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Addis Ababa Action Agenda of the Third International Conference on Financing for Development

United Nations A /RES/69/313

General Assembly Distr.: General
17 August 2015
Sixty-ninth session
Agenda item 18

15-12674 (E) *1512674* Please recycle
Resolution adopted by the General Assembly on 27 July 2015
[without reference to a Main Committee (A/69/L.82)] 69/313. Addis Ababa Action Agenda of the Third International
Conference on Financing for Development (Addis Ababa
Action Agenda)
The General Assembly ,

Recalling its resolution 68/204 of 20 December 2013, in which it decided to
convene a third international conference on financing for development, as well as its
resolutions 68/279 of 30 June 2014 and 69/278 of 8 May 2015,
1.
Endorses the Addis Ababa Action Agenda of the Third International
Conference on Financing for Development (Addis Ababa Action Agenda) adopted
by the Conference, which is contained in the annex to the present resolution;
2.
Expresses its profound gratitude to the Government and the people of
Ethiopia for hosting the third International Conference on Financing for
Development, from 13 to 16 July 2015, and for providing all the necessary support.

99th plenary meeting
27 July 2015

Annex
Addis Ababa Action Agenda of the Third International Conference
on Financing for Development (Addis Ababa Action Agenda)

I. A global framework for financing development post-2015
1. We, the Heads of State and Government and High Representatives, gathered in
Addis Ababa from 13 to 16 July 2015, affirm our strong political commitment to
address the challenge of financing and creating an enabling environment at all levels
for sustainable development in the spirit of global partnership and solidarity. We
reaffirm and build on the 2002 Monterrey Consensus
1 and the 2008 Doha
Declaration. 2 Our goal is to end poverty and hunger and to achieve sustainable
_______________
1 Report of the International Conference on Financing for Development, Monterrey, Mexico, 18–22 March
2002 (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.02.II.A.7), chap. I, resolution 1, annex.
2 Resolution 63/239, annex.

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development in its three dimensions through promoting inclusive economic growth,
protecting the environment and promoting social inclusion. We commit to respecting all
human rights, including the right to development. We will ensure gender equality and
women’s and girls’ empowerment. We will promote peaceful and inclusive societies and
advance fully towards an equitable global economic system in which no country or person
is left behind, enabling decent work and productive livelihoods for all, while preserving the
planet for our children and future
generations.
2. In September 2015, the United Nations will host a summit to adopt an
ambitious and transformative post-2015 development agenda, including sustainable
development goals. This agenda must be underpinned by equally ambitious and
credible means of implementation. We have come together to establish a holistic and
forward-looking framework and to commit to concrete actions to deliver on the
promise of that agenda. Our task is threefold: to follow-up on commitments and
assess the progress made in the implementation of the Monterrey Consensus and the
Doha Declaration; to further strengthen the framework to finance sustainable
development and the means of implementation for the universal post-2015
development agenda; and to reinvigorate and strengthen the financing for
development follow-up process to ensure that the actions to which we commit are
implemented and reviewed in an appropriate, inclusive, timely and transparent
manner.
3. We recognize that, since the adoption of the Monterrey Consensus, the world
has made significant overall progress. Globally, economic activity and financing
flows have increased substantially. We have made great progress in mobilizing
financial and technical resources for development from an increased number of
actors. Advances in science, technology and innovation have enhanced the potential
to achieve our development goals. Many countries, including developing countries,
have implemented policy frameworks that have contributed to increased
mobilization of domestic resources and higher levels of economic growth and social
progress. Developing countries’ share in world trade has increased and, while debt
burdens remain, they have been reduced in many poor countries. These advances
have contributed to a substantial reduction in the number of people living in extreme
poverty and to notable progress towards the achievement of the Millennium
Development Goals.
4. Despite these gains, many countries, particularly developing countries, still
face considerable challenges, and some have fallen further behind. Inequalities
within many countries have increased dramatically. Women, representing half of the
world’s population, as well as indigenous peoples and the vulnerable, continue to be
excluded from participating fully in the economy. While the Monterrey agenda has
not yet been fully implemented, new challenges have arisen and enormous unmet
needs remain for the achievement of sustainable development. The 2008 world
financial and economic crisis exposed risks and vulnerabilities in the international
financial and economic system. Global growth rates are now below pre-crisis levels.
Shocks from financial and economic crises, conflict, natural disasters and disease
outbreaks spread rapidly in our highly interconnected world. Environmental
degradation, climate change and other environmental risks threaten to undermine
past successes and future prospects. We need to ensure that our development efforts
enhance resilience in the face of these threats.
5. Solutions can be found, including through strengthening public policies,
regulatory frameworks and finance at all levels, unlocking the transformative
potential of people and the private sector and incentivizing changes in financing as
well as consumption and production patterns to support sustainable development.

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We recognize that appropriate incentives, strengthening national and international
policy environments and regulatory frameworks and their coherence, harnessing the
potential of science, technology and innovation, closing technology gaps and scaling
up capacity-building at all levels are essential for the shift towards sustainable
development and poverty eradication. We reaffirm the importance of freedom,
human rights and national sovereignty, good governance, the rule of law, peace and
security, combating corruption at all levels and in all its forms and effective,
accountable and inclusive democratic institutions at the subnational, national and
international levels as central to enabling the effective, efficient and transparent
mobilization and use of resources. We also reaffirm all the principles of the Rio
Declaration on Environment and Development.
3
6. We reaffirm that achieving gender equality, empowering all women and girls,
and the full realization of their human rights are essential to achieving sustained,
inclusive and equitable economic growth and sustainable development. We reiterate
the need for gender mainstreaming, including targeted actions and investments in
the formulation and implementation of all financial, economic, environmental and
social policies. We recommit to adopting and strengthening sound policies and
enforceable legislation and transformative actions for the promotion of gender
equality and women’s and girls’ empowerment at all levels, to ensure women’s
equal rights, access and opportunities for participation and leadership in the
economy and to eliminate gender-based violence and discrimination in all its forms.
7. We recognize that investing in children and youth is critical to achieving
inclusive, equitable and sustainable development for present and future generations,
and we recognize the need to support countries that face particular challenges to
make the requisite investments in this area. We reaffirm the vital importance of
promoting and protecting the rights of all children and ensuring that no child is left
behind.
8. We recognize the importance of addressing the diverse needs and challenges
faced by countries in special situations, in particular African countries, least
developed countries, landlocked developing countries and small island developing
States, as well as the specific challenges facing middle-income countries. We
reaffirm that least developed countries, as the most vulnerable group of countries,
need enhanced global support to overcome the structural challenges they face for the
achievement of the post-2015 development agenda and the sustainable development
goals. We reaffirm the need to address the special challenges and needs of
landlocked developing countries in structurally transforming their economies,
harnessing benefits from international trade and developing efficient transport and
transit systems. We further reaffirm that small island developing States remain a
special case for sustainable development in view of their small size, remoteness,
narrow resource and export base and exposure to global environmental challenges.
We also reaffirm the need to achieve a positive socioeconomic transformation in
Africa and the need to address the diverse and specific development needs of
middle-income countries, including combating poverty in all of its forms. In this
regard, we support the implementation of relevant strategies and programmes of
action, including the Istanbul Declaration and Programme of Action,
4 the SIDS
_______________
3 Report of the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, Rio de Janeiro, 3–14 June
1992, vol. I, Resolutions Adopted by the Conference (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.93.I.8 and
corrigendum), resolution 1, annex I.
4 Report of the Fourth United Nations Conference on the Least Developed Countries, Istanbul, Turkey,
9–13 May 2011 (A/CONF.219/7), chap. I and II.

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Accelerated Modalities of Action (SAMOA) Pathway 5 and the Vienna Programme
of Action for Landlocked Developing Countries for the Decade 2014–2024, 6 and
reaffirm the importance of supporting the new development framework, the African
Union’s Agenda 2063, as well as its 10-year plan of action, as a strategic framework
for ensuring a positive socioeconomic transformation in Africa within the next
50 years, and its continental programme embedded in the resolutions of the General
Assembly on the New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD). Countries in
conflict and post-conflict situations also need special attention. We recognize the
development challenge posed by conflict, which not only impedes but can reverse
decades of development gains. We recognize the peacebuilding financing gap and
the importance of the Peacebuilding Fund. We take note of the principles set out in
the New Deal by the Group of Seven Plus, countries that are, or have been, affected
by conflict.
9. Cohesive nationally owned sustainable development strategies, supported by
integrated national financing frameworks, will be at the heart of our efforts. We
reiterate that each country has primary responsibility for its own economic and
social development and that the role of national policies and development strategies
cannot be overemphasized. We will respect each country’s policy space and
leadership to implement policies for poverty eradication and sustainable
development, while remaining consistent with relevant international rules and
commitments. At the same time, national development efforts need to be supported
by an enabling international economic environment, including coherent and
mutually supporting world trade, monetary and financial systems and strengthened
and enhanced global economic governance. Processes to develop and facilitate the
availability of appropriate knowledge and technologies globally, as well as capacity-
building, are also critical. We commit to pursuing policy coherence and an enabling
environment for sustainable development at all levels and by all actors and to
reinvigorating the global partnership for sustainable development.
10. The enhanced and revitalized global partnership for sustainable development,
led by Governments, will be a vehicle for strengthening international cooperation
for implementation of the post-2015 development agenda. Multi-stakeholder
partnerships and the resources, knowledge and ingenuity of the private sector, civil
society, the scientific community, academia, philanthropy and foundations,
parliaments, local authorities, volunteers and other stakeholders will be important to
mobilize and share knowledge, expertise, technology and financial resources,
complement the efforts of Governments and support the achievement of the
sustainable development goals, in particular in developing countries. This global
partnership should reflect the fact that the post-2015 development agenda, including
the sustainable development goals, is global in nature and universally applicable to
all countries while taking into account different national realities, capacities, needs
and levels of development and respecting national policies and priorities. We will
work with all partners to ensure a sustainable, equitable, inclusive, peaceful and
prosperous future for all. We will all be held accountable by future generations for
the success and delivery of commitments we make today.
11. Achieving an ambitious post-2015 development agenda, including all the
sustainable development goals, will require an equally ambitious, comprehensive,
holistic and transformative approach with respect to the means of implementation,
_______________
5 Resolution 69/15, annex. 6 Resolution 69/137, annex II.

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combining different means of implementation and integrating the economic, social
and environmental dimensions of sustainable development. This should be
underpinned by effective, accountable and inclusive institutions, sound policies and
good governance at all levels. We will identify actions and address critical gaps
relevant to the post-2015 development agenda, including the sustainable
development goals, with an aim to harness their considerable synergies, so that
implementation of one will contribute to the progress of others. We have therefore
identified a range of cross-cutting areas that build on these synergies.
12.
Delivering social protection and essential public services for all. To e n d
poverty in all its forms everywhere and finish the unfinished business of the
Millennium Development Goals, we commit to a new social compact. In this effort,
we will provide fiscally sustainable and nationally appropriate social protection
systems and measures for all, including floors, with a focus on those furthest below
the poverty line and the vulnerable, persons with disabilities, indigenous persons,
children, youth and older persons. We also encourage countries to consider setting
nationally appropriate spending targets for quality investments in essential public
services for all, including health, education, energy, water and sanitation, consistent
with national sustainable development strategies. We will make every effort to meet
the needs of all communities through delivering high-quality services that make
effective use of resources. We commit to strong international support for these
efforts and will explore coherent funding modalities to mobilize additional
resources, building on country-led experiences.
13.
Scaling up efforts to end hunger and malnutrition. It is unacceptable that
close to 800 million people are chronically undernourished and do not have access
to sufficient, safe and nutritious food. With the majority of the poor living in rural
areas, we emphasize the need to revitalize the agricultural sector, promote rural
development and ensure food security, notably in developing countries, in a
sustainable manner, which will lead to rich payoffs across the sustainable
development goals. We will support sustainable agriculture, including forestry,
fisheries and pastoralism. We will also take action to fight malnutrition and hunger
among the urban poor. Recognizing the enormous investment needs in these areas,
we encourage increased public and private investments. In this regard, we recognize
the Committee on World Food Security’s voluntary Principles for Responsible
Investment in Agriculture and Food Systems
7 and the Voluntary Guidelines on the
Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land, Fisheries and Forests in the Context of
National Food Security.
8 We recognize the efforts of the International Fund for
Agricultural Development in mobilizing investment to enable rural people living in
poverty to improve their food security and nutrition, raise their incomes and
strengthen their resilience. We value the work of the Food and Agriculture
Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the World Food Programme and the
World Bank and other multilateral development banks. We also recognize the
complementary role of social safety nets in ensuring food security and nutrition. In
this regard, we welcome the Rome Declaration on Nutrition
9 and the Framework for
Action, 10 which can provide policy options and strategies aimed at ensuring food
security and nutrition for all. We also commit to increasing public investment,
_______________
7 Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, document C 2015/20, appendix D. 8 Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, document CL 144/9 (C 2013/20), appendix D. 9 World Health Organization, document EB 136/8, annex I. 10 Ibid., annex II.

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which plays a strategic role in financing research, infrastructure and pro-poor
initiatives. We will strengthen our efforts to enhance food security and nutrition and
focus our efforts on smallholders and women farmers, as well as on agricultural
cooperatives and farmers’ networks. We call upon relevant agencies to further
coordinate and collaborate in this regard, in accordance with their respective
mandates. These efforts must be supported by improving access to markets,
enabling domestic and international environments and strengthened collaboration
across the many initiatives in this area, including regional initiatives, such as the
Comprehensive Africa Agriculture Development Programme. We will also work to
significantly reduce post-harvest food loss and waste.
14.
Establishing a new forum to bridge the infrastructure gap. Investing in
sustainable and resilient infrastructure, including transport, energy, water and
sanitation for all, is a pre-requisite for achieving many of our goals. To bridge the
global infrastructure gap, including the $1 trillion to $1.5 trillion annual gap in
developing countries, we will facilitate development of sustainable, accessible and
resilient quality infrastructure in developing countries through enhanced financial
and technical support. We welcome the launch of new infrastructure initiatives
aimed at bridging these gaps, including the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank,
the Global Infrastructure Hub, the New Development Bank, the Asia Pacific Project
Preparation Facility, the World Bank Group’s Global Infrastructure Facility and the
Africa50 Infrastructure Fund, as well as the increase in the capital of the
Inter-American Investment Corporation. As a key pillar to meet the sustainable
development goals, we call for the establishment of a global infrastructure forum
building on existing multilateral collaboration mechanisms, led by the multilateral
development banks. This forum will meet periodically to improve alignment and
coordination among established and new infrastructure initiatives, multilateral and
national development banks, United Nations agencies and national institutions,
development partners and the private sector. It will encourage a greater range of
voices to be heard, particularly from developing countries, to identify and address
infrastructure and capacity gaps in particular in least developed countries,
landlocked developing countries, small island developing States and African
countries. It will highlight opportunities for investment and cooperation and work to
ensure that investments are environmentally, socially and economically sustainable.
15.
Promoting inclusive and sustainable industrialization. We stress the critical
importance of industrial development for developing countries, as a critical source
of economic growth, economic diversification and value addition. We will invest in
promoting inclusive and sustainable industrial development to effectively address
major challenges such as growth and jobs, resources and energy efficiency, pollution
and climate change, knowledge-sharing, innovation and social inclusion. In this
regard, we welcome relevant cooperation within the United Nations system,
including the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO), to
advance the linkages between infrastructure development, inclusive and sustainable
industrialization and innovation.
16.
Generating full and productive employment and decent work for all and
promoting micro, small and medium-sized enterprises.
To enable all people to
benefit from growth, we will include full and productive employment and decent
work for all as a central objective in our national development strategies. We will
encourage the full and equal participation of women and men, including persons
with disabilities, in the formal labour market. We note that micro, small and
medium-sized enterprises, which create the vast majority of jobs in many countries,
often lack access to finance. Working with private actors and development banks,

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we commit to promoting appropriate, affordable and stable access to credit to micro,
small and medium-sized enterprises, as well as adequate skills development training
for all, particularly for youth and entrepreneurs. We will promote national youth
strategies as a key instrument for meeting the needs and aspirations of young
people. We also commit to developing and operationalizing, by 2020, a global
strategy for youth employment and implementing the International Labour
Organization (ILO) Global Jobs Pact.
17.
Protecting our ecosystems for all. All of our actions need to be underpinned
by our strong commitment to protect and preserve our planet and natural resources,
our biodiversity and our climate. We commit to coherent policy, financing, trade and
technology frameworks to protect, manage and restore our ecosystems, including
marine and terrestrial ecosystems, and to promote their sustainable use, build
resilience, reduce pollution and combat climate change, desertification and land
degradation. We recognize the importance of avoiding harmful activities.
Governments, businesses and households will all need to change behaviours, with a
view to ensuring sustainable consumption and production patterns. We will promote
corporate sustainability, including reporting on environmental, social and
governance impacts, to help to ensure transparency and accountability. Public and
private investments in innovations and clean technologies will be needed, while
keeping in mind that new technologies will not substitute for efforts to reduce waste
or efficiently use natural resources.
18.
Promoting peaceful and inclusive societies. We underline the need to
promote peaceful and inclusive societies for achieving sustainable development and
to build effective, accountable and inclusive institutions at all levels. Good
governance, the rule of law, human rights, fundamental freedoms, equal access to
fair justice systems and measures to combat corruption and curb illicit financial
flows will be integral to our efforts.
19. The post-2015 development agenda, including the sustainable development
goals, can be met within the framework of a revitalized global partnership for
sustainable development, supported by the concrete policies and actions as outlined
in the present
Action Agenda.

II. Action areas
A. Domestic public resources
20. For all countries, public policies and the mobilization and effective use of
domestic resources, underscored by the principle of national ownership, are central
to our common pursuit of sustainable development, including achieving the
sustainable development goals. Building on the considerable achievements in many
countries since Monterrey, we remain committed to further strengthening the
mobilization and effective use of domestic resources. We recognize that domestic
resources are first and foremost generated by economic growth, supported by an
enabling environment at all levels. Sound social, environmental and economic
policies, including countercyclical fiscal policies, adequate fiscal space, good
governance at all levels and democratic and transparent institutions responsive to
the needs of the people, are necessary to achieve our goals. We will strengthen our
domestic enabling environments, including the rule of law, and combat corruption at
all levels and in all its forms. Civil society, independent media and other non-State
actors also play important roles.
21. Evidence shows that gender equality, women’s empowerment and women’s
full and equal participation and leadership in the economy are vital to achieve

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sustainable development and significantly enhance economic growth and
productivity. We commit to promoting social inclusion in our domestic policies. We
will promote and enforce non-discriminatory laws, social infrastructure and policies
for sustainable development, as well as enable women’s full and equal participation
in the economy and their equal access to decision-making processes and leadership.
22. We recognize that significant additional domestic public resources,
supplemented by international assistance as appropriate, will be critical to realizing
sustainable development and achieving the sustainable development goals. We
commit to enhancing revenue administration through modernized, progressive tax
systems, improved tax policy and more efficient tax collection. We will work to
improve the fairness, transparency, efficiency and effectiveness of our tax systems,
including by broadening the tax base and continuing efforts to integrate the informal
sector into the formal economy in line with country circumstances. In this regard,
we will strengthen international cooperation to support efforts to build capacity in
developing countries, including through enhanced official development assistance
(ODA). We welcome efforts by countries to set nationally defined domestic targets
and timelines for enhancing domestic revenue as part of their national sustainable
development strategies and will support developing countries in need in reaching
these targets.
23. We will redouble efforts to substantially reduce illicit financial flows by 2030,
with a view to eventually eliminating them, including by combating tax evasion and
corruption through strengthened national regulation and increased international
cooperation. We will also reduce opportunities for tax avoidance and consider
inserting anti-abuse clauses in all tax treaties. We will enhance disclosure practices
and transparency in both source and destination countries, including by seeking to
ensure transparency in all financial transactions between Governments and
companies to relevant tax authorities. We will make sure that all companies,
including multinationals, pay taxes to the Governments of countries where
economic activity occurs and value is created, in accordance with national and
international laws and policies.
24. We note the report of the High-level Panel on Illicit Financial Flows from
Africa. We invite other regions to carry out similar exercises. To help to combat
illicit flows, we invite the International Monetary Fund (IMF), the World Bank and
the United Nations to assist both source and destination countries. We also invite
appropriate international institutions and regional organizations to publish estimates
of the volume and composition of illicit financial flows. We will identify, assess and
act on money-laundering risks, including through effective implementation of the
Financial Action Task Force standards on anti-money-laundering/counter-terrorism
financing. At the same time, we will encourage information-sharing among financial
institutions to mitigate the potential impact of the anti-money-laundering and
combating the financing of terrorism standard on reducing access to financial
services.
25. We urge all countries that have not yet done so to ratify and accede to the
United Nations Convention against Corruption,
11 and encourage parties to review its
implementation. We commit to making the Convention an effective instrument to
deter, detect, prevent and counter corruption and bribery, prosecute those involved
in corrupt activities and recover and return stolen assets to their country of origin.
_______________
11 United Nations, Treaty Series, vol. 2349, No. 42146.

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We encourage the international community to develop good practices on asset
return. We support the Stolen Asset Recovery Initiative of the United Nations and
the World Bank and other international initiatives that support the recovery of stolen
assets. We further urge that regional conventions against corruption be updated and
ratified. We will strive to eliminate safe havens that create incentives for transfer
abroad of stolen assets and illicit financial flows. We will work to strengthen
regulatory frameworks at all levels to further increase transparency and
accountability of financial institutions and the corporate sector, as well as public
administrations. We will strengthen international cooperation and national
institutions to combat money-laundering and financing of terrorism.
26. Countries relying significantly on natural resource exports face particular
challenges. We encourage investment in value addition and processing of natural
resources and productive diversification, and commit to addressing excessive tax
incentives related to these investments, particularly in extractive industries
. We
reaffirm that every State has and shall freely exercise full permanent sovereignty over all
its wealth, natural resources and economic activity. We underline the importance of
corporate transparency and accountability of all companies, notably in the extractive
industries. We encourage countries to implement measures to ensure transparency, and
take note of voluntary initiatives such as the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative.
We will continue to share best practices and promote peer learning and capacity-building
for contract negotiations for fair and transparent concession, revenue and royalty
agreements and for monitoring the implementation of contracts.
27. We commit to scaling up international tax cooperation. We encourage
countries, in accordance with their national capacities and circumstances, to work
together to strengthen transparency and adopt appropriate policies, including
multinational enterprises reporting country-by-country to tax authorities where they
operate; access to beneficial ownership information for competent authorities; and
progressively advancing towards automatic exchange of tax information among tax
authorities as appropriate, with assistance to developing countries, especially the
least developed, as needed. Tax incentives can be an appropriate policy tool.
However, to end harmful tax practices, countries can engage in voluntary
discussions on tax incentives in regional and international forums.
28. We stress that efforts in international tax cooperation should be universal in
approach and scope and should fully take into account the different needs and
capacities of all countries, in particular least developed countries, landlocked
developing countries, small island developing States and African countries. We
welcome the participation of developing countries or their regional networks in this
work, and call for more inclusiveness to ensure that these efforts benefit all
countries. We welcome ongoing efforts, including the work of the Global Forum on
Transparency and Exchange of Information for Tax Purposes, and take into account
the work of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)
for the Group of 20 on base erosion and profit shifting. We support strengthening of
regional networks of tax administrators. We take note of ongoing efforts, such as
those of IMF, including on capacity-building, and the OECD Tax Inspectors without
Borders initiative. We recognize the need for technical assistance through
multilateral, regional, bilateral and South-South cooperation, based on different
needs of countries.
29. We emphasize the importance of inclusive cooperation and dialogue among
national tax authorities on international tax matters. In this regard, we welcome the
work of the Committee of Experts on International Cooperation in Tax Matters,
including its subcommittees. We have decided that we will work to further enhance

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its resources in order to strengthen its effectiveness and operational capacity. To that
end, we will increase the frequency of its meetings to two sessions per year, with a
duration of four working days each. We will increase the engagement of the
Committee with the Economic and Social Council through the special meeting on
international cooperation in tax matters, with a view to enhancing intergovernmental
consideration of tax issues. Members of the Committee will continue to report
directly to the Economic and Social Council. We continue to urge Member States to
support the Committee and its subsidiary bodies through the voluntary trust fund, to
enable the Committee to fulfil its mandate, including supporting the increased
participation of developing country experts at subcommittee meetings. The
Committee members shall be nominated by Governments and acting in their expert
capacity, who are to be drawn from the fields of tax policy and tax administration
and who are to be selected to reflect an adequate equitable geographical
distribution, representing different tax systems. The members shall be appointed by
the Secretary-General, in consultation with Member States.
30. We will strengthen national control mechanisms, such as supreme audit
institutions, along with other independent oversight institutions, as appropriate. We
will increase transparency and equal participation in the budgeting process and
promote gender responsive budgeting and tracking. We will establish transparent
public procurement frameworks as a strategic tool to reinforce sustainable
development. We take note of the work of the Open Government Partnership, which
promotes the transparency, accountability and responsiveness of Governments to
their citizens, with the goal of improving the quality of governance and government
services.
31. We reaffirm the commitment to rationalize inefficient fossil-fuel subsidies that
encourage wasteful consumption by removing market distortions, in accordance
with national circumstances, including by restructuring taxation and phasing out
those harmful subsidies, where they exist, to reflect their environmental impacts,
taking fully into account the specific needs and conditions of developing countries
and minimizing the possible adverse impacts on their development in a manner that
protects the poor and the affected communities.
32. We note the enormous burden that non-communicable diseases place on
developed and developing countries. These costs are particularly challenging for
small island developing States. We recognize, in particular, that, as part of a
comprehensive strategy of prevention and control, price and tax measures on
tobacco can be an effective and important means to reduce tobacco consumption and
health-care costs and represent a revenue stream for financing for development in
many countries.
33. We note the role that well-functioning national and regional development
banks can play in financing sustainable development, particularly in credit market
segments in which commercial banks are not fully engaged and where large
financing gaps exist, based on sound lending frameworks and compliance with
appropriate social and environmental safeguards. This includes areas such as
sustainable infrastructure, energy, agriculture, industrialization, science, technology
and innovation, as well as financial inclusion and financing of micro, small and
medium-sized enterprises. We acknowledge that national and regional development
banks also play a valuable countercyclical role, especially during financial crises
when private sector entities become highly risk-averse. We call upon national and
regional development banks to expand their contributions in these areas, and further
urge relevant international public and private actors to support such banks in
developing countries.

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34. We further acknowledge that expenditures and investments in sustainable
development are being devolved to the subnational level, which often lacks
adequate technical and technological capacity, financing and support. We therefore
commit to scaling up international cooperation to strengthen capacities of
municipalities and other local authorities. We will support cities and local
authorities of developing countries, particularly in least developed countries and
small island developing States, in implementing resilient and environmentally sound
infrastructure, including energy, transport, water and sanitation, and sustainable and
resilient buildings using local materials. We will strive to support local governments
in their efforts to mobilize revenues as appropriate. We will enhance inclusive and
sustainable urbanization and strengthen economic, social and environmental links
between urban, peri-urban and rural areas by strengthening national and regional
development planning, within the context of national sustainable development
strategies. We will work to strengthen debt management, and where appropriate to
establish or strengthen municipal bond markets, to help subnational authorities to
finance necessary investments. We will also promote lending from financial
institutions and development banks, along with risk mitigation mechanisms, such as
the Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency, while managing currency risk. In
these efforts, we will encourage the participation of local communities in decisions
affecting their communities, such as in improving drinking water and sanitation
management. By 2020, we will increase the number of cities and human settlements
adopting and implementing integrated policies and plans towards inclusion, resource
efficiency, mitigation and adaptation to climate change and resilience to disasters.
We will develop and implement holistic disaster risk management at all levels in
line with the Sendai Framework.
12 In this regard, we will support national and local
capacity for prevention, adaptation and mitigation of external shocks and risk
management.

B. Domestic and international private business and finance
35. Private business activity, investment and innovation are major drivers of
productivity, inclusive economic growth and job creation. We acknowledge the
diversity of the private sector, ranging from microenterprises to cooperatives to
multinationals. We call upon all businesses to apply their creativity and innovation
to solving sustainable development challenges. We invite them to engage as partners
in the development process, to invest in areas critical to sustainable development
and to shift to more sustainable consumption and production patterns. We welcome
the significant growth in domestic private activity and international investment
since Monterrey. Private international capital flows, particularly foreign direct
investment, along with a stable international financial system, are vital complements
to national development efforts. Nonetheless, we note that there are investment gaps
in key sectors for sustainable development. Foreign direct investment is
concentrated in a few sectors in many developing countries and often bypasses
countries most in need and international capital flows are often short-term oriented.
36. We will develop policies and, where appropriate, strengthen regulatory
frameworks to better align private sector incentives with public goals, including
incentivizing the private sector to adopt sustainable practices, and foster long-term
quality investment. Public policy is needed to create the enabling environment at all
levels and a regulatory framework necessary to encourage entrepreneurship and a
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12 Resolution 69/283, annex II.

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vibrant domestic business sector. Monterrey tasked us to build transparent, stable
and predictable investment climates, with proper contract enforcement and respect
for property rights, embedded in sound macroeconomic policies and institutions.
Many countries have made great strides in this area. We will continue to promote
and create enabling domestic and international conditions for inclusive and
sustainable private sector investment, with transparent and stable rules and
standards and free and fair competition, conducive to achieving national
development policies.
37. We will foster a dynamic and well-functioning business sector, while
protecting labour rights and environmental and health standards in accordance with
relevant international standards and agreements, such as the Guiding Principles on
Business and Human Rights
13 and the labour standards of ILO, the Convention on
the Rights of the Child 14 and key multilateral environmental agreements, for parties
to these agreements. We welcome the growing number of businesses that embrace a
core business model that takes account of the environmental, social and governance
impacts of their activities, and urge all others to do so. We encourage impact
investing, which combines a return on investment with non-financial impacts. We
will promote sustainable corporate practices, including integrating environmental,
social and governance factors into company reporting as appropriate, with countries
deciding on the appropriate balance of voluntary and mandatory rules. We
encourage businesses to adopt principles for responsible business and investing, and
we support the work of the Global Compact in this regard. We will work towards
harmonizing the various initiatives on sustainable business and financing,
identifying gaps, including in relation to gender equality, and strengthening the
mechanisms and incentives for compliance.
38. We acknowledge the importance of robust risk-based regulatory frameworks
for all financial intermediation, from microfinance to international banking. We
acknowledge that some risk-mitigating measures could potentially have unintended
consequences, such as making it more difficult for micro, small and medium-sized
enterprises to access financial services. We will work to ensure that our policy and
regulatory environment supports financial market stability and promotes financial
inclusion in a balanced manner and with appropriate consumer protection. We will
endeavour to design policies, including capital market regulations where
appropriate, that promote incentives along the investment chain that are aligned
with long-term performance and sustainability indicators and that reduce excess
volatility.
39. Many people, especially women, still lack access to financial services, as well
as financial literacy, which is a key for social inclusion. We will work towards full
and equal access to formal financial services for all. We will adopt or review our
financial inclusion strategies, in consultation with relevant stakeholders, and will
consider including financial inclusion as a policy objective in financial regulation,
in accordance with national priorities and legislation. We will encourage our
commercial banking systems to serve all, including those who currently face
barriers to access financial services and information. We will also support
microfinance institutions, development banks, agricultural banks, mobile network
operators, agent networks, cooperatives, postal banks and savings banks as
appropriate. We encourage the use of innovative tools, including mobile banking,
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13 A/HRC/17/31, annex. 14 United Nations, Treaty Series, vol. 1577, No. 27531.

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payment platforms and digitalized payments. We will expand peer learning and
experience-sharing among countries and regions, including through the Alliance for
Financial Inclusion and regional organizations. We commit to strengthening
capacity development for developing countries, including through the United
Nations development system, and encourage mutual cooperation and collaboration
between financial inclusion initiatives.
40. We recognize the positive contribution of migrants for inclusive growth and
sustainable development in countries of origin and transit and destination countries.
Remittances from migrant workers, half of whom are women, are typically wages
transferred to families, primarily to meet part of the needs of the recipient
households. They cannot be equated to other international financial flows, such as
foreign direct investment, ODA or other public sources of financing for
development. We will work to ensure that adequate and affordable financial services
are available to migrants and their families in both home and host countries. We will
work towards reducing the average transaction cost of migrant remittances by 2030
to less than 3 per cent of the amount transferred. We are particularly concerned with
the cost of remittances in certain low-volume and high-cost corridors. We will work
to ensure that no remittance corridor requires charges higher than 5 per cent by
2030, mindful of the need to maintain adequate service coverage, especially for
those most in need. We will support national authorities to address the most
significant obstacles to the continued flow of remittances, such as the trend of banks
withdrawing services, to work towards access to remittance transfer services across
borders. We will increase coordination among national regulatory authorities to
remove obstacles to non-bank remittance service providers accessing payment
system infrastructure and promote conditions for cheaper, faster and safer transfer of
remittances in both source and recipient countries, including by promoting
competitive and transparent market conditions. We will exploit new technologies,
promote financial literacy and inclusion and improve data collection.
41. We are committed to women’s and girls’ equal rights and opportunities in
political and economic decision-making and resource allocation and to removing
any barriers that prevent women from being full participants in the economy. We
resolve to undertake legislation and administrative reforms to give women equal
rights with men to economic resources, including access to ownership and control
over land and other forms of property, credit, inheritance, natural resources and
appropriate new technology. We further encourage the private sector to contribute to
advancing gender equality through striving to ensure women’s full and productive
employment and decent work, equal pay for equal work or work of equal value and
equal opportunities, as well as protecting them against discrimination and abuse in
the workplace. We support the Women’s Empowerment Principles established by
UN-Women and the Global Compact, and encourage increased investments in
female-owned companies or businesses.
42. We welcome the rapid growth of philanthropic giving and the significant
financial and non-financial contribution philanthropists have made towards
achieving our common goals. We recognize philanthropic donors’ flexibility and
capacity for innovation and taking risks and their ability to leverage additional funds
through multi-stakeholder partnerships. We encourage others to join those who
already contribute. We welcome efforts to increase cooperation between
philanthropic actors, Governments and other development stakeholders. We call for
increased transparency and accountability in philanthropy. We encourage
philanthropic donors to give due consideration to local circumstances and align with
national policies and priorities. We also encourage philanthropic donors to consider

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managing their endowments through impact investment, which considers both profit
and non-financial impacts in its investment criteria.
43. We recognize that micro, small and medium-sized enterprises, particularly
those that are women-owned, often have difficulty in obtaining financing. To
encourage increased lending to micro, small and medium-sized enterprises, financial
regulations can permit the use of collateral substitutes, create appropriate exceptions
to capital requirements, reduce entry and exit costs to encourage competition and
allow microfinance institutions to mobilize savings by receiving deposits. We will
work to strengthen the capacity of financial institutions to undertake cost-effective
credit evaluation, including through public training programmes, and through
establishing credit bureaux where appropriate. National development banks, credit
unions and other domestic financial institutions can play a vital role in providing
access to financial services. We encourage both international and domestic
development banks to promote finance for micro, small and medium-sized
enterprises, including in industrial transformation, through the creation of credit
lines targeting those enterprises, as well as technical assistance. We welcome the
work of the International Finance Corporation and other initiatives in this area, and
encourage increased capacity-building and knowledge-sharing at the regional and
global levels. We also recognize the potential of new investment vehicles, such as
development-oriented venture capital funds, potentially with public partners,
blended finance, risk mitigation instruments and innovative debt funding structures
with appropriate risk management and regulatory frameworks. We will also enhance
capacity-building in these areas.
44. To meet longer-term financing needs, we will work towards developing
domestic capital markets, particularly long-term bond and insurance markets where
appropriate, including crop insurance on non-distortive terms. We will also work to
strengthen supervision, clearing, settlement and risk management. We underline that
regional markets are an effective way to achieve scale and depth not attainable when
individual markets are small. We welcome the increase in lending in domestic
currencies by multilateral development banks, and encourage further growth in this
area. We encourage development banks to make use of all risk management tools,
including through diversification. We recognize that the nature of international
portfolio investment has evolved over the past 15 years, and that foreign investors
now play a significant role in some developing countries’ capital markets, and the
importance of managing volatility associated with these. We will enhance
international support in developing domestic capital markets in developing
countries, in particular in least developed countries, landlocked developing
countries and small island developing States. We will work to strengthen capacity-
building in this area, including through regional, interregional and global forums for
knowledge-sharing, technical assistance and data-sharing.
45. We recognize the important contribution that direct investment, including
foreign direct investment, can make to sustainable development, particularly when
projects are aligned with national and regional sustainable development strategies.
Government policies can strengthen positive spillovers from foreign direct
investment, such as know-how and technology, including through establishing
linkages with domestic suppliers, as well as encouraging the integration of local
enterprises, in particular micro, small and medium-sized enterprises in developing
countries, into regional and global value chains. We will encourage investment
promotion and other relevant agencies to focus on project preparation. We will
prioritize projects with the greatest potential for promoting full and productive
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consumption, structural transformation and sustainable industrialization, productive
diversification and agriculture. Internationally, we will support these efforts through
financial and technical support and capacity-building and closer collaboration
between home and host country agencies. We will consider the use of insurance,
investment guarantees, including through the Multilateral Investment Guarantee
Agency, and new financial instruments to incentivize foreign direct investment to
developing countries, particularly least developed countries, landlocked developing
countries, small island developing States and countries in conflict and post-conflict
situations.
46. We note with concern that many least developed countries continue to be
largely sidelined by foreign direct investment that could help to diversify their
economies, despite improvements in their investment climates. We resolve to adopt
and implement investment promotion regimes for least developed countries. We will
also offer financial and technical support for project preparation and contract
negotiation, advisory support in investment-related dispute resolution, access to
information on investment facilities and risk insurance and guarantees such as
through the Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency, as requested by the least
developed countries. We also note that small island developing States face
challenges accessing international credit as a result of the structural characteristics
of their economies. Least developed countries will continue to improve their
enabling environments. We will also strengthen our efforts to address financing gaps
and low levels of direct investment faced by landlocked developing countries, small
island developing States, many middle-income countries and countries in conflict
and post-conflict situations. We encourage the use of innovative mechanisms and
partnerships to encourage greater international private financial participation in
these economies.
47. We acknowledge that impediments to private investment in infrastructure exist
on both the supply and demand side. Insufficient investment is due in part to
inadequate infrastructure plans and an insufficient number of well-prepared
investable projects, along with private sector incentive structures that are not
necessarily appropriate for investing in many long-term projects, and risk
perceptions of investors. To address these constraints, we will imbed resilient and
quality infrastructure investment plans in our national sustainable development
strategies, while also strengthening our domestic enabling environments.
Internationally, we will provide technical support for countries to translate plans
into concrete project pipelines, as well as for individual implementable projects,
including for feasibility studies, negotiation of complex contracts and project
management. In this regard, we take note of the African Union’s Programme for
Infrastructure Development in Africa. We note with concern the decline in
infrastructure lending from commercial banks. We call upon standard-setting bodies
to identify adjustments that could encourage long-term investments within a
framework of prudent risk-taking and robust risk control. We encourage long-term
institutional investors, such as pension funds and sovereign wealth funds, which
manage large pools of capital, to allocate a greater percentage to infrastructure,
particularly in developing countries. In this regard, we encourage investors to take
measures to incentivize greater long-term investment such as reviews of
compensation structures and performance criteria.
48. We recognize that both public and private investment have key roles to play in
infrastructure financing, including through development banks, development finance
institutions and tools and mechanisms such as public-private partnerships, blended
finance, which combines concessional public finance with non-concessional private

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finance and expertise from the public and private sector, special-purpose vehicles,
non-recourse project financing, risk mitigation instruments and pooled funding
structures. Blended finance instruments including public-private partnerships serve
to lower investment-specific risks and incentivize additional private sector finance
across key development sectors led by regional, national and subnational
government policies and priorities for sustainable development. For harnessing the
potential of blended finance instruments for sustainable development, careful
consideration should be given to the appropriate structure and use of blended
finance instruments. Projects involving blended finance, including public-private
partnerships, should share risks and reward fairly, include clear accountability
mechanisms and meet social and environmental standards. We will therefore build
capacity to enter into public-private partnerships, including with regard to planning,
contract negotiation, management, accounting and budgeting for contingent
liabilities. We also commit to hold inclusive, open and transparent discussion when
developing and adopting guidelines and documentation for the use of public-private
partnerships and to build a knowledge base and share lessons learned through
regional and global forums.
49. We will promote both public and private investment in energy infrastructure
and clean energy technologies including carbon capture and storage technologies.
We will substantially increase the share of renewable energy and double the global
rate of energy efficiency and conservation, with the aim of ensuring universal access
to affordable, reliable, modern and sustainable energy services for all by 2030. We
will enhance international cooperation to provide adequate support and facilitate
access to clean energy research and technology, expand infrastructure and upgrade
technology for supplying modern and sustainable energy services to all developing
countries, in particular least developed countries and small island developing States.
We welcome the Secretary-General’s Sustainable Energy for All initiative as a
useful framework, including its regional hubs, and the development of action
agendas and investment prospectuses at country level, where appropriate. We call
for action on its recommendations, with a combined potential to raise over
$100 billion in annual investments by 2020, through market-based initiatives,
partnerships and leveraging development banks. We recognize the special
vulnerabilities and needs of small island developing States, least developed
countries and landlocked developing countries and welcome Power Africa, the
NEPAD Africa Power Vision and the Global Renewable Energy Islands Network of
the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRE
NA).

C. International development cooperation
50. International public finance plays an important role in complementing the
efforts of countries to mobilize public resources domestically, especially in the
poorest and most vulnerable countries with limited domestic resources. Our
ambitious agenda puts significant demands on public budgets and capacities, which
requires scaled-up and more effective international support, including both
concessional and non-concessional financing. We welcome the increase of all forms
of international public finance since Monterrey and are determined to step up our
respective efforts in support of the post-2015 development agenda. We recognize
that we share common goals and common ambitions to strengthen international
development cooperation and maximize its effectiveness, transparency, impact and
results. In this regard, we welcome the progress achieved in elaborating the
principles that apply to our respective efforts to increase the impact of our
cooperation. We will continue to strengthen our dialogue to enhance our common
understanding and improve knowledge-sharing.

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51. We welcome the increase in volume of ODA since Monterrey. Nonetheless, we
express our concern that many countries still fall short of their ODA commitments
and we reiterate that the fulfilment of all ODA commitments remains crucial. ODA
providers reaffirm their respective ODA commitments, including the commitment
by many developed countries to achieve the target of 0.7 per cent of gross national
income for official development assistance (ODA/GNI) and 0.15 to 0.20 per cent of
ODA/GNI to least developed countries. We are encouraged by those few countries
that have met or surpassed their commitment to 0.7 per cent of ODA/GNI and the
target of 0.15 to 0.20 per cent of ODA/GNI to least developed countries. We urge all
others to step up efforts to increase their ODA and to make additional concrete
efforts towards the ODA targets. We welcome the decision by the European Union
which reaffirms its collective commitment to achieve the 0.7 per cent of ODA/GNI
target within the time frame of the post-2015 agenda and undertakes to meet
collectively the target of 0.15 to 0.20 per cent of ODA/GNI to least developed
countries in the short term and to reach 0.20 per cent of ODA/GNI to least
developed countries within the time frame of the post-2015 agenda. We encourage
ODA providers to consider setting a target to provide at least 0.20 per cent of
ODA/GNI to least developed countries.
52. We recognize the importance of focusing the most concessional resources on
those with the greatest needs and least ability to mobilize other resources. In this
regard, we note with great concern the decline in the share of ODA to least
developed countries and commit to reversing this decline. We are encouraged by
those who are allocating at least 50 per cent of their ODA to least developed
countries.
53. We stress the importance of mobilizing greater domestic support towards the
fulfilment of ODA commitments, including through raising public awareness, and
providing data on aid effectiveness and demonstrating tangible results. We
encourage partner countries to build on progress achieved in ensuring that ODA is
used effectively to help to achieve development goals and targets. We encourage the
publication of forward-looking plans which increase clarity, predictability and
transparency of future development cooperation, in accordance with national budget
allocation processes. We urge countries to track and report resource allocations for
gender equality and women’s empowerment.
54. An important use of international public finance, including ODA, is to catalyse
additional resource mobilization from other sources, public and private. It can
support improved tax collection and help to strengthen domestic enabling
environments and build essential public services. It can also be used to unlock
additional finance through blended or pooled financing and risk mitigation, notably
for infrastructure and other investments that support private sector development.
55. We will hold open, inclusive and transparent discussions on the modernization
of the ODA measurement and on the proposed measure of “total official support for
sustainable development” and we affirm that any such measure will not dilute
commitments already made.
56. South-South cooperation is an important element of international cooperation
for development as a complement, not a substitute, to North-South cooperation. We
recognize its increased importance, different history and particularities and stress
that South-South cooperation should be seen as an expression of solidarity among
peoples and countries of the South, based on their shared experiences and
objectives. It should continue to be guided by the principles of respect for national

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sovereignty, national ownership and independence, equality, non-conditionality,
non-interference in domestic affairs and mutual benefit.
57. We welcome the increased contributions of South-South cooperation to
poverty eradication and sustainable development. We encourage developing
countries to voluntarily step up their efforts to strengthen South-South cooperation
and to further improve its development effectiveness in accordance with the
provisions of the Nairobi outcome document of the High-level United Nations
Conference on South-South Cooperation.
15 We also commit to strengthening
triangular cooperation as a means of bringing relevant experience and expertise to
bear in development cooperation.
58. We welcome continued efforts to improve the quality, impact and effectiveness
of development cooperation and other international efforts in public finance,
including adherence to agreed development cooperation effectiveness principles. We
will align activities with national priorities, including by reducing fragmentation,
accelerating the untying of aid, particularly for least developed countries and
countries most in need. We will promote country ownership and results orientation
and strengthen country systems, use programme-based approaches where
appropriate, strengthen partnerships for development, reduce transaction costs and
increase transparency and mutual accountability. We will make development more
effective and predictable by providing developing countries with regular and timely
indicative information on planned support in the medium term. We will pursue these
efforts in the Development Cooperation Forum of the Economic and Social Council
and, in this regard, we also take account of efforts in other relevant forums, such as
the Global Partnership for Effective Development Cooperation, in a complementary
manner. We will also consider not requesting tax exemptions on goods and services
delivered as government-to-government aid, beginning with renouncing repayments
of value-added taxes and import levies.
59. We acknowledge that the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate
Change
16 and the Conference of the Parties thereto is the primary international,
intergovernmental forum for negotiating the global response to climate change. We
welcome the Lima Call for Climate Action
17 and we are encouraged by the
commitment of the Conference of the Parties to reaching an ambitious agreement in
Paris in 2015 that is applicable to all parties and that reflects the principle of
common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities, in the light of
different national circumstances.
60. We reaffirm the importance of meeting in full existing commitments under
international conventions, including on climate change and related global
challenges. We recognize that funding from all sources, including public and
private, bilateral and multilateral, as well as alternative sources of finance, will need
to be stepped up for investments in many areas, including for low-carbon and
climate resilient development. We recognize that, in the context of meaningful
mitigation actions and transparency on implementation, developed countries
committed to a goal of mobilizing jointly $100 billion a year by 2020 from a wide
variety of sources to address the needs of developing countries. We recognize the
need for transparent methodologies for reporting climate finance and welcome the
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15 Resolution 64/222, annex. 16 United Nations, Treaty Series, vol. 1771, No. 30822. 17 FCCC/CP/2014/10/Add.1.

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ongoing work in the context of the United Nations Framework Convention on
Climate Change.
61. We welcome the successful and timely initial resource mobilization process of
the Green Climate Fund, making it the largest dedicated climate fund and enabling it
to start its activities in supporting developing country parties to the United Nations
Framework Convention on Climate Change. We welcome the decision of the Board
of the Green Climate Fund to aim to start taking decisions on the approval of
projects and programmes no later than its third meeting in 2015, as well as its
decision regarding the formal replenishment process for the Fund. We also welcome
the Board’s decision to aim for a 50:50 balance between mitigation and adaptation
over time on a grant equivalent basis and to aim for a floor of 50 per cent of the
adaptation allocation for particularly vulnerable countries, including least developed
countries, small island developing States and African countries. We note the
importance of continued support to address remaining gaps in the capacity to gain
access to and manage climate finance.
62. We acknowledge the importance of taking into account the three dimensions of
sustainable development. We encourage consideration of climate and disaster
resilience in development financing to ensure the sustainability of development
results. We recognize that well-designed actions can produce multiple local and
global benefits, including those related to climate change. We commit to investing
in efforts to strengthen the capacity of national and local actors to manage and
finance disaster risk, as part of national sustainable development strategies, and to
ensure that countries can draw on international assistance when needed.
63. We acknowledge the critical importance of biodiversity and the sustainable use
of its components in poverty eradication and sustainable development. We welcome
the implementation of the global Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011–2020 and its
Aichi Biodiversity Targets
18 by the parties to the Convention on Biological
Diversity, 19 and we invite all parties to attend the thirteenth meeting of the
Conference of the Parties, to be held in Mexico in 2016. We encourage the
mobilization of financial resources from all sources and at all levels to conserve and
sustainably use biodiversity and ecosystems, including promoting sustainable land
management, combating desertification, drought, dust storms and floods, restoring
degraded land and soil and promoting sustainable forest management. We welcome
the commitment of States parties to the United Nations Convention to Combat
Desertification
20 to support and strengthen its implementation. We commit to
supporting the efforts of countries to advance conservation and restoration efforts,
such as the African Union Great Green Wall Initiative, and to providing support to
countries in need to enhance the implementation of their national biodiversity
strategies and action plans.
64. We recognize that oceans, seas and coastal areas form an integrated and
essential component of the Earth’s ecosystem and are critical to sustaining it and
that international law, as reflected in the United Nations Convention on the Law of
the Sea,
21 provides the legal framework for the conservation and the sustainable use
of the oceans and their resources. We stress the importance of the conservation and
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18 See United Nations Environment Programme, document UNEP/CBD/COP/10/27, annex, decision X/2. 19 United Nations, Treaty Series, vol. 1760, No. 30619. 20 Ibid., vol. 1954, No. 33480. 21 Ibid., vol. 1833, No. 31363.

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sustainable use of the oceans and seas and of their resources for sustainable
development, including through the contributions to poverty eradication, sustained
economic growth, food security, creation of sustainable livelihoods and decent
work, while at the same time protecting biodiversity and the marine environment
and addressing the impacts of climate change. We therefore commit to protecting,
and restoring, the health, productivity and resilience of oceans and marine
ecosystems and to maintaining their biodiversity, enabling their conservation and
sustainable use for present and future generations, and to effectively applying an
ecosystem approach and the precautionary approach in the management, in
accordance with international law, of activities impacting on the marine
environment, to deliver on all three dimensions of sustainable development.
65. We acknowledge that increases in global temperature, sea-level rise, ocean
acidification and other climate change impacts are seriously affecting coastal areas
and low-lying coastal countries, including many least developed countries and small
island developing States, while extreme climate events endanger the lives and
livelihoods of millions. We commit to enhanced support to the most vulnerable in
addressing and adapting to these critical challenges.
66. Development finance can contribute to reducing social, environmental and
economic vulnerabilities and enable countries to prevent or combat situations of
chronic crisis related to conflicts or natural disasters. We recognize the need for the
coherence of developmental and humanitarian finance to ensure more timely,
comprehensive, appropriate and cost-effective approaches to the management and
mitigation of natural disasters and complex emergencies. We commit to promoting
innovative financing mechanisms to allow countries to better prevent and manage
risks and develop mitigation plans. We will invest in efforts to strengthen the
capacity of national and local actors to manage and finance disaster risk reduction
and to enable countries to draw efficiently and effectively on international
assistance when needed. We take note of the establishment of the Secretary-
General’s High-level Panel on Humanitarian Financing and the World Humanitarian
Summit to be held in Istanbul, Turkey, on 23 and 24 May 2016.
67. We recognize the major challenge to the achievement of durable peace and
sustainable development in countries in conflict and post-conflict situations. We
recognize the peacebuilding financing gap and the role played by the Peacebuilding
Fund. We will step up our efforts to assist countries in accessing financing for
peacebuilding and development in the post-conflict context. We recognize the need
for aid to be delivered efficiently through simplified mechanisms, increased
strengthening and use of country systems, as well as strengthening of the capacity of
local and national institutions as a priority in conflict-affected and post-conflict
States, while stressing the importance of country ownership and leadership in both
peacebuilding and development.
68. We welcome ongoing work in relevant institutions to support efforts by least
developed countries, landlocked developing countries and small island developing
States to build their national capacity to respond to various kinds of shocks,
including financial crisis, natural disasters and public health emergencies, including
through funds and other tools.
69. We welcome the progress made since Monterrey to develop and mobilize
support for innovative sources and mechanisms of additional financing, in particular
by the Leading Group on Innovative Financing for Development. We invite more
countries to voluntarily join in implementing innovative mechanisms, instruments
and modalities which do not unduly burden developing countries. We encourage

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consideration of how existing mechanisms, such as the International Finance
Facility for Immunization, might be replicated to address broader development
needs. We also encourage exploring additional innovative mechanisms based on
models combining public and private resources such as green bonds, vaccine bonds,
triangular loans and pull mechanisms and carbon pricing mechanisms.
70. We recognize the significant potential of multilateral development banks and
other international development banks in financing sustainable development and
providing know-how. Multilateral development banks can provide countercyclical
lending, including on concessional terms as appropriate, to complement national
resources for financial and economic shocks, natural disasters and pandemics. We
invite the multilateral development banks and other international development
banks to continue providing both concessional and non-concessional stable, long-
term development finance by leveraging contributions and capital and by mobilizing
resources from capital markets. We stress that development banks should make
optimal use of their resources and balance sheets, consistent with maintaining their
financial integrity, and should update and develop their policies in support of the
post-2015 development agenda, including the sustainable development goals. We
encourage the multilateral development finance institutions to establish a process to
examine their own role, scale and functioning to enable them to adapt and be fully
responsive to the sustainable development agenda.
71. We recognize that middle-income countries still face significant challenges to
achieve sustainable development. In order to ensure that achievements made to date
are sustained, efforts to address ongoing challenges should be strengthened through
the exchange of experiences, improved coordination and better and focused support
of the United Nations development system, the international financial institutions,
regional organizations and other stakeholders. We therefore request those
stakeholders to ensure that the diverse and specific development needs of middle-
income countries are appropriately considered and addressed, in a tailored fashion,
in their relevant strategies and policies with a view to promoting a coherent and
comprehensive approach towards individual countries. We also acknowledge that
ODA and other concessional finance is still important for a number of these
countries and has a role to play for targeted results, taking into account the specific
needs of these countries.
72. We also recognize the need to devise methodologies to better account for the
complex and diverse realities of middle-income countries. We note with concern
that access to concessional finance is reduced as countries’ incomes grow and that
countries may not be able to access sufficient affordable financing from other
sources to meet their needs. We encourage shareholders in multilateral development
banks to develop graduation policies that are sequenced, phased and gradual. We
also encourage multilateral development banks to explore ways to ensure that their
assistance best addresses the opportunities and challenges presented by the diverse
circumstances of middle-income countries. In this regard, we acknowledge the
World Bank’s small island State exception as a noteworthy response to the financing
challenges of small island developing States. We also underscore the importance of
risk mitigation mechanisms, including through the Multilateral Investment
Guarantee Agency.
73. We recognize that the graduation process of least developed countries should
be coupled with appropriate measures, so that the development process will not be
jeopardized and that progress towards the sustainable development goals will be
sustained. We further note that the level of concessionality of international public
finance should take into account the level of development of each recipient,

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including income level, institutional capacity and vulnerability, as well as the nature
of the project to be funded, including the commercial viability.
74. We underline the important role and comparative advantage of an adequately
resourced, relevant, coherent, efficient and effective United Nations system in its
support to achieve the sustainable development goals and sustainable development,
and support the process on the longer-term positioning of the United Nations
development system in the context of the post-2015 development agenda. We will
work to strengthen national ownership and leadership over the operational activities
for development of the United Nations system in programme countries, United
Nations coherence, relevance, effectiveness and efficiency, to improve coordination
and results, including through achieving further progress on the “Delivering as one”
voluntary approach, among other operational modalities and approaches, and to
improve United Nations collaboration with relevant stakeholders and partners.
75. Development banks can play a particularly important role in alleviating
constraints on financing development, including quality infrastructure investment,
including for sub-sovereign loans. We welcome efforts by new development banks
to develop safeguard systems in open consultation with stakeholders on the basis of
established international standards, and encourage all development banks to
establish or maintain social and environmental safeguards systems, including on
human rights, gender equality and women’s empowerment, that are transparent,
effective, efficient and time-sensitive. We encourage multilateral development banks
to further develop instruments to channel the resources of long-term investors
towards sustainable development, including through long-term infrastructure and
green bonds. We underline that regional investments in key priority sectors require
the expansion of new financing mechanisms, and call upon multilateral and regional
development finance institutions to support regional and subregional organizations
and programmes.
76. We recognize that genuine, effective and durable multi-stakeholder
partnerships can play an important role in advancing sustainable development. We
will encourage and promote such partnerships to support country-driven priorities
and strategies, building on lessons learned and available expertise. We further
recognize that partnerships are effective instruments for mobilizing human and
financial resources, expertise, technology and knowledge. We acknowledge the role
of the Global Environment Facility (GEF) in mainstreaming environmental concerns
into development efforts and providing grant and concessional resources to support
environmental projects in developing countries. We support building capacity in
developing countries, especially least developed countries and small island
developing States, to access available funds, and aim to enhance public and private
contributions to GEF.
77. Multi-stakeholder partnerships, such as the Global Alliance for Vaccines and
Immunization (Gavi) and the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria,
have also achieved results in the field of health. We encourage a better alignment
between such initiatives, and encourage them to improve their contribution to
strengthening health systems. We recognize the key role of the World Health
Organization as the directing and coordinating authority on international health
work. We will enhance international coordination and enabling environments at all
levels to strengthen national health systems and achieve universal health coverage.
We commit to strengthening the capacity of countries, in particular developing
countries, for early warning, risk reduction and management of national and global
health risks, as well as to substantially increase health financing and the
recruitment, development, training and retention of the health workforce in

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developing countries, especially in least developed countries and small island
developing States. Parties to the World Health Organization Framework Convention
on Tobacco Control
22 will also strengthen implementation of the Convention in all
countries, as appropriate, and will support mechanisms to raise awareness and
mobilize resources. We welcome innovative approaches to catalyse additional
domestic and international private and public resources for women and children,
who have been disproportionately affected by many health issues, including the
expected contribution of the Global Financing Facility in support of Every Woman,
Every Child.
78. We recognize the importance for achieving sustainable development of
delivering quality education to all girls and boys. This will require reaching children
living in extreme poverty, children with disabilities, migrant and refugee children,
and those in conflict and post-conflict situations, and providing safe, non-violent,
inclusive and effective learning environments for all. We will scale up investments
and international cooperation to allow all children to complete free, equitable,
inclusive and quality early childhood, primary and secondary education, including
through scaling up and strengthening initiatives, such as the Global Partnership for
Education. We commit to upgrading education facilities that are child, disability and
gender sensitive and increasing the percentage of qualified
teachers in developing
countries, including through international cooperation, especially in least developed
countries and small island developing States.

D. International trade as an engine for development
79. International trade is an engine for inclusive economic growth and poverty
reduction and contributes to the promotion of sustainable development. We will
continue to promote a universal, rules-based, open, transparent, predictable,
inclusive, non-discriminatory and equitable multilateral trading system under the
World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as meaningful trade liberalization. Such a
trading system encourages long-term investment in productive capacities. With
appropriate supporting policies, infrastructure and an educated work force, trade can
also help to promote productive employment and decent work, women’s
empowerment and food security, as well as a reduction in inequality, and contribute
to achieving the sustainable development goals.
80. We recognize that the multilateral trade negotiations in WTO require more
effort, although we regard the approval of the Bali package in 2013 as an important
achievement. We reaffirm our commitment to strengthening the multilateral system.
We call upon members of WTO to fully and expeditiously implement all the
decisions of the Bali package, including the decisions taken in favour of least
developed countries, the decision on public stockholding for food security purposes
and the work programme on small economies, and to expeditiously ratify the
Agreement on Trade Facilitation. WTO members declaring themselves in a position
to do so should notify commercially meaningful preferences for least developed
country services and service suppliers in accordance with the 2011 and 2013 Bali
decision on the operationalization of the least developed countries services waiver
and in response to the collective request of those countries.
81. We acknowledge that lack of access to trade finance can limit a country’s
trading potential and result in missed opportunities to use trade as an engine for
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22 Ibid., vol. 2302, No. 41032.

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development. We welcome the work carried out by the WTO Expert Group on Trade
Financing, and commit to exploring ways to use market-oriented incentives to
expand WTO-compatible trade finance and the availability of trade credit,
guarantees, insurance, factoring, letters of credit and innovative financial
instruments, including for micro, small and medium-sized enterprises in developing
countries. We call upon the development banks to provide and increase market-
oriented trade finance and to examine ways to address market failures associated
with trade finance.
82. Whereas, since Monterrey, exports of many developing countries have
increased significantly, the participation of least developed countries, landlocked
developing countries, small island developing States and Africa in world trade in
goods and services remains low and world trade seems challenged to return to the
buoyant growth rates seen before the global financial crisis. We will endeavour to
significantly increase world trade in a manner consistent with the sustainable
development goals, including exports from developing countries, in particular from
least developed countries with a view towards doubling their share of global exports
by 2020 as stated in the Istanbul Programme of Action. We will integrate sustainable
development into trade policy at all levels. Given the unique and particular
vulnerabilities in small island developing States, we strongly support their
engagement in trade and economic agreements. We will also support the fuller
integration of small, vulnerable economies in regional and world markets.
83. As a means of fostering growth in global trade, we call upon WTO members to
redouble their efforts to promptly conclude the negotiations on the Doha
Development Agenda,
23 and reiterate that development concerns form an integral
part of the Doha Development Agenda, which places the needs and interests of
developing countries, including least developed countries, at the heart of the Doha
Work Programme.
23 In that context, enhanced market access, balanced rules and
well targeted, sustainably financed technical assistance and capacity-building
programmes have important roles to play. We commit to combating protectionism in
all its forms. In accordance with one element of the mandate of the Doha
Development Agenda, we call upon WTO members to correct and prevent trade
restrictions and distortions in world agricultural markets, including through the
parallel elimination of all forms of agricultural export subsidies and disciplines on
all export measures with equivalent effect. We call upon WTO members to also
commit to strengthening disciplines on subsidies in the fisheries sector, including
through the prohibition of certain forms of subsidies that contribute to overcapacity
and overfishing in accordance with the mandate of the Doha Development Agenda
and the Hong Kong Ministerial Declaration. We urge WTO members to commit to
continuing efforts to accelerate the accession of all developing countries engaged in
negotiations for WTO membership and welcome the 2012 strengthening,
streamlining and operationalizing of the guidelines for the accession of least
developed countries to WTO.
84. Members of WTO will continue to implement the provisions of special and
differential treatment for developing countries, in particular least developed
countries, in accordance with WTO agreements. We welcome the establishment of
the monitoring mechanism to analyse and review all aspects of the implementation
of special and differential treatment provisions, as agreed in Bali, with a view to
strengthening them and making them more precise, effective and operational as well
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23 See A/C.2/56/7, annex.

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as facilitating integration of developing and least-developed WTO members into the
multilateral trading system.
85. We call upon developed country WTO members and developing country WTO
members declaring themselves in a position to do so to realize timely
implementation of duty-free and quota-free market access on a lasting basis for all
products originating from all least developed countries, consistent with WTO
decisions. We call upon them to also take steps to facilitate market access for
products of least developed countries, including by developing simple and
transparent rules of origin applicable to imports from least developed countries, in
accordance with the guidelines adopted by WTO members at the Bali ministerial
conference in 2013.
86. We reaffirm the right of WTO members to take advantage of the flexibilities in
the WTO Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights
(TRIPS) and reaffirm that the TRIPS Agreement does not and should not prevent
members from taking measures to protect public health. To this end, we would urge
all WTO members that have not yet accepted the amendment of the TRIPS
Agreement allowing improved access to affordable medicines for developing
countries to do so by the deadline of the end of 2015. We welcome the June 2013
decision to extend the transition period for all least developed countries. We invite
the General Council to consider how WTO can contribute to sustainable
development.
87. We recognize the significant potential of regional economic integration and
interconnectivity to promote inclusive growth and sustainable development, and
commit to strengthening regional cooperation and regional trade agreements. We
will strengthen coherence and consistency among bilateral and regional trade and
investment agreements, and to ensure that they are compatible with WTO rules.
Regional integration can also be an important catalyst to reduce trade barriers,
implement policy reforms and enable companies, including micro, small and
medium-sized enterprises, to integrate into regional and global value chains. We
underline the contribution trade facilitation measures can make to this end. We urge
the international community, including international financial institutions and
multilateral and regional development banks, to increase its support to projects and
cooperation frameworks that foster regional and subregional integration, with
special attention to Africa, and that enhance the participation and integration of
small-scale industrial and other enterprises, particularly from developing countries,
into global value chains and markets. We encourage multilateral development banks,
including regional banks, in collaboration with other stakeholders, to address gaps
in trade, transport and transit-related regional infrastructure, including completing
missing links connecting landlocked developing countries, least developed countries
and small island developing States within regional networks.
88. Recognizing that international trade and investment offers opportunities but
also requires complementary actions at the national level, we will strengthen
domestic enabling environments and implement sound domestic policies and
reforms conducive to realizing the potential of trade for inclusive growth and
sustainable development. We further recognize the need for value addition by
developing countries and for further integration of micro, small and medium-sized
enterprises into value chains. We reiterate and will strengthen the important role of
the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) as the focal
point within the United Nations system for the integrated treatment of trade and
development and interrelated issues in the areas of finance, technology, investment
and sustainable development.

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89. We endorse the efforts and initiatives of the United Nations Commission on
International Trade Law, as the core legal body within the United Nations system in
the field of international trade law, aimed at increasing coordination of and
cooperation on legal activities of international and regional organizations active in
the field of international trade law and at promoting the rule of law at the national
and international levels in this field.
90. Aid for trade can play a major role. We will focus aid for trade on developing
countries, in particular least developed countries, including through the Enhanced
Integrated Framework for Trade-related Technical Assistance to Least Developed
Countries. We will strive to allocate an increasing proportion of aid for trade going
to least developed countries, provided according to development cooperation
effectiveness principles. We also welcome additional cooperation among developing
countries to this end. Recognizing the critical role of women as producers and
traders, we will address their specific challenges in order to facilitate women’s equal
and active participation in domestic, regional and international trade. Technical
assistance and improvement of trade- and transit-related logistics are crucial in
enabling landlocked developing countries to fully participate in and benefit from
multilateral trade negotiations, effectively implement policies and regulations aimed
at facilitating transport and trade and diversify their export base.
91. The goal of protecting and encouraging investment should not affect our
ability to pursue public policy objectives. We will endeavour to craft trade and
investment agreements with appropriate safeguards so as not to constrain domestic
policies and regulation in the public interest. We will implement such agreements in
a transparent manner. We commit to supporting capacity-building including through
bilateral and multilateral channels, in particular to least developed countries, in
order to benefit from opportunities in international trade and investment agreements.
We request UNCTAD to continue its existing programme of meetings and
consultations with Member States on investment agreements.
92. We also recognize that illegal wildlife trade, illegal, unreported and
unregulated fishing, illegal logging and illegal mining are a challenge for many
countries. Such activities can create substantial damage, including lost revenue and
corruption. We resolve to enhance global support for efforts to combat poaching of
and trafficking in protected species, trafficking in hazardous waste and trafficking in
minerals, including by strengthening both national regulation and international
cooperation and increasing the capacity of local communities to pur
sue sustainable
livelihood opportunities. We will also enhance capacity for monitoring, control and
surveillance of fishing vessels so as to effectively prevent, deter and eliminate illegal,
unreported and unregulated fishing, including through institutional capacity-building.

E. Debt and debt sustainability
93. Borrowing is an important tool for financing investment critical to achieving
sustainable development, including the sustainable development goals. Sovereign
borrowing also allows government finance to play a countercyclical role over
economic cycles. However, borrowing needs to be managed prudently. Since the
Monterrey Consensus, strengthened macroeconomic and public resource
management has led to a substantial decline in the vulnerability of many countries
to sovereign debt distress, as has the substantial debt reduction through the Heavily
Indebted Poor Countries Initiative (HIPC) and Multilateral Debt Relief Initiative.
Yet many countries remain vulnerable to debt crises and some are in the midst of
crises, including a number of least developed countries, small island developing
States and some developed countries. We acknowledge that debt sustainability

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challenges facing many least developed countries and small island developing States
require urgent solutions, and the importance of ensuring debt sustainability to the
smooth transition of countries that have graduated from least developed country
status.
94. We recognize the need to assist developing countries in attaining long-term
debt sustainability through coordinated policies aimed at fostering debt financing,
debt relief, debt restructuring and sound debt management, as appropriate. We will
continue to support the remaining HIPC-eligible countries that are working to
complete the HIPC process. On a case-by-case basis, we could explore initiatives to
support non-HIPC countries with sound economic policies to enable them to address
the issue of debt sustainability. We will support the maintenance of debt
sustainability in those countries that have received debt relief and achieved
sustainable debt levels.
95. The monitoring and prudent management of liabilities is an important element
of comprehensive national financing strategies and is critical to reducing
vulnerabilities. We welcome the efforts of IMF, the World Bank and the United
Nations system to further strengthen the analytical tools for assessing debt
sustainability and prudent public debt management. In this regard, the IMF-World
Bank debt sustainability analysis is a useful tool to inform the level of appropriate
borrowing. We invite IMF and the World Bank to continue strengthening their
analytical tools for sovereign debt management in an open and inclusive process
with the United Nations and other stakeholders. We encourage international
institutions to continue to provide assistance to debtor countries to enhance debt
management capacity, manage risks and analyse trade-offs between different
sources of financing, as well as to help to cushion against external shocks and
ensure steady and stable access to public financing.
96. We welcome the continuing activities in setting methodological standards and
promoting public availability of data on public and publicly guaranteed sovereign
debt and on the total external debt obligations of economies, and more
comprehensive quarterly publication of debt data. We invite relevant institutions to
consider the creation of a central data registry including information on debt
restructurings. We encourage all Governments to improve transparency in debt
management.
97. We reiterate that debtors and creditors must work together to prevent and
resolve unsustainable debt situations. Maintaining sustainable debt levels is the
responsibility of the borrowing countries; however we acknowledge that lenders
also have a responsibility to lend in a way that does not undermine a country’s debt
sustainability. In this regard, we take note of the UNCTAD principles on responsible
sovereign lending and borrowing. We recognize the applicable requirements of the
IMF debt limits policy and/or the World Bank’s non-concessional borrowing policy.
The OECD Development Assistance Committee has introduced new safeguards in
its statistical system in order to enhance the debt sustainability of recipient
countries. We recall the need to strengthen information-sharing and transparency to
make sure that debt sustainability assessments are based on comprehensive,
objective and reliable data. We will work towards a global consensus on guidelines
for debtor and creditor responsibilities in borrowing by and lending to sovereigns,
building on existing initiatives.
98. We affirm the importance of debt restructurings being timely, orderly,
effective, fair and negotiated in good faith. We believe that a workout from a
sovereign debt crisis should aim to restore public debt sustainability, while

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preserving access to financing resources under favourable conditions. We further
acknowledge that successful debt restructurings enhance the ability of countries to
achieve sustainable development and the sustainable development goals. We
continue to be concerned with non-cooperative creditors who have demonstrated
their ability to disrupt timely completion of the debt restructurings.
99. We recognize that important improvements have been made since Monterrey
in enhancing the processes for cooperative restructuring of sovereign obligations,
including in the Paris Club of official creditors and in the market acceptance of new
standard clauses of government bond contracts. However, we acknowledge the
existence of stocks of sovereign bonds without those collective action clauses. We
recognize that there is scope to improve the arrangements for coordination between
public and private sectors and between debtors and creditors, to minimize both
creditor and debtor moral hazards and to facilitate fair burden-sharing and an
orderly, timely and efficient restructuring that respects the principles of shared
responsibility. We take note of the ongoing work being carried out by IMF and the
United Nations system in this area. We recognize the recent “Paris Forum” initiative
by the Paris Club that aims to foster dialogue among sovereign creditors and debtors
on debt issues. We encourage efforts towards a durable solution to the debt problems
of developing countries to promote their economic growth and sustainable
development.
100. We are concerned by the ability of non-cooperative minority bondholders to
disrupt the will of the large majority of bondholders who accept a restructuring of a
debt-crisis country’s obligations, given the potential broader implications in other
countries. We note legislative steps taken by certain countries to prevent these
activities and encourage all Governments to take action, as appropriate.
Furthermore, we take note of discussions in the United Nations on debt issues. We
welcome the reforms to pari passu and collective action clauses proposed by the
International Capital Market Association, and endorsed by IMF, to reduce the
vulnerability of sovereigns to holdout creditors. We encourage countries,
particularly those issuing bonds under foreign law, to take further actions to include
those clauses in all their bond issuance. We also welcome provision of financial
support for legal assistance to least developed countries and commit to boosting
international support for advisory legal services. We will explore enhanced
international monitoring of litigation by creditors after debt restructuring.
101. We note the increased issuance of sovereign bonds in domestic currency under
national laws and the possibility of countries voluntarily strengthening domestic
legislation to reflect guiding principles for effective, timely, orderly and fair
resolution of sovereign debt crises.
102. We recognize that severe natural disasters and social or economic shocks can
undermine a country’s debt sustainability, and note that public creditors have taken
steps to ease debt repayment obligations through debt rescheduling and debt
cancellation following an earthquake, a tsunami and in the context of the Ebola
crisis in West Africa. We encourage consideration of further debt relief steps, where
appropriate, and/or other measures for countries affected in this regard, as feasible.
We also encourage the study of new financial instruments for developing countries,
particularly
least developed countries, landlocked developing countries and small island
developing States experiencing debt distress, noting experiences of debt-to-health and
debt-to-nature swaps.

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F. Addressing systemic issues
103. Monterrey emphasized the importance of continuing to improve global
economic governance and to strengthen the United Nations leadership role in
promoting development. Monterrey also emphasized the importance of the
coherence and consistency of the international financial and monetary and trading
systems in support of development. Since Monterrey, we have become increasingly
aware of the need to take account of economic, social and environmental challenges,
including the loss of biodiversity, natural disasters and climate change, and to
enhance policy coherence across all three dimensions of sustainable development.
We will take measures to improve and enhance global economic governance and to
arrive at a stronger, more coherent and more inclusive and representative
international architecture for sustainable development, while respecting the
mandates of respective organizations. We recognize the importance of policy
coherence for sustainable development and we call upon countries to assess the
impact of their policies on sustainable development.
104. The 2008 world financial and economic crisis underscored the need for sound
regulation of financial markets to strengthen financial and economic stability, as
well as the imperative of a global financial safety net. We welcome the important
steps taken since Monterrey, particularly following the crisis in 2008, to build
resilience, reduce vulnerability to international financial disruption and reduce
spillover effects of global financial crises, including to developing countries, in a
reform agenda whose completion remains a high priority. The IMF membership
bolstered the Fund’s lending capacity and multilateral and national development
banks played important countercyclical roles during the crisis. The world’s principal
financial centres worked together to reduce systemic risks and financial volatility
through stronger national financial regulation, including Basel III and the broader
financial reform agenda.
105. Regulatory gaps and misaligned incentives continue to pose risks to financial
stability, including risks of spillover effects of financial crises to developing
countries, which suggests a need to pursue further reforms of the international
financial and monetary system. We will continue to strengthen international
coordination and policy coherence to enhance global financial and macroeconomic
stability. We will work to prevent and reduce the risk and impact of financial crises,
acknowledging that national policy decisions can have systemic and far-ranging
effects well beyond national borders, including on developing countries. We commit
to pursuing sound macroeconomic policies that contribute to global stability,
equitable and sustainable growth and sustainable development, while strengthening
our financial systems and economic institutions. When dealing with risks from large
and volatile capital flows, necessary macroeconomic policy adjustment could be
supported by macroprudential and, as appropriate, capital flow management
measures.
106. We recommit to broadening and strengthening the voice and participation of
developing countries in international economic decision-making and norm-setting
and global economic governance. We recognize the importance of overcoming
obstacles to planned resource increases and governance reforms at IMF. The
implementation of the 2010 reforms for IMF remains the highest priority and we
strongly urge the earliest ratification of those reforms. We reiterate our commitment
to further governance reform in both IMF and the World Bank to adapt to changes in
the global economy. We invite the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision and
other main international regulatory standard-setting bodies to continue efforts to
increase the voice of developing countries in norm-setting processes to ensure that

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their concerns are taken into consideration. As the shareholders in the main
international financial institutions, we commit to open and transparent, gender-
balanced and merit-based selection of their heads, and to enhanced diversity of staff.
107. At the same time, we recognize the importance of strengthening the permanent
international financial safety net. We remain committed to maintaining a strong and
quota-based IMF, with adequate resources to fulfil its systemic responsibilities. We
look forward to the quinquennial special drawing rights review by IMF this year. We
encourage dialogue among regional financial arrangements and strengthened
cooperation between IMF and regional financial arrangements, while safeguarding
the independence of the respective institutions. We call upon the relevant
international financial institutions to further improve early warning of
macroeconomic and financial risks. We also urge IMF to continue its efforts to
provide more comprehensive and flexible financial responses to the needs of
developing countries. We request the international financial institutions to continue
to support developing countries in developing new instruments for financial risk
management and capacity-building. Consistent with its mandate, we call upon IMF
to provide adequate levels of financial support to developing countries pursuing
sustainable development to assist them in managing any associated pressures on the
national balance of payments. We stress the importance of ensuring that
international agreements, rules and standards are consistent with each other and
with progress towards the sustainable development goals. We encourage
development finance institutions to align their business practices with the post-2015
development agenda.
108. We are concerned about excessive volatility of commodity prices, including
for food and agriculture and its consequences for global food security and improved
nutrition outcomes. We will adopt measures to ensure the proper functioning of food
commodity markets and their derivatives and call for relevant regulatory bodies to
adopt measures to facilitate timely, accurate and transparent access to market
information in an effort to ensure that commodity markets appropriately reflect
underlying demand and supply changes and to help to limit excess volatility of
commodity prices. In this regard, we also take note of the Agricultural Market
Information System hosted by FAO. We will also provide access for small-scale
artisanal fishers to marine resources and markets, consistent with sustainable
management practices as well as initiatives that add value to outputs from small-
scale fishers.
109. We take note of the work by the Financial Stability Board on financial market
reform, and commit to sustaining or strengthening our frameworks for
macroprudential regulation and countercyclical buffers. We will hasten completion
of the reform agenda on financial market regulation, including assessing and if
necessary reducing the systemic risks associated with shadow banking, markets for
derivatives, securities lending and repurchase agreements. We also commit to
addressing the risk created by “too-big-to-fail” financial institutions and addressing
cross-border elements in effective resolution of troubled systemically important
financial institutions.
110. We resolve to reduce mechanistic reliance on credit-rating agency assessments,
including in regulations. To improve the quality of ratings, we will promote
increased competition as well as measures to avoid conflict of interest in the
provision of credit ratings. We acknowledge the efforts of the Financial Stability
Board and others in this area. We support building greater transparency
requirements for evaluation standards of credit-rating agencies. We will continue
ongoing work on these issues, including in the United Nations.

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111. We recognize that international migration is a multidimensional reality of
major relevance for the development of origin, transit and destination countries that
must be addressed in a coherent, comprehensive and balanced manner. We will
cooperate internationally to ensure safe, orderly and regular migration, with full
respect for human rights. We endeavour to increase cooperation on access to and
portability of earned benefits, enhance the recognition of foreign qualifications,
education and skills, lower the costs of recruitment for migrants and combat
unscrupulous recruiters, in accordance with national circumstances and legislation.
We further endeavour to implement effective social communication strategies on the
contribution of migrants to sustainable development in all its dimensions, in
particular in countries of destination, in order to combat xenophobia, facilitate
social integration and protect migrants’ human rights through national frameworks.
We reaffirm the need to promote and protect effectively the human rights and
fundamental freedoms of all migrants, especially those of women and children,
regardless of their migration status.
112. We will strengthen regional, national and subnational institutions to prevent all
forms of violence, combat terrorism and crime and end human trafficking and
exploitation of persons, in particular women and children, in accordance with
international human rights law. We will effectively strengthen national institutions
to combat money-laundering, corruption and the financing of terrorism, which have
serious implications for economic development and social cohesion. We will
enhance international cooperation for capacity-building in these areas at all levels,
in particular in developing countries. We commit to ensuring the effective
implementation of the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized
Crime.
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113. Building on the vision of the Monterrey Consensus, we resolve to strengthen
the coherence and consistency of multilateral financial, investment, trade and
development policy and environment institutions and platforms and increase
cooperation between major international institutions, while respecting mandates and
governance structures. We commit to taking better advantage
of relevant United
Nations forums for promoting universal and holistic coherence and international
commitments to sustainable development.

G. Science, technology, innovation and capacity-building
114. The creation, development and diffusion of new innovations and technologies
and associated know-how, including the transfer of technology on mutually agreed
terms, are powerful drivers of economic growth and sustainable development.
However, we note with concern the persistent “digital divide” and the uneven
innovative capacity, connectivity and access to technology, including information
and communications technology, within and between countries. We will promote the
development and use of information and communications technology infrastructure,
as well as capacity-building, particularly in least developed countries, landlocked
developing countries and small island developing States, including rapid universal
and affordable access to the Internet. We will promote access to technology and
science for women, youth and children. We will further facilitate accessible
technology for persons with disabilities.
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115. Capacity development will be integral to achieving the post-2015 development
agenda. We call for enhanced international support and establishment of
multi-stakeholder partnerships for implementing effective and targeted capacity-
building in developing countries, including least developed countries, landlocked
developing countries, small island developing States, African countries and
countries in conflict and post-conflict situations, to support national plans to
implement all the sustainable development goals. Capacity development must be
country-driven, address the specific needs and conditions of countries and reflect
national sustainable development strategies and priorities. We reiterate the
importance of strengthening institutional capacity and human resource development.
It is also critical to reinforce national efforts in capacity-building in developing
countries in such areas as public finance and administration, social and gender
responsive budgeting, mortgage finance, financial regulation and supervision,
agriculture productivity, fisheries, debt management, climate services, including
planning and management for both adaptation and mitigation purposes, and water
and sanitation-related activities and programmes.
116. We will craft policies that incentivize the creation of new technologies, that
incentivize research and that support innovation in developing countries. We
recognize the importance of an enabling environment at all levels, including
enabling regulatory and governance frameworks, in nurturing science, innovation,
the dissemination of technologies, particularly to micro, small and medium-sized
enterprises, as well as industrial diversification and value added to commodities. We
also recognize the importance of adequate, balanced and effective protection of
intellectual property rights in both developed and developing countries in line with
nationally defined priorities and in full respect of WTO rules. We recognize
voluntary patent pooling and other business models, which can enhance access to
technology and foster innovation. We will promote social innovation to support
social well-being and sustainable livelihoods.
117. We will encourage knowledge-sharing and the promotion of cooperation and
partnerships between stakeholders, including between Governments, firms,
academia and civil society, in sectors contributing to the achievement of the
sustainable development goals. We will promote entrepreneurship, including
through supporting business incubators. We affirm that regulatory environments that
are open and non-discriminatory can promote collaboration and further our efforts.
We will also foster linkages between multinational companies and the domestic
private sector to facilitate technology development and transfer, on mutually agreed
terms, of knowledge and skills, including skills trading programmes, in particular to
developing countries, with the support of appropriate policies. At the same time, we
recognize that traditional knowledge, innovations and practices of indigenous
peoples and local communities can support social well-being and sustainable
livelihoods and we reaffirm that indigenous peoples have the right to maintain,
control, protect and develop their cultural heritage, traditional knowledge and
traditional cultural expressions.
118. We also recognize the important role of public finance and policies in research
and technological development. We will consider using public funding to enable
critical projects to remain in the public domain and strive for open access to
research for publicly funded projects, as appropriate. We will consider setting up
innovation funds where appropriate, on an open, competitive basis to support
innovative enterprises, particularly during research, development and demonstration
phases. We recognize the value of a “portfolio approach” in which public and

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private venture funds invest in diverse sets of projects to diversify risks and capture
the upside of successful enterprises.
119. We resolve to adopt science, technology and innovation strategies as integral
elements of our national sustainable development strategies to help to strengthen
knowledge-sharing and collaboration. We will scale up investment in science,
technology, engineering and mathematics education and enhance technical,
vocational and tertiary education and training, ensuring equal access for women and
girls and encouraging their participation therein. We will increase the number of
scholarships available to students in developing countries to enrol in higher
education. We will enhance cooperation to strengthen tertiary education systems and
aim to increase access to online education in areas related to sustainable
development.
120. We will encourage the development, dissemination and diffusion and transfer
of environmentally sound technologies to developing countries on favourable terms,
including on concessional and preferential terms, as mutually agreed. We will
endeavour to step up international cooperation and collaboration in science,
research, technology and innovation, including through public-private and
multi-stakeholder partnerships, and on the basis of common interest and mutual
benefit, focusing on the needs of developing countries and the achievement of the
sustainable development goals. We will continue to support developing countries to
strengthen their scientific, technological and innovative capacity to move towards
more sustainable patterns of consumption and production, including through
implementation of the 10-year framework of programmes on sustainable
consumption and production patterns. We will enhance international cooperation,
including ODA, in these areas, in particular to least developed countries, landlocked
developing countries, small island developing States and countries in Africa. We
also encourage other forms of international cooperation, including South-South
cooperation, to complement these efforts.
121. We will support research and development of vaccines and medicines, as well
as preventive measures and treatments for the communicable and
non-communicable diseases, in particular those that disproportionately impact
developing countries. We will support relevant initiatives, such as Gavi, the Vaccine
Alliance, which incentivizes innovation while expanding access in developing
countries. To reach food security, we commit to further investment, including
through enhanced international cooperation, in earth observation, rural
infrastructure, agricultural research and extension services and technology
development by enhancing agricultural productive capacity in developing countries,
in particular in least developed countries, for example by developing plant and
livestock gene banks. We will increase scientific knowledge, develop research
capacity and transfer marine technology, taking into account the Criteria and
Guidelines on the Transfer of Marine Technology adopted by the Intergovernmental
Oceanographic Commission, in order to improve ocean health and to enhance the
contribution of marine biodiversity to the development of developing countries, in
particular small island developing States and least developed countries.
122. We welcome science, technology and capacity-building initiatives, including
the Commission on Science and Technology for Development, the Technology
Mechanism under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change,
the advisory services of the Climate Technology Centre and Network, the capacity-
building of the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) and the UNIDO
National Cleaner Production Centres networks. We invite specialized agencies,
funds and programmes of the United Nations system with technology-intensive

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mandates to further promote the development and diffusion of relevant science,
technologies and capacity-building through their respective work programmes. We
commit to strengthening coherence and synergies among science and technology
initiatives within the United Nations system, with a view to eliminating duplicative
efforts and recognizing the many successful existing efforts in this space.
123. We decide to establish a Technology Facilitation Mechanism. The Mechanism
will be launched at the United Nations summit for the adoption of the post-2015
development agenda in order to support the sustainable development goals.
• We decide that the Technology Facilitation Mechanism will be based on a
multi-stakeholder collaboration between Member States, civil society, the
private sector, the scientific community, United Nations entities and other
stakeholders and will be composed of a United Nations inter-agency task team
on science, technology and innovation for the sustainable development goals, a
collaborative multi-stakeholder forum on science, technology and innovation
for the sustainable development goals and an online platform.
• The United Nations inter-agency task team on science, technology and
innovation for the sustainable development goals will p

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