On March 24, 2020, the government declared a nationwide “state of health emergency” until April 20, unless renewed. The order prohibited the movement of any person outside the home, except in cases of extreme necessity, and prohibited any meeting or gathering of groups of people for any reason. One day before that, a decree enabled the government to declare a “state of health emergency” and take exceptional measures to stop the spread of COVID-19. Anyone who contravened the decree, or incited others to contravene the decree through speech or threat uttered in a public place or meeting, written or printed materials, photos, posters, audiovisual or electronic communications, or any other means could be imprisoned one to three months or be fined 300 to 1,300 dirhams ($30-$130). In addition, on March 22, the Minister of Culture, Youth and Sports announced the suspension of the publication and distribution of print newspapers until further notice. For additional details, see ICNL’s COVID-19 Civic Freedom Tracker entry for Morocco.
Morocco has undergone a series of major reforms since King Mohammed VI ascended to the throne in 1999, including the passage of substantial amendments to the Decree on the Right to Establish Associations in 2002 and approval of a new Constitution following popular protests in 2011. These reforms have enlarged the legal space for civil society, expanding its rights as well as its role in policymaking and the public sphere. As a result of the more enabling legal environment, Moroccan civil society has undergone substantial development. Some challenges persist; for instance, associations touching on sensitive topics such as Western Sahara, the monarchy, and religion, have reported some resistance from authorities, both within and outside the bounds of the law. If implemented properly, however, Morocco’s legal framework for civil society could be considered among the most enabling in the Arab world and a model for other countries.
|Registration Body||Headquarters of the Local Administrative Authority, NGOs Directorate|
|Barriers to Entry||Administrative officials sometimes refuse to issue registration receipts. (Registration is voluntary, but required for an association to carry out financial transactions among other things.)|
|Barriers to Activities||Organizations which pursue activities that are “illegal, contrary to good morals, [or which aim] to undermine the Islamic religion, the integrity of the national territory, or the monarchical regime, or call for discrimination” are prohibited.|
|Barriers to Speech and/or Advocacy||Organizations which pursue activities that are “illegal, contrary to good morals, [or which aim] to undermine the Islamic religion, the integrity of the national territory, or the monarchical regime, or call for discrimination” are prohibited.|
|Barriers to International Contact||n/a|
|Barriers to Resources||Legal registration is required to receive funds – including foreign funds – and carry out financial transactions. An additional license is required to do domestic fundraising, and officials sometime deny license applications.|
|Population||33,655,786 (July 2016 est.)|
|Type of Government||Constitutional Monarchy|
|Life Expectancy at Birth||Male: 73.8 years|
Female: 80.1 years (2016 est.)
|Literacy Rate||male: 78.6%|
female: 58.8% (2015 est.)
|Religious Groups||Muslim: 99%; Christian: 1%; Jewish approx. 6,000 persons|
|Ethnic Groups||Arab-Berber: 99%; Other: 1%.|
|GDP Per Capita (PPP)||$8,200 (2015 est.)|
Source: The World Factbook. Washington, DC: Central Intelligence Agency, 2013.
|Ranking Body||Rank||Ranking Scale|
(best – worst possible)
|UN Human Development Index||121 (2019)||1 – 189|
|World Bank Rule of Law Index||49.52 (2018)||100 – 0|
|World Bank Voice & Accountability Index||29.56 (2018)||100 – 0|
|Transparency International||80 (2019)||1 – 180|
|Freedom House: Freedom in the World||Status: Partly Free|
Political Rights: 13
Civil Liberties: 24 (2020)
|Free/Partly Free/Not Free|
40 – 0
60 – 0
|Foreign Policy: Fragile States Index||83 (2018)||177 – 1|
International and Regional Human Rights Agreements
|Key International Agreements||Ratification*||Year|
|International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR)||Yes||1979|
|Optional Protocol to ICCPR (ICCPR-OP1)||No||—|
|International Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights (ICESCR)||Yes||1979|
|Optional Protocol to ICESCR (OP-ICESCR)||No||—|
|International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination (ICERD)||Yes||1970|
|Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW)||Yes||1993|
|Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women||No||—|
|Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC)||Yes||1993|
|International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of their Families (ICRMW)||Yes||1993|
|Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD)||Yes||2009|
|Key Regional Agreements||Ratification*||Year|
|Arab Charter on Human Rights||Yes||2004 (signed but not ratified)|
|African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights||Note: Morocco withdrew from the African Union in protest at the admission of the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic (Western Sahara).|
|African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child|
|Treaty Establishing the African Economic Community|
|Protocol to the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights on the Rights of Women in Africa|
|Protocol to the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights on the Establishment of an African Court on Human and Peoples’ Rights|
* Category includes ratification, accession, or succession to the treaty
The first Moroccan Constitution was passed in 1962 after the country regained independence from France. The Constitution has undergone a number of revisions, most recently in July 2011 following popular protests and other events of the “Arab Spring.” Following the 2011 amendments, the Constitution provides more expansive rights for civil society organizations and non-governmental organizations, and guarantees their freedom to operate in accordance with the Constitution and laws of Morocco. The relevant articles include the following:
The associations of civil society and the non-governmental organizations are constituted and exercise their activities in all freedom, within respect for the Constitution and for the law.
They may not be dissolved or suspended by the public powers except by virtue of a judicial decision.
The associations interested in public matters and the non-governmental organizations, contribute, within the framework of participative democracy, to the enactment, the implementation and the evaluation of the decisions and the initiatives of the elected institutions and of the public powers. These institutions and powers must organize this contribution in accordance with the conditions and modalities established by the law.
The organization and functioning of the associations and the non-governmental organizations must conform to democratic principles.
The public powers work to the creation of instances of dialogue, with a view to associate the different social actors with the enactment, the implementation, the execution and the evaluation of the public policies.
The freedoms of reunion, of assembly, of peaceful demonstration, of association and of syndical and political membership, are guaranteed.
The right to strike is guaranteed. An organic law establishes the conditions and the modalities of its exercise.
The participative mechanisms of dialog and of acting in concert are implemented by the Councils of the regions and the Councils of the other territorial collectivities so as to favor the participation of the citizens and of the associations in the enactment and the application of the programs of development.
The citizens and the associations can exercise the right of petition with a view of demanding the inclusion in the agenda of the Council, a question relevant to its competence.
National Laws and Regulations Affecting Sector
Relevant national legislation includes the following:
- Decree on the Right to Establish Associations (Decree 1-58-376 of 1958 as amended by Decree 1-733-283 of 1973 and Decree 1-02-206 of 2002)
- Decree to Implement the Decree on the Right to Establish Associations (Prime Ministerial Decree 2-04-969 of 2005) [English] [عربي]
- Circular on the Conditions of Recognizing Public Benefit for Associations (Circular 1 of 2005) [English] [عربي]
Pending NGO Legislative / Regulatory Initiatives
1. The Ministry of Relations with Parliament and Civil Society has set forth a multi-year strategy to strengthen the role of civil society, enhance the capacities of NGOs, and strengthen their funding systems. Moroccan CSOs have also begun drafting proposals for amendments to existing and draft laws impacting the legal environment for CSOs, including amendments to the decree on associations and the laws and regulations impacting the financial regulation and taxation of CSOs. Moroccan CSOs also prepared a new draft law on volunteerism and are developing proposals for a new draft law on mechanisms of public consultations.
2. Decree No. 2.16.773 on the Membership, Competence, and Modes of Functioning of the Petitions Committee was issued on May 25, 2017. The Decree implements Organizational Law No. 44.14 relating to the Conditions and Modalities of Pursuing the Right to Submit Petitions to Public Authorities. According to the Decree, the Petitions Committee will be headed by the Prime Minister and will be made up of a representative of the Prime Minister as well as a representative of each of the government authorities responsible for: human rights; the interior; foreign affairs; justice; the government’s general secretariat; finance; and civil society. The Committee will work to ensure that petitions meet the requirements set forth in Organizational Law No. 44.14 and will give its opinion and suggestions regarding accepted petitions; the Committee will also have the authority to submit petitions to the Prime Minister. In early 2018, almost a year after the Petitions Committee’s establishment, it organized a workshop on mechanisms and procedures for submitting petitions to the Prime Minister. The workshop addressed several points, including a study of the short-and medium-term roadmap to promote the exercise of the right to submit petitions.
3. The Government has called for associations to submit proposals on enhancing the role of associations in improving employability within the framework of the preparation of the Finance Act of 2019. The Prime Minister had mandated that the ministry in charge of relations with parliament and civil society open a consultative process for CSOs to make suggestions on the work of associations and their operation and development during the period between August 27 and September 12, 2018.
4. The Ministry of Relations with Parliament & Civil Society released a plan that aims to promote public funding for CSOs; ensure the transparency, effectiveness, and efficiency of funding procedures; and strengthen CSOs’ capacity to manage public funds.
The association is the main form of non-governmental organization in Morocco. The Decree on the Right to Establish Associations (Decree 1-58-376 of 1958 as amended by Decree 1-733-283 of 1973 and Decree 1-02-206 of 2002) allows for the formation of an association, which it defines as “an agreement to achieve constant cooperation between two or more persons using their information or activities for a non‐profit purpose.”
Public Benefit Status
Although the Decree on the Right to Establish Associations, Decree on Public Benefit Status for Associations, and Ministerial Circular on the Requirements and Process of Awarding Public Benefit Status all set out a procedure by which associations can apply for public benefit status, no Moroccan law sets out clear conditions for what activities qualify as public benefit. Obtaining public benefit status entitles the association to tax benefits along with the ability to apply for government financial support. The number of associations with the status is small, however: A report issued by the NGOs Directorate in 2014 stated that nine associations had applied and obtained public benefit status during the previous year, bringing the number of organizations with the status to 206.
Barriers to Entry
Morocco provides for establishment and registration via a “notification” process, however in practice the process effectively requires prior government approval and can present a significant hurdle for associations. Under the law, obtaining legal personality is voluntary: Article 2 provides that “associations can be freely established without prior permission, provided that” the notification process is followed. Accordingly, per Article 5, organizations that desire legal personality should file a notification with the Local Administrative Authority in which the organization’s headquarters are located. The notification application must contain information including: the name and purpose of the association; the name, nationality, age, profession, residence, and national or foreign ID of its founders; and the address of the association’s headquarters. According to the law, once the complete application has been submitted, “a receipt is to be delivered within 60 days.” If no response is received, the association can carry out its activities (Article 5).
While the law appears to give limited discretion to government officials concerning an association’s notification, in practice the authorities may refuse to receive the notification documents, or issue the notification receipt. The lack of a registration receipt effectively deprives some organizations of legal entity status. While unregistered associations may implement activities, moreover, registration is required in order to carry out financial transactions, including receipt and possession of funds to support those activities.
Barriers to Operational Activity
Article 3 of Decree 1-58-376 of 1958 (as amended) prohibits the formation of associations that pursue objectives which are “illegal, contrary to good morals, [or which aim] to undermine the Islamic religion, the integrity of the national territory, or the monarchical regime, or call for discrimination.” Moroccan authorities regularly use this vaguely-worded provision to refuse to accept the notification announcement of Amazigh (native Berber) and Sahrawi (Western Saharan) organizations, including among others the Iz’uran Association, the Imal Association, and the Sahrawi Association of Victims of Grave Violations Committed by the Moroccan State.
Barriers to Speech / Advocacy
Decree 1-58-376 of 1958 (as amended) and the Criminal Code of Morocco prohibit membership in groups which are deemed seditious, violent, or in furtherance of terrorist activities. Punishment for participation in aiding terrorism is punishable by lengthy imprisonment and even death. Participation in an association which has the “features of special armed groups” or “may affect the unity of the national territory” is punishable by up to five years in prison. In June 2009, for example, the Casablanca Court of First Instance sentenced the Amazigh president of the Rif Human Rights Association to imprisonment for three years for “insulting behavior towards State institutions” and the receipt of foreign funds to “undermine and discredit the Moroccan authorities’ efforts in the fight against drug trafficking.” It is worth noting that in June 2018, the High Authority for Audiovisual Communication (HACA) issued Decision 20-18 on ensuring the pluralistic expression of the currents of thought and opinion in audiovisual communication services.
In 2018, the government launched the portal for public participation, allowing citizens to exercise their right to submit motions and petitions to the parliament, public authorities, and/or local councils. During the launch, the Prime Minister stated that, “Civil society should play a bigger role in decision-making. We want civil society to play a greater role in the process of thinking and proposing, not only from afar but through the press, and in an organized way.” However, a year later after its launch, only four petitions had been submitted, and the portal showed that no motions have been submitted.
Barriers to International Contact
There are no legal barriers to international contact and communication.
Barriers to Resources
There are limited legal barriers to the collection of resources, whether from domestic or foreign sources. The primary obstacle facing associations is legal registration, without which they are unable to conduct financial transactions as discussed above. In addition, organizations must apply for an additional license before they may collect donations, though the NGOs Directorate generally grants a fundraising license to most of those organizations that apply. Foreign funding is not subject to major restrictions, and in practice many organizations receive funds from abroad.
Barriers to Assembly
Article 29 of Morocco’s 2011 Constitution provides broad protection for the freedom of assembly, stating: “The freedoms of reunion, of assembly, of peaceful demonstration… are guaranteed.” Law 76 on Public Assemblies, which was passed in 2002 to supplement Decree No. 1-58-377, further regulates the right. The legal framework for assemblies is not well publicized, however; even many civil society organizations are unaware of the details of provisions regulating assemblies.
Law 76 on Public Assemblies contains a number of vague and broadly-worded provisions, which gives authorities much discretion in their implementation of the law. Chapter 6 provides, for instance, that organizers of assemblies must “prevent any statement that contradicts with the public order and manners, or that involves incitement for a misdemeanors or a crime.” Chapter 13 of Law 76 on Public Assemblies also provides that “if the local administrative authority deems that the assembly in question threatens public security, it can ban [the assembly] upon a written decision that shall be served to the signing applicant to their selected places of abode.” The use of vague terms such as “contradicts with the public order and manners,” and “threatens public security” gives wide discretion to the authorities to interpret the provision the way they deem fit.
Chapter 3 of Law 76 on Public Assemblies governs the process for notifying authorities prior to a public meeting. (Associations and legally constituted groups are exempt from the notification requirement for their meetings.) Organizers that wish to hold a public meeting must notify the local administrative authorities at least 24 hours in advance and obtain a stamped receipt of acknowledgement. The notification must include the day, time, place, and purpose of the meeting, as well as the names, professions, and addresses of three people domiciled in the province where the meeting will occur. The public meeting may take place 24 hours after obtaining the stamped receipt.
Law 76 also provides a process by which registered, established groups – including associations, political parties, unions, or professional bodies – may hold demonstrations on public roads. (Only such groups may do so; demonstrations on public roads by any other entity are barred.) Demonstration organizers must submit a notification statement to the local administrative authority at least three days beforehand (Chapter 12). The statement must include: the organizers’ names, nationalities, residence and identification number; the demonstration’s venue, date, time, route, and purpose; and the signatures of three individuals who live in the province where the demonstration is planned.
For both public meetings and demonstrations on public roads, if the organizers are unable to obtain the stamped receipt on the declaration, they may send the authorities a registered letter containing the same information with acknowledgement of receipt. However, the law does not require the authorities to procure either the stamped receipt, or acknowledgement of receipt for the registered letter; accordingly this provides a means for authorities to effectively prohibited assemblies, for instance based on their political or cultural content.
In addition, the local administrative authority has the power to ban a demonstration it deems likely to disturb public security (Chapter 13). The ban must be served, in writing, to the organizers at their places of residence. The organizers may challenge the decision before an administrative court, however this process often involves significant delays and is not required to be expedited, and as such is rarely effective.
The law does not provide for spontaneous assemblies. Accordingly, given the prior notification and receipt requirement, spontaneous public meetings and demonstrations likely fall under the law’s provisions concerning “mobs,” and are prohibited. The advanced notification requirement does not apply to assemblies that are part of local customs, however. The last clause of Chapter 11 of Law 76 on Public Assemblies provides that “assemblies on public roads that are according to local customs shall be exempted from permit requirement.” Examples of such assemblies are weddings, circumcision celebrations, and funerals.
Time, Place, Manner Restrictions
Law 76 on Public Assemblies provides that assemblies may not take place after midnight, or beyond the time stated in the notification permit. For demonstrations, the law gives the local administrative authority to modify the route or timing on the grounds of traffic interference or security. The authority may also prohibit the display of emblems, flags, or other rallying symbols in public places, via a written decision.
Fines and Criminal Penalties
Law 76 provides for criminal penalties in the case of violation of the law. Chapter 9 provides that any violation of Law 76 will be punished by a fine of between 2,000 and 5,000 dirham (USD 240-595). A similar fine and possible prison sentence of 1-6 months is specifically provided for relatively minor infractions, including making an inaccurate declaration that is likely to mislead authorities regarding the nature of an assembly, or attempting to engage participants in an undeclared or prohibited demonstration. A repeat offense is to be published by imprisonment from 1-2 months and a fine of 2,000-10,000 dirham (USD 240-1,190).
|UN Universal Periodic Review Reports||Universal Periodic Review: Morocco (2012)|
|Reports of UN Special Rapporteurs||Morocco|
|USIG (United States International Grantmaking) Country Notes||Not available|
|U.S. State Department||2016 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Morocco|
|Fragile States Index Reports||Foreign Policy: Failed States Index|
|IMF Country Reports||Morocco and the IMF|
|International Commission of Jurists||Not available|
|International Center for Not-for-Profit Law Online Library||Morocco|
In September 2018, CSOs launched the second Civil Society Award in recognition of their efforts and to creative initiatives in the community. The award is awarded annually to national and local associations and organizations, and international ones for Moroccans living abroad. The award includes a certificate of appreciation, a shield, and a financial reward.
The award consists of the following categories:
- National Associations and Organizations Award
- Local associations and organizations award
- International associations and organizations award for Moroccans living abroad
- Activists Award
Requirements and qualifications for Associations to win the award:
- The association founded according to the legal provisions.
- The association has a clear legal status.
- Did not won the award during the past four years.
- No one of the association members shall be a member of the Organizing Committee of the Award or the Arbitration Committee.
- Have concrete and effective contributions to civil society;
- The contribution of the nomination has been completed during the last four years and at most before the deadline for the submission of nominations for the award.
Requirements and qualifications for activists to win the award:
- Have concrete and effective contributions to civil society
- Have at least 10 years’ experience in civic work
- The contribution of the nomination has been completed during the last four years and at most before the deadline for the submission of nominations for the award.
- No one of the association members shall be a member of the Organizing Committee of the Award or the Arbitration Committee.
- The nominee must be a resident, or foreigner living in the country for continuous five years.
Government launches the platform for “civic engagement” (July 2018)
The Prime Minister and minister in charge of relations with parliament and civil society inaugurated the electronic platform for “civic participation”, stating that “Civil society should play a bigger role in decision-making. We want civil society to play a greater role in the process of thinking and proposing, not only from afar but through the press, and in an organized way.”
Morocco’s HACA Launches Official Website to Receive Public Complaints (January 2018)
The online portal, haca.ma, allows the public to send their complaints and track’s the body’s ongoing projects. The portal is also designed to provide the public with an online access to benefit from its services. According to a statement by High Authority of Audiovisual Communication (HACA), this major redesign of the website has also widened the area of information and exchanges with audiovisual operators following their approval. The platform was completed after two years of design and testing.
Protesters, activists, and journalists detained over Rif protests must be released (November 2017)
Amnesty International called for the immediate and unconditional release of individuals detained in connection with the Rif protests. Since May 2017, security forces have arrested more than 400 protesters, including children and several journalists over the largely peaceful protests. Many have been convicted, with some handed prison terms of up to 20 years, while others, including minors, have been held for up to six months in pre-trial detention.
Government releases First Annual Report on Partnership between the State and Associations (July 2017)
A spokesperson for the Ministry of Relations with Parliament and Civil Society announced the submission of the First Annual Report on Partnership between the State and Associations, for the year 2015. The report had two focuses: (1) the legal and regulatory framework of the partnership between the state and associations, and (2) funding and public support for associations in 2015.
Morocco arrests leader of northern protest movement (June 2017)
Authorities in Morocco arrested Nasser Zefzafi, the leader of a protest movement that has shaken the country’s northern Rif region for months. The Rif region has faced widespread social unrest since the death in October 2016 of a fishmonger crushed in a garbage truck as he protested against the seizure of swordfish caught out of season. Calls for justice for Mouhcine Fikri, 31, evolved into a grassroots movement demanding jobs and economic development, with Zefzafi, himself unemployed, emerging as the leader of the Al-Hirak al-Shaabi, or “Popular Movement”, based largely in Al-Hoceima.
Al-Othmani Approves Petitions Committee Decree and the Establishing of Electronic Portal (May 2017)
The Moroccan Cabinet has approved Decree No. 2.16.773 related to the Membership, Competence, and Modes of Functioning of the Petitions Committee.
Parliament proposes to monitor foreign funding to associations (May 2016)
The Public Finance Control Committee in the House of Representatives submitted its report on domestic and foreign support for associations, and called for new mechanisms including bank and state oversight to monitor associations’ receipt of foreign funds.
Moroccan Foreign Affairs Asks Embassies and International Organizations Not to Fund Civil Society Organizations Except Through Diplomatic Channels (April 2017)
The Moroccan Ministry of Foreign Affairs has asked all embassies and international organizations to respect the “rules and traditions” of diplomatic work and to run all agreements and funding with/for civil society organizations in Morocco through diplomatic channels.
Morocco’s smiling face and heavy hand (November 2015)
Despite the appearance of relative stability and progressive reform, Morocco has brought increasing pressure to bear on its civil society, including through the harassment of independent media, prosecution of activists, and new restrictions on local and international NGOs.
Persistent restrictions on rights group (April 2015)
Local authorities have prohibited dozens of attempted meetings of the Moroccan Assocaition for Human Rights (Association marocaine des droits humains, AMDH), as well as prevented branches of the group from registering their executive committees. AMDH’s national headquarters were also subject to a police raid in February.
Study by the Ministry of Interior on the Status of Civil Society in Morocco (December 2014)
The Interior Ministry’s study provides new data on associations in Morocco, including their field of work, their geographical distribution, and trends in establishment and registration.
Human rights organizations accuse Hassad of misleading public opinion (November 2014)
A number of Moroccan rights organizations issued a statement seeking an apology from Minister of Interior Mohamed Hassad, after he accused them of threatening the national interest in a speech before the House of Representatives.
Moroccan human rights organizations boycott the national dialogue on civil society (March 2014)
The National Committee for National Dialogue on civil society and new constitutional roles presented a report recommending the preparation of a national charter on democratic principles and international standards. A number of human rights organizations have decided to boycott the National Dialogue and are carrying out parallel meetings and consultations.
Al-Chobani: The creation of a ministerial committee on civil is near (March 2014)
The Minister in charge of relations with parliament and civil society announced that a new ministerial committee for civil society will be established soon, per a forthcoming government decree.
Moroccan civil society is ranked the last of all other African countries (February 2014)
A civil society barometer revealed Morocco’s last-place standing among African countries in a report prepared by the Institute for International and Strategic Relations (IRIS) in cooperation with CCFD-Terre.
European NGO Denounces “Serious” Violation of Human Rights in Western Sahara (September 2013)
Morocco “violates seriously human rights in its country and in the occupied territories” of Western Sahara, Europe’s Central and Eastern Alliance for Solidarity with the Sahrawi People claimed. The reaction of the European NGO comes after the visit made by Moroccan minister of foreign affairs to Hungary where the two sides made a joint statement at the end of the visit. “We consider worryingly that the joint statement doesn’t mention that Morocco seriously violates human rights in its country and in the occupied territories of Western Sahara,” NGO said in a letter sent to the Hungarian minister of foreign affairs János Martonyi.
Neighbourhood Civil Society Facility officially launched in Morocco (April 2013)
An exchange seminar with the civil society organizations that are partners of the EU in Morocco, was held in Rabat. The event was the occasion to launch officially the 18 new partnership projects with civil society funded by the EU in 2012 (for a budget of approximately €4 million), as well as the new capacity building programme for civil society organizations in Morocco (budget of approx. €1.2 million), financed through the civil society facility set up by the EU in the Neighbourhood.
Is Morocco on the path to democracy? (November 2012)
Morocco is not yet an exemplar of Jeffersonian liberalism, but it is on a path paved with democratic principles. Making the Berber language an official language of the nation along with Arabic is a symbolic gesture of extraordinary magnitude. It recognized universally agreed upon rights, including most significantly the rights of minorities. At long last there is another model for the Arab future, one that Americans and Europeans should embrace wholeheartedly. It is true that there are still challenges ahead of the democracy path n Morocco but the most important is that Moroccans (civil society, political parties and most important youth) have made their irreversible choice to continue their peaceful struggle towards full democracy.
Assaults On Peaceful Demonstrations Calling for Saharawis Self-Determination (October 2012)
The Arabic Network for Human Rights Information has condemned the acts of repression of the Moroccan regime against the peaceful demonstration calling for self-determination of the Saharawi people. The Cairo-based Organization confirmed that the assault on the peaceful demonstration and injuring of its activists is “a severe violation” of the freedom of expression and opinion, pointing out that the suppression “is the only method that the Moroccan authorities recognize to address the peaceful demonstrations” in Western Sahara.
Trending away from absolute power (September 2012)
There is no doubt that traditional political parties and human rights activists feel overtaken by the “Facebook insurgents”. Two and a half million Moroccans are Facebook members, making Morocco second only to Egypt in the number of Facebook members in North Africa and the Middle East. A higher percentage of Moroccans use the Internet, however, than Egyptians do. And these Moroccans are mobilizing for their own protest against corruption, poverty, unemployment, access to health care, and various forms of indignity. Traditional activists think that Facebook uprisings are not enough to see reform through; public discontent needs to be channeled and framed by traditional political parties and human rights organizations.
“Controlled Development” of civil society (July 2012)
In Morocco, the monarchy and Makhzen have encouraged a controlled development of civil society for several decades, but they haven’t always succeeded in keeping it under check. In 2003, in one of the first successful youth-led, internet driven protests against an Arab regime, members of the Moroccan heavy metal community responded to the arrest of 14 fans and musicians on charges of Satanism by starting local and international campaigns to free their fellow metal heads, staging protests at the court house where they were tried and ultimately forcing the government to overturn their convictions.
EU-Morocco ‘Action Plan’ highlights involvement of civil society (May 2012)
A new comprehensive EU-Morocco Action Plan will provide an operational roadmap for their bilateral relations in the next five years (2012-2016). The new action plan will be fully in line with the political, economic and social reform agenda of Morocco and with the EU’s renewed approach to the European Neighborhood Policy. Among other areas, the action plan contains important objectives for the consolidation of the respect of huma