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Constitution

THE CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED REPUBLIC OF TANZANIA (CAP. 2)
ARRANGEMENT OF CONTENTS
Article
Title

PREAMBLE
CHAPTER ONE

THE UNITED REPUBLIC, POLITICAL PARTIES,
THE PEOPLE AND THE POLICY OF SOCIALISM AND SELF RELIANCE

PART I
THE UNITED REPUBLIC AND THE PEOPLE

1. Proclamation of the United Republic.
2. The territory of the United Republic.
3. Declaration of Multi-Party State.
4. Exercise of State Authority of the United Republic.
5. The Franchise.

PART II
FUNDAMENTAL OBJECTIVES AND DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY

6. Interpretation.
7. Application of the provisions of Part II.
8. The Government and the People.
9. The pursuit of Ujamaa and Self-Reliance.
10. [Repealed].
11. Right to work, to educational and other pursuits.

PART III
BASIC RIGHTS AND DUTIES The Right to Equality

12. Equality of human beings.
13. Equality before the law.

The Right to Life

14. The right to life.
15. Right to personal freedom.
16. Right to privacy and personal security.
17. Right to freedom of movement.

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The Right to Freedom of Conscience

18. The freedom of expression.
19. Right to freedom of religion.
20. Person’s freedom of association.
21. Freedom to participate in public affairs.

The Right to Work

22. Right to work.
23. Right to just remuneration.
24. Right to own property.

Duties to the Society

25. Duty to participate in work.
26. Duty to abide by the laws of the land.
27. Duty to safeguard public property.
28. Defence of the Nation.

General Provisions

29. Fundamental rights and duties.
30. Limitations upon, and enforcement and preservation of basic rights, freedoms and duties.

Extraordinary Powers of the State Authority

31. Derogation from rights and freedoms.
32. Power to proclaim state of emergency.

CHAPTER TWO
THE EXECUTIVE OF THE UNITED REPUBLIC

PART I
THE PRESIDENT

33. President of the United Republic.
34. The Government of the United Republic and its Authority.
35. Discharge of business of the Government.
36. Authority to constitute offices and to appoint officers.
37. Discharge of duties and functions of President.
38. Election of President.
39. Qualifications for election of President.

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40. Eligibility for re-election.
41. Procedures for the election of President.
42. Time of assumption and term of office of President.
43. Terms of office of President.
44. Power to declare war.
45. Prerogative of mercy.
46. Immunity from criminal and civil proceedings.
46A. Impeachment by the National Assembly.
46B. Duty of principal leaders of organs with executive powers to preserve the Union.

PART II
THE VICE-PRESIDENT

47. Vice-President, his duties and powers.
48. Time of assumption of office of Vice-President.
49. Oath of the Vice-President.
50. Tenure of office of Vice-President.

PART III
PRIME MINISTER, CABINET AND THE GOVERNMENT

PRIME MINISTER
51. Prime Minister of the United Republic.
52. Functions and authority of the Prime Minister.
53. Accountability of the Executive.
53A. Vote of no confidence.

THE CABINET AND THE GOVERNMENT

54. The Cabinet.
55. Appointment of Ministers and Deputy Ministers.
56. Oath of office of Ministers and Deputy Ministers.
57. Tenure of office of Ministers and Deputy Ministers.
58. Terms of office of Ministers and Deputy Ministers.
59. Attorney General for the Government of the United Republic.
59A. Deputy Attorney General.
59B. Director of Public Prosecutions.
60. Secretary to the Cabinet.
61. Regional Commissioners.

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CHAPTER THREE
THE LEGISLATURE OF THE UNITED REPUBLIC

PART I
PARLIAMENT

62. Parliament.
63. Authority of Parliament.
64. Legislative power.
65. Life of Parliament.

PART II
MEMBERS, CONSTITUENCIES AND ELECTION OF MEMBERS

66. Members of Parliament.
67. Qualifications for Member of Parliament.
68. Oath of Members of Parliament.
69. Formal declaration by Members of Parliament concerning ethics of leaders.
70. Members to submit statement of property.
71. Tenure of office of Member of Parliament.
72. Cessation of employment of public servants on contesting for elections.
73. Terms of service of Members of Parliament.
74. Electoral Commission.
75. Constituencies.

Election and Appointment of Members of Parliament

76. Elections in constituencies.
77. Procedure for election of Members of Parliament representing constituencies.
78. Procedure for election of women Members of Parliament.
79. Procedure for election of Members of Parliament by House of Representatives.
80. [Repealed].
81. Procedure for proposing women candidates.
82. [Repealed].
83. Determination of the validity of a person’s membership of the Parliament.

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PART III
PROCEDURE, POWERS AND PRIVILAGES OF PARLIAMENT

Speaker and Deputy Speaker

84. Speaker and his functions.
85. Deputy Speaker.
86. Procedure for electing Speaker and Deputy Speaker.

Office of Parliament

87. Clerk of the National Assembly.
88. The Secretariat of the National Assembly.

Procedure in the National Assembly

89. Standing Orders of the National Assembly.
90. Summoning and dissolution of Parliament.
91. President may address Parliament.
92. Meetings of the National Assembly.
93. Presiding at sittings of the National Assembly.
94. Quorum at sittings of the National Assembly.
95. Vacant seats in the National Assembly.
96. Standing Committees of the National Assembly.

Legislative Procedure

97. How to legislate.
98. Procedure for altering the Constitution and certain laws.
99. Procedure for legislating in financial matters.

Powers and Privileges of Parliament

100. Freedom and immunity from proceedings.
101. Preservation and enforcement of freedom of debate and procedure.

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CHAPTER FOUR
THE REVOLUTIONARY GOVERNMENT OF
ZANZIBAR, THE ZANZIBAR REVOLUTIONARY
COUNCIL AND THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES OF ZANZIBAR

PART I
THE REVOLUTIONARY GOVERNMENT OF ZANZIBAR AND THE PRESIDENT OF ZANZIBAR

102. The Revolutionary Government of Zanzibar and its jurisdiction.
103. Head of the Revolutionary Government of Zanzibar and his authority.
104. Election of the Head of the Revolutionary Government of Zanzibar.

PART II
THE ZANZIBAR
REVOLUTIONARY COUNCIL

105. The Zanzibar Revolutionary Council and its functions.

PART III
THE HOUSE OF THE REPRESENTATIVES OF ZANZIBAR

106. The House of Representatives of Zanzibar and its legislative functions.
107. Authority of House of Representatives.

CHAPTER FIVE
DISPENSATION OF JUSTICE IN THE UNITED REPUBLIC

THE HIGH COURT OF THE UNITED REPUBLIC, THE JUDICIAL
SERVICE COMMISSION FOR MAINLAND TANZANIA, THE HIGH COURT OF ZANZIBAR, THE COURT OF APPEAL OF THE
UNITED REPUBLIC AND THE SPECIAL CONSTITUTIONAL COURT OF THE UNITED REPUBLIC

PART I
DISPENSATION OF JUSTICE IN THE UNITED REPUBLIC

107A Authority of dispensing of Justice.
107B. Independence of the Judiciary.

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PART II
THE HIGH COURT OF THE UNITED REPUBLIC

108. High Court of the United Republic and its jurisdiction.
109. Judges of the High Court and their appointment.
110. Tenure of office of Judges of the High Court.
111. Judges’ oath of office.

PART III
THE JUDICIAL SERVICE COMMISSION

112. Judicial Service Commission.
113. Powers and functions of the Commission.
113A Membership in political parties.

PART IV
THE HIGH COURT OF ZANZIBAR

114. The High Court of Zanzibar.
115. Jurisdiction of the High Court of Zanzibar.

PART V
THE COURT OF APPEAL OF THE UNITED REPUBLIC

116. Interpretation.
117. Court of Appeal of the United Republic and its jurisdiction.
118. Chief Justice and Justices of Appeal and their appointment.
119. Jurisdiction of Justices of Appeal.
120. Tenure of office of Justices of Appeal.
120A Procedures relating to discipline of Justices of Appeal.
121. Oath of office of Justices of Appeal.
122. Quorum at sittings of the Court of Appeal.
123. Jurisdiction of a single Justice of Appeal.

PART VI
PROCEDURE FOR SERVICE OF NOTICES AND EXECUTION OF ORDERS ISSUED BY THE COURTS

124. Execution of court orders in the whole of Tanzania.

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PART VII
THE SPECIAL CONSTITUTIONAL COURT OF THE UNITED REPUBLIC
125. Special Constitutional Court of the United Republic.
126. Jurisdiction of the Special Constitutional Court.
127. Composition of the Special Constitutional Court.
128. Procedure at sittings of the Special Constitutional Court.

CHAPTER SIX
THE COMMISSION FOR HUMAN RIGHTS AND GOOD
GOVERNANCE AND THE PUBLIC LEADERS’ ETHICS SECRETARIAT

PART I
THE COMMISSION FOR HUMAN RIGHTS AND GOOD GOVERNANCE

129. Commission for Human Rights and Good Governance.
130. Functions of the Commission and performance procedures.
131. Powers of the Commission and procedures for performance of functions.

PART II
PUBLIC LEADERS’ ETHICS SECRETARIAT

132. Public Leaders’ Ethics Secretariat.

CHAPTER SEVEN
PROVISIONS REGARDING THE FINANCES OF THE UNITED REPUBLIC

PART I
CONTRIBUTION AND ALLOCATION OF THE REVENUE OF THE UNITED REPUBLIC

133. Joint Finance Account.
134. Joint Finance Commission.

PART II
THE CONSOLIDATED FUND AND THE
FINANCES OF THE UNITED REPUBLIC

135. Consolidated Fund of the Government of the United Republic.
136. Conditions for withdrawal of moneys from Consolidated Fund.
137. Procedure for authorising expenditure out of Consolidated Fund.
138. Conditions of taxation.
139. Procedure for authorisation of expenditure in advance of appropriation.

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140. Contingencies Fund and virement.
141. Public Debt.
142. Remuneration of certain holders of public offices to be a charge on Consolidated Fund.
143. Controller and Auditor-General of the United Republic.
144. Removal from office of Controller and Auditor-General.

CHAPTER EIGHT
PUBLIC AUTHORITIES

145. The local government authorities.
146. Functions of local government authorities.

CHAPTER NINE
ARMED FORCES

147. Prohibition to raise and maintain armed forces.
148. Powers of Commander-in-Chief.

CHAPTER TEN
MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS

149. Provisions relating to resignation from various offices established by this Constitution.
150. Provisions relating to procedure of succession to office in Government service.
151. Interpretation.
152. Title, commencement and application of this Constitution. ______
FIRST SCHEDULE _______
[Union Matters] ______
SECOND SCHEDULE ______
List one
(Laws the amendment of which requires to be supported by at least two – thirds of all
Members of Parliament). List two
(Matters the amendment of which requires to be supported by two-thirds of all Membe rs
of Parliament from Mainland Tanzania and two-thirds of all Members of Parlia ment from
Tanzania Zanzibar).

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THE CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED REPUBLIC OF TANZANIA, 1977

Cap.500 [1965 Edition] Cap 598 [1965 Edition] Act Nos
14 of 1979
1 and 28 of 1980
21 of 1982
15 of 1984
14 and 16 of 1990
4 and 20 of 1992
7 of 1993
7 and 34 of 1994
12 of 1995
3 of 2000
1 of 2005
G.N.No.133 of 2001
G.N.No.150 of 2005
Act No.15
of 1984
Art.3 PREAMBLE
FOUNDATIONS OF THE CONSTITUTION

WHEREAS WE, the people of the United Republic of Tanzania, have
firmly and solemnly resolved to build in our country a society founded on the
principles of freedom, justice, fraternity and concord:

AND WHEREAS those principles can only be realised in a democra tic
society in which the Executive is accountable to a Legislature c omposed of
elected members and representative of the people, and also a Judici ary which is
independent and dispenses justice without fear or favour, thereby ensuri ng that all
human rights are preserved and protected and that the duties of every person are
faithfully discharged:

NOW, THEREFORE, THIS CONSTITUTION IS ENACTED BY THE
CONSTITUENT ASSEMBLY OF THE UNITED REPUBLIC OF TANZ ANIA,
on behalf of the People, for the purpose of building such a society and ens uring
that Tanzania is governed by a Government that adheres to the princ iples of
democracy and socialism and shall be a secular state.

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CHAPTER ONE
Act No.15
of 1984
Art.5 THE UNITED REPUBLIC, POLITICAL PARTIES, THE PEOPLE
AND THE POLICY OF SOCIALISM AND SELF-RELIANCE

PART I
THE UNITED REPUBLIC AND THE PEOPLE

Proclamation
of the United
Republic
Act No.15
of 1984
Art.6
1. Tanzania is one State and is a sovereign United Republic.

The territory of
the United
Republic
2.-(1) The territory of the United Republic consists of the whole of the
area of mainland Tanzania and the whole of the area of Tanzania Z anzibar, and
includes the territorial waters.
Act No.15
of 1984
Art.6
Act No.4
of 1992
Art.3 (2) For the purpose of the efficient discharge of the functions of
the
Government of the United Republic or of the Revolutionary Government of
Zanzibar, the President may, in accordance with the procedures pre scribed by law
or provisions of such law as may be enacted by Parliament, divide the United
Republic into regions, districts and other areas:
Provided that the President shall first consult with the President of
Zanzibar before dividing Tanzania Zanzibar into regions, districts or other ar eas.

Declaration of
multiparty state
Act No.4
of 1992
Art.5
Act No.1
of 2005
Art. 4
3.-(1) The United Republic is a democratic, secular and socialis t state
which adheres to multi-party democracy.
(2) All matters pertaining to the registration and administ ration of
political parties in the United Republic shall be governed by the provis ions of this
Constitution and of a law enacted by Parliament for that purpose.

Exercise of
state authority
of the United
Republic
Act No.15
4.-(1) All state authority in the United Republic shall be exerc ised and
controlled by two organs vested with executive powers, two organs vested with
judicial powers and two organs vested with legislative and supervisory powers
over the conduct of public affairs.
of 1984
Art.6
Act No.1
of 2005
Art.5 (2) The organs vested with executive powers shall be the Government
of
the United Republic and the Revolutionary Government of Zanzibar; the or gans
vested with judicial powers shall be the Judiciary of the United Re public and the
Judiciary of the Revolutionary government of Zanzibar; and the organs ves ted
with legislative and supervisory powers over public affairs shall be the Parliament
of the Untied Republic and the House of Representatives.
(3) For the purposes of the efficient conduct of public affairs in the
United Republic and for the allocation of powers among the organs specif ied in
this Article, there shall be Union Matters as listed in the Fi rst Schedule and there

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shall also be non-union maters which are all other matters not so listed.
(4) Each organ specified in this Article shall be establis hed and shall
discharge its functions in accordance with the other provisions of this
Constitution.
5.-(1) Every citizen of the Untied Republic who has attained the age of
eighteen years is entitled to vote in any election held in Tanza nia. This right shall
be exercised in accordance with the sub article (2), and of the ot her provisions of
this Constitution and the law for the time being in force in Tanza nia in relation to
public elections.
The franchise
Act No.15
of 1984
Art.6
Act No.3
of 2000
Art.4
(2) Parliament may enact a law imposing conditions restric ting a citizen
from exercising the right to vote by reason of any of the following grounds:
(a) being a citizen of another state;
(b) being mentally infirm;
(c) being convicted of certain specified criminal offences;
(d) omission or failure to prove or to produce evidence as to age,
citizenship or registration as a voter.
Except for these grounds no other grounds shall disqualify a citizen f rom
exercising the right to vote.
(3) Parliament shall enact electoral law to provide for the following:
(a) the establishment of a permanent voters register and prescri bing the
procedure for its amendment or updating information contained in
that register;
(b) specification of places and times for the registration of vote rs and
for voting;
(c) procedure and conditions for enabling a person registered as a voter
in one place to vote in another;
(d) specification of the duties and functions of the Electoral
Commission and the procedure for every election which shall be
conducted under the direction and supervision of the Electoral
Commission.

PART II
FUNDAMENTAL OBJECTIVES AND DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY

Interpretation
Act No.15
of 1984
Art.6
6. In this Part of this Chapter, unless the context requires otherwise:-
the Government includes the Government of the United Republic, the
Revolutionary Government of Zanzibar, local government authorities and an y
person who exercises power or authority on behalf of either “Government”.

Application of
provisions of
Part II
Act No.15
of 1984
7.-(1) Notwithstanding the provisions of subarticle (2), it shall be the duty
and responsibility of the Government, all its organs and all persons or authorities
exercising executive, legislative or judicial functions to take cognizance of,
observe and apply the provisions of this Part of this Chapter.
Art.6 (2) The provisions of this Part of this Chapter are not enforcea ble by any

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court. No court shall be competent to determine the question whether or not any
action or omission by any person or any court, or any law or judgment complies
with the provisions of this Part of this Chapter.
8.-(1) The United Republic of Tanzania is a state which adhere s to the
principles of democracy and social justice and accordingly –
The
Government
and the People
Act No.15
of 1984
Art.6 (a) sovereignty resides in the people and it is from the people that
the
Government through this Constitution shall derive all its power and
authority;
(b) the primary objective of the Government shall be the welfare of the
people;
(c) the Government shall be accountable to the people; and
(d) the people shall participate in the affairs of their Governm ent in
accordance with the provisions of this Constitution.
(2) The structure of the Government of the United Republic and the
Revolutionary Government of Zanzibar or any of their organs, and the dis charge
of their functions shall be so effected as to take into account t he unity of the
United Republic and the need to promote national unity and preserve nationa l
dignity.

The pursuit of
Ujamaa and
Self-Reliance
Act No.15
of 1984
Art.6
Act No.4
of 1992
Art.6
9. The object of this Constitution is to facilitate the building of the United
Republic as a nation of equal and free individuals enjoying freedom, jus tice,
fraternity and concord, through the pursuit of the policy of Socialism a nd Self
Reliance which emphasizes the application of socialist principles while taking into
account the conditions prevailing in the United Republic. Therefore, the s tate
authority and all its agencies are obliged to direct their polici es and programmes
towards ensuring –
(a) that human dignity and other human rights are respected and
cherished;
(b) that the laws of the land are upheld and enforced;
(c) that activities of the Government are conducted in such a way as to
ensure that the national wealth and heritage are harnessed,
preserved and applied for the common good and also to prevent the
exploitation of one person by another;
(d) that the national economy is planned and promoted in a balanced
and integrated manner;
(e) that every person who is able to work does work, and work means
any legitimate activity by which a person earns a living;
(f) that human dignity is preserved and upheld in accordance with the
spirit of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights;
(g) that the Government and all its agencies accord equal opportunit ies
to all citizens, men and women alike without regard to their colour,
tribe, religion, or station in life;
(h) that all forms of injustice, intimidation, discrimination, corrupti on,
oppression or favouritism are eradicated;
(i) that the use of national wealth places emphasis on the deve lopment

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of the people and in particular is geared towards the eradication o f
poverty, ignorance and disease;
(j) that economic activities are not conducted in a manner that ma y be
result in the concentration of wealth or the major means of
production in the hands of a few individuals;
(k) that the country is governed according to the principles of
democracy and socialism.

Status and
authority of the
Part.
10. [Repealed by Act No.4 of 1992].

Right to work,
to educational
and other
pursuits
Act No.15 of
1984
Art.6
11.-(1
) The state authority shall make appropriate provisions for the
realization of a person’s right to work and access to education, the right to receive
assistance from the community at times of old age, sickness or i nfirmity and in
other cases of disability.
(2) Every person has the right to access education, and every citizen shall
be free to pursue education in a field or his choice up to pursue educati on of his
choice to his merit and ability, the highest level according to his merits and abi lity.

(3) Every person has the right to access of education and eve ry citizen
shall be free to pursue education and technique.

PART III
BASIC RIGHTS AND DUTIES

The Right to Equality

Equality of
human beings
Act No.15
of 1984
Art.6
12.-(1) All human beings are born free, and are all equal.
(2) Every person is entitled to recognition and respect for his dignity.

Equality before
the law
13.-(1) All persons are equal before the law and are entitled, wi thout any
discrimination, to protection and equality before the law.
Act No.15
of 1984
Art.6 (2) No law enacted by any authority in the United Republic sha
ll make
any provision that is discriminatory either of itself or in its effect.
Act No.4
of 1992
Art.8 (3) The civic rights, duties and interests of every person and
community
shall be protected and determined by the courts of law or other state agencies
established by or under the law.
Act No.7
of 1994
Art. 8(1)(k) (4) No person shall be discriminated against by any person or an
y
authority acting under any law or in the discharge of the fun ctions or business of
any state office.
Act No.3
of 2000
Art.5 (5) For the purposes of this Article the expression “discrimina
te” means
to satisfy the needs, rights or other requirements of different persons on the basis
of their nationality, tribe, place of origin, political opinion, colour, re ligion, sex or
station in life such that certain categories of people are rega rded as weak or

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inferior and are subjected to restrictions or conditions whereas per sons of other
categories are treated differently or are accorded opportuniti es or advantage
outside the specified conditions or the prescribed necessary qualif ications except
that the word “discrimination” shall not be construed in a manner t hat will
prohibit the Government from taking purposeful steps aimed at rectif ying
disabilities in the society.
(6) To ensure equality before the law, the state authority sh all make
procedures which are appropriate or which take into account the following
principles, namely:
(a) when the rights and duties of any person are being determined by
the court or any other agency, that person shall be entitled to a f air
hearing and to the right of appeal or other legal remedy against the
decision of the court or of the other agency concerned;
(b) no person charged with a criminal offence shall be treate d as guilty
of the offence until proved guilty of that offence;
(c) no person shall be punished for any act which at the time of its
commission was not an offence under the law, and also no penalty
shall be imposed which is heavier than the penalty in force at the
time the offence was committed;
(d) for the purposes of preserving the right or equality of human
beings, human dignity shall be protected in all activities pertai ning
to criminal investigations and process, and in any other matters for
which a person is restrained, or in the execution of a sentence;
(e) no person shall be subjected to torture or inhuman or degrading
punishment or treatment.

The Right to Life

Right to life
Act No.15
of 1984
Art.6
14. Every person has the right to live and to the protection of his lif e by
the society in accordance with the law.

Right to
personal
freedom
Act No.15
of 1984
Art.6
15.-(1) Every person has the right to freedom and to live as a free person.
(2) For the purposes of preserving individual freedom and the right to live
as a free person, no person shall be arrested, imprisoned, confined, de tained,
deported or otherwise be deprived of his freedom save only-
(a) under circumstances and in accordance with procedures presc ribed
by law; or
(b) in the execution of a judgment, order or a sentence given or passed
by the court following a decision in a legal proceeding or a
conviction for a criminal offence.

Right to
privacy and
personal
security
16.-(1) Every person is entitled to respect and protection of his pe rson,
the privacy of his own person, his family and of his matrimonial lif e, and respect
and protection of his residence and private communications.

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Act No.15
of 1984
Art.6 (2) For the purpose of preserving the person’s right in accorda
nce with
this Article, the state authority shall lay down legal proce dures regarding the
circumstances, manner and extent to which the right to privacy, secur ity of his
person, his property and residence may be encroached upon without prejudic e to
the provisions of this Article.

Right to
freedom of
movement
Act No.15
of 1984
17.-(1) Every citizen of the United Republic has the right to f reedom of
movement in the United Republic and the right to live in any part of the United
Republic, to leave and enter the country, and the right not to be forced to leave or
be expelled from the United Republic.
Art.6 (2) Any lawful act or any law which is intended to –
(a) curtail a person’s freedom of movement and to restrain or im prison
him; or
(b) limit a person from exercising his freedom of movement so as to –
(i) execute a judgment or court order; or
(ii) compel a person first to comply with any obligations
arising under another law; or
(iii) protect public interest in general or preserve certai n
special interest or interests of a certain section of the
public,
such act or law shall not be construed or be held to be repugnant t o or
inconsistent with the provisions of this Article.

The Right to Freedom of Conscience

Freedom of
expression
18. Every person –
(a) has a freedom of opinion and expression of his ideas;
(b) has out right to seek, receive and, or disseminate information regardless of national boundaries;
Act No.1
of 2005
Art.6
(c) has the freedom to communicate and a freedom with protection
from interference from his communication;
(d) has a right to be informed at all times of various important e vents
of life and activities of the people and also of issues of importance
to the society.

Right of
freedom of
religion
Act No.15
19.-(1) Every person has the right to the freedom to have conscienc e, or
faith, and choice in matters of religion, including the freedom to chan ge his
religion or faith.
of 1984
Art.6
Act No.4
of 1992
Art.9
Act No.1
of 2005
Art.6 (2) Protection of rights referred to in this Article shall
be in accordance
with the provisions prescribed by the laws which are of importance to a
democratic society for security and peace in the society, integr ity of the society
and the national coercion.

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(3) In this Article reference to the term “religion” shall be construed as
including reference to religious denominations, and cognate expressions shall be
construed accordingly.

Person’s
freedom of
association
Act No.15
of 1984
Art.6
20.-(1) Every person has a freedom, to freely and peaceably ass emble,
associate and cooperate with other persons, and for that purpose, express views
publicly and to form and join with associations or organizations formed for
purposes of preserving or furthering his beliefs or interests or any other intere sts.
Act No.1
of 2005
Art.7 (2) Notwithstanding the provisions of subarticles (1) and (4), it s
hall not
be lawful for any political party to be registered which accordi ng to its
constitution or policy –
(a) aims at promoting or furthering the interests of –
(i) any faith or religious group;
(ii) any tribal group, place of origin, race or gender;
(iii) only a particular area within any part of the United
Republic;
(b) advocates for the break-up of the United Republic;
(c) accepts or advocates for the use of the force or violent
confrontation as means of attaining its political goals;
(d) advocates or intends to carry on its political activities in onl y one
part of the United Republic;
(e) does not permit periodic and democratic election of its leaders.
(3) Parliament may enact legislation which makes provisions for ensuring
that political parties operate within the limits and adhere to the conditions set out
in subarticle (2) concerning the freedom and the right of persons to a ssociate and
assemble.
(4) It shall be unlawful for any person to be compelled to join a ny
association or organization, or for any association or any political party to be
refused registration on grounds solely the ideology or philosophy of that political
party.

Freedom to
participate in
public affairs
Act No.15
of 1984
Art.6
Act No.34
of 1994
Art.4
21.-(1) Subject to the provisions of Article 39, 47 and 67 of this
Constitution and of the laws of the land in connection with the conditions f or
electing and being elected or for appointing and being appointed to ta ke part in
matters related to governance of the country, every citizen of the United Republic
is entitled to take part in matters pertaining to the governanc e of the country,
either directly or through representatives freely elected by the people, in
conformity with the procedures laid down by, or in accordance with, the law.
(2) Every citizen has the right and the freedom to participat e fully in the
process leading to the decision on matters affecting him, his wel l-being or the
nation.

The Right to Work

Right to work 22.-(1) Every person has the right to work.

18
Act No.15
of 1984
Art.6 (2) Every citizen is entitled to equal opportunity and right to e
qual terms
to hold any office or discharge any function under the state authority.

Right to just
remuneration
Act No.15
of 1984
Art.6 23
.-(1) Every person, without discrimination of any kind, is entitled to
remuneration commensurate with his work, and all persons working accordi ng to
their ability shall be remunerated according to the measure and qualification for
the work.
(2) Every person who works is entitled to just remuneration.

Right to own
property
Act No.15
of 1984
Art.6
Act No.1
of 2005
Art.9
24.-(1) Every person is entitled to own property, and has a right t o the
protection of his property held in accordance with the law.
(2) Subject to the provisions of subarticle (1), it shall be unlaw ful for any
person to be deprived of his property for the purposes of nationalization or any
other purposes without the authority of law which makes provision for fai r and
adequate compensation.

Duties to the Society

Duty to
participate in
work
Act No.15
of 1984
Art.6
25.-(1) Work alone creates the material wealth in society, and is the
source of the well-being of
the people and the measure of human dignity.
Accordingly, every person has the duty to – (a) participate responsibly and honestly in lawful and productive work; and
Act No. 7
of 1994
Art.8(1)(k) (b) observe work discipline and strive to attain the individual and
collective production targets desired or set by law.
(2) Notwithstanding the provisions of subarticle (1), there shal l be no
forced labour in the United Republic.
(3) For the purposes of this Article, and in this Constitution gene rally, it
is hereby declared that no work shall be deemed to be forced, cruel or humiliating
labour, if such work is according to law –
(a) work which has to be done pursuant to a judgment or order of a
court;
(b) work which has to be done by members of any Force in the
discharge of their responsibilities;
(c) work which has to be done by any person due to a state of
emergency or any calamity which threatens the life or wel l-being
of the society;
(d) any work or service which forms part of –
(i) routine services for ensuring the well-being of
society;
(ii) compulsory national service in accordance with the
law;

(iii) the national endeavour at the mobilization of human
resources for the enhancement of the society and the

19
national economy and to ensure development and
national productivity.

Duty to abide
by the laws of
the land
26.-(1) Every person has the duty to observe and to abide by this
Constitution and the laws of the United Republic.
Act No.15
of 1984
Art.6 (2) Every person has the right, in accordance with the proc
edure
provided by law, to take legal action to ensure the protection of this Constitution
and the laws of the land.

Duty to
safeguard
public property
Act No.15
27.-(1) Every person has the duty to protect the natural resource s of the
United Republic, the property of the state authority, all property collectively
owned by the people, and also to respect another person’s property.
of 1984
Art.6 (2) All persons shall be required by law to safeguard the pr
operty of the
state authority and all property collectively owned by the people, t o combat all
forms of waste and squander, and to manage the national economy assiduously
with the attitude of people who are masters of the destiny of their nation.

Defence of the
nation
28.-(1) Every citizen has the duty to protect, preserve and maint ain the
independence, sovereignty, territory and unity of the nation.
Act No.15
of 1984 (2) Parliament may enact appropriate laws to enable the peopl
e to serve
in the Forces and in the defence of the nation.
Art.6 (3) No person shall have the right to sign an act of capitula tion and
surrender of the nation to the victor, nor ratify or recognize an ac t of occupation or
division of the United Republic or of any area of the territory of the nation and,
subject to this Constitution and any other laws enacted, no person shall have the
right to prevent the citizens of the United Republic from waging wa r against any
enemy who attacks the nation.
(4) Treason as defined by law shall be the most grave offenc e against the
United Republic. General Provisions

Fundamental
rights and
duties
Act No.15
of 1984
29.-(1) Every person in the United Republic has the right to enjoy
fundamental human rights and to enjoy the benefits accruing from the fulfillment
by every person of this duty to society, as stipulated under Arti cle 12 to 28 of this
Part of this Chapter of the Constitution.
Art.6 (2) Every person in the United Republic has the right to equal protection
under the laws of the United Republic.
(3) A citizen of the United Republic shall not have a right, sta tus or
special position on the basis of his lineage, tradition or descent.
(4) It is hereby prohibited for any law to confer any rig ht, status, or
special position upon any citizen of the United Republic on the basis of lineage,
tradition or descent.
(5) In order that all persons may benefit from the rights and f reedoms
guaranteed by this Constitution, every person has the duty to so conduct him self

20
and his affairs in the manner that does not infringe upon the rights and freedoms
of others or the public interest.

Limitations
upon, and
enforcement
and
preservation of
basic rights,
freedoms and
duties
Act No.15
of 1984
30.-(1) The human rights and freedoms, the principles of which are set
out in this Constitution, shall not be exercised by a person in a manne r that causes
interference with or curtailment of the rights and freedoms of ot her persons or of
the public interest.
(2) It is hereby declared that the provisions contained in this Part of this
Constitution which set out the principles of rights, freedom and duties , does not
render unlawful any existing law or prohibit the enactment of any law or the doing
of any lawful act in accordance with such law for the purposes of-
Art.6
Act No.34
of 1994
Ar.6 (a) ensuring that the rights and freedoms of other people or of the
interests of the public are not prejudiced by the wrongful exerci se
of the freedoms and rights of individuals;
(b) ensuring the defence, public safety, public peace, public moralit y,
public health, rural and urban development planning, the
exploitation and utilization of minerals or the increase and
development of property of any other interests for the purposes of
enhancing the public benefit;
(c) ensuring the execution of a judgment or order of a court given or
made in any civil or criminal matter;
(d) protecting the reputation, rights and freedoms of others or the
privacy of persons involved in any court proceedings, prohibiting
the disclosure of confidential information, or safeguarding the
dignity, authority and independence of the courts;
(e) imposing restrictions, supervising and controlling the formation,
management and activities of private societies and organizations in
the country; or
(f) enabling any other thing to be done which promotes, or preserves
the national interest in general.
(3) Any person claiming that any provision in this Part of t his Chapter or
in any law concerning his right or duty owed to him has been, is bei ng or is likely
to be violated by any person anywhere in the United Republic, may i nstitute
proceedings for redress in the High Court.
(4) Subject to the other provisions of this Constitution, the High C ourt
shall have original jurisdiction to hear and determine any mat ter brought before it
pursuant to this Article; and the state authority may enact legi slation for the
purposes of –
(a) regulating procedure for instituting proceedings pursuant to t his
Article;
(b) specifying the powers of the High Court in relation to the he aring
of proceedings instituted pursuant to this Article;
(c) ensuring the effective exercise of the powers of the High C ourt, the
preservation and enforcement of the rights, freedoms and duties in
accordance with this Constitution.
(5) Where in any proceedings it is alleged that any law e nacted or any

21
action taken by the Government or any other authority abrogates o r abridges any
of the basic rights, freedoms and duties set out in Articles 12 to 29 of this
Constitution, and the High Court is satisfied that the law or acti on concerned, to
the extent that it conflicts with this Constitution, is void, or is inconsistent with
this Constitution, then the High Court, if it deems fit, or if the circumstances or
public interest so requires, instead of declaring that such law or action is void,
shall have power to decide to afford the Government or other authority concerned
an opportunity to rectify the defect found in the law or action conce rned within
such a period and in such manner as the High Court shall determine, and such law
or action shall be deemed to be valid until such time the defect is rectified or the
period determined by the High Court lapses, whichever is the earlier.

Extraordinary Powers of the State Authority

Derogation
from rights and
freedoms
Act No.15
of 1984
Art.6
31.-(1) Apart from the provisions of Article 30(2), any law enacte d by
Parliament shall not be void for the reason only that it enables mea sures to be
taken during a state of emergency or in normal times in relation t o persons who
are believed to engage in activities which endanger or prejudice the security of the
nation, which measures derogate from the provisions of Articles 14 and 15 of this
Constitution.
(2) It is hereby prohibited to take any of the measures refe rred to in
subarticle (1) of this Article in pursuance of any law during a state of emergency
or in normal times in relation to any person, save only to the extent that they are
necessary and justifiable for dealing with the situation that exis ts during the state
of emergency, or in normal times dealing with the situation create d by the conduct
of the person concerned.
(3) It is hereby declared that the provisions of this Arti cle shall not
authorize the deprivation of a person’s right to live save only for de aths resulting
from acts of war.
(4) In this Article and the following Articles of this Par t, “state of
emergency” means any period during which the Proclamation of Stat e of
Emergency made by the President in the exercise of the powers conferred on him
by Article 32, is in force.

Power to
proclaim state
of emergency
Act No.15
32.-(1) Subject to this Constitution or to any law enacted by Parliament in
that behalf, the President may proclaim a state of emergency in the United
Republic or in any part thereof.
of 1984 Art.6; (2) The President may proclaim a state of emergency only if –
Act No.4 of (a) the United Republic is at war; or
1992 Art.11 (b) there is a real danger that the United Republic is about to be
invaded and to be in a state of war; or
(c) there is actual situation of breakdown of public order or non-
existence of public security in the Untied Republic or in any par t
thereof such that it is necessary to take extraordinary measu res to
restore order and security; or
(d) there is a clear and grave danger such that the breakdown of public

22
order and the cessation of public safety in the Untied Republic or
any part thereof are inescapable except by invoking the
extraordinary powers; or
(e) there is imminent occurrence of danger, disaster or environmenta l
calamity which threatens the society or part thereof in the Uni ted
Republic; or
(f) there is some kind of danger which clearly constitutes a thre at to
the state.
(3) In the event a state of emergency is proclaimed in rel ation to the
whole of the United Republic, or to the whole of Mainland Tanzania or the whole
of Tanzania Zanzibar, the President shall forthwith transmit a cop y of the
proclamation to the Speaker of the National Assembly who, after c onsultation
with the Leader of Government Business in the National Assembly s hall convene
a meting of the National Assembly within not more than fourteen d ays, to
consider the situation and decide, whether to pass or not to pass a res olution,
which has to be supported by the votes of not less than two thirds of all members,
in support of the proclamation of a state of emergency issued by the President.
(4) Parliament may enact a law providing times and procedur es which
will enable certain persons in charge of Government functions in s pecified areas
of the United Republic to request the President to exercise the powers conferred
on him by this Article in relation to any of those areas where there exists any of
the situations specified in paragraphs (c), (d) and (e) of subartic le (2) and such
situation does not extend beyond the boundaries of such areas, and also for the
purpose of specifying the exercise of executive powers during a s tate of
emergency.
(5) A proclamation issued by the President pursuant to this Arti cle shall
cease to have effect –
(a) if it is revoked by the President;
(b) if fourteen days from the date of the proclamation have lapsed
without there being passed the resolution referred to in subarticle
(3);
(c) after the lapse of a period of six months from the date of the
proclamation; save that a sitting of the National Assembly may,
before the expiration of the period of six months, extend from time
to time the period of the operation of the proclamation for further
periods of six months by a resolution passed by votes of not less
than two-thirds of all the members present;
(d) at any time when a meeting of the National Assembly revoke s the
proclamation by a resolution supported by votes of not less than
two-thirds of all the members.
(6) For the avoidance of doubt in the interpretation or application of t he
provisions of this Article, the provisions of legislation enacted by P arliament and
of any other law, concerning the proclamation of a state of emerge ncy as provided
for in this Article shall apply only to the part of the United Re public in respect of
which the state of emergency has been proclaimed.

23
CHAPTER TWO
THE EXECUTIVE OF THE UNITED REPUBLIC

PART I
THE PRESIDENT

President of the
United
Republic
Act No.15
of 1984
Art.9
33.-(1) There shall be a President of the United Republic.
(2) The President shall be the Head of State, the Head of Governme nt and
the Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces.

The
Government of
the United
Republic
authority
Act No.15
of 1984
34.-(1) There shall be a Government of the United Republic which sha ll
have authority over all Union Matters in the United Republic and over a ll other
matters concerning Mainland Tanzania.
(2) The authority of the Government of the United Republic shall r elate
to the implementation and upholding of this Constitution and also to all othe r
matters over which Parliament has power to legislate.
Art.9 (3) All the authority of the Government of the United Republic over all
Union Matters in the United Republic and also over all other matte rs concerning
mainland Tanzania shall vest in the President of the United Republic.
(4) Subject to the other provisions of this Constitution, the authority of
the Government of the United Republic shall be exercised by either the President
himself or by delegation of such authority to other persons holding offi ce in the
service of the United Republic.
(5) It is hereby declared that the provisions of this Articl e shall not be
construed as –
(a) transferring to the President any powers which by the law have
been conferred to another person or authority other than the
President; or
(b) preventing Parliament from conferring power upon any person or
authority other than the President.

Discharge of
the business of
the
Government
35.-(1) All Executive functions of the Government of the United
Republic of Tanzania discharged by officers of the Government shall be so done
on behalf of the President.
Act No.15
of 1984
Art.9 (2) Orders and other directives issued for the purposes of this A
rticle
shall be signified in such manner as may be specified in reg ulations issued by the
President in conformity with the provisions of this Constitution.

Authority to
constitute
offices and to
appoint
36.-(1) Subject to the other provisions of this Constitution and of any
other law, the President shall have authority to constitute and to abol ish any office
in the service of the Government of the United Republic.

24
officers
Act No.15
of 1984
Art.9
Act No.3
of 2000
Art.6 (2) The President shall have the authority to appoint persons to hold
positions of leadership responsible for formulating policies for depar
tments and
institutions of the Government, and the Chief Executives who are responsi ble for
supervision of the implementation of those department’s and institution’s policies
in the Service of the Government of the United Republic, in this Consti tution or in
various laws enacted by the Parliament, which are required to be filled by a
appointment made by the President.
(3) Subject to the provisions of subarticle (2), other conditions contai ned
in this Constitution and any other relevant law, the authority for appoi ntment of
other persons who are not leaders or chief executives, to hold positions in the
service of the Government of the United Republic, and also the authori ty for
promoting such persons, to remove them from the office, to terminate the ir
employment and the authority to regulate their discipline of persons who are given
that authority, shall vest in the Service Commissions and given aut hority in
respect with positions of authority pursuant to this Constitution or in accordance
within any law concerned.
(4) The provisions of subarticles (2) and (3) shall not be construed to
prohibit the President to take steps of maintaining discipline of the public servants
and the public service of the Government of the United Republic.

Discharge of
duties and
function of
President
Act No. 15
of 1984
Art.9;
37.-(1) Apart from complying with the provisions contained in this
Constitution, and the laws of the United Republic in the performance of his duties
and functions, the President shall be free and shall not be obliged to t ake advice
given to him by any person, save where he is required by this Cons titution or any
other law to act in accordance with the advice given to him by an y person or
authority.
Act No.4
of 1992
Art.12;
Act No.34
of 1994
Art.6;
Act. No.1
of 2005
Art.9;
G.N.No.133
of 2001;
G.N.No.150
of 2005 (2) Where the Cabinet finds that the President is unable to dis
charge the
functions of his office by reason of physical or mental infirmity, it may submit to
the Chief Justice a resolution requesting him to certify that the President by reason
of physical or mental infirmity, is unable to discharge the funct ions of his office.
Upon receiving such a resolution, the Chief Justice shall appoint a medi cal board
of not less than three persons from amongst experts recognized as such by the law
governing medical practitioners in Tanzania and such board shall inquir e into that
issue and advise the Chief Justice accordingly, and he may, after c onsidering the
medical evidence, present to the Speaker a certificate cert ifying that the President,
due to physical or mental infirmity, is unable to discharge the fu nctions of his
office; and if the Chief Justice does not rescind that certifica te within seven days
for the reason that the President’s condition has improved and he has res umed
work, then it shall be deemed that the office of the President is vacant, and the
provisions contained in subarticle (3) shall apply.
(3) Where the President is absent from the United Republic, or is unable
to discharge the functions of his office for any other reason, the duties and
functions of the President shall be discharged by one of the following, in the order
specified, that is to say –
(a) the Vice President or, if his office is vacant or if he is also absent or
is ill; then

25

(b) the Prime Minister.
(4) Where the Prime Minister is discharging the duties and f unctions of
the office of President by reason that the Vice President i s absent, then the Prime
Minister shall cease to discharge such duties and functions if any of the following
events occurs first –
(a) the President returns in the United Republic or, his condition
improves and reassumes the discharge of the duties and functions
of the President; or
(b) the Vice President returns in the United Republic.
(5) Where the office of President becomes vacant by reason of death
resignation, loss of electoral qualifications or inability to per form his functions
due to physical infirmity, or failure to discharge the duties and f unctions of the
office of President, then the Vice-President shall be sworn in a nd become the
President for the unexpired period of the term of five years and in a ccordance with
the conditions set out in Article 40, and, after consultation with the political party
to which he belongs, the President shall propose the name of the person who shall
be Vice-President and such appointment shall be confirmed by the Nat ional
Assembly by votes of not less than fifty percentum of all the Members of
Parliament.
(6) It is hereby declared that the office of the Preside nt shall not be
deemed to be vacant and the President shall not be deemed to be absent from the
United Republic or is unable to discharge his duties if he is-
(a) absent from the town which is the seat of Government of the
United Republic;
(b) he is absent from the United Republic for a period of twenty four
hours; or
(c) he is ill but hopes to be better after a short period.
(7) Where any of the situations specified in subarticle (6) occurs, and the
President deems it appropriate to delegate his powers for the durat ion of any such
situation, then he may give directions in writing for the appointment of any of the
persons mentioned in paragraph (a) or (b) of subarticle (3) of this Article for the
purposes of discharging the functions of the office of President and the person so
appointed shall discharge those functions of the office of President in a ccordance
with the terms specified by the President; save that the t erms specified in this
Article shall be understood to derogate or prejudice the power of the President
under any other law to diminish his functions to any other person in a ccordance
with any other law.
(8) The President may direct in writing, if in his opinion it i s desirable so,
to do, any Minister to discharge any functions of President as ma y be specified
and the Minister so directed shall by virtue of the provisions of thi s subarticle
have the power to discharge those functions in accordance with any di rections
given by President, notwithstanding the provisions of any other law:
Provided that-
(a) the President shall not have authority to delegate to a Minis ter in
accordance with the provisions of this subarticle any function of
President conferred on him by any law arising from the terms of

26
any treaty to which the United Republic is a party if by law the
President is not authorised to delegate such function to any other
person;
(b) it is hereby declared that directions given by the Preside nt under
the provisions of this subarticle directing any Minister to dis charge
any function of President shall not be deemed to prevent the
President from discharging such function himself.
(9) For the purposes of clarity of the provisions of this Article –
(a) a Cabinet meeting held for the purpose of submitting to the Chie f
Justice a resolution concerning the state of health of the President
shall be valid notwithstanding that any member of the Cabinet is
absent or that his position is vacant and it shall be deemed that t he
Cabinet has passed that resolution as long as it is supported by the
majority vote of members attending and voting;
(b) the President shall not be taken as being absent from the Unit ed
Republic by reason only of the fact that he is in passage from one
part of Tanzania to another through a foreign country, or for the
reason that he has given directions in accordance with the
provisions of subarticle (7) and those directions have not been
rescinded.
(10) Notwithstanding the preceding provisions of this Article, a per son
discharging the functions of President under this Article shall not have power to
dissolve Parliament, to remove any of the Ministers from office or to revoke any
appointment made by the President.
(11) If any person discharging the functions of President in acco rdance
with the provisions of this Article is a Member of Parliament , he shall not forfeit
his seat in the National Assembly or be disqualified for electi on as Member of
Parliament by reason only of his discharging those functions of President.

Election of
President
Act No.14
of 1979
Art.3;
38.-(1) The President shall be elected by the citizen in accor dance with
the provisions of this Constitution and in accordance with the law enact ed by
Parliament pursuant to the provisions of this Constitution, making provisions
concerning the election of the President.
Act No.15
of 1984
Art.9
Act No.20
of 1992
Art.5 (2) Subject to the other provisions of this Constitution, the offic
e of
President shall be vacant and the election of the President shall be held or that
vacancy shall be filled otherwise in accordance with this Consti tution, as the case
may be, upon the occurrence of any of the following events –
Act No.34 (a) the dissolution of Parliament;
of 1994 (b) the resignation of the President without first dissolving Parliament;
Art.7 (c) the disqualification of the President from holding elective office;
G.N.No.133
of 2001 (d) the removal of President from office following his impeachment
by
the National Assembly in accordance with this Constitution;
(e) certification pursuant to the provisions of Article 37 of this
Constitution that the President is unable to discharge the function
of his office;

27

(f) the death of the President.
(3) The office of President shall not be deemed to be vacant by reason
only that the National Assembly has passed a motion of no confidence in the
Prime Minister.

Qualifications
for election as
President
39.-(1) A person shall not be entitled to be elected to hold the offic e of
President of the United Republic save only if –
(a) he is a citizen of the United Republic by birth in accordanc e with
the citizenship law;
(b) he has attained the age of forty years;
(c) he is a member of, and a candidate nominated by, a political party;
(d) he is qualified to be a Member of Parliament or a Member of the
House of Representatives;
Act No.15
of 1984
Art.9
Act No.4
of 1992
Art.13;
Act No.34
of 1994
Art.8
Act No.3 of
2000
Art.7
(e) within the period of five years before the General Election
s, he has
not been convicted by any court for any offence relating to eva sion
to pay any tax due to the Government.
(2) Without prejudice to any person’s right and freedom of expr ession to
hold his own views, to profess a religious faith of his choice, to ass ociate with
others and to participate with others in community work in accordanc e with the
laws of the land, no person shall be qualified to be elected to hold the office of
President of the United Republic unless he is a member of, and a c andidate
proposed by, a political party.

Eligibility for
re-election
Act No.15
of 1984
Art.9
40.-(1) Subject to the other provisions of this Article, any person w ho
holds office as President shall be eligible for re-election to that office.
(2) No person shall be elected more than twice to hold the office of
President.
Act No.34
of 1994
Art.9 (3) A person who has been President of Zanzibar shall not be di
squalified
from being elected President of the United Republic for the reas on only for he has
once held office as President of Zanzibar.
(4) Where the Vice-President holds the office of President in accordance
with the provisions of Article 37(5) for less than three years, he s hall be eligible to
contest for the office of President for two terms, but where he occ upies the office
of President for three years or more, he shall be eligible to cont est for the office of
President for one term only.

Procedures for
the election of
President
Act No.20
of 1992
Art.5
Act No.34
of 1994
Art.10
41.-(1) Where Parliament has been dissolved or where any of the events
specified in subarticle (2) of Article 38 has occurred and i t becomes necessary to
hold an election of the President, every political party wishing to participate in the
election of President shall submit to the Electoral Commission, in accordance with
the law, the name of one of its members whom it proposes as a c andidate to
contest the election for the President of the United Republic and the name of
another member of the party whom it proposes for the office of Vice-President.
(2) The names of the candidates proposed for the Presidential ele ction

28
shall be submitted to the Electoral Commission on a date and time appointed in
accordance with a law enacted by Parliament, and a person shall not be validly
nominated save only if his nomination is supported by such number of voters and
in such manner as shall be prescribed by an Act of Parliament.
(3) Where on the date and time appointed for the purpose of submission
of the names of the candidates, only the name of one candidate is val idly
submitted, the Electoral Commission shall nominate that candidate a nd present
such candidate’s name to the electorate who shall vote either for or against him in
accordance with the provisions of this Article and an Act enacted by Parliame nt.
(4) The election of the President of the Untied Republic shall be held on a
date to be appointed by the Electoral Commission in accordance with an Act of
Parliament.
(5) All other matters concerning the procedures for the elec tion of the
President, shall be as provided for in a law enacted by Parliament in that behalf .
(6) Any presidential candidate shall be declared duly electe d President
only if he has obtained majority of votes.
(7) When a candidate is declared by the Electoral Commissi on to have
been duly elected in accordance with this Article, then no court of la w shall have
any jurisdiction to inquire into the election of that candidate.

Time of
assumption and
term of office
of President
42.-(1) The President elect shall assume office of President a s soon as
possible after it is declared that he has been elected President , but in any event he
shall assume office before the expiration of not more than seven days.
Act No. 15
of 1984
Art.9 (2) Unless he sooner resigns or dies, the President shall, subject
to sub
article (3), hold office of President for a period of five yea rs from the date on
which he was elected.
(3) A person elected President shall hold the office of President until –
(a) the day his successor in office takes the oath of office;
(b) the day he dies while in office;
(c) the day he resigns from office; or
(d) he ceases to hold the office of President in accordance with the
provisions of this Constitution.
(4) If the United Republic is at war and the President consi ders that it is
not practicable to hold elections, the National Assembly may, pass a resolution
extending the period of five years specified in subarticle (2) of t his Article save
that no such extension shall exceed a period of six months at any one time.
(5) Every President elect and every person assuming the offic e of
President shall, before assuming the functions of the Office of Pre sident, take and
subscribe, in the presence of the Chief Justice of the United Republic , oath of
allegiance and such other oath relating to the execution of the functions of the
office of President as may be prescribed by an Act of Parliament.

Terms of office
of President
Act No.15
of 1984
Art.9
43.-(1) The President shall be paid such salary and other remuneration ,
and on retirement he shall receive such pension, gratuity or allowanc es as may be
determined by the National Assembly, and the salary, other benefits , pension and
gratuity shall be charged on the Consolidated Fund of the United Republic and

29
shall be paid in accordance with the provisions of this Article.
(2) The salary and all other payments due to the President shal l not be
reduced while he is in office in accordance with the provisions of t his
Constitution.

Power to
declare war
Act No.15
of 1984
44.-(1) Subject to this Constitution or to any Act of Parliament provi ding
in that behalf, the President may declare the existence of a state of war between
the United Republic and any other country.
Art.9;
Act No.4
of 1992
Art.14 (2) After making the declaration, the President shall transm
it a copy of
such declaration to the Speaker of the National Assembly who, after consultation
with the Leader of Government Business in the National Assembly, s hall within
fourteen days from the date of the declaration, convene a meeting of the National
Assembly to deliberate on the prevailing situation and to consider whether or not
to pass a resolution in support of the declaration of war made by the President.

Prerogative of
mercy
Act No.15
of 1984
Art.9
45.-(1) Subject to the other provisions contained in this Article, the
President may do any of the following: (a) grant a pardon to any person convicted by a court of law of an y
offence, and he may subject to law grant such pardon
unconditionally or on conditions;
(b) grant any person a respite, either indefinitely or for a s pecified
period, of the execution of any punishment imposed on that person
for any offence;
(c) substitute a less severe form of punishment for any punishment
imposed on any person for any offence; and
(d) remit the whole or part of any punishment imposed on any person
for any offence, or remit the whole or part of any penalty of f ine or
forfeiture of property belonging to a convicted person which would
otherwise be due to the Government of the United Republic on
account of any offence.
(2) Parliament may enact law making provisions for the procedur e to be
followed by the President in the exercise of his powers under this Article.
(3) The provisions of this Article shall apply to persons convicted and
punished in Tanzania Zanzibar and to punishments imposed in Tanzania Zanziba r
under law enacted by Parliament which applies to Tanzania Zanzibar , likewise
such provisions shall apply to persons convicted and punished in Mainland
Tanzania in accordance with law.

Immunity from
criminal and
civil
proceedings
46.-(1) During the President’s tenure of office in accordance wit h this
Constitution it shall be prohibited to institute or continue in court any criminal
proceedings whatsoever against him.
Act No.15
of 1984
Art.9
Act No.20
Of 1992
Art.7 (2) During the President’s tenure of office in accordance this

Constitution, no civil proceedings against him shall be instituted in c ourt in
respect of anything done or not done, or purporting to have been done or not done,
by him in his personal capacity as an ordinary citizen whether b efore or after he
assumed the office of President, unless at least thirty days before the proceedings

30
are instituted in court, notice of claim in writing has been de livered to him or sent
to him pursuant to the procedure prescribed by an Act of Parliament, stating the
nature of such proceedings, the cause of action, the name, residential address of
the claimant and the relief which he claims.
(3) Except where he ceases to hold the office of President purs uant to the
provisions of Article 46A(10) it shall be prohibited to institute in court criminal or
civil proceedings whatsoever against a person who was holding the office of
President after he ceases to hold such office for anything he did in his capacity as
President while he held the office of President in accordance wit h this
Constitution.

Impeachment
by the National
Assembly
Act No.20
46A.-(1) Notwithstanding the provisions of Article 46 of this Constitution,
the National Assembly may pass a resolution to remove the Preside nt from office
if a motion to impeach the President is moved and passed in accordance with the
provisions of this Article.
of 1992
Art.8
Act No.12
of 1995
Art.4 (2) Subject to the other provisions of this Article, no motion to im
peach
the President shall be moved save only if it is alleged that the President has – (a) committed acts which generally violate Constitution or la w
concerning ethics of public leaders;
(b) committed acts which contravene the conditions concerning the
registration of political parties specified in Article 20(2) of this
Constitution;
(c) conducted himself in a manner which lowers the esteem of the
office of President of the United Republic,
and no such motion shall be moved within twenty months from the time whe n a
similar motion was previously moved and rejected by the National Assembly.
(3) The National Assembly shall not pass a motion to impeach t he
President save only if –
(a) a written notice signed and supported by not less the twenty pe r
cent of all member of Parliament is submitted to the Speaker t hirty
days prior to the sitting at which such motion is intended to be
moved in the National Assembly, specifying the wrong committed
by the President and proposing that a Special Committee of Inquiry
be Constituted to inquire into the charges brought against the
President.
(b) at any time after the Speaker receives the notice duly s igned by the
Member of Parliament and satisfies himself that the provisions of
the Constitution for the moving of the motion have been complied
with, to vote on the motion to constitute a Special Committee of
Inquiry, and if it is supported by not less than two thirds of all t he
Member of Parliament, the Speaker shall announce the names of
the member of the Special Committee of Inquiry.
(4) The Special Committee of Inquiry for the purpose of this Art icle shall
consist of the following members, that is to say –
(a) the Chief Justice of the United Republic who shall be the
Chairman;

31

(b) the Chief Justice of Tanzania Zanzibar; and
(c) seven members appointed by the Speaker in accordance with the
Standing Orders of the National Assembly and taking into account
the proportional representation amongst the political parties
represented in the National Assembly.
(5) In the event that the National Assembly passes the motion to
constitute a Special Committee of Inquiry, the President shall be deemed to be out
of office, and the duties and functions of the office of President shal l be
discharged in accordance with the provisions of Article 37(3) of this Constitution
until the Speaker shall inform the President about the resolution of the National
Assembly in connection with the charges brought against him.
(6) Within seven days after the Special Committee of Inquiry is
constituted, it shall sit, inquire into and analyse the charges prefe rred against the
President, including and affording the President an opportunity to be hea rd in
accordance with the procedure prescribed by the Standing Orders of t he National
Assembly.
(7) As soon as possible and in any event within a period of not more than
ninety days, the Special Committee of Inquiry shall submit its re port to the
Speaker.
(8) After the Speaker has received the report of the Specia l Committee of
Inquiry, the report shall be tabled before the National Assembly in accordance
with the procedure prescribed by the Standing Orders of the National Assembly.
(9) After the report of the Special Committee of Inquiry is submitted
pursuant to subarticle (8) the National Assembly shall debate the r eport and afford
the President the opportunity to be heard and by votes of not less tha n two thirds
majority of all the Members of Parliament, the National Assem bly shall pass a
resolution that either the charges against the President have been proved and that
he is unworthy of continuing to hold the office of President, or the c harges have
not been proved.
(10) In the event the National Assembly passes a resolution tha t the
charges against the President have been proved and that he is unwort hy of
continuing to hold the office of President, the Speaker shall inform the President
and the Chairman of the Electoral Commission about the resolution wher eupon
the President shall be obliged to resign before the expiry of three days from the
day the National Assembly passed the resolution.
(11) In the event the President ceases to hold the office of Pr esident by
reason of the charges against him being proved he shall not be entitled to receive
any payment by way of pension or to receive any benefits.

Duty of
principal
leaders of
organs with
executive
power to
preserve Union
Act No.12
of 1995
46B.-(1) Without prejudice to the duty of every citizen which is
stipulated in Article 28 of this Constitution, the principal executi ve leaders of the
organs vested with executive powers in the United Republic mentioned in Article
4 of this Constitution shall, each one of them in the exercise of the powers
conferred by this Constitution or the Constitution of Zanzibar 1984 have t he duty
to ensure that he protects, strengthens and preserves the unity of the United
Republic.

32
Art.5
(2) For the purposes of the provisions of subarticle (1), each of the
principal leaders of the organs vested with executive powers of t he United
Republic shall, before assuming office in accordance with this Const itution, take
oath to defend and preserve the unity of the United Republic in accord ance with
this Constitution.
(3) The principal leaders to whom the provisions of this Article apply are:
(a) the President of the United Republic;
(b) the Vice-President of the United Republic;
(c) the President of Zanzibar; and
(d) the Prime Minister of the United Republic.

PART II
VICE-PRESIDENT

Vice-President
his duties and
powers
Act No.34
of 1994
Art.11;
Act No.3
47.-(1) There shall be a Vice-President, who shall be the princi pal
assistant to the President in respect of all the matters in the United Republic
generally and, in particular shall – (a) assist the President in making a follow-up on the day-to-day implementation of Union Matters;
(b) perform all duties assigned to him by the President; and
of 2000
Art.9 (c) perform all duties and functions of the office of President w
hen the
President is out of office or out of the country.
(2) Without prejudice to the provisions of Article 37(5), the Vice-
President shall be elected in the same election together with the President, after
being nominated by his party at the same time as the Presidenti al candidate and
being voted for together on the same ticket. When the Presidential c andidate is
elected the Vice-President shall have been elected.
(3) A person shall be nominated to contest for the office of Vic e-
President on the basis of the principle that where the President of the Untied
Republic hails from one part of the United Republic, then the Vice-Pr esident shall
be a person who hails from the other part of the Union.
(4) A person shall not be nominated to contest for the office of Vi ce-
President of the United Republic, save only if –
(a) he is a citizen of the United Republic by birth in accordanc e with
the citizenship law;
(b) he has attained the age of forty;
(c) he is a member of, and a candidate nominated by, a political pa rty;
and
(d) he is qualified to be a Member of Parliament or a Member of the
House of Representatives.
(e) within the period of five years before the elections he has not been
convicted by any court for any offence relating to evasion to pay
any tax due to the Government.
(5) Any party shall not be prohibited from nominating any person to
contest for the office of Vice-President for the reason only that such person is at
that time holding the office of President of Zanzibar or the offic e of Prime

33
Minister of the United Republic.
(6) The Vice-President shall not at the same time be a Me mber of
Parliament, Prime Minister of the United Republic, or President of Zanzibar.
(7) Where a person who is Prime Minister, or President of Zanz ibar is
appointed or elected to be Vice-President of the United Republic he shall cease to
hold the office of Prime Minister or President of Zanzibar, as the case may be.
(8) The Vice-President shall perform his duties under the direc tion and
supervision of the President and shall provide leadership and be answerable to the
President in respect of any matters or functions assigned to him by the Pres ident.

Time of
assumption of
office of the
Vice-President
Act No.34
of 1994
Art.11
48.-(1) The Vice-President shall assume the office of Vice-Pr esident on
the same day the President assumes office.
(2) The Vice-President appointed in accordance with Article 50(4) shall
take oath and assume office after his appointment is confirmed by the National
Assembly.

Oath of office
of the Vice-
President
Act No.34
of 1994
Art.11
49. The Vice-President shall, before assuming office, make and subsc ribe
before the Chief Justice of the United Republic the oath of allegia nce and such
other oath relating to the execution of the functions of his office a s may be
prescribed by an Act of Parliament.

Tenure of
office of Vice-
President
Act No.15
of 1984
Art.9
Act No.34
of 1994
Art.11
Act No.12
of 1995
Art.6
Act No.3
50.-(1) Unless he sooner resigns or dies, a person elected or appointe d in
accordance with Article 37(5), to be Vice-President, shall, subject to the other
provisions of this Article, hold office for a period of five years f rom the day he is
elected Vice-President.
(2) The Vice-President shall hold office until – (a) his tenure of office expires;
(b) he dies while in office;
(c) he resigns;
(d) he is sworn in as President after the office of President falls vacant;
(e) he is convicted of any criminal offence disclosing lack of honesty
or loyalty;
of 2000
Art.10;
G.N.No.133
of 2001 (f) when another President is sworn in to hold the office of Pres
ident
together with his Vice-President;
(g) he is removed from office following his impeachment by the National Assembly in accordance with the provisions of subarticle
(3) of this Article;
(h) he otherwise ceases to hold the office of Vice-President i n
accordance with the provisions of this Constitution.
(3) The National Assembly shall have the same power to remove the
Vice-President from office as it has in relation to the Presi dent save that any
motion to impeach the Vice-President shall be moved before the Nati onal
Assembly only if it is alleged that –
(a) the President has submitted a certificate to the Speaker s tating that
the Vice-President has ceased or failed to discharge the duties and

34
functions of the office of Vice-President;
(b) he has committed acts which generally violate the Constituti on or
the law concerning the ethics of public leaders;
(c) he has committed acts which contravene the conditions concerning
the registration of political parties specified in Article 20(2) of the
Constitution;
(d) he has conducted himself in a manner that lowers the esteem of the
office of President of the United Republic or the office of Vic e-
President,
and no such motion shall be moved within twelve months from the time when a
similar motion was previously moved and rejected by the National Assembly.
(4) In the event that the office of Vice-President is vacant pursuant to the
relevant provisions subarticle (2) or (3) of this Article as soon as possible and in
any case within a period not exceeding fourteen days after the V ice-President has
ceased to hold his office, the President shall appoint a person who shall be the
Vice-President and such appointment shall be confirmed by the National
Assembly by a majority vote of the Members of Parliament.
(5) All other provisions of Article 46A of the Constitution shall apply
also in relation to the Vice-President save only that a Vice-Pr esident who has been
removed from office under subarticle (3) shall no longer qualify to hold the office
of the President, Vice President, Prime Minister or President of Zanzibar.

PART III
PRIME MINISTER, CABINET AND THE GOVERNMENT
PRIME MINISTER

Prime Minister
of the United
Republic
Act No.20
of 1992
51.-(1) There shall be a Prime Minister of the United Republic who shall
be appointed by the President in accordance with the provisions of this Article and
who, before assuming his office, shall take and subscribe before the P resident
such oath of office of Prime Minister as may be prescribed by Parliament.
Art.9 (2) As soon as possible, and in any case within fourteen days af ter
assuming office, the President shall appoint a Member of Parliame nt elected from
a constituency from a political party having a majority of m
embers in the National
Assembly or, if no political party has a majority, who appears to have the support
of the majority of the Members of Parliament, to be Prime Mini ster of the United
Republic, and he shall not assume office until his appointment is first confirmed
by a resolution of the National Assembly supported by a majority vote of the
Members.
(3) Subject to the other provisions of this Constitution, the Prime Minister
shall hold the office of Prime Minister the day –
(a) the President-elect takes the oath of office;
(b) he dies while in office;
(c) he resigns;
(d) the President appoints another Member of Parliament to hold the
office of the Prime Minister;

35

(e) he ceases to hold the office of Prime Minister in accorda nce with
the other provisions of this Constitution.

Functions and
authority of the
Prime Minister
Act No.15
of 1984
Art.9
52.-(1) The Prime Minister shall have authority over the control,
supervision and execution of the day-to-day functions and affairs of the
Government of the United Republic.
(2) The Prime Minister shall be the Leader of Government busines s in the
National Assembly.
(3) In the exercise of his authority, the Prime Minister shall perform or
cause to be performed any matter or matters which the Presi dent directs to be
done.

Accountability
of the
Executive
53.-(1) Subject to the provisions of this Constitution, the Prime Minis ter
shall be accountable to the President for the exercise of his authority.
Act No.15
of 1984
Art.9 (2) The Executive of the United Republic, under the authority of
the
President, shall be the organ having the power to determine the policy of the
Government in general, and Ministers under the leadership of the P rime Minister,
shall be collectively responsible in the National Assembly for t he execution of the
affairs of the Government of the United Republic.

Vote of no
confidence
Act No.20
of 1992
Art.10
53A.-(1) Notwithstanding the provisions of Article 51 of this
Constitution, the National Assembly may pass a vote of no confidence in the
Prime Minister if a motion in that behalf is moved and passed i n accordance with
the provisions of this Article.
Act No.12
of 1995
Art.7 (2) Subject to the other provisions of this Article, any motion f
or a vote
of no confidence in the Prime Minister shall not be moved in the Nationa l
Assembly if –
(a) either it has no relation with the discharge of the responsibi lities of
the Prime Minister in accordance with Article 52 of the
Constitution or there are no allegations that the Prime Minister has
contravened the law concerning the ethics of public leaders;
(b) six months have not lapsed since he was appointed;
(c) nine months have not lapsed since a similar motion was moved in
and rejected by the National Assembly.
(3) A motion for a vote of no confidence in the Prime Minister sha ll not
be passed by the National Assembly save only if –
(a) a written notice, signed and supported by not less than twenty
percentum of all the Members of Parliament is submitted to the
Speaker, at least fourteen days prior to the day on which the motion
is intended to be moved before the National Assembly;
(b) the Speaker satisfies himself that the provisions of this Const itution
governing the moving of the motion have been complied with.
(4) A motion which satisfies the provisions of the Article shal l be moved
before the National Assembly as soon as possible in accordance wi th the Standing
Orders of the National Assembly.
(5) A motion for a vote of no confidence in the Prime Minister s hall be

36
passed only if it is supported by a majority of the Members of Parliament.
(6) In the event the motion for a vote of no confidence in the Pri me
Minister is supported by a majority of the Members of Parliam ent, the Speaker
shall submit that resolution to the President, and as soon as possible and in any
case within two days from the day the National Assembly passe s the vote of no
confidence in the Prime Minister, the Prime Minister shall be r equired to resign,
and the President shall appoint another Member of Parliament to be Prime
Minister.

Cabinet and Government
54.-(1) There shall be a Cabinet the members of which shall be the Vice-
President, the Prime Minister the President of Zanzibar, and all the Ministe rs.
(2) The President shall attend the meetings of the Cabinet a nd shall
preside over those meetings. In the event the President is absent, the meetings
shall be presided over by the Vice-President, and if both President and the Vice-
President are absent, the Prime Minister shall preside over the meetings.
Cabinet
Act No.15
of 1984
Art.9
Act No.4
of 1992
Art.15
Act No.34
of 1994
Art.12
(3) Subject to the provisions contained in Article 37(1) of this
Constitution, the Cabinet shall be the principal organ for advising the
President
regarding all matters concerning the exercise of his powers in accordance with the
provisions of this Constitution, and it shall assist and advise the President over any
matter which shall be submitted to the Cabinet pursuant to specific or general
directions issued by the President.
(4) The Attorney General shall attend all the meetings of t he Cabinet and
shall have all the rights of a member of those meetings save that he shall not have
the right to vote at such meetings.
(5) The question whether any advice, and if so, what advice was given by
the Cabinet to the President, shall not be inquired into any court.
55.-(1) All Ministers who are members of Cabinet by virtue of Article 54
shall be appointed by the President after consultation with the Prim e Minister and
they shall be responsible for such offices as the President may, f rom time to time,
by writing under his hand and the Public Seal, establish.
Appointment
of Ministers
and Deputy
Ministers
Act No.15
of 1984
Art.9
(2) In addition to the Ministers referred to in subarticle (1)
the President
may, after consultation with the Prime Minister, appoint Deputy Mini sters. All
Deputy Ministers shall not be members of Cabinet.
(3) The President may appoint any number of Deputy Ministers who shall
assist Ministers in the discharge of their duties and functions.
(4) All Ministers and Deputy Ministers shall be appointed fr om among
Members of Parliament.
(5) Notwithstanding the provisions of subarticle (4), in the event tha t the
President is obliged to appoint a Minister or a Deputy Minister af ter dissolution of
Parliament then he may appoint any person who was a Member of Par liament
before Parliament was dissolved.

Oath of office
of Ministers
56. A Minister or a Deputy Minister shall not assume office until he has

37
and Deputy
Ministers
Act No.15
of 1984
Art.9 first taken and subscribed before the President, the oath of allegianc
e and such
other oath relating to the execution of the functions of his office a s may be
prescribed by an Act of Parliament.

Tenure of
office of
Ministers and
Deputy
Ministers
57.-(1) The tenure of office of a Minister, or a Deputy Minister shall
commence on the date he is appointed to hold that office.
(2) The Office of a Minister or a Deputy Minister shall b ecome vacant
upon the occurrence of any of the following:
(a) if the incumbent resigns or dies;
(b) where the incumbent ceases to be a Member of Parliament fo r any
reason not connected with the dissolution of Parliament;
(c) where the President revokes the appointment thereby removing t he
incumbent from office;
(d) where he is elected Speaker;
(e) where the Prime Minister resigns or his office becomes vacant for
any other reasons;
Act No.15
of 1984
Art.9;
Act No.20
of 1992
Art.9;
Act No.20
of 1992
Art.11
Act No.12
of 1995
(f) immediately before the President elect assumes office;
Art.8 (g) where the Ethics Tribunal makes a decision confirming that he ha s
contravened the law concerning ethics of public leaders.

Terms of office
of Ministers
and Deputy
Ministers
Act No.15
of 1984
Art.9
58. Ministers and Deputy Ministers shall hold office during the pleasure
of the President, and shall be paid a salary, allowances and other re muneration in
accordance with a law enacted by Parliament.

Attorney
General for the
Government of
the United
Republic
59.-(1) There shall be the Attorney General for the Government of the
United Republic, who in the subsequent Articles of this Constitution, sha ll simply
be referred to as the “Attorney-General” who shall be appointed by the President.
(2) The Attorney General shall be appointed from amongst public officers
qualified to perform functions of advocate or, persons who are qualified to be
registered as advocates and, has continuously held those qualifications for a pe riod
of not less than ten years.
Act No.15
of 1984
Art.9
Act No.4
of 1992
Art.16
Act No.1
of 2005
Art.11
(3) The Attorney-General shall be the adviser of the Government
of the
United Republic matters of law and for that purpose shall be responsi ble for
advising the Government of the United Republic on all matters of law , and to
discharge any other functions pertaining to or connected with law wh ich are
referred or assigned to him by the President and also to discharg e such other
duties or functions which shall be entrusted to him by this Constitution or by any
law.
(4) In the discharge of duties and functions in accordance with this
Article, the Attorney-General shall be entitled to appear and be he ard in all courts
in the United Republic.

38

(5) The Attorney-General shall be a Member of Parli ament by virtue of
office, and shall hold office until –
(a) his appointment is revoked by the President; or
(b) immediately before the President elect assumes office,
and he shall be paid a salary, allowances and other remuneration in accordance
with a law enacted by Parliament.

Deputy
Attorney
General
Act No.1
of 2005
59A.-(1) There shall be a Deputy Attorney General of the United
Republic, who shall be appointed by the President from amongst persons with
qualifications specified in subarticle (2) of Article 59, and has cont inuously held
those qualifications for a period of not less than ten years.
Art.12 (2) The Deputy Attorney General shall be the principal ass istant in the
discharge of duties and functions of the Attorney General and shal l discharge
other duties and functions as may be assigned by the Attorney General.

Director of
Public
Prosecutions
Act No.1
of 2005
59B.-(1) There shall be a Director of Public Prosecutions who sha ll be
appointed by the President from amongst persons with qualifications specified in
subarticle (2) of Article 59 and has continuously held those qualificati ons for a
period of not less than ten years.
Art.12 (2) The Director of Public Prosecutions shall have powers to ins titute,
prosecute and supervise all criminal prosecutions in the country.
(3) The powers of the Director of Public Prosecutions under suba rticle
(2), may be exercised by him in person or on his directions, by of ficers under him,
or any other officers who discharge these duties under his instructions.
(4) In exercising his powers, the Director of Public Prose cutions shall be
free, shall not be interfered with by any person or with any a uthority and shall
have regard to the following –
(a) the need to dispensing justice;
(b) prevention of misuse of procedures for dispensing justice;
(c) public interest.
(5) The Director of Public Prosecutions shall exercise his powers as may
be prescribed by any law enacted or to be enacted by the Parliament.

Secretary to the
Cabinet
Act No.15
of 1984
Art.9
60. There shall be a Secretary to the Cabinet who shall be the chi ef
executive officer in the office of the Cabinet, and he shall disc harge the following
functions, in compliance with the general or specific directions is sued to him by
the President, that is to say:
(a) to work out a programme for Cabinet meetings and prepare the
agenda for each meeting;
(b) to record minutes and maintain a record of Cabinet meetings;
(c) to notify and explain the decisions of the Cabinet to every per son
or public institution concerned with any such decision; and
(d) to discharge any other duties and functions as shall be directed
from time to time by the President.

39
Regional
Commissio-
ners
Act No.15
of 1984
Art.9
61.-(1) There shall be a Regional Commissioner for each region within
the United Republic who, subject to subarticle (3), shall be a leader in the
Government of the United Republic.
(2) Regional Commissioners in Mainland Tanzania shall be appointe d by
the President, after consultation with the Prime Minister.
(3) Regional Commissioners in Tanzania Zanzibar shall be appointe d by
the President of Zanzibar, after consultation with the President.
(4) Without prejudice to the provisions of subarticle (5), every Reg ional
Commissioner shall have the duty to supervise the discharge of all the duties and
functions of the Government of the United Republic in the region assigne d to him
and for that purpose, he shall discharge all duties and functions specif ied by or
under any written law as being functions of a Regional Commissioner , and shall
exercise all such powers specified by any law enacted by Parliament.
(5) In addition to his duties and functions specified in the precedin g
provisions of this Article, a Regional Commissioner for any regi on in Tanzania
Zanzibar shall discharge the duties and functions of the Revolutionar y
Government of Zanzibar which shall be assigned to him by the Pre sident of
Zanzibar and in accordance with the Constitution of Zanzibar, 1984, or any law
enacted by the House of Representatives.

CHAPTER THREE
THE LEGISLATURE OF THE UNTIED REPUBLIC

PART I
PARLIAMENT

Parliament
Act No.15
62.-(1) There shall be a Parliament of the Untied Republic which shall
consist of two parts, that is to say, the President and the National Assembly.
of 1984
Art.12 (2) The National Assembly shall consist of all categories
of members
specified in Article 66 of this Constitution, who shall all be designa ted as
Members of Parliament.
(3) Whenever any matter requires to be decided or done by both par ts of
Parliament in accordance with the provisions of this Constitution, or of any other
law, then that matter shall not be taken to have been duly decided or done unless it
is decided or done by the Members of Parliament and also by the P resident in
accordance with their respective authority in relation to that matter.

Authority of
Parliament
63.-(1) The President as one part of Parliament shall exercise all the
authority vested in him by this Constitution for that purpose.
Act No.15
of 1984
Art.12
Act No.4
of 1992
Art.17
Act No.20 (2) The second part of Parliament shall be the principal organ of
the
United Republic which shall have the authority on behalf of the people to oversee
and advise the Government of the United Republic and all its organs in the
discharge of their respective responsibilities in accordance with this Cons titution.
(3) For the purposes of discharging its functions the National Assembly
may –
of 1992
Art.11 (a) ask any question to any Minister concerning public affairs i
n the

40
United Republic which are within his responsibility;
(b) debate the performance of each Ministry during the annual budget
session of the National Assembly;
(c) deliberate upon and authorize any long or short term plan which i s
intended to be implemented in the United Republic and enact a law
to regulate the implementation of that plan;
(d) enact law where implementation requires legislation;
(e) deliberate upon and ratify all treaties and agreements to which the
United Republic is a party and the provisions of which require
ratification.

Legislative
power
Act No.15
of 1984
Art.12
64.-(1) Legislative power in relation to all Union Matters and al so in
relation to all other matters concerning Mainland Tanzania is he reby vested in
Parliament.
(2) Legislative power in Tanzania Zanzibar over all matter which are not
Union Matters is hereby vested in the House of Representatives.
(3) Where any law enacted by the House of Representatives concerns any
matter in Tanzania Zanzibar which is within the legislative j urisdiction of
Parliament, that law shall be null and void, and likewise if any l aw enacted by
Parliament concerns any matter which is within the legislati ve jurisdiction of the
House of Representatives that law shall be null and void.
(4) Any law enacted by Parliament concerning any matte r shall not apply
to Tanzania Zanzibar save in accordance with the following provisions:
(a) such law shall have expressly stated that it shall apply t o Mainland
Tanzania as well as to Tanzania Zanzibar or it replaces, amends or
repeals a law which is in operation in Tanzania Zanzibar;
(b) such law replaces, or amends or repeals a law which was
previously in operation in Mainland Tanzania and also in operation
in Tanzania Zanzibar pursuant to the Articles of the Union of
Tanganyika and Zanzibar, or pursuant to any law which expressly
stated that it shall apply to Mainland Tanzania as well as Tanz ania
Zanzibar; or
(c) such law relates to Union Matters; and whenever reference is made
to the term “Tanzania” in any law, it is hereby declared tha t such
law shall apply in the United Republic in accordance with the
interpretation contained in the provisions of this Article.
(5) Without prejudice to the application of the Constitution of Zanziba r in
accordance with this Constitution shall have the force of law in t he whole of the
United Republic, and in the event any other law conflicts with the pr ovisions
contained in this Constitution, the Constitution shall prevail and that other law, to
the extent of the inconsistency with the Constitution, shall be void.

Life of
Parliament
Act No.15
Of 1984
Art.12
65.-(1) Subject to the other provisions of this Constitution, the life of
each Parliament shall be five years.
(2) For the purposes of this Constitution the expression “life of
Parliament” means that whole period commencing from the date the ne w

41
Parliament was first summoned after General Elections and endi ng on the date of
dissolution of that Parliament for the purpose of enabling the holding of another
ordinary general election.

PART II
MEMBERS, CONSTITUENCIES AND ELECTION OF MEMBERS

Members of the National Assembly
66.-(1) Subject to the other provisions of this Article, there shall be the
following categories of Members of Parliament, that is to say:- (a) members elected to represent constituencies;
(b) women members being not less than thirty percentum of all the members mentioned in paragraphs (a), (c), (d), (e) and (f) with
qualifications mentioned in Article 67 elected by the political
parties in accordance with Article 78, on the basis of proportion of
votes;
(c) five members elected by the House of Representatives fr om among
its members;
(d) the Attorney General;
(e) not more than ten members appointed by the President from amongst persons with qualifications specified under paragraphs (a)
and (c) of subarticle (1) of Article 67 and, at least five memb ers
amongst them shall be women;
(f) the Speaker, if he is not elected from amongst the members.
Members of
Parliament
Act No.15
of 1984
Art.13
Act No.4
of 1992
Art.18;
Act No.12
of 1995
Art.9
Act No.3
of 2000
Art. 11
Act No.1
of 2005
Art. 13
G.N.No.150
of 2005
(2) The President and the Vice-President shall each not be a Me mber of
Parliament.
(3) Where a Regional Commissioner is elected a Member of P arliament
representing a constituency or where a Member of Parliament re presenting a
constituency is appointed a Regional Commissioner, the National Asse mbly shall
be deemed to consist of the requisite number of members and its procee dings shall
be valid notwithstanding that the ordinary total number of members in te rms of
this Article shall have been reduced by reason of such election of the Regional
Commissioner or such appointment of a constituency member.

Qualifications
for Member of
Parliament 67.
-(1) Subject to the provisions contained in this Article, any pers on
shall be qualified for election or appointment as a Member of Parliament if he –
(a) is a citizen of the United Republic who has attained the age of
twenty-one years and who can read and write in Kiswahili or
English; and
(b) is a member and a candidate proposed by a political party.
(2) Such person possesses or has voluntarily acquired citizenship of any
other country-
Act No.15
of 1984
Art.13
Act No.4
of 1992
Art.19;
Act No.34
of 1994
Art.13
(a) such person possesses or voluntarily acquires the citizenship of a
ny
other country;

42
(b) in accordance with a law applicable in the Untied Republic it has
been formally certified that such person is of unsound mind;
Act No.12
of 1995
Art.10
Act No.3
of 2000
Art.12 (c) such person has been convicted by any court in the United
Republic and sentenced to death or to a term of imprisonment
exceeding six months for any offence however styled involving
dishonesty;
(d) within a period of five years preceding the date of a general
election such person has been convicted and sentenced to
imprisonment for an offence involving dishonesty or for
contravening the law concerning ethics of public leaders;
(e) without prejudice to a person’s right and freedom to hold his own
views, to profess a religious faith of his choice, to associate wit h
others and to participate in community work in accordance with the
laws of the land, no person shall be qualified to be elected to the
office of President of the United Republic if he is not a membe r of,
and a candidate proposed by, a political party;
(f) such person has an interest in any Government contract of an y kind
in respect of which special restrictions are prescribed by Act of
Parliament and he has contravened such restrictions;
(g) such person holds a senior office in the service of the Governme nt
of the United Republic, not being an office of which the President
may or is required to appoint a Member of Parliament in
accordance with this Constitution or a law enacted by Parliament ;
or
(h) in accordance with a law enacted by Parliament dealing with
offences concerning election of any kind such person has been
disqualified from registering as a voter or from voting in a
Parliamentary election.
(3) A person shall not be competent to contest for election as a
constituency Member of Parliament at any general election if he is at the same
time contesting for election to the office of President, nor shall he be competent to
contest for election as a Member of Parliament at any by-el ection if he is
President.
(4) Parliament may enact a law making provisions disqualifyi ng a
person from being elected Member of Parliament representing a c onstituency if
such person holds an office whose functions involve the conduct of, or
supervision over, the election of Members of Parliament or the reg istration of
voters for the elections of Members of Parliament; save that such law shall not
make provision disqualifying the Speaker from being elected Member of
Parliament representing a constituency nor make provisions which caus e a person
elected Speaker to vacate that office of Speaker or his ordinary s eat as Member of
Parliament.
(5) Parliament may enact a law for the purpose of making provi sions for
the disqualification of a person from being elected a Member of Pa rliament
representing a constituency for any period, to be specified by Parl iament (save
that such period shall not exceed five years) if such person shall be convicted by a

43
court for any type of offences, in connection with the election of M embers of
Parliament, as specified in that law.
(6) For the purposes of giving opportunity to appeal according to law to
any person who has been formally certified to be of unsound mind, or convi cted
and sentenced to death or imprisonment, or convicted for any offence specified
under the law in terms of subarticle (5) of this Article, Parl iament may enact law
providing that such judgment being appealed against by that person shall ha ve no
effect for the purposes of the provisions of subarticle (2) or (5) of this Article until
the expiration of the period to be specified in such legislation.
(7) The following rules shall apply for the purposes of interpr eting
paragraphs (c), (d) and (e) of subarticle (2) of this Article, that is to say-
(a) where a person has been awarded two or more prison sentences to
run consecutively, such sentences shall be regarded to be separate
provided that each of the sentences does not exceed six months; but
if the period specified in any of the sentences exceeds six mont hs,
such sentences shall be regarded as one sentence;
(b) if a person is sentenced to imprisonment where he could otherwise
have been sentenced to a fine, or where the sentence of
imprisonment is imposed for failure to pay a fine or ordered, such
period of imprisonment shall not be taken into account.
(8) In paragraph (f) of subarticle (2) of this Article “ Government
contract” means any contractual agreement in which one of the p arties is the
Government of the United Republic, or the Revolutionary Government of
Zanzibar or any department of that Government or any officer of the Government
who has taken part on behalf of the Government.
(9) [Subarticles (9), (10), (11) and (12) are repealed by Act No.4 of 1992
Art.19 (d)].
(10) For the purposes of interpretation of the qualifications f or election
contained in the following Articles whenever it is stated in this Constitution that
the implementation of any matter requires a person who has the quali fication for
election, or a person who has not been disqualified from election, then unle ss the
context requires otherwise, it shall be understood that the qualificat ions concerned
or those which enable a person to be elected a Member representing a
constituency as provided in subarticle (1) of this Article.

Oath of
Members of
Parliament
Act No.15
of 1984,
Art.13
68. Every Member of Parliament shall be required to take and subscrib e
before the National Assembly the oath of allegiance before commenc ing to take
part in the business of the National Assembly save that he may ta ke part in the
election of Speaker before taking that oath.

Formal
declaration by
Members of
Parliament
concerning
69.-(1) Every Member of Parliament shall be required before the
expiration of thirty days since taking oath as Member of Parliame nt to submit to
the Speaker two copies of a formal declaration that he has not lost the
qualifications for election in terms of paragraph (d) of subarticle (2) of Artic le 67.
ethics of
Leaders (2) The formal declaration required to be submitted to the Spe
aker shall

44
be made on a special form prescribed in accordance with a law e nacted by
Parliament.
Act No.12
of 1995
Art.11 (3) The Speaker shall transmit to the Ethics Commissioner a
copy of
every formal declaration submitted to him in accordance with the provisions of
this Article.
(4) In this Article and in Articles 70 and 84 “the Ethics Commi ssioner”
means the Commissioner appointed to head the Ethics Secretariat r eferred to in
Article 132 of this Constitution.

Members to
submit
statement of
property
Act No.12
of 1995
70.-(1) Every Member of Parliament shall be required to submit to the
Speaker two copies of a formal statement regarding his propert y and the property
of his spouse. The statement shall be made on a special form pre scribed by a law
enacted by Parliament and shall be submitted from time to time as shall be
directed by such law.
Art.12 (2) The Speaker shall transmit to the Ethics Commissioner, a copy of
every formal statement submitted to him in accordance with the p rovisions of this
Article.

Tenure of
office of
Member of
Parliament
71.-(1) A Member of Parliament shall cease to be Member of P arliament
and shall vacate his seat in the National Assembly upon the occurre nce of any of
the following matters:
Act No.15
of 1984
Art.13
Act No.4
of 1992,
Art.22 (a) where anything happens which, had he not been a Member of
Parliament, would have disqualified him from election, or would
make him lose the qualifications for election, or would disqualify
him from election or appointment in accordance with the
provisions of this Constitution;
(b) where such Member of Parliament is elected President;
Act No.34
of 1994,
Art.14 (c) where a Member of Parliament fails to attend three conse
cutive
meetings of the National Assembly without the permission of the
Speaker;
(d) where it is established that he has contravened the provisions of the
law concerning the ethics of public leaders;
(e) where a Member of Parliament ceases to be a member of t he party
to which he belonged when he was elected or appointed to be a
Member of Parliament;
(f) where a Member of Parliament is elected or appointed Vice-
President;
(g) in the case of a Member of Parliament who is required to s
ubmit a
formal statement of property in accordance with the provisions of
Article 70, if he fails to make such formal statement in accorda nce
with the provisions of that Article within the period prescribed for
that purpose by a law enacted by Parliament,
but where a Member of Parliament does not cease to be a Member of Parliament
on account of any of those matters mentioned and if he does not sooner r esign or
die, then he shall continue to hold office as Member of Parliament unti l the next
general election.

45

(2) Parliament may enact a law for the purpose of making pr ovisions
enabling a Member of Parliament to appeal according to law, agains t a decision
which confirms that he is a person of unsound mind, or against a sentence of death
or imprisonment or against conviction for an offence of the type refer red to in the
provisions of subarticle (5) of Article 67 of this Constitution, and that law may
provide that the decision appealed against by the Member of Parliament shall have
no effect in law until the expiration of the period prescribed in that law.
72. Where any person holding office in the service of the Government
which office is of the type mentioned in Article 67(2)(g) decides- (a) to contest for election to the office of President or any othe r office
under this Constitution; or
Cessation of
employment of
civil servants
on contesting
for election
Act No.4
of 1992
Art.23
Act No.12
of 1995
Art.14 (b) to contest for leadership at any level in a political party
contrary to
the terms of employment, the employment of such person shall be
considered to have ceased from the date of his becoming a
candidate or of contesting for leadership in the political party.

Terms of
service of
Members of
Parliament
Act No.15
of 1984
73. All Members of Parliament of all categories shall hold offi ce in
accordance with this Constitution, and shall be paid a salary, all owances and other
remuneration in accordance with a law enacted by Parliament.
Art.13
Electoral Commission
74.-(1) There shall be an Electoral Commission of the United R epublic
which shall consist of the following members to be appointed by the President: (a) a Chairman who shall be a Judge of the High Court or a Justic e of
the Court of Appeal, who shall be a person with qualifications to be
an advocate and has held those qualifications for a period of not
less than fifteen years;
(b) a Vice-Chairman who shall be a person who holds, had held or is capable of holding an office of Judge of the High Court or a Justice
of the Court of Appeal;
(c) other members to be specified by a law enacted by Parliament.
Electoral
Commission
Act No.15
of 1984
Art.13
Act No.4
of 1992
Art.24
Act No.7
of 1993
Art.2;
Act No.3
of 2000
Art.14
Act No.1
of 2005
Art.14
(2) The President shall appoint the Vice-Chairman of the El
ectoral
Commission on the basis of the principle that where the Chairman ha ils from one
part of the Union, the Vice-Chairman shall be a person who hails from the other
part of the Union.
(3) The following persons shall not be eligible for appointment as
members of the Electoral Commission, that is to say –
(a) a Minister or Deputy Minister;
(b) a person holding any kind of office specified by a law enac ted by
Parliament prohi
biting a persons
holding such office to be appointed a member of Electoral

46
Commission;
(c) a Member of Parliament, a Councilor or other persons holding the
kind of office specified by a law enacted by Parliament in ter ms of
the provisions of paragraph (g) of subarticle (2) of Article 67 of
this Constitution; and
(d) a leader of any political party.
(4) Subject to the other provisions of this Article, a member of the
Electoral Commission shall cease to be a member whenever any of the following
occurs –
(a) upon the expiration of five years since his appointment; or
(b) where anything happens which, had he not been a member of the
Commission, would have made him ineligible for appointment to
be a member of the Commission.
(5) The President may remove a member of the Electoral Comm ission
from office only for failing to discharge his functions either due t o illness or any
other reason or due to misconduct or loss of the qualifications for bei ng a
member.
(6) The responsibilities of the Electoral Commission shall be:
(a) to supervise and co-ordinate the registration of voters in
Presidential and Parliamentary elections in the United Republic;
(b) to supervise and co-ordinate the conduct of the Presidential and
Parliamentary election;
(c) to review the boundaries and demarcate the United Republic into
various areas for the purposes of Parliamentary elections;
(d) to supervise and co-ordinate the registration of voters and the
conduct of the election of Councilors;
(e) to perform any other functions in accordance with a law ena cted by
Parliament.
(7) For the better carrying out of its functions, the Elector al Commission
shall be an autonomous department, and its chief executive shall be the Director of
Elections, who shall be appointed and shall discharge duties in accordanc e with a
law enacted by Parliament.
(8) Parliament may enact a law providing for the procedure fo r
supervising the election of Members of Parliament representing constituenc ies.
(9) The Electoral Commission may discharge its functions
notwithstanding that there is a vacancy among its membership or tha t one of its
members is absent, provided that every decision of the Commission must be
supported by a majority of all the members of the Commission.
(10) Parliament may enact a law providing for the procedure of
appointing delegates to supervise elections of constituency Members of
Parliament and, subject to the provisions of any law or the direction s of the
Electoral commission, the powers of the Electoral Commission to s upervise the
elections may be exercised by such delegates.
(11) In discharging its functions in accordance with the provisions of this
Constitution, the Electoral Commission shall not be obliged to comply wit h orders
or directions of any person or any government department or the views of any

47
political party.
(12) No court shall have power to inquire into anything done by th e
Electoral Commission in the discharge of its functions in accordance with the
provisions of this Constitution.
(13) In the discharge of its functions in accordance with this C onstitution,
the Electoral Commission of the United Republic shall, from time t o time, consult
with the Electoral Commission of Tanzania Zanzibar.
(14) It is hereby prohibited for persons concerned with the conduct of
elections to join any political party, save only that each of th em shall have the
right to vote as provided for under Article 5 of this Constitution.
(15) For the purposes of subarticle (14) the persons concerned with the
conduct of elections are:
(a) the Chairman of the Electoral Commission;
(b) the Vice-Chairman of the Electoral Commission;
(c) all the members of the Electoral Commission;
(d) the Director of Elections together with all other employees of the
Electoral Commission; and
(e) all supervisors of elections in all towns and districts.

Constituencies

Constituencies
Act No.4
of 1992
Art.24
75.-(1) Subject to the other provisions of this Article, the United Republic
shall be demarcated into constituencies of such number and in such manner as
shall be determined by the Electoral Commission after obtaining the consent of
the President.
(2) Subject to any relevant law, the Electoral Commission s hall have the
power to demarcate the boundaries of constituencies after obtaining the consent of
the President.
(3) In demarcating the boundaries of constituencies, the Electora l
Commission shall take due account of the availability of members of
communication and also the geographical conditions of the area intended for
demarcation into constituencies.
(4) Subject to the provisions of this Constitution and any law conc erning
the demarcation of the country into constituencies, the Electoral Commission m ay,
from time to time and at least after every ten years re view the demarcation of the
United Republic into constituencies and may alter the constituencies as a result of
that review or as a result of a census conducted in the United Republic.
(5) If after a review of the demarcation of the United Republ ic into
constituencies alterations are made in the constituencies, or the number of the
Members of Parliament representing constituencies or in the numbe r of
constituencies or the number of Members of Parliament, then the re sultant
alteration in the number of Members of Parliament representing those
constituencies shall take effect when Parliament is dissolved ag ain following the
occurrence of the alteration in the number of constituencies or in the number of
Members of Parliament representing constituencies.
(6) Notwithstanding the other provisions of this Article, no court sh all

48
have power to inquire into anything done by the Electoral Commission i n its
discharge of the function of demarcating the United Republic into constituencies.

Election and Appointment of Members of Parliament

Elections in
constituencies
Act No.15
of 1984
Art.13
Act No.3 of
2000 Art.15
76.-(1) After every dissolution of Parliament there shall be hel d an
election of a Member of Parliament in every constituency.
(2) Likewise there shall be held an election of a Member of P arliament in
a constituency whenever the seat of any Member of Parliament representing that
constituency falls vacant for any reason not connected with the dis solution of
Parliament.
(3) Notwithstanding the pre

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