduct.
ARTICLE 54
Invitation of Persons to Assist the Assembly
1. The Speaker of the Assembly, may invite any person to attend the Assembly,
notwithstanding that he or she is not a member of the Assembly, if in his or her
opinion the business before the Assembly renders his or her presence desirable.
2. The rules of procedure of the Assembly shall make provisions for a person so
invited to take part in the proceedings of the Assembly relating to the matters in
respect of which he or she was invited.

42ARTICLE 55
Meetings of the Assembly
1. The meetings of the Assembly shall be held at such times and places as the
Assembly may appoint.
2. Subject to the provisions of paragraph 1 of this Article, the Assembly shall meet
at least once in every year at Arusha in the United Republic of Tanzania and at a
time to be determined by the Assembly.
ARTICLE 56
Presiding in the Assembly
There shall preside at any sitting of the Assembly:
(a) the Speaker of the Assembly; or
(b) in the absence of the Speaker of the Assembly, such elected member of the
Assembly as the elected members may elect for the sitting.
ARTICLE 57
Quorum and Vacancies in the Assembly
1. Subject to this Article, the rules of procedure of the Assembly shall make provision
as to the number and composition of the elected members that shall constitute a
quorum of the Assembly.
2. In reckoning the number of members who are present for the purposes of paragraph
1 of this Article, the person presiding shall not be taken into account.
3. The Assembly may transact business notwithstanding that there is a vacancy
among its members, and the attendance or participation of any person not entitled
to attend or participate in the proceedings of the Assembly shall not invalidate
those proceedings.

43
ARTICLE 58
Voting in the Assembly
1. All questions proposed for decision in the Assembly shall be determined by a
majority of the votes of the members present and voting.
2. The ex-officio members of the Assembly shall not be entitled to vote in the
Assembly.
3. When in the absence of the Speaker of the Assembly a member is presiding in the
Assembly, the member presiding shall retain his or her right to vote.
4. If the votes of the members are equally divided upon any motion before the
Assembly, the motion shall be lost.
ARTICLE 59
Bills and Motions in the Assembly
1. Subject to the rules of procedure of the Assembly, any member may propose any
motion or introduce any Bill in the Assembly:
Provided that a motion which does not relate to the functions of the Community
shall not be proposed in the Assembly, and a Bill which does not relate to a
matter with respect to which Acts of the Community may be enacted shall not be
introduced into the Assembly.
2. The Assembly shall not:
(a) proceed on any Bill, including an amendment to any Bill, that, in the
opinion of the person presiding, makes provision for any of the followi
ng
purposes:
(i) for the imposition of any charge upon any fund of the Community;

(ii) for the payment, issue or withdrawal from any fund of the Community
of any moneys not charged thereon or the increase in the amount of
any such payment, issue or withdrawal;
(iii) for the remission of any debt due to the Community; or

44
(b) proceed upon any motion, including any amendment to a motion, the effect
of which, in the opinion of the person presiding, would be to make provision
for any of the said purposes.
3. In addition to the provisions of paragraphs 1 and 2 of this Article:
(a) the Council shall publish annually and present to a meeting of the Assembly
a general report on the activities of the Community and which the Assembly
shall consider at its meeting;
(b) the Assembly may by a majority of votes cast request the Council to submit
any appropriate proposals on matters on which it considers that action is
required on the part of the Community for the purpose of implementing this
Treaty; and
(c) the Assembly shall hold an annual debate on the report to be submitted to i
t
by the Council on progress made by the Community in the development of
its common foreign and security policies.
ARTICLE 60
Rules of Procedure of the Assembly
The Assembly may make, amend, add to or revoke rules governing the procedure
of
the Assembly. ARTICLE 61
Powers, Privileges and Immunities of the Assembly and its Members
1. The Members of the Assembly shall be immune from legal action for any acts of
omission or commission in the discharge of their functions under this Treaty.
2. The Community may, for the orderly and effective discharge of the business of
the Assembly, enact legislation for the powers, privileges and immunities of the
Assembly, its Committees and members.

45
ARTICLE 62
Acts of the Community
1. The enactment of legislation of the Community shall be effected by means of Bills
passed by the Assembly and assented to by the Heads of State, and every Bill that
has been duly passed and assented to shall be styled an Act of the Community.
2. When a Bill has been duly passed by the Assembly the Speaker of the Assembly
shall submit the Bill to the Heads of State for assent.
3. Every Bill that is submitted to the Heads of State under paragraph 2 of this Article
shall contain the following words of enactment:

Enacted by the East African Community and assented to by the Heads of State.
ARTICLE 63
Assent to Bills
1. The Heads of State may assent to or withhold assent to a Bill of the Assembly.
2. A Bill that has not received assent as provided for in paragraph 1 of this Article
within three months from the date on which it was passed by the Assembly shall
be referred back to the Assembly, giving reasons, and with a request that the Bill
or a particular provision thereof be reconsidered by the Assembly.
3. If the Assembly discusses and approves the Bill, the Bill shall be re-submitted to
the Heads of State for assent.
4. If a Head of State withholds assent to a re-submitted Bill, the Bill sha
ll lapse.
ARTICLE 64
Publication of Acts of the Community
The Secretary General shall cause every Act of the Community to be published in the
Gazette.

46ARTICLE 65

Relations Between the Assembly and the
National Assemblies of the Partner States
In pursuance of the policy of the Community of popular participation in the
achievement of its objectives and so that the Council may be able to take into account
in the exercise of its functions, the opinion of the general public in the Partner States
on matters relating to the achievement of the objectives of the Community as expressed
through the debates of the elected members of their National Assemblies, and those
of the Assembly and to foster co-operation between the Assembly and the National
Assemblies of the Partner States hereinafter referred to as “the Nati
onal Assemblies”:

(a) the Clerk of the Assembly shall as soon as practicable transmit to the Clerks
of the National Assemblies copies of the records of all relevant debates of
the meetings of the Assembly to be laid before the National Assemblies, by
the respective Ministers responsible for East African Community affairs;
(b) the Clerk of the Assembly shall as soon as practicable transmit to the Clerks
of the National Assemblies copies of the Bills introduced into the Assembly
and Acts of the Community to be laid before the National Assemblies for
information;
(c) the Clerks of the National Assemblies shall as soon as practicable transmit
to the Clerk of the Assembly copies of the records of all relevant debates
of the meetings of their National Assemblies other than those with respect
to the matters laid before their National Assemblies in pursuance of the
provisions of sub-paragraph (a) of this paragraph; and
(d) the Clerk of the Assembly shall as soon as practicable transmit to the
Secretary General copies of all the records of debate referred to in sub-
paragraphs (a) and (b) of this paragraph for information to the Coun
cil.

47
CHAPTER TEN
THE SECRETARIAT AND STAFFOF THE COMMUNITY
ARTICLE 66
Establishment of the Secretariat
1. The Secretariat shall be the executive organ of the Community.
2. There shall be the following offices in the service of the Community:

(a) Secretary General;
(b) Deputy Secretaries General;
(c) Counsel to the Community; and
(d) such other offices as may be deemed necessary by the Council.
ARTICLE 67
Secretary General
1. The Secretary General shall be appointed by the Summit upon nomination by the
relevant Head of State under the principle of rotation.
2. Upon the appointment of the Secretary General the Partner State from which he or
she is appointed shall forfeit the post of Deputy Secretary General.
3. The Secretary General shall be the principal executive officer of the Community
and shall:
(a) be the head of the Secretariat;
(b) be the Accounting Officer of the Community;
(c) be the Secretary of the Summit; and
(d) carry out such other duties as are conferred upon him by this Treaty or by
the Council from time to time.
4. The Secretary General shall serve a fixed five year term.
5. The terms and conditions of service of the Secretary General shall be de
termined
by the Council and approved by the Summit.

48ARTICLE 68
Deputy Secretaries General
1. The Council shall determine the number of Deputy Secretaries General.
2. The Deputy Secretaries General shall be appointed by the Summit on
recommendations of the Council and on a rotational basis.
3. The Deputy Secretaries General shall:
(a) deputise for the Secretary General; and
(b) perform such other duties as may be prescribed by the Council.
4. The Deputy Secretaries General shall each serve a three year term, renew
able
once.
5. The terms and conditions of service of the Deputy Secretaries General shall be
determined by the Council and approved by the Summit.
ARTICLE 69
Counsel to the Community
1. There shall be a Counsel to the Community who shall be the principal legal adviser
to the Community.
2. The Counsel to the Community shall perform such duties as are conferred upon
him or her by this Treaty and by the Council.
3. The Counsel to the Community shall be appointed on contract and in accordance
with the staff rules and regulations and terms and conditions of service of the
Community.
4. The other terms and conditions of service of the Counsel to the Community shall
be determined by the Council.
ARTICLE 70
Other Officers and Staff of the Secretariat
1. There shall be such other officers and staff in the service of the Community as the
Council may determine.

49
2.
All staff of the Secretariat shall be appointed on contract and in accordance with
staff rules and regulations and terms and conditions of service of the Commu
nity.
3. The salaries, job design and other terms and conditions of service of the staff in the
service of the Community shall be determined by the Council.
ARTICLE 71
Functions of the Secretariat
1. The Secretariat shall be responsible for:
(a) initiating, receiving and submitting recommendations to the Council, and
forwarding of Bills to the Assembly through the Co-ordination Committee;
(b) the initiation of studies and research related to, and the implementation of,
programmes for the most appropriate, expeditious and efficient ways of
achieving the objectives of the Community;
(c) the strategic planning, management and monitoring of programmes for the
development of the Community;
(d) the undertaking either on its own initiative or otherwise, of such
investigations, collection of information, or verification of matters relating to
any matter affecting the Community that appears to it to merit examination;
(e) the co-ordination and harmonisation of the policies and strategies relating to
the development of the Community through the Co-ordination Committee;
(f) the general promotion and dissemination of information on the Community
to the stakeholders, the general public and the international community;

(g) the submission of reports on the activities of the Community to the Council
through the Co-ordination Committee;
(h) the general administration and financial management of the Community;
(i) the mobilisation of funds from development partners and other sources for
the implementation of projects of the Community;
(j) subject to the provisions of this Treaty, the submission of the budget of the
Community to the Council for its consideration;

50
(k) proposing draft agenda for the meetings of the organs of the Community
other than the Court and the Assembly;
(l) the implementation of the decisions of the Summit and the Council;
(m) the organisation and the keeping of records of meetings of the institutions
of the Community other than those of the Court and the Assembly;
(n) the custody of the property of the Community;
(o) the establishment of practical working relations with the Court and the
Assembly; and
(p) such other matters that may be provided for under this Treaty.
2. For the purposes of paragraph 1 of this Article, the Secretary General shall where
he or she thinks it appropriate, act on behalf of the Secretariat.
3. The Deputy Secretaries General shall assist the Secretary General in the discharge
of his or her functions.
4. The Counsel to the Community shall be the principal legal adviser to the Community
in connection with matters pertaining to this Treaty and the Community and he or
she shall by virtue of this paragraph be entitled to appear in the Courts of the
Partner States in respect of matters pertaining to the Community and thi
s Treaty.
ARTICLE 72
Relationship Between the Secretariat and the Partner States
1. In the performance of their functions, the staff of the Community shall not seek or
receive instructions from any Partner State or from any other authority external
to
the Community. They shall refrain from any actions which may adversely reflect
on their position as international civil servants and shall be responsible only to the
Community.
2. A Partner State shall not, by or under any law of that Partner State, con
fer any
power or impose any duty upon an officer, organ or institution of the Community
as such, except with the prior consent of the Council.
3. Each Partner State undertakes to respect the international character of the
responsibilities of the institutions and staff of the Community and shall not seek to
influence them in the discharge of their functions.

51
4.
The Partner States agree to co-operate with and assist the Secretariat in the
performance of its functions as set out in Article 71 of this Treaty and agree in
particular to provide any information which the Secretariat may request for the
purpose of discharging its functions.
ARTICLE 73Immunities
1. Persons employed in the service of the Community:
(a) shall be immune from civil process with respect to omissions or acts
performed by them in their official capacity; and
(b) shall be accorded immunities from immigration restrictions and alien
registration.
2. Experts or consultants rendering services to the Community and delegates of the
Partner States while performing services to the Community or while in transit in
the Partner States to perform the services of the Community shall be accorded such
immunities and privileges in the Partner States as the Council may deter
mine.

52
CHAPTER ELEVEN
CO-OPERATION IN TRADE LIBERALISATIONAND DEVELOPMENT
ARTICLE 74
East African Trade Regime
In order to promote the achievement of the objectives of the Community as set out
in Article 5 of this Treaty, and in furtherance of Article 2 of this Treaty, the Partner
States shall develop and adopt an East African Trade Regime and co-operate in trade
liberalisation and development in accordance therewith. ARTICLE 75
Establishment of a Customs Union
1. For purposes of this Chapter, the Partner States agree to establish a Customs Union
details of which shall be contained in a Protocol which shall, inter alia, include the
following:
(a) The application of the principle of asymmetry;
(b) The elimination of internal tariffs and other charges of equivalent effect;
(c) The elimination of non-tariff barriers;
(d) Establishment of a common external tariff;
(e) Rules of origin;
(f) Dumping;
(g) Subsidies and countervailing duties;
(h) Security and other restrictions to trade;
(i) Competition;
(j) Duty drawback, refund and remission of duties and taxes;
(k) Customs co-operation;
(l) Re-exportation of goods; and
(m) Simplification and harmonisation of trade documentation and procedures.
2. The establishment of the Customs Union shall be progressive in the course of a
transitional period as shall be determined by the Council.
3. For purposes of this Article, the Council may establish and confer powers and
authority upon such institutions as it may deem necessary to administer the
Customs Union.

53
4.
With effect from a date to be determined by the Council, the Partner States shall not
impose any new duties and taxes or increase existing ones in respect of products
traded within the Community and shall transmit to the Secretariat all information
on any tariffs for study by the relevant institutions of the Community.
5. Except as may be provided for or permitted under this Treaty, the Partner States
agree to remove all the existing non-tariff barriers on the importation into their
territory of goods originating from the other Partner States and thereafter to refrain
from imposing any further non-tariff barriers.
6. The Partner States shall refrain from enacting legislation or applying administrative
measures which directly or indirectly discriminate against the same or like products
of other Partner States.
7. For purposes of this Article, the Partner States shall within a period of four years
conclude the Protocol on the Establishment of a Customs Union.
ARTICLE 76
Establishment of a Common Market
1. There shall be established a Common Market among the Partner States. Within
the Common Market, and subject to the Protocol provided for in paragraph
4 of
this Article, there shall be free movement of labour, goods, services, capital, and
the right of establishment.
2. The establishment of the Common Market shall be progressive and in accordance
with schedules approved by the Council.
3. For purposes of this Article, the Council may establish and confer powers and
authority upon such institutions as it may deem necessary to administer the
Common Market.
4. For the purpose of this Article, the Partner States shall conclude a Protocol on a
Common Market.
ARTICLE 77
Measures to Address Imbalances Arising from the
Application of the Provisions for the Establishment of a Customs Union and a Common Market

For purposes of this Article, the Partner States shall within the framework of the

54Protocols provided for under Articles 75 and 76 of this Treaty, take measures to address
imbalances that may arise from the application of the provisions of this
Treaty.
ARTICLE 78
Safeguard Clause
1. In the event of serious injury occurring to the economy of a Partner State following
the application of the provisions of this Chapter, the Partner State concerned shall,
after informing the Council through the Secretary General and the other Partner
States, take necessary safeguard measures.
2. The Council shall examine the method and effect of the application of existing
safeguard measures and take decisions thereon.

55
CHAPTER TWELVE
CO-OPERATION IN INVESTMENT ANDINDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT
ARTICLE 79
Industrial Development
In order to promote the achievement of the objectives of the Community as set out in
Article 5 of this Treaty, the Partner States shall take such steps in the field of industrial
development that will:
(a) promote self-sustaining and balanced industrial growth;
(b) improve the competitiveness of the industrial sector so as to enhance the
expansion of trade in industrial goods within the Community and the export
of industrial goods from the Partner States in order to achieve the structural
transformation of the economy that would foster the overall socio-economic
development in the Partner States; and
(c) encourage the development of indigenous entrepreneurs.
ARTICLE 80
Strategy and Priority Areas
1. For purposes of Article 79 of this Treaty, the Partner States shall take measures to:
(a) develop an East African Industrial Development Strategy;
(b) promote linkages among industries within the Community through
diversification, specialisation and complementarity, in order to enhance
the spread effects of industrial growth and to facilitate the transfer of
technology;

(c) facilitate the development of:
(i) small-and-medium scale industries including sub-contracting and
other relations between larger and smaller firms;

(ii) basic capital and intermediate goods industries for the purposes of

56obtaining the advantages of economies of scale; and
(iii) food and agro industries;
(d) rationalise investments and the full use of established industries so as to
promote efficiency in production;
(e) promote industrial research and development and the transfer, acquisition,
adaptation and development of modern technology, training, management
and consultancy services through the establishment of joint industrial
institutions and other infrastructural facilities;
(f) harmonise and rationalise investment incentives including those relating to
taxation of industries particularly those that use local materials and labour
with a view to promoting the Community as a single investment area;
(g) disseminate and exchange industrial and technological information;
(h) avoid double taxation; and
(i) maintain the standardisation, quality assurance, metrology and testing
currently applicable and such other standards as may be adopted by
the Council after the signing of this Treaty for goods and services
produced and traded among the Partner States pending the conclusion
of a protocol under paragraph 4 of Article 81 of this Treaty.
2. The Partners States shall take such other measures for the purposes of Article 79
of this Treaty as the Council may determine.

57
CHAPTER THIRTEEN
CO-OPERATION IN STANDARDISATION,
QUALITY ASSURANCE, METROLOGY AND TESTING
ARTICLE 81
Standardisation, Quality Assurance, Metrology and Testing
1. The Partner States agree that standardisation, quality assurance, metrology and
testing can facilitate sustainable modernisation in the Community.
2. The Partner States also recognise the significance of standardisation, quality
assurance, metrology and testing in the enhancement of the standard of living,
reduction of unnecessary variety of products, the facilitation of interchangeability
of products, the promotion of trade and investment, consumer protection, the
enhancement of savings in public and private purchasing, improved productivity,
the facilitation of information exchange, the promotion of health as well as the
protection of life, property, and the environment.
3. The Partner States undertake to evolve and apply a common policy for the
standardisation, quality assurance, metrology and testing of goods and services
produced and traded within the Community.
4. The Partner States agree to conclude a protocol on Standardisation, Qual
ity
Assurance, Metrology and Testing for the goods and services produced and traded
in the Community.

58CHAPTER FOURTEEN
MONETARY AND FINANCIAL CO-OPERATION
ARTICLE 82
Scope of Co-operation
1. In order to promote the achievement of the objectives of the Community as set out
in Article 5 of this Treaty, the Partner States undertake to co-operate in monetary
and fiscal matters in accordance with the approved macro-economic policies
harmonisation programmes and convergence framework of the Community in
order to establish monetary stability within the Community aimed at facilitating
economic integration efforts and the attainment of sustainable economic
development of the Community. To this end, the Partner States shall:
(a) co-operate in monetary and financial matters and maintain the convertibility
of their currencies as a basis for the establishment of a Monetary Union
;
(b) harmonise their macro-economic policies especially in exchange rate
policy, interest rate policy, monetary and fiscal policies; and
(c) remove obstacles to the free movement of goods, services and capital within
the Community.
2. The Partner States shall in order to implement the provisions of paragraph 1 of this
Article, inter alia:
(a) maintain the existing convertibility of their currencies to promote the use of
national currencies in the settlement of payments for all transactions among
the Partner States thereby economising on the use of foreign currency;
(b) take measures that would facilitate trade and capital movement within the
Community;
(c) develop, harmonise and eventually integrate the financial systems of the
Partner States; and

(d) implement the provisions of this Treaty relating to monetary and financial
co-operation.

59
ARTICLE 83
Monetary and Fiscal Policy Harmonisation
1. The Partner States undertake to adopt policy measures in accordance with an
agreed macro-economic policy framework.
2. For the purposes of paragraph 1 of this Article, the Partner States undertake to:
(a) remove all exchange restrictions on imports and exports within the
Community;
(b) maintain free market determined exchange rates and enhance the levels of
their international reserves;
(c) adjust their fiscal policies and net domestic credit to the government to
ensure monetary stability and the achievement of sustained economic
growth;
(d) liberalise their financial sectors by freeing and deregulating interest rates
with a view to achieving positive real interest rates in order to promote
savings for investment within the Community and to enhance competition
and efficiency in their financial systems; and
(e) harmonise their tax policies with a view to removing tax distortions in
order to bring about a more efficient allocation of resources within the
Community.
ARTICLE 84
Macro-economic Co-ordination Within the Community
1. The Partner States shall co-ordinate through the Council their macro-economic
policies and economic reform programmes with a view to promoting the socio-
economic development of the Community.
2. In order to achieve balanced development within the Community, the Partner States
undertake to evolve policies designed to improve their resource and production
base.

60ARTICLE 85
Banking and Capital Market Development
The Partner States undertake to implement within the Community, a capital market
development programme to be determined by the Council and shall create a conducive
environment for the movement of capital within the Community. To this end, the
Partner States shall:
(a) take steps to achieve wider monetisation of the region’s economies under a
liberalised market economy;
(b) harmonise their banking Acts;
(c) harmonise capital market policies on cross-border listing, foreign portfolio
investors, taxation of capital market transactions, accounting, auditing and
financial reporting standards, procedures for setting commissions and other
charges;
(d) harmonise the regulatory and legislative frameworks and regulatory
structures;
(e) harmonise and implement common standards for market conduct;
(f) harmonise policies impacting on capital markets, particularly the granting
of incentives for the development of capital markets within the region;
(g) promote co-operation among the stock-exchanges and capital markets and
securities regulators within the region through mutual assistance and th
e
exchange of information and training;
(h) promote the establishment of a regional stock exchange within the
Community with trading floors in each of the Partner States;
(i) ensure adherence by their appropriate national authorities to harmonised
stock trading systems, the promotion of monetary instruments and to
permitting residents of the Partner States to acquire and negotiate monetary
instruments freely within the Community;
(j) establish within the Community a cross listing of stocks, a rating system
of listed companies and an index of trading performance to facilitate the
negotiation and sale of shares within and external to the Community; and

61

(k) institute measures to prevent money laundering activities.
ARTICLE 86
Movement of Capital
The Partner States shall in accordance with the time table to be determined by the
Council, permit the free movement of capital within the Community, develop, harmonise
and eventually integrate their financial systems. In this regard, the Partner States shall:
(a) ensure the unimpeded flow of capital within the Community through the
removal of controls on the transfer of capital among the Partner States;
(b) ensure that the citizens of and persons resident in a Partner State are allowed
to acquire stocks, shares and other securities or to invest in enterpris
es in the
other Partner States; and
(c) encourage cross-border trade in financial instruments.
ARTICLE 87
Joint Project Financing
1. The Partner States undertake to co-operate in financing projects jointly in each
other’s territory, especially those that facilitate integration within the Community.
2. The Partner States undertake to co-operate in the mobilisation of foreign capital
for the financing of national and joint projects.
ARTICLE 88
Safeguard Measures
The Council may approve measures designed to remedy any adverse effects a Partner
State may experience by reason of the implementation of the provisions of this Chapter,
provided that such a Partner State shall furnish to the Council proof that it has taken all
reasonable steps to overcome the difficulties, and that such measures are applied on a
non-discriminatory basis.

62CHAPTER FIFTEEN
CO-OPERATION IN INFRASTRUCTURE
AND SERVICES
ARTICLE 89
Common Transport and
Communications Policies
In order to promote the achievement of the objectives of the Community as set out in
Article 5 of this Treaty, the Partner States undertake to evolve co-ordinated, harmonised
and complementary transport and communications policies; improve and expand the
existing transport and communication links; and establish new ones as a means of
furthering the physical cohesion of the Partner States, so as to facilitate and promote
the movement of traffic within the Community. To this end, the Partner States shall
take steps, inter alia, to:
(a) develop harmonised standards and regulatory laws, rules, procedures and
practices;
(b) construct, maintain, upgrade, rehabilitate and integrate roads, railways,
airports, pipelines and harbours in their territories;
(c) review and re-design their intermodal transport systems and develop new
routes within the Community for the transport of the types of goods and
services produced in the Partner States;
(d) maintain, expand and upgrade communication facilities to enhance
interaction between persons and businesses in the Partner States and
promote the full exploitation of the market and investment opportunities
created by the Community;
(e) grant special treatment to land-locked Partner States in respect of the
application of the provisions of this Chapter;
(f) provide security and protection to transport systems to ensure the smooth
movement of goods and persons within the Community;
(g) take measures directed towards the harmonisation and joint use of facilities
and programmes within their existing national institutions for the training
of personnel in the field of transport and communications; and

63

(h) exchange information on technological developments in transport and
communications.
ARTICLE 90
Roads and Road Transport
The Partner States shall:
(a) take measures to ratify or accede to international conventions on road
traffic and road signs and signals and take such steps as may be necessary to
implement these conventions;
(b) harmonise their traffic laws, regulations and highway codes and adopt a
common definition of classes of roads and route numbering systems;
(c) harmonise the provisions of their laws concerning licensing, equipment,
markings and registration numbers of vehicles for travel and transport
within the Community;
(d) adopt common standards for vehicle construction, vehicle inspection and
vehicle inspection centres;
(e) adopt common standards and regulations for driver training and licensing
;
(f) adopt common requirements for the insurance of goods and vehicles;
(g) adopt common regulations governing speed limits on urban roads and
highways;
(h) adopt and establish common road safety regulations, accident rescue, first
aid, medical care and post-trauma systems within the Community;
(i) prescribe minimum safety requirements for packaging, loading and
transporting of dangerous substances;
(j) establish common measures for the facilitation of road transit traffic;

(k) harmonise rules and regulations concerning special transport requiring
security;
(l) adopt common rules and regulations governing the dimensions, technical
requirements, gross weight and load per axle of vehicles used in trunk roads
within the Community;

64
(m) co-ordinate activities with respect to the construction of trunk roads
connecting the Partner States to common standards of design and in the
maintenance of existing road networks to such standards as will enable
the carriers of other Partner States to operate to and from their territories
efficiently;
(n) co-ordinate their activities in the maintenance, rehabilitation, upgrading and
reconstruction of the trunk road networks connecting the Partner States and
ensure that such road networks once rehabilitated will not be allowed to
disintegrate;
(o) adopt a co-ordinated approach in the implementation of trunk road projects
connecting the Partner States;
(p) agree on common policies and standards for the manufacture and the
maintenance of road transport equipment;
(q) establish common road design and construction standards for the trunk roads
connecting the Partner States and promote the use, as much as possible, of
local materials and resources;
(r) adopt common and simplified documentation procedures for road
transportation within the Community and harmonise road transit charges;
(s) gradually reduce and finally eliminate non-physical barriers to road transport
within the Community;
(t) ensure that common carriers from other Partner States have the same
opportunities and facilities as common carriers in their territories in the
undertaking of transport operations within the Community;
(u) ensure that the treatment of motor transport operators engaged in transport
within the Community from other Partner States is not less favourable than
that accorded to the operators of similar transport from their own territories;
(v) make road transport efficient and cost effective by promoting competition
and introducing regulatory framework to facilitate the road haulage industry
operations;
(w) exchange information and experience on issues common to roads and road
transport within the Community; and
(x) encourage the use and development of low cost and non-motorised transport

65
in the Community’s transport policies.
ARTICLE 91
Railways and Rail Transport
1. The Partner States agree to establish and maintain co-ordinated railway services
that would efficiently connect the Partner States within the Community and, where
necessary, to construct additional railway connections.
2. The Partner States shall, in particular:
(a) adopt common policies for the development of railways and railway
transport in the Community;
(b) make their railways more efficient and competitive through, inter alia,
autonomous management and improvement of infrastructure;

(c) adopt common safety rules, regulations and requirements with regard to
signs, signals, rolling stock, motive power and related equipment and the
transport of dangerous substances;
(d) adopt measures for the facilitation, harmonisation and rationalisation of
railway transport within the Community;
(e) harmonise and simplify documents required for railway transport within the
Community;
(f) harmonise procedures with respect to the packaging, marking and loading
of goods and wagons for railway transport within the Community;
(g) agree to charge non-discriminatory tariffs in respect of goods transported by
railway within the Community;
(h) consult each other on proposed measures that may affect railway transport
within the Community;
(i) integrate the operations of their railway administrations including the
synchronisation of train schedules and the operations of unit trains;
(j) establish common standards for the construction and maintenance of
railway facilities;
(k) agree on common policies for the manufacture of railway transport

66equipment and railway facilities;
(l) agree to allocate space for the storage of goods transported by railway from
each other within their goods sheds;
(m) take measures to facilitate thorough working of trains within the Community;
(n) facilitate the deployment of railway rolling stock, motive power and related
equipment for the conveyance of goods to and from each other without
discrimination;
(o) endeavour to maintain the existing physical facilities of their railways to
such standards as will enable the Partner States to operate their own systems
within the Community in an efficient manner;
(p) provide efficient railway transport services among the Partner States on a
non-discriminatory basis;
(q) facilitate joint utilisation of railway facilities including manufacture,
maintenance and training facilities to ensure their optimal use; and
(r) promote co-operation in the fields of research and exchange of information.
ARTICLE 92
Civil Aviation and Civil Air transport
1. The Partner States shall harmonise their policies on civil aviation to p
romote the
development of safe, reliable, efficient and economically viable civil aviation with
a view to developing appropriate infrastructure, aeronautical skills and technology,
as well as the role of aviation in support of other economic activities.
2. The Partner States shall take necessary steps to facilitate the establishment of joint
air services and the efficient use of aircraft as steps towards the enhancement of air
transportation within the Community.
3. The Partner States shall in particular:

(a) adopt common policies for the development of civil air transport in the
Community in collaboration with other relevant international organisations
including the African Civil Aviation Commission (AFCAC), the African
Airlines Association (AFRAA), the International Air Transport Association
(IATA), and International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO);

67

(b) undertake to make civil air transport services safe, efficient and profitable
through, inter alia, autonomous management;
(c) liberalise the granting of air traffic rights for passengers and cargo operations
with a view to increasing efficiency;
(d) harmonise civil aviation rules and regulations by implementing the
provisions of the Chicago Convention on International Civil Aviation, with
particular reference to Annex 9 thereof;
(e) establish a Unified Upper Area Control system;
(f) establish common measures for the facilitation of passenger and cargo air
services in the Community;
(g) co-ordinate the flight schedules of their designated airlines;
(h) consider ways to develop, maintain and co-ordinate in common, their
navigational, communications and meteorological facilities for the provision
of safe air navigation and the joint management of their air space;
(i) encourage the joint use of maintenance and overhaul facilities and other
services for aircraft, ground handling equipment and other facilities;
(j) agree to take common measures for the control and protection of the air
space of the Community;
(k) apply the ICAO policies and guidelines in determining user charges and
apply the same rules and regulations relating to scheduled air transport

services among themselves;
(l) adopt common aircraft standards and technical specifications for the types
of aircraft to be operated in the Community; and
(m) co-ordinate measures and co-operate in the maintenance of the high security
required in respect of air services operations and operate joint search and
rescue operations.
ARTICLE 93

68Maritime Transport and Ports
The Partner States shall:
(a) promote the co-ordination and harmonisation of their maritime transport
policies and establish a common maritime transport policy;
(b) promote the development of efficient and profitable sea port services
through the liberalisation and commercialisation of port operations;
(c) make rational use of existing port installations;
(d) in the case of the coastal Partner States, co-operate with the land-locked
Partner States and grant them easy access to port facilities and opportunities
to participate in provision of port and maritime services;
(e) take measures to ratify or accede to international conventions on maritime
transport;
(f) establish a harmonious traffic organisation system for the optimal use of
maritime transport services;
(g) co-operate in the elaboration and application of measures to facilitate the
arrival, stay and departure of vessels;
(h) promote co-operation among their port authorities in the management
and operations of their ports and maritime transport so as to facilitate the
efficient movement of traffic between their territories;
(i) agree to charge non-discriminatory tariffs in respect of goods from their
territories and goods from other Partner States, except where their good
s
enjoy domestic transport subsidies, and apply the same rules and regulations
in respect of maritime transport among themselves without discrimination
;
(j) agree to allocate space on board their ships for goods consigned to or from
the territories of other Partner States;

(k) install and maintain efficient cargo handling equipment, cargo storage
facilities and general operations and train related manpower and where
feasible shall undertake these jointly;
(l) agree to allocate adequate space for the storage of goods traded among

69
themselves;
(m) co-ordinate measures with respect to, and co-operate in the maintenance of,
the safety of maritime transport services, including joint search and rescue
operations;
(n) provide adequate facilities with good communication systems that would
receive and respond to signals promptly;
(o) inter-connect their national communication systems so as to identify
polluted points in oceans for concerted marine pollution control;
(p) encourage their respective national shipping lines to form international
shipping associations;
(q) review their national maritime legislation in accordance with the existing
international maritime conventions.
ARTICLE 94
Inland Waterways Transport
The Partner States shall:
(a) harmonise their inland waterways transport policies and shall adopt,
harmonise and simplify rules, regulations and administrative procedures
governing waterways transport on their common navigable inland
waterways;
(b) install and maintain efficient cargo handling equipment, cargo storage
facilities and general operations and train related manpower resources and
where possible shall undertake these jointly;
(c) encourage joint use of maintenance facilities;
(d) harmonise tariffs structure for waterways transport on their common
navigable inland waterways;
(e) adopt common rules to govern the packaging, marking, loading and other
procedures for waterways transport on their common navigable inland
waterways;
(f) agree to charge the same tariffs in respect of goods transported within the
Community and apply the same rules and regulations in respect of inland

70waterways transport among themselves without discrimination;
(g) agree to provide space without discrimination on board vessels registered in
their territories for goods consigned to and from their territories;
(h) wherever possible, promote co-operation among themselves by undertaking
joint ventures in inland waterways transport including the establishment of
joint shipping services;

(i) co-ordinate measures with respect to, and co-operate in the maintenance
of, safety in inland waterways transport services including the provision
and maintenance of communication equipment to receive distress positions
promptly and joint search and rescue operations;
(j) facilitate the deployment of inland waterways vessels and equipment for
efficient conveyance of all classes of traffic to and from each Partner State;
(k) integrate efforts to control and eradicate the water hyacinth menace and its
effects on inland waterways transport;
(l) facilitate joint studies in the use and management of inland waterways;
(m) provide regional training and research facilities for the promotion and
development of marine operations and meteorology;
(n) undertake joint surveying, mapping and production of navigational charts
and provision of navigational aids;
(o) facilitate provision of adequate meteorological equipment, communication
and safety facilities to vessels plying the lakes within the Partner Sta
tes;
(p) jointly tackle issues on inland water pollution with a view to achieving
effective monitoring and control thereof;
(q) jointly explore utilisation of unexploited inland waterways transport
resources and tackle matters related to shipping and port services; and
(r) harmonise national policies on inland waterways transport.
ARTICLE 95

71
Multimodal Transport
The Partner States shall:
(a) harmonise and simplify regulations, goods classification, procedures and
documents required for multimodal transport within the Community;
(b) apply uniform rules and regulations with respect to the packaging, marking
and loading of goods;
(c) provide where feasible, technical and other facilities for direct trans-
shipment of goods at main trans-shipment points including intermodal cargo
exchange points, inland clearance depots, dry ports or inland container
depots;
(d) agree to allocate multimodal transport facilities for goods consigned to or
from the Partner States;
(e) take measures to ratify or accede to international conventions on multimodal
transport and containerisation and take such steps as may be necessary to
implement them; and
(f) promote communication and information exchange to enhance the efficiency
of multimodal transport.
ARTICLE 96
Freight Booking Centres
The Partner States shall encourage the establishment of freight booking
centres. ARTICLE 97
Freight Forwarders, Customs Clearing Agents and Shipping Agents
1. The Partner States shall harmonise the requirements for registration and licensing
of freight forwarders, customs clearing agents and shipping agents.
2. The Partner States shall allow any person to register, and be licensed, as a freight
forwarder, customs clearing agent and shipping agent, provided that, that person
fulfills the legal and customs requirements of that Partner State.
3. The Partner States shall not restrict the commercial activities, rights and obligations

72of a lawfully registered and licensed freight forwarder or clearing agen
t.
ARTICLE 98
Postal Services
The Partner States shall harmonise their policies on postal services and promote close
co-operation between their postal administrations and devise ways and means to achieve
fast, reliable, secure, economic and efficient services among themselves through:
(a) strengthening of postal sorting, routing, transit and distribution centres
within the Community;

(b) pooling financial, technical and human resources to modernise, mechanise
and automate mail and postal financial services so as to provide timely
and efficient services to postal users or customers and, further introduce
value-added postal services thus turning postal outlets one-shop for
communication services;
(c) adopting competitive marketing strategies to increase market shares in the
international courier services and further introduce on-line track and trace
system Electronic Data Inter-Change (EDI) for customer information and
expedited inquiry handling systems;
(d) conducting joint market research activities with a view to launching new
postal products or services;
(e) introducing appropriate postal security systems and procedures in the postal
networks; and
(f) co-operating in the development and design of relevant human resources
training and development programmes.
ARTICLE 99
Telecommunications
The Partner States shall;
(a) adopt common telecommunications policies to be developed within the
Community in collaboration with other relevant international organisations
including the Pan-African Telecommunications Union (PATU),
International Telecommunications Union (ITU), Regional African Satellite

73
Communication (RASCOM), International Telecommunication Satellite
Organisation (INTELSAT), International Maritime Satellite Organisation
(INMARSAT), Commonwealth Telecommmunications Organisation
(CTO) and other related organisations;
(b) improve and maintain inter-connectivity and modernize equipment to meet
the common standards required for efficient telecommunications traffic
within the Community;
(c) harmonise and apply non-discriminatory tariffs among themselves and
where possible, agree on preferential tariff treatment applicable within the
Community;
(d) co-operate and co-ordinate their activities in the maintenance of
telecommunications facilities including training and the exchange of
manpower;
(e) encourage co-operation in local manufacturing of info-telecommunication
equipment, research and development;
(f) facilitate a conducive environment to promote private sector investors in
the info-telecommunication equipment within the Community; and
(g) adopt a common frequency management and monitoring scheme,
assign mutually agreed upon frequencies for cross-border mobile radio
communications and issue operating licences agreed upon by the Partner
States.
ARTICLE 100
Meteorological Services
1. Each Partner State shall collect and disseminate to the other Partner States
meteorological information in order to facilitate the efficient operation of air
navigation, coastal shipping, inland waterways transport and the issuing of cyclone
warnings and other adverse weather phenomena and co-operate in the following
areas:
(a) Expansion and upgrading of meteorological observations network and
telecommunications;
(b) Training and research in meteorology, by using common facilities such as
the Regional Meteorology Training Centre (RMTC), Drought Monitoring

74Centre (DMC) and other similar institutions;
(c) Provision of meteorological services which would include the exchange
of observations and products for safety of air navigation, coastal shipping,
inland waterways and transport as well as meteorological support to key
sectors of the economy which include agriculture, water resources, tourism
and construction;
(d) Support to early warning systems and remote sensing for food security;
(e) Meteorological support to environment management;
(f) Harmonisation of policies for the provision of meteorological services;
(g) Co-operation in human resources development and information exchange;
and
(h) Climate analysis and seasonal forecast.
2. The Partner States shall co-operate and support each other in all activities of
the World Meteorological Organisation (WMO) affecting the interests of the
Community especially the monitoring of the atmospheric and climatic changes on
the planet.
3. The Partner States shall exchange information and expertise concerning new
developments in meteorological science and technology including the calibration
and comparison of instruments.
ARTICLE 101Energy
1. The Partner States shall adopt policies and mechanisms to promote the efficient
exploitation, development, joint research and utilisation of various energy
resources available within the region.
2. For the purposes of paragraph 1 of this Article, the Partner States shall in particular
promote within the Community:
(a) the least cost development and transmission of electric power, efficient
exploration and exploitation of fossil fuels and utilisation of new and
renewable energy sources;
(b) the joint planning, training and research in, and the exchange of inform
ation

75
on the exploration, exploitation, development and utilisation of available
energy resources;
(c) the development of integrated policy on rural electrification;
(d) the development of inter-Partner State electrical grid inter-connections;
(e) the construction of oil and gas pipelines; and
(f) all such other measures to supply affordable energy to their people taking
cognisance of the protection of the environment as provided for by this
Treaty.

76CHAPTER SIXTEEN
CO-OPERATION IN THE DEVELOPMENT
OF HUMAN RESOURCES, SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
ARTICLE 102
Education and Training
1. In order to promote the achievement of the objectives of the Community as set out
in Article 5 of the Treaty, the Partner States agree to undertake concerted measures
to foster co-operation in education and training within the Community.
2. The Partner States shall, with respect to education and training:
(a) co-ordinate their human resources development policies and programmes;
(b) strengthen existing and where necessary establish new common research
and training institutions;
(c) co-operate in industrial training;
(d) develop such common programmes in basic, intermediary and tertiary
education and a general programme for adult and continuing education in
the Partner States as would promote the emergence of well trained personnel
in all sectors relevant to the aims and objectives of the Community;
(e) harmonise curricula, examination, certification and accreditation of
education and training institutions in the Partner States through the jo
int
action of their relevant national bodies charged with the preparation of such
curricula;
(f) revive and enhance the activities of the Inter-University Council for East
Africa;

(g) encourage and support the mobility of students and teachers within the
Community;
(h) exchange information and experience on issues common to the educational
systems of the Partner States;

77

(i) collaborate in putting in place education and training programmes for
people with special needs and other disadvantaged groups;
(j) encourage and support the participation of the private sector in the
development of human resources through education and training; and
(k) identify and develop centres of excellence in the region including
universities.
3. For the purposes of paragraph 1 of this Article, the Partner States shall undertake
such additional activities in respect of the development of human resources as the
Council may determine.
ARTICLE 103
Science and Technology
1. Recognising the fundamental importance of science and technology in economic
development, the Partner States undertake to promote co-operation in the
development of science and technology within the Community through:
(a) the joint establishment and support of scientific and technological research
and of institutions in the various disciplines of science and technolog
y;
(b) the creation of a conducive environment for the promotion of science and
technology within the Community;
(c) the encouragement of the use and development of indigenous science and
technologies;
(d) the mobilisation of technical and financial support from local and foreign
sources and from international organisations or agencies for the development
of science and technology in the Community;
(e) the exchange of scientific information, personnel and the promotion and
publication of research and scientific findings;

(f) the collaboration in the training of personnel in the various scientific and
technological disciplines at all levels using existing institutions and newly
established ones;
(g) the promotion, development and application of information technology and
other new ones throughout the Community;

78
(h) establishment of common ethical guidelines for research; and
(i) the harmonisation of policies on commercialisation of technologies and
promotion and protection of intellectual property rights.
2. For purposes of paragraph 1 of this Article, the Partner States shall undertake such
additional activities with regard to science and technology as the Council may
determine.

79
CHAPTER SEVENTEEN
FREE MOVEMENT OF PERSONS,
LABOUR, SERVICES, RIGHT OF
ESTABLISHMENT AND RESIDENCE
ARTICLE 104
Scope of Co-operation
1. The Partner States agree to adopt measures to achieve the free movement of persons,
labour and services and to ensure the enjoyment of the right of establishment and
residence of their citizens within the Community.
2. For purposes of paragraph 1 of this Article, the Partner States agree to conclude
a Protocol on the Free Movement of Persons, Labour, Services and Right of
Establishment and Residence at a time to be determined by the Council.
3. The Partner States shall as may be determined by the Council:
(a) ease border crossing by citizens of the Partner States;
(b) maintain common standard travel documents for their citizens;
(c) effect reciprocal opening of border posts and keep the posts opened and
manned for twenty four hours;
(d) maintain common employment policies;
(e) harmonise their labour policies, programmes and legislation including those
on occupational health and safety;
(f) establish a regional centre for productivity and employment promotion and
exchange information on the availability of employment;
(g) make their training facilities available to persons from other Partner States;
and
(h) enhance the activities of the employers’ and workers’ organisations with a
view to strengthening them.

804.
The Partner States undertake to co-operate in the enhancement of the social
partnership between the governments, employers and employees so as to increase
the productivity of labour through efficient production.

81
CHAPTER EIGHTEEN
AGRICULTURE AND FOOD SECURITY
ARTICLE 105
Scope of Co-operation
1. The overall objectives of co-operation in the agricultural sector are the achievement
of food security and rational agricultural production within the Community. To
this end, the Partner States undertake to adopt a scheme for the rationalisation
of agricultural production with a view to promoting complementarity and
specialisation in and the sustainability of national agricultural programmes in
order to ensure:
(a) a common agricultural policy;
(b) food sufficiency within the Community;
(c) an increase in the production of crops, livestock, fisheries and forest products
for domestic consumption, exports within and outside the Community and
as inputs to agro-based industries within the Community; and
(d) post harvest preservation and conservation and improved food processing
.
2. For purposes of paragraph 1 of this Article, the Partner States undertake to co-
operate in specific fields of agriculture, including:
(a) the harmonisation of agricultural policies of the Partner States;
(b) the development of food security within the Partner States and the
Community as a whole, through the production and supply of foodstuffs;
(c) agro-meteorology and climatology to promote the development of early
climatological warning systems within the Community;
(d) the development and application of agricultural training and research and
extension services;
(e) the adoption of internationally accepted quality standards for food
processing;

82
(f) the establishment of joint programmes for the control of animal and plant
diseases and pests;
(g) the marketing of food and the co-ordination of the export and import of
agricultural commodities;
(h) joint actions in combating drought and desertification ; and
(i) in such other fields of agriculture as the Council may determine.
ARTICLE 106
Seed Multiplication and Distribution
The Partner States shall:
(a) strengthen co-operation in quality seed development and production
through research and plant breeding;
(b) support co-operation in the establishment of gene banks;
(c) enhance capacity in seed technology;
(d) initiate and maintain strategic seed reserves;
(e) harmonise quarantine policies, legislation and regulations to ease trade in
seeds; and
(f) create an enabling environment for private sector seed multiplication and
distribution.
ARTICLE 107
Livestock Multiplication and Distribution
The Partner States shall:
(a) develop mechanism for co-operation in livestock breeding, including
artificial insemination institutions and livestock breeding centres;
(b) encourage and facilitate exchange of genetic material to widen the base of
livestock development;

83

(c) encourage private sector participation in livestock multiplication and
distribution;
(d) develop common regulatory framework in livestock multiplication, trade in
semen, embryos, breeding stock, drugs and vaccines; and
(e) harmonise quarantine regulations in artificial insemination and livestock
breeding centres.
ARTICLE 108
Plant and Animal Diseases Control
The Partner States shall:
(a) harmonise policies, legislation and regulations for enforcement of pests and
disease control;
(b) harmonise and strengthen regulatory institutions;
(c) harmonise and strengthen zoo–sanitary and phyto-sanitary services
inspection and certification;
(d) establish regional zoo–sanitary and phyto-sanitary laboratories to deal with
diagnosis and identification of pests and diseases;
(e) adopt common mechanism to ensure safety, efficacy and potency of
agricultural inputs including chemicals, drugs and vaccines; and
(f) co-operate in surveillance, diagnosis and control strategies of trans-
boundary pests and animal diseases.
ARTICLE 109
Irrigation and Water Catchment Management
The Partner States agree to take concerted effort to expand agricultural land through
irrigation and water catchment strategies and for this purpose, shall:
(a) co-operate in formulating and implementing national and Community
irrigation programmes;
(b) co-operate in developing and preserving traditional irrigation systems;

84
(c) improve water catchment management, including rainwater harvesting; and
(d) adopt and promote the use of environmentally safe methods of land use.
ARTICLE 110Food Security
The Partner States shall:
(a) establish a mechanism for exchange of information on demand and supply
surpluses and deficits, trade, forecasting and state of food nutrition;
(b) harmonise quality and standards of inputs and products including food
additives;
(c) develop modalities to have timely information on market prices;
(d) harmonise food supply, nutrition and food security policies and strategies;
(e) initiate and maintain strategic food reserves; and
(f) develop marine and inland aquaculture and fish farming.

85
CHAPTER NINETEEN
CO-OPERATION IN ENVIRONMENT
AND NATURAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT
ARTICLE 111
Environmental Issues and Natural Resources
The Partner States recognise that development activities may have negative impacts on
the environment leading to the degradation of the environment and depletion of natural
resources and that a clean and healthy environment is a prerequisite for sustainable
development. The Partner States therefore:
(a) agree to take concerted measures to foster co-operation in the joint and
efficient management and sustainable utilisation of natural resources within
the Community;
(b) undertake, through environmental management strategy, to co-operate and
co-ordinate their policies and actions for the protection and conservation of
the natural resources and environment against all forms of degradation and
pollution arising from developmental activities;
(c) undertake to co-operate and adopt common policies for control of trans-
boundary movement of toxic and hazardous waste including nuclear
materials and any other undesirable materials;
(d) shall provide prior and timely notification and relevant information to
each other on natural and human activities that may or are likely to have
significant trans-boundary environmental impacts and shall consult with
each other at an early stage; and
(e) shall develop and promote capacity building programmes for sustainable
management of natural resources.
2. Action by the Community relating to the environment shall have the following
objectives:
(a) to preserve, protect and enhance the quality of the environment;
(b) to contribute towards the sustainability of the environment;
(c) to ensure sustainable utilisation of natural resources like lakes, wetlands,
forests and other aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems; and

86
(d) to jointly develop and adopt water resources conservation and management
policies that ensure sustenance and preservation of ecosystems.
ARTICLE 112
Management of the Environment
1. For purposes of Article 111 of this Treaty, the Partner States undertake to co-
operate in the management of the environment and agree to:
(a) develop a common environmental management policy that would sustain
the eco-systems of the Partner States, prevent, arrest and reverse the effects
of environmental degradation;
(b) develop special environmental management strategies to manage fragile
ecosystems, terrestrial and marine resources, noxious emissions and toxic
and hazardous chemicals;
(c) take measures to control trans-boundary air, land and water pollution arising
from developmental activities;
(d) take necessary disaster preparedness, management, protection and
mitigation measures especially for the control of natural and man-made
disasters. These include oil spills, bio-hazards, floods, earthquakes, marine
accidents, drought and bush fires; and
(e) integrate environmental management and conservation measures in all
developmental activities such as trade, transport, agriculture, industrial
development, mining and tourism in the Community.
2. For purposes of paragraph 1 of this Article, the Partner States undertake to:
(a) adopt common environment control regulations, incentives and standards;
(b) develop capabilities and measures to undertake environmental impact
assessment of all development project activities and programmes;
(c) encourage the manufacture and use of bio-degradable pesticides, herbicides
and packaging materials;
(d) encourage public awareness and education on the use of agricultural and
industrial chemicals and fertilisers;

87

(e) adopt environmentally sound management techniques for the control of land
degradation, such as soil erosion, desertification and forest encroachment;
(f) promote the use of non-ozone depleting susbstances and environment-
friendly technologies;
(g) promote and strengthen the utilisation of training facilities and research
institutions within the Community;
(h) adopt common environmental standards for the control of atmospheric,
terrestrial and water pollution arising from urban and industrial development
activities;
(i) exchange information on atmospheric, industrial and other forms of
pollution and conservation technology;
(j) harmonise their policies and regulations for the sustainable and integrated
management of shared natural resources and ecosystems;
(k) adopt measures and policies to address the existing demographic profiles
such as high growth rates and fertility rates, high dependency ratio, poor
social conditions and poverty in order to mitigate their adverse impact on
the environment and development;

(l) adopt community environmental management programmes;
(m) promote enhancement of the quality of the environment through adoption
of common measures and programmes of tree planting, afforestation and
reforestation, soil conservation and recycling of materials; and
(n) adopt common policies for conservation of biodiversity and common
regulations for access to, management and equitable utilisation of genetic
resources.
ARTICLE 113
Prevention of Illegal Trade in and Movement of Toxic Chemicals, Substances and Hazardous Wastes
1. The Partner States undertake to co-operate and adopt common positions against
illegal dumping of toxic chemicals, substances and hazardous wastes within the
Community from either a Partner State or any third party.

882.
The Partner States shall harmonise their legal and regulatory framework for the
management, movement, utilisation and disposal of toxic substances.
3. The Partner States undertake to ratify or accede to international environmental
conventions that are designed to improve environmental policies and management.
ARTICLE 114
Management of Natural Resources
1. For purposes of Article 111 of this Treaty, the Partner States agree to take concerted
measures to foster co-operation in the joint and efficient management and the
sustainable utilisation of natural resources within the Community for the mutual
benefit of the Partner States. In particular, the Partner States shall:
(a) take necessary measures to conserve their natural resources;
(b) co-operate in the management of their natural resources for the conservation
of the eco-systems and the arrest of environmental degradation; and
(c) adopt common regulations for the protection of shared aquatic and terrestrial
resources.
2. For purposes of paragraph 1 of this Article, the Partner States:
(a) with regard to the conservation and management of forests, agree to take
necessary measures through:
(i) the adoption of common policies for, and the exchange of information
on, the development, conservation and management of natural forests,
commercial plantations and natural reserves;
(ii) the joint promotion of common forestry practices within the
Community;
(iii) the joint utilisation of forestry training and research facilities;
(iv) the adoption of common regulations for the conservation and
management of all catchment forests within the Community;
(v) the establishment of uniform regulations for the utilisation of forestry
resources in order to reduce the depletion of natural forests and avoid
desertification within the Community; and
(vi) the establishment of Api-Agro Forestry Systems.

89

(b) with regard to the management of their water and marine resources, agree
to co-operate through:
(i) the establishment and adoption of common regulations for the better
management and development of marine parks, reserves, wetlands
and controlled areas;
(ii) the adoption of common policies and regulations for the conservation,
management and development of fisheries resources;
(iii) the establishment of common fisheries management and investment
guidelines for inland and marine waters;
(iv) the strengthening of regional natural resources management bodies;
(v) the establishment of common rules of origin for flora and fauna; and
(vi) the establishment of a body for the management of Lake Victoria;
(c) with regard to the management of the mineral resources sector, agree:
(i) to promote joint exploration, efficient exploitation and sustainable
utilisation of shared mineral resources;
(ii) to pursue the creation of an enabling environment for investment in
the mining sector;
(iii) to promote the establishment of databases, information exchange
networks and the sharing of experiences in the management and
development of the mineral sector using electronic mail, internet and
other means for the interactive dissemination of mineral information;
(iv) to harmonise mining regulations to ensure environmentally friendly
and sound mining practices;
(v) to adopt common policies to ensure joint fossil exploration and
exploitation along the coast and rift valley; and
(vi) to establish a regional seismological network whose primary objective
is to monitor seismicity and advice on mitigation measures.

90CHAPTER TWENTY
CO-OPERATION IN TOURISM
AND WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT
ARTICLE 115
Tourism
1. In order to promote the achievement of the objectives of the Community as set
out in Article 5 of this Treaty, the Partner States undertake to develop a collective
and co-ordinated approach to the promotion and marketing of quality tourism into
and within the Community. To this end, the Partner States shall co-ordinate their
policies in the tourism industry and undertake to establish a framework of co-
operation in the sector that will ensure equitable distribution of benefits.
2. The Partner States shall establish a common code of conduct for private and
public tour and travel operators, standardise hotel classifications and harmonise
the professional standards of agents in the tourism and travel industry within the
Community.
3. The Partner States undertake to develop a regional strategy for tourism promotion
whereby individual efforts are reinforced by regional action.
ARTICLE 116
Wildlife Management
The Partner States undertake to develop a collective and co-ordinated policy for
the conservation and sustainable utilisation of wildlife and other tourist sites in the
Community. In particular, the Partner States shall:
(a) harmonise their policies for the conservation of wildlife, within and outside
protected areas;
(b) exchange information and adopt common policies on wildlife management
and development;
(c) co-ordinate efforts in controlling and monitoring encroachment and
poaching activities;

91

(d) encourage the joint use of training and research facilities and develop
common management plans for trans-border protected areas; and

(e) take measures to ratify or accede to, and, implement relevant international
conventions.

92CHAPTER TWENTY ONE
HEALTH,
SOCIAL AND CULTURAL ACTIVITIES
ARTICLE 117
Scope of Co-operation
In order to promote the achievement of the objectives of the Community as set out in
Article 5 of this Treaty, the Partner States undertake to co-operate in health, cultural and
sports and social welfare activities within the Community.
ARTICLE 118Health
With respect to co-operation in health activities, the Partner States und
ertake to:
(a) take joint action towards the prevention and control of communicable
and non-communicable diseases and to control pandemics and epidemics
of communicable and vector-borne diseases such as HIV-AIDS, cholera,
malaria, hepatitis and yellow fever that might endanger the health and
welfare of the residents of the Partner States, and to co-operate in facilitating
mass immunization and other public health community campaigns;
(b) promote the management of health delivery systems and better planning
mechanisms to enhance efficiency of health care services within the Partner
States;
(c) develop a common drug policy which would include establishing quality
control capacities and good procurement practices;
(d) harmonise drug registration procedures so as to achieve good control of
pharmaceutical standards without impeding or obstructing the movement
of pharmaceutical products within the Community;
(e) harmonise national health policies and regulations and promote the
exchange of information on health issues in order to achieve quality health
within the Community;
(f) co-operate in promoting research and the development of traditional,
alternate or herbal medicines;

93

(g) co-operate in the development of specialised health training, health research,
reproductive health, the pharmaceutical products and preventive medicine
;
(h) promote the development of good nutritional standards and the
popularisation of indigenous foods; and
(i) develop a common approach through the education of the general public
and their law enforcement agencies for the control and eradication of the
trafficking and consumption of illicit or banned drugs.
ARTICLE 119
Culture and Sports
The Partner States shall promote close co-operation amongst themselves in culture and
sports, with respect to:
(a) the promotion and enhancement of diverse sports activities;
(b) the development of mass media programmes on matters that will promote
the development of culture and sports within the Community;
(c) the promotion of cultural activities, including the fine arts, literature, music,
the performing arts and other artistic creations, and the conservation,
safeguarding and development of the cultural heritage of the Partner States
including, historical materials and antiquities;
(d) the development and promotion of indigenous languages especially
Kiswahili as a lingua franca;

(e) the regulation of cross border trade in ethnographic materials, licensing of
antique dealers and adoption of a common approach and co-operation in
tackling the illicit cross border trade in cultural property;
(f) acceding to and ratification of international conventions that directly bear
upon culture such as:
(i) the Hague Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the
Event of Armed Conflict; and
(ii) the UNESCO Convention on the Means of Prohibition and Preventing
the Illicit Import, Export and Transfer of Ownership of Cultural
Property;

94
(g) harmonising their policies for the conservation of their national antiquities
and museums and the prevention of illegal trade in cultural property; a
nd
(h) any other activities aimed at promoting an East African identity.
ARTICLE 120Social Welfare
The Partner States undertake to closely co-operate amongst themselves in the field of
social welfare with respect to:
(a) employment, poverty alleviation programmes and working conditions;
(b) vocational training and the eradication of adult illiteracy in the Community;
and
(c) the development and adoption of a common approach towards the
disadvantaged and marginalised groups, including children, the youth, the
elderly and persons with disabilities through rehabilitation and provision of,
among others, foster homes, health care education and training.

95
CHAPTER TWENTY TWO
ENHANCING THE ROLE OF WOMEN
IN SOCIO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
ARTICLE 121
The Role of Women in Socio-economic Development
The Partner States recognise that women make a significant contribution towards
the process of socio-economic transformation and sustainable growth and that it is
impossible to implement effective programmes for the economic and social development
of the Partner States without the full participation of women. To this end, the Partner
States shall through appropriate legislative and other measures:
(a) promote the empowerment and effective integration and participation of
women at all levels of socio-economic development especially in decision-
making;
(b) abolish legislation and discourage customs that are discriminatory against
women;
(c) promote effective education awareness programmes aimed at changing
negative attitudes towards women;
(d) create or adopt technologies which will ensure the stability of employment
and professional progress for women workers; and
(e) take such other measures that shall eliminate prejudices against women and
promote the equality of the female gender with that of the male gender in
every respect.
ARTICLE 122
The Role of Women in Business
Having recognised the importance of women as a vital economic link between
agriculture, industry and trade, the Partner States undertake to:
(a) increase the participation of women in business at the policy formulation
and implementation levels;
(b) promote special programmes for women in small, medium and large scale
enterprises;

96
(c) eliminate all laws, regulations and practises that hinder women’s access to
financial assistance including credit;
(d) initiate changes in educational and training strategies to enable women
to improve their technical and industrial employment levels through the
acquisition of transferable skills offered by various forms of vocational and
on-the-job training schemes; and
(e) recognise and support the national and regional associations of women in
business established to promote the effective participation of women in the
trade and development activities of the Community.

97
CHAPTER TWENTY THREE
CO-OPERATION IN POLITICAL MATTERS
ARTICLE 123
Political Affairs
1. In order to promote the achievement of the objectives of the Community as set out
in Article 5 of this Treaty particularly with respect to the eventual establishment
of a Political Federation of the Partner States, the Partner States shall establish
common foreign and security policies.
2. For purposes of paragraph 1 of this Article, the Community and its Partner States
shall define and implement common foreign and security policies.
3. The objectives of the common foreign and security policies shall be to:
(a) safeguard the common values, fundamental interests and independence of
the Community;
(b) strengthen the security of the Community and its Partner States in all ways;
(c) develop and consolidate democracy and the rule of law and respect for
human rights and fundamental freedoms;
(d) preserve peace and strengthen international security among the Partner
States and within the Community;
(e) promote co-operation at international fora; and
(f) enhance the eventual establishment of a Political Federation of the Partner
States.
4. The Community shall pursue the objectives set out in paragraph 3 of this Article
by:
(a) establishing systematic co-operation between the Partner States on
any matter of foreign or security policies of general interest within the
Community in order to define a common position to be applied by the
Partner States;
(b) the co-ordination of the actions of the Partner States and the upholding
by them of such co-ordinated actions in international organisations and at
international conferences;

98
(c) the unreserved support of the Partner States of the Community’s foreign
and security policies and the avoidance by the Partner States of any action
on their part which is contrary to the interests of the Community or is
likely to impair the effectiveness of the Community as a cohesive force in
international relations;
(d) peaceful resolution of disputes and conflicts between and within the Partner
States;
(e) the co-ordination of the defence policies of the Partner States; and
(f) the promotion of co-operation among the National Assemblies of the
Partner States and also with the Assembly.
5. The Council shall determine when the provisions of paragraphs 2, 3 and 4 of this
Article shall become operative and shall prescribe in detail how the provisions of
this Article shall be implemented.
6. The Summit shall initiate the process towards the establishment of a Political
Federation of the Partner States by directing the Council to undertake the process.
7. For purposes of paragraph 6 of this Article, the Summit may order a study to be
first undertaken by the Council.
ARTICLE 124
Regional Peace and Security
1. The Partner States agree that peace and security are pre-requisites to s
ocial and
economic development within the Community and vital to the achievement of
the objectives of the Community. In this regard, the Partner States agree to foster
and maintain an atmosphere that is conducive to peace and security through co-
operation and consultations on issues pertaining to peace and security of the
Partner States with a view to prevention, better management and resolution of
disputes and conflicts between them.
2. The Partner States undertake to promote and maintain good neighbourliness as a
basis for promoting peace and security within the Community.
3. The Partner States shall evolve and establish regional disaster management
mechanisms which shall harmonise training operations, technical co-operation
and support in this area.
4. The Partner States undertake to establish common mechanisms for the mana
gement

99
of refugees.
5. The Partner States agree to enhance co-operation in the handling of cros
s border
crime, provision of mutual assistance in criminal matters including the arrest and
repatriation of fugitive offenders and the exchange of information on national
mechanisms for combating criminal activities. To this end the Partner States
undertake to adopt the following measures for maintaining and promoting security
in their territories to:
(a) enhance the exchange of criminal intelligence and other security information
between the Partner States’ central criminal intelligence information centres;
(b) enhance joint operations such as hot pursuit of criminals and joint patrols to
promote border security;
(c) establish common communication facilities for border security;
(d) adopt the United Nations model law on mutual assistance on criminal
matters;
(e) conclude a Protocol on Combating Illicit Drug Trafficking;
(f) enhance the exchange of visits by security authorities;
(g) exchange training programmes for security personnel; and
(h) establish common mechanisms for the management of refugees.
6. The Partner States undertake to co-operate in reviewing the region’s security
particularly on the threat of terrorism and formulate security measures to combat
terrorism.
ARTICLE 125

100Defence
1. In order to promote the achievement of the objectives of the Community as set
out in Article 5 of this Treaty particularly with respect to the promotion of peace,
security and stability within, and good neighbourliness among the Partner States,
and in accordance with Article 124 of this Treaty, the Partner States agree to
closely co-operate in defence affairs.
2. For purposes of paragraph 1 of this Article, the Partner States agree to establish a
framework for co-operation.

101
CHAPTER TWENTY FOUR
LEGAL AND JUDICIAL AFFAIRS
ARTICLE 126
Scope of Co-operation
1. In order to promote the achievement of the objectives of the Community as set
out in Article 5 of this Treaty, the Partner States shall take steps to harmonise
their legal training and certification; and shall encourage the standardisation of the
judgements of courts within the Community.
2. For purposes of paragraph 1 of this Article, the Partner States shall through their
appropriate national institutions take all necessary steps to:
(a) establish a common syllabus for the training of lawyers and a common
standard to be attained in examinations in order to qualify and to be licensed
to practice as an advocate in their respective superior courts;
(b) harmonise all their national laws appertaining to the Community; and
(c) revive the publication of the East African Law Reports or publish similar
law reports and such law journals as will promote the exchange of legal and
judicial knowledge and enhance the approximation and harmonisation of
legal learning and the standardisation of judgements of courts within the
Community.
3. For purposes of paragraph 1 of this Article, the Partner States may take such other
additional steps as the Council may determine.

102 CHAPTER TWENTY FIVE
THE PRIVATE SECTOR AND THE
CIVIL SOCIETY
ARTICLE 127
Creation of an Enabling Environment
for the Private Sector and the Civil Society
1. The Partner States agree to provide an enabling environment for the private sector
and the civil society to take full advantage of the Community. To this end, the
Partner States undertake to formulate a strategy for the development of the private
sector and to:
(a) promote a continuous dialogue with the private sector and civil society at
the national level and at that of the Community to help create an improved
business environment for the implementation of agreed decisions in all
economic sectors; and
(b) provide opportunities for entrepreneurs to participate actively in improving
the policies and activities of the institutions of the Community that affect
them so as to increase their confidence in policy reforms and raise the
productivity and lower the costs of the entrepreneurs.
2. For purposes of paragraph 1 of this Article, the Partner States undertake to:
(a) improve the business environment through the promotion of conducive
investment codes, the protection of property rights and other rights and the
proper regulation of the private sector;
(b) stimulate market development through infrastructural linkages and the
removal of barriers and constraints to market development and production
;
(c) regularly provide up-to-date commercial intelligence to speed up market
response through co-operation among the chambers of commerce and
industry and other similar organisations of the Partner States;

(d) facilitate and support the exchange of experience and the pooling of
resources through, inter alia, cross-border investments;
(e) strengthen the role of their national business organisations or associations in
the formulation of their economic policies; and

103

(f) collaborate with their national chambers of commerce and industry to
establish lending institutions that shall primarily cater for the private sector
especially the small-scale entrepreneurs who find it difficult to obtain credit
from commercial banks and financing institutions.
3. The Partner States agree to promote enabling environment for the participation of
civil society in the development activities within the Community.
4. The Secretary General shall provide the forum for consultations between
the
private sector, civil society organisations, other interest groups and appropriate
institutions of the Community.
ARTICLE 128
Strengthening the Private Sector
1. The Partner States shall endeavour to adopt programmes that would streng
then and
promote the role of the private sector as an effective force for the development of
their respective economies.
2. For purposes of paragraph 1 of this Article, the Partner States undertake to:
(a) encourage the efficient use of scarce resources and to promote the
development of private sector organisations which are engaged in all types
of economic activity, such as, the chambers of commerce and industry,
confederations and associations of industry, agriculture, manufacturers,
farmers, traders, and service providers and professional groups;
(b) encourage and sponsor practical and resourceful methods of income
generation in the private sector; and
(c) establish a quality information system which will allow collection,
harmonised processing and timely dissemination of data and information.
3. For purposes of paragraph 1 of this Article, the Partner States may take such other
additional steps as the Council may determine.
ARTICLE 129
Co-operation among Business Organisations and Professional Bodies
1. The Partner States undertake to co-operate in promoting common measures

104to ensure the strengthening of linkages among their business organisations,
employees’ and employers’ organisations and professional bodies. To this end,
the Partner States agree to:
(a) support joint activities which will promote trade and investment among the
Partner States;
(b) recognise and contribute to the efficient operation of federations of business
organisations, professional and commercial interest groups and similar
associations within the Community; and
(c) encourage and promote the taking of useful decisions by the Council and
other relevant institutions of the Community in areas affecting the private
sector, and to monitor the implementation of such decisions.
2. The Council shall establish modalities that would enable the business organisations
or associations, professional bodies and the civil society in the Partner States to
contribute effectively to the development of the Community.
3. The Council shall formulate a business and business related dispute settlement
mechanism.

105
CHAPTER TWENTY SIX
RELATIONS WITH OTHER REGIONAL
AND INTERNATIONAL ORGANISATIONS AND DEVELOPMENT PARTNERS
ARTICLE 130
International Organisations and Development Partners
1. The Partner States shall honour their commitments in respect of other multinational
and international organisations of which they are members.
2. The Partner States reiterate their desire for a wider unity of Africa and regard
the Community as a step towards the achievement of the objectives of the Treaty
Establishing the African Economic Community.
3. With a view to contributing towards the achievement of the objectives of the
Community, the Community shall foster co-operative arrangements with other
regional and international organisations whose activities have a bearing on the
objectives of the Community.
4. The Partner States shall accord special importance to co-operation with the
Organisation of African Unity, United Nations Organisation and its agencies, and
other international organisations, bilateral and multi-lateral development partners
interested in the objectives of the Community.

106CHAPTER TWENTY SEVEN
CO-OPERATION IN OTHER FIELDS
ARTICLE 131
Other Fields
1. Subject to the provisions of this Treaty, the Partner States undertake to consult
with one another through the appropriate institutions of the Community f
or the
purpose of harmonising their respective policies in such other fields as they may,
from time to time, consider necessary or desirable for the efficient and harmonious
functioning and development of the Community and the implementation of the
provisions of this Treaty.
2. For purposes of paragraph 1 of this Article, the Partner States may take in common
such other steps as are calculated to further the objectives of the Community and
the implementation of the provisions of this Treaty.

107
CHAPTER TWENTY EIGHT
FINANCIAL PROVISIONS
ARTICLE 132
Budget
1. There shall be a budget for the organs and institutions of the Community, save for
the self accounting institutions.
2. Subject to this Treaty, a budget for the Community for each financial year shall be
prepared by the Secretary General for consideration by the Council and approval
by the Assembly.
3. All expenditures of the Community in respect of each financial year shall be
considered and approved by the Council and shall be met from the budget.
4. The budget of the Community shall be funded by equal contributions by the
Partner States and receipts from regional and international donations and any other
sources as may be determined by the Council.
5. The resources of the Community shall be utilised to finance activities of the
Community as shall be determined by the Assembly on the recommendation of
the Council.
6. The budget and accounts of the Community shall be kept and maintained in United
States dollars.
7. The financial year of the Community shall run from 1st July to 30th June.
ARTICLE 133
Other Resources
Other resources of the Community shall include such extra budgetary reso
urces as:
(a) grants, donations, funds for projects and programmes and technical
assistance; and
(b) income earned from activities undertaken by the Community.

108ARTICLE 134
Audit of Accounts
1. There shall be an Audit Commission made up of the Auditors General of the
Partner States whose functions will be to audit the accounts of the Comm
unity.
2. It shall be the duty of the Audit Commission to verify that any contributions
received or revenue collected by the Community have been allocated and
distributed in accordance with this Treaty and to include a certificate to that effect
in its report.
3. The Audit Commission shall submit its reports under paragraph 2 of this Article
to the Council which shall cause the same to be laid before the Assembly within
six months of receipt for debate and for such other consultations and action as the
Assembly may deem necessary.
4. In the performance of its functions under this Article, the Audit Commission shall
not be subject to the direction or control of any person or authority.
ARTICLE 135
Financial Rules and Regulations
1. The Council shall make financial rules and regulations of the Community .
2. Self-accounting institutions of the Community shall make their own financial rules
and regulations in line with the provisions of their respective enabling legislation.

109
CHAPTER TWENTY NINE
GENERAL, TRANSITIONAL AND
FINAL PROVISIONS
ARTICLE 136
Headquarters and Other Offices of the Community
1. The headquarters of the Community shall be in Arusha in the United Republic of
Tanzania.
2. There may be established such offices of the Community in the Partner States and
elsewhere as the Council may determine.
ARTICLE 137
Official Language
1. The official language of the Community shall be English.
2. Kiswahili shall be developed as a lingua franca of the Community.
ARTICLE 138
Status, Privileges and Immunities
1. The Community shall enjoy international legal personality.
2. The Secretary General shall conclude with the Governments of the Partner States
in whose territory the headquarters or offices of the Community shall be situated,
agreements relating to the privileges and immunities to be recognised and granted
in connection with the Community.
3. Each of the Partner States undertakes to accord to the Community and its officers
the privileges and immunities accorded to similar international organisations in its
territory.

110ARTICLE 139
Dissolution of the Permanent Tripartite Commission and its Secretariat
Upon the coming into force of this Treaty, hereinafter referred to as “the appointed
day”, the Tripartite Commission and the Secretariat of the Tripartite Commission
respectively established on the 30th day of November, 1993, by the Agreement for
the Establishment of a Permanent Tripartite Commission for Co-operation Between
the Republic of Uganda, the Republic of Kenya and the United Republic of Tanzania,
and on the 26th day of November, 1994, by the Protocol on the Establishment of the
Secretariat of the Permanent Tripartite Commission for Co-operation Between the
Republic of Uganda, the Republic of Kenya and the United Republic of Tanzania, shall
both cease to exist. ARTICLE 140
Transitional Provisions
1. On the appointed day, the Executive Secretary, the Deputy Executive Secretaries,
the Legal Counsel and other staff of the Secretariat of the Tripartite Commission
shall assume the offices of the Secretary General, Deputy Secretaries General,
Counsel to the Community and other staff of the Community respectively and
shall be deemed to have been appointed thereto under the provisions of Articles
67, 68, 69 and 70 of this Treaty respectively:
Provided that the Executive Secretary and the Deputy Executive Secretaries shall
serve for the remaining period of their current contractual terms.
2. Until the Council adopts its procedure, the procedure that applies to th
e Tripartite
Commission shall apply to the Council.

3. Until the Community adopts its own staff rules and regulations and terms and
conditions of service and financial rules and regulations, those of the Secretariat
of the Tripartite Commission shall apply.
4. Until such time as the Council determines that the Court is fully operational, a
Judge appointed under Article 24 of this Treaty shall serve on an ad hoc basis.
Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph 5 of Article 25 of this Treaty, the
salary and other terms and conditions of service of a Judge serving on an ad hoc
basis shall be determined by the Summit on the recommendation of the Cou
ncil.

111
5.
Until the Assembly is elected at a time to be determined by the Summit and first
meets, the functions of the Assembly in respect of the approval of the budget of the
Community, consideration of annual reports on the activities of the Community
and annual audit reports of the Audit Commission, shall be performed by the
Council.
6. Until the adoption of Protocols referred to in Article 151(1), the Council may
make regulations, issue directives, take decisions, make recommendations and
give opinions in accordance with the provisions of this Treaty.
7. Pending the conclusion of a Protocol under paragraph 1 of Article 75 of this
Treaty, the Partner States agree to maintain the rules of origin currently applicable
for the purpose of the preferential treatment of goods traded among them and
originating in the Partner States.
ARTICLE 140 (A)Transition
1. Any judgment or order made by the Court since the entry into force of th
e Treaty
shall be deemed to have been made by the First Instance Division of the
Court.
2. A Judge serving in the East African Court of Justice existing immediately before
the entry into force of this Article shall continue as a Judge of the First Instance
Division for the purposes of the Treaty and is eligible for appointment to the
Appellate Division.
ARTICLE 141
Transfer of Assets and Liabilities
1. On the appointed day there shall be transferred to and vested in the Commun
ity
by virtue of this Article and without further assurance, all the assets and liabilities
of the Secretariat of the Tripartite Commission and from that day, the Community
shall, in respect of the assets and liabilities so transferred and vested in it, have all
the rights, and be subject to all the liabilities, which the Secretariat of the Tripartite
Commission had, or is subject to, immediately before that day.
2. Every contract made by or on behalf of the Secretariat of the Tripartite Commission
in writing and whether or not of such a nature that rights and liabilities thereunder
can be assigned by the Secretariat of the Tripartite Commission, shall have effect
as if made by or, on behalf of the Community and as if references therein to the
Secretariat of the Tripartite Commission or any officer or authority thereof, were
references to the Community and to the corresponding officer or authority thereof.

1123.
Any proceedings by or against the Secretariat of the Tripartite Commission
pending on the appointed day, shall be continued by or against the Community.
4. Reference to the Secretariat of the Tripartite Commission, in any law or document
shall on and after the appointed day, be construed as references to the Community.
ARTICLE 142
Saving Provisions
1. Subject to the provisions of this Treaty, the operation of the following tripartite
agreements after the coming into force of this Treaty shall not be affected by such
coming into force, but the agreements shall be construed with such modifications,
adaptations, qualifications and exceptions as may be necessary to bring them into
conformity with the Treaty:
(a) Agreement for the Establishment of The Permanent Tripartite Commission
for Co-operation Between the Republic of Uganda, the Republic of Kenya
and the United Republic of Tanzania;
(b) Protocol on the Establishment of a Secretariat of the Permanent Tripartite
Commission for Co-operation Between the Republic of Uganda, the
Republic of Kenya and the United Republic of Tanzania;
(c) Headquarters Agreement between the Secretariat of the Commission for
East African Co-operation and the Government of the United Republic of
Tanzania;
(d) Tripartite Agreement for the Avoidance of Double Taxation and the
Prevention of Fiscal Evasion with respect to Taxes on Income;
(e) Memorandum of Understanding on Co-operation in Defence;
(f) Tripartite Agreement on Road Transport;
(g) Tripartite Agreement on Inland Waterways Transport;
(h) Memorandum of Understanding on Foreign Policy Co-ordination; and
(i) Memorandum of Understanding between the Republic of Uganda and the
Republic of Kenya and the United Republic of Tanzania for Co-operation
on Environment Management.

113
2.
The dissolution of the Tripartite Commission in terms of Article 139 of this Treaty
shall not affect the decisions of the Tripartite Commission but such decisions shall
be construed and implemented with such modifications, adaptations, qualifications
and exceptions as may be necessary to bring them into conformity with this Treaty.
ARTICLE 143Sanctions
A Partner State which defaults in meeting its financial and other obligations under this
Treaty shall be subject to such action as the Summit may on the recommend
ation of the
Council, determine. ARTICLE 144
Duration of the Treaty
This Treaty shall have perpetual duration. ARTICLE 145
Withdrawal of a Member
1. A Partner State may withdraw from the Community provided:
(a) the National Assembly of the Partner State so resolves by resolution
supported by not less than two-thirds majority of all the members entitled
to vote; and
(b) the Partner State gives to the Secretary General twelve month’s written
notice of its intention to withdraw, unless that State cancels the notice
before the expiry of the twelve months.
2. A Partner State wishing to withdraw from the Community shall, during the
period
of twelve months referred to in paragraph 1 of this Article, continue to be liable to
discharge her obligations under the Treaty.
3. Notwithstanding the effective withdrawal from membership by such State, upon
expiry of the notice that State shall remain liable to discharge all subsisting
obligations and long term commitments incurred during membership.

114ARTICLE 146
Suspension of a Member
1. The Summit may suspend a Partner State from taking part in the activitie
s of the
Community if that State fails to observe and fulfil the fundamental principles and
objectives of the Treaty including failure to meet financial commitments to the
Community within a period of eighteen (18) months.
2. A Partner State suspended, in accordance with paragraph 1 of this Article, shall
cease to enjoy the benefits provided for under this Treaty but shall continue to be
bound by membership obligations until the suspension is lifted.
ARTICLE 147
Expulsion of a Member
1. The Summit may expel a Partner State from the Community for gross and
persistent violation of the principles and objectives of this Treaty after giving
such Partner State twelve months’ written notice.
2. Upon the expiration of the period specified in paragraph 1 of this Article, the
Partner State concerned shall cease to be a member of the Community unless the
notice is cancelled.
3. During the period referred to in paragraphs 1 and 2 of this Article the Partner
State concerned shall continue to comply with the provisions of this Treaty and be
liable to discharge all subsisting obligations and long-term commitments incurred
during membership.
ARTICLE 148
Exceptions to the Rule of Consensus
Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph 3 of Article 12 of this Treaty, the views
of the Partner State being considered for suspension or expulsion shall
not count, for
the purposes of reaching a decision under the provisions of Articles 146 and 147 of
this Treaty.

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ARTICLE 149
Rights over Property and Assets of the Community Upon
Cessation of Membership
1. Where a Partner State withdraws or is expelled in accordance with Articles 145
and 147 respectively of this Treaty the property of the Community in that Partner
State’s territory shall remain vested in the Community.
2. A State that has ceased to be a Partner State of the Community shall have no
claim to or any rights over any property and assets of the Community.
3. The Community shall continue with its remaining membership notwithstanding
withdrawal or expulsion of any Partner State.
ARTICLE 150
Amendment of the Treaty
1. This Treaty may be amended at any time by agreement of all the Partner States.
2. Any Partner State or the Council may submit proposals for the amendment of this
Treaty.
3. Any proposals for the amendment of this Treaty shall be submitted to the Secretary
General in writing who shall, within thirty days (30) of its receipt, communicate
the proposed amendment to the Partner States.
4. The Partner States which wish to comment on the proposals shall do so within
ninety days (90) from the date of the dispatch of the proposal by the Secretary
General.
5. After the expiration of the period prescribed under paragraph 4 of this
Article, the
Secretary General shall submit the proposals and any comments thereon received
from the Partner States to the Summit through the Council.
6. Any amendment to this Treaty shall be adopted by the Summit and shall enter into
force when ratified by all the Partner States.

116ARTICLE 151
Annexes and Protocols to the Treaty
1. The Partner States shall conclude such Protocols as may be necessary in each area
of co-operation which shall spell out the objectives and scope of, and institutional
mechanisms for co-operation and integration.
2. Each Protocol shall be approved by the Summit on the recommendation of the
Council.
3. Each Protocol shall be subject to signature and ratification by the parties hereto.
4. The Annexes and Protocols to this Treaty shall form an integral part of this Treaty.
ARTICLE 152
Entry into Force
This Treaty shall enter into force upon ratification and deposit of instruments of
ratification with the Secretary General by all Partner States. ARTICLE 153
Depository and Registration
1. This Treaty and all instruments of ratification shall be deposited with the Secretary
General who shall transmit certified true copies thereof to all the Partner States.
2. The Secretary General shall register this Treaty with the Organisation of African
Unity, the United Nations, and such other organisations as the Council may
determine.
DONE at Arusha, Tanzania, on the 30th day of November, in the year One
Thousand Nine Hundred and Ninety-Nine.
IN FAITH WHEREOF the undersigned have appended their signatures hereto:
for the Republic of for the Republic of for the United Republic of
Uganda Kenya Tanzania
……………………………… ……………………………… ……………………………..
YOWERI KAGUTA MUSEVENI DANIEL TOROITICH ARAP MOI BENJAMIN WILLIAM MKAPA
PRESIDENT PRESIDENT PRESIDENT

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Published by the EAC Secretariat
P. O. Box 1096, Arusha, Tanzania ISBN: 9987 – 666-01-9

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