The African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child
PART 1: RIGHTS AND DUTIES
CHAPTER ONE: RIGHTS AND WELFARE OF THE CHILD
Article 1: Member States of the Organization of African Unity Parties will recognize the rights,
freedoms and duties in this Charter and will adopt laws these rights. Any custom, tradition,
cultural or religious practice that is inconsistent with these rights are discouraged.
Article 2: A child means every human being below the age of 18 years.
Article 3: Every child should be allowed to enjoy the rights and freedoms in this Charter,
regardless of his or her race, ethnic group, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other
opinion, national and social origin, fortune, birth or other status.
Article 4: If children can voice their opinions, then those opinions should be heard and taken into
consideration during legal and administrative proceedings.
Article 5: Every child has a right to live.
Article 6: Every child has the right to be named and registered at birth.
Article 7: Every child who is capable of communicating his or her own views should be allowed
to express his or her opinions freely.
Article 8: Every child has the right to free association and freedom of peaceful assembly, in
conformity with the law.
Article 9: Every child has the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion.
Article 10: Children have a right to privacy.
Article 11: Every child has the right to an education, to develop his or her personality, talents and
mental and physical abilities to their fullest potential. This education also includes the
preservation and strengthening of positive African morals, traditional values and cultures.
Governments should also take special measures in respect of female, gifted and disadvantaged
children, to ensure equal access to education for all sections of the community.
Article 12: Children have a right to play and to participate fully in cultural and artistic life.
Article 13: Every child who is mentally or physically disabled has the right to special protection
to ensure his or her dignity, promote his self-reliance and active participation in the community.
Article 14: Every child shall has the right to enjoy the best attainable state of physical, mental
and spiritual health. This includes the provision of nutritious food and safe drinking water, as
well as adequate health care.
Article 15: Children should be protected from all forms of economic exploitation and from
performing any work that is likely to be hazardous or to interfere with their physical, mental,
spiritual, moral, or social development.
Article 16: Children should be protected from all forms of torture, inhuman or degrading
treatment and especially physical or mental injury or abuse, neglect or maltreatment including
Article 17: Every child accused or found guilty of having broken the law should receive special
treatment, and no child who is imprisoned or should be tortured or otherwise mistreated.
Article 18: Families are the natural unit and basis for society, and should enjoy special
Article 19: Children should, whenever possible, have the right to live with their parents. No child
should be separated from his or her parents against his or her will, except when authorities
believe is would be in the child’s best interest.
Article 20: Parents or other persons responsible for the child should always act in the best
interest of the child.
Article 21: Governments should do what they can to stop harmful social and cultural practices,
such as child marriage, that affect the welfare and dignity of children.
Article 22: Children should not be recruited as soldiers, nor should they take a direct part in
Article 23: Refugee Children should receive appropriate protection and humanitarian assistance.
Article 25: Children who are separated from their parents should get special protection and
should be provided with alternative family care. States should also take all possible steps to trace
and re-unite children with parents.
Article 26: States should address the special needs of children living under regimes practicing
racial, ethnic, religious or other forms of discrimination.
Article 27: Children should be protected from all forms of sexual exploitation and sexual abuse.
Article 28: Children should be protected from the use of narcotics and illicit use of psychotropic
Article 29: Governments should take appropriate measures to prevent the abduction, the sale of,
or traffic of children for any purpose.
Article 30: States should provide special treatment to expectant mothers and to mothers of
infants and young children who have been accused or found guilty of breaking the law.
Article 31: Children have responsibilities towards their families and societies, to respect their
parents, superiors and elders, to preserve and strengthen African cultural values in their relation
with other members of their communities.
CHAPTER TWO: ESTABLISHMENT AND ORGANIZATION OF THE
COMMITTEE ON THE RIGHTS AND WELFARE OF THE CHILD
Article 32: The Committee
An African Committee of Experts on the Rights and Welfare of the Child hereinafter called `the
Committee’ shall be established within the Organization of African Unity to promote and protect
the rights and welfare of the child.
Article 33: Composition
1. The Committee shall consist of 11 members of high moral standing, integrity,
impartiality and competence in matters of the rights and welfare of the child.
2. The members of the Committee shall serve in their personal capacity.
3. The Committee shall not include more than one national of the same State.
Article 34: Election
As soon as this Charter shall enter into force the members of the Committee shall be elected by
secret ballot by the Assembly of Heads of State and Government from a list of persons
nominated by the States Parties to the present
Article 35: Candidates
Each State Party to the present Charter may nominate not more than two candidates. The
candidates must have one of the nationalities of the States Parties to the present Charter. When
two candidates are nominated by a State, one of them shall not be a national of that State.
1. The Secretary-General of the Organization of African Unity shall invite States Parties to
the present Charter to nominate candidates at least six months before the elections.
2. The Secretary-General of the Organization of African Unity shall draw up in alphabetical
order, a list of persons nominated and communicate it to the Heads of State and
Government at least two months before the elections.
Article 37: Term of Office
1. The members of the Committee shall be elected for a tenn of five years and may not be
re-elected, however. The term of four of the members elected at the first election shall
expire after two years and the term of six others, after four years.
2. Immediately after the first election, the Chairman of the Assembly of Heads of State and
Government of the Organization of African Unity shall draw lots to determine the names
of those members referred to in sub-paragraph 1 of this Article.
3. The Secretary-General of the Organization of African Unity shall convene the first
meeting of Committee at the Headquarters of the Organization within six months of the
election of the members of the Committee, and thereafter the Committee shall be
convened by its Chairman whenever necessary, at least once a year.
Article 38: Bureau
1. The Committee shall establish its own Rules of Procedure.
2. The Committee shall elect its officers for a period of two years.
3. Seven Committee members shall form the quorum.
4. In case of an equality of votes, the Chairman shall have a casting vote.
5. The working languages of the Committee shall be the official languages of the OAU.
Article 39: Vacancy
If a member of the Committee vacates his office for any reason other than the nonmal expiration
of a term, the State which nominated that member shall appoint another member from among its
nationals to serve for the remainder of the term – subject to the approval of the Assembly.
Article 40: Secretariat
The Secretary-General of the Organization of African Unity shall appoint a Secretary for the
Article 41: Privileges and Immunities
In discharging their duties, members of the Committee shall enjoy the privileges and immunities
provided for in the General Convention on the Privileges and Immunities of the Organization of
CHAPTER THREE: MANDATE AND PROCEDURE OF THE COMMITTEE
Article 42: Mandate
The functions of the Committee shall be:
a) To promote and protect the rights enshrined in this Charter and in particular to:
(i) collect and document information, commission inter-disciplinary assessment of
situations on African problems in the fields of the rights and welfare of the child,
organize meetings, encourage national and local institutions concerned with the
rights and welfare of the child, and where necessary give its views and make
recommendations to Governments;
(ii) formulate and lay down principles and rules aimed at protecting the rights and
welfare of children in Africa;
(iii)cooperate with other African, international and regional Institutions and
organizations concerned with the promotion and protection of the rights and
welfare of the child.
b) To monitor the implementation and ensure protection of the rights enshrined in this
c) To interpret the provisions of the present Charter at the request of a State Party, an
Institution of the Organization of African Unity or any other person or Institution
recognized by the Organization of African Unity, or any State Party.
d) Perform such other task as may be entrusted to it by the Assembly of Heads of State and
Government, Secretary-General of the OAU and any other organs of the OAU or the
Article 43: Reporting Procedure
1. Every State Party to the present Charter shall undertake to submit to the Committee
through the Secretary-General of the Organization of African Unity, reports on the measures
they have adopted which give effect to the provisions of this Charter and on the progress
made in the enjoyment of these rights:
a. within two years of the entry into force of the Charter for the State Party
b. and thereafter, every three years.
2. Every report made under this Article shall:
a. contain sufficient information on the implementation of the present Charter to
provide the Committee with comprehensive understanding of the implementation
of the Charter in the relevant country; and
b. shall indicate factors and difficulties, if any, affecting the fullfilment of the
obligations contained in the Charter.
3. A State Party which has submitted a comprehensive first report to the Committee need
not, in its subsequent reports submitted in accordance with paragraph I (a) of this Article,
repeat the basic information previously provided.
Article 44: Communications
1. The Committee may receive communication, from any person, group or
nongovernmental organization recognized by the Organization of African Unity, by a
Member State, or the United Nations relating to any matter covered by this Charter.
2. Every communication to the Committee shall contain the name and address of the author
and shall be treated in confidence.
Article 45: Investigations by the Committee
1. The Committee may, resort to any appropriate method of investigating any matter falling
within the ambit of the present Charter, request from the States Parties any information
relevant to the implementation of the Charter and may also resort to any appropriate
method of investigating the measures the State Party has adopted to implement the
2. The Committee shall submit to each Ordinary Session of the Assembly of Heads of State
and Govenrment every two years, a report on its activities and on any communication
made under Article  of this Charter.
3. The Committee shall publish its report after it has been considered by the Assembly of
Heads of State and Government.
4. States Parties shall make the Committee’s reports widely available to the public in their
CHAPTER FOUR: MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS
Article 46: Sources of Inspiration
The Committee shall draw inspiration from International Law on Human Rights, particularly
from the provisions of the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights, the Charter of the
Organization of African Unity, the Universal Declaration on Human Rights, the International
Convention on the Rights of the Child, and other instruments adopted by the United Nations and
by African countries in the field of human rights, and from African values and traditions.
Article 47: Signature, Ratification or Adherence
1. The present Charter shall be open to signature by all the Member States of the
Organization of African Unity.
2. The present Charter shall be subject to ratification or adherence by Member States of the
Organization of African Unity. The instruments of ratification or adherence to the present
Charter shall be deposited with the Secretary-General of the Organization of African
3. The present Charter shall come into force 30 days after the reception by the Secretary-
General of the Organization of African Unity of the instruments of ratification or
adherence of 15 Member States of the Organization of African Unity.
Article 48: Amendment and Revision of the Charter
1. The present Charter may be amended or revised if any State Party makes a written
request to that effect to the Secretary-General of the Organization of African Unity,
provided that the proposed amendment is not submitted to the Assembly of Heads of
State and Government for consideration until all the States Parties have been duly
notified of it and the Committee has given its opinion on the amendment.
2. An amendment shall be approved by a simple majority of the States Parties.