Skip to main content

Constitution (with Amendments)

PDF generated: 04 Feb 2020, 23:43

English Translation © 2012 by William S. Hein & Co., Inc. All rights reserved.
Translated by Luis Francisco Valle Velasco

Prepared for distribution on constituteproject.org with content generously provided by Hein Online. This
document has been recompiled and reformatted using texts collected in Hein Online’s World
Constitution’s Illustrated.

constituteproject.org

Guatemala's Constitution of
1985 with Amendments
through 1993

constituteproject.org
PDF generated: 04 Feb 2020, 23:43

Page 2
Guatemala 1985 (rev. 1993)

Table of contents
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Preamble
. . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
TITLE I: The Human Person, Objectives and Duties of the State
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Article 1: Protection of the Person
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Article 2: Duties of the State
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
TITLE II: Human Rights
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
CHAPTER I: Individual Rights
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Article 3: [The] Right to Life
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Article 4: Freedom and Equality
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Article 5: [The] Freedom of Action
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Article 6: Legal Detention
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Article 7: Notification of the Cause of Detention
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Article 8: Rights of the Detained
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Article 9: Interrogation [Interrogatorio] of Those Detained or Imprisoned
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Article 10: Legal Detention Center
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Article 11: Detention for Faults [Faltas] or Infractions
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Article 12: Right to Defense
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Article 13: Motives for a Order [Auto] of Imprisonment
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Article 14: Presumption of Innocence and Publicity of the Process
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Article 15: Non-retroactivity of the Law
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Article 16: Declaration against Oneself and [against] Relatives
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Article 17: There Is No Offense or Penalty without a Prior Law
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Article 18: Death Penalty
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Article 19: Penitentiary System
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Article 20: Minors of Age
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Article 21: Sanctions for Public Functionaries or Employees
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Article 22: Penal and Police Records
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Article 23: Inviolability of the Home
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Article 24: Inviolability of Correspondence, Documents, and Books
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Article 25: Registry of Persons and Vehicles
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Article 26: Freedom of Movement [Locomoción] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Article 27: Right of Asylum
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Article 28: Right of Petition
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Article 29: Free Access to Tribunals and Dependencies of the State
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Article 30: Publicity of the Administrative Acts
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Article 31: Access to Archives and State Registries
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Article 32: Objective of [the] Summons
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Article 33: Right of Assembly and Demonstration [Manifestación]

constituteproject.org
PDF generated: 04 Feb 2020, 23:43

Page 3
Guatemala 1985 (rev. 1993)

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Article 34: Right of Association
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Article 35: Freedom of Expression of Thought
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Article 36: Freedom of Religion
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Article 37: Juridical Personality of the Churches
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Article 38: Possession and Bearing of Arms
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Article 39: Private Property
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Article 40: Expropriation
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Article 41: Protection of the Right of Ownership
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Article 42: [The] Right of the Author or Inventor
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Article 43: Freedom of Industry, Trade, and Work
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Article 44: [The] Rights Inherent to the Human Person
. . . . . . . . . . . 21
Article 45: Action Against Offenders [Infractores] and Legitimacy of Resistance
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Article 46: Preeminence of [the] International Law
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
CHAPTER II: Social Rights
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
FIRST SECTION: The Family
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Article 47: Protection of the Family
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Article 48: De facto Unions
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Article 49: Matrimony
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Article 50: Equality of the Children
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Article 51: Protection of [the] Minors and [of] the Elderly
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Article 52: Maternity
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Article 53: [The] Disabled [Minusválidos] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Article 54: Adoption
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Article 55: Obligation to Provide Food
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Article 56: Actions Against Causes of Family Disintegration
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
SECOND SECTION: Culture
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Article 57: Right to Culture
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Article 58: Cultural Identity
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Article 59: Protection and Research of the Culture
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Article 60: Cultural Heritage [Patrimonio] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Article 61: Protection of the Cultural Heritage
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Article 62: Protection of Traditional Art, Folklore, and Handicrafts
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Article 63: Right to Creative Expression
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Article 64: Natural Heritage
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Article 65: Preservation and Promotion of Culture
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
THIRD SECTION: Indigenous Communities
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Article 66: Protection of Ethnic Groups
. . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Article 67: Protection of the Indigenous Agricultural Lands and Cooperatives
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Article 68: Lands for Indigenous Communities

constituteproject.org
PDF generated: 04 Feb 2020, 23:43

Page 4
Guatemala 1985 (rev. 1993)

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Article 69: Transfer [Traslación] of Workers and their Protection
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Article 70: Specific Law
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
FOURTH SECTION: Education
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Article 71: Right to Education
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Article 72: Objectives [Fines] of Education
. . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Article 73: Freedom of Education and the Economic Assistance of the State
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Article 74: Obligatory Education
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Article 75: Literacy
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Article 76: Educational System and Bilingual Education
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Article 77: Obligations of Business Owners
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Article 78: Teaching Faculty [Magisterio] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Article 79: Agricultural Education
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Article 80: Promotion of the Science and the Technology
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Article 81: Titles and Diplomas
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
FIFTH SECTION: Universities
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Article 82: Autonomy of the University of San Carlos de Guatemala
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Article 83: Government of the University of San Carlos de Guatemala
. . . . . . . . . . . 27
Article 84: Budgetary Allocation for the University of San Carlos de Guatemala
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Article 85: Private Universities
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Article 86: Council of the Superior Private Education
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Article 87: Recognition of Degrees, Titles, Diplomas, and Incorporations
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Article 88: Tax Exemptions and Deductions
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Article 89: Granting of Degrees, Titles, and Diplomas
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Article 90: Professional Association [Colegiación] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
SIXTH SECTION: Sports
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Article 91: Budgetary Allocation for Sports
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Article 92: Autonomy of Sports
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
SEVENTH SECTION: Health, Security, and Social Assistance
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Article 93: Right to Health
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Article 94: Obligation of the State, Regarding Health and Social Assistance
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Article 95: Health, [a] Public Asset
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Article 96: Quality Control of Products
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Article 97: [The] Environment and [the] Ecological Balance
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Article 98: Community Participation in Health Programs
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Article 99: Feeding and Nutrition
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Article 100: Social Security
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
EIGHTH SECTION: Work
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Article 101: [The] Right to Work
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Article 102: Minimum Social Rights of Labor Legislation

constituteproject.org
PDF generated: 04 Feb 2020, 23:43

Page 5
Guatemala 1985 (rev. 1993)

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Article 103: Protection [Tutelaridad] of the Labor Laws
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Article 104: Right to Strike [Huelga] and to Work Stoppage [Paro] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Article 105: Housing of the Workers
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Article 106: Irrenouncability of the Labor Rights
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
NINTH SECTION: [The] Workers of the State
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Article 107: [The] Workers of the State
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Article 108: Regime of the Workers of the State
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Article 109: Payroll Workers
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Article 110: Indemnification
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Article 111: [The] Regime of Decentralized Entities
. . . . . . . . 36
Article 112: Prohibition of Performing [Desempeñar] More Than One Public Office
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
Article 113: Right to Opt for Public Employment or Office
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
Article 114: Revision to Retirement
. . . . . . . . 36
Article 115: Free Coverage by the Guatemalan Social Security Institute to Retirees
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
Article 116: Regulation of the Strike for the Workers of the State
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
Article 117: Option for the Passive Classes Regime
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
TENTH SECTION: Economic and Social Regime
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
Article 118: Principles of the Economic and Social Regime
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
Article 119: [The] Obligations of the State
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
Article 120: Intervention in [the] Enterprises that Provide Public Services
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
Article 121: [The] Assets of the State
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Article 122: [The] Territorial Reserves of the State
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Article 123: Limitations in the Border Strips
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Article 124: Transfer [Enajenación] of National Property
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
Article 125: Exploitation of Non-Renewable Natural Resources
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
Article 126: Reforestation
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
Article 127: Water Regime
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
Article 128: Exploitation [Aprovechamiento] of Waters, Lakes, and Rivers
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
Article 129: Electrification
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
Article 130: Prohibition of Monopolies
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
Article 131: Commercial Transportation Service
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
Article 132: Currency
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
Article 133: [The] Monetary Board
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
Article 134: Decentralization and Autonomy
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
CHAPTER III: Civic and Political Duties and Rights
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
Article 135: Civic Duties and Rights
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
Article 136: Political Duties and Rights
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
Article 137: Right of Petition in Political Matters
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
CHAPTER IV: Limitation to the Constitutional Rights

constituteproject.org
PDF generated: 04 Feb 2020, 23:43

Page 6
Guatemala 1985 (rev. 1993)

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
Article 138: Limitation of Constitutional Rights
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
Article 139: Law of Public Order and States of Exception
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
TITLE III: The State
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
CHAPTER I: The State and its Form of Government
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
Article 140: [The] State of Guatemala
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
Article 141: Sovereignty
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
Article 142: Of the Sovereignty and the Territory
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
Article 143: Official Language
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
CHAPTER II: Nationality and Citizenship
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
Article 144: Nationality of Origin
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
Article 145: [The] Nationality of Central Americans
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
Article 146: Naturalization
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
Article 147: Citizenship
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
Article 148: Suspension, Loss, and Recovery of Citizenship
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
CHAPTER III: International Relations of the State
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
Article 149: Of the International Relations
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
Article 150: Of the Central American Community
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
Article 151: Relations with Allied [afines] States
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
TITLE IV: Public Power
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
CHAPTER I: Exercise of the Public Power
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
Article 152: Public Power
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
Article 153: [The] Rule of Law [Imperio de la ley] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
Article 154: [The] Public Function; Subjection to the Law
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
Article 155: [The] Responsibility for Violating the Law
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
Article 156: Non-obligation of Force [No obligatoriedad] of Illegal Orders
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
CHAPTER II: The Legislative Organ
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
FIRST SECTION: [The] Congress
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48

Article 157: Legislative Power [Potestad] and the Composition [Integración] of the Congress
of the Republic

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
Article 158: Sessions of the Congress
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
Article 159: Majority for Resolutions
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
Article 160: Authorization to Deputies to Perform another Office
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
Article 161: [The] Prerogatives of [the] Deputies
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
Article 162: Requirements for the Office of Deputy
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
Article 163: Directive Board [Junta Directiva] and Permanent Commission
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
Article 164: Prohibitions and Compatibilities
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
SECOND SECTION: Attributions of the Congress
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
Article 165: Attributions
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
Article 166: Interpellations to Ministers

constituteproject.org
PDF generated: 04 Feb 2020, 23:43

Page 7
Guatemala 1985 (rev. 1993)

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
Article 167: Effects of the Interpellation
. . . . . . . . . . . . 53
Article 168: Assistance of Ministers, Officials, and Employees of the Congress
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
Article 169: Call for Elections by the Congress
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
Article 170: Specific Attributions
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
Article 171: Other Attributions of the Congress
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
Article 172: Qualified Majority
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
Article 173: Consultation Procedure
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
THIRD SECTION: Formation and Sanction of the Law
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
Article 174: [The] Initiative of Law
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
Article 175: Constitutional Hierarchy
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
Article 176: Presentation and Discussion
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
Article 177: Approval, Sanction, and Promulgation
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
Article 178: Veto
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
Article 179: Legislative Primacy
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
Article 180: Validity
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
Article 181: Dispositions of the Congress
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
CHAPTER III: [The] Executive Organ
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
FIRST SECTION: [The] President of the Republic
. . . . 57
Article 182: The Presidency of the Republic and the Composition of the Executive Organ
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
Article 183: [The] Functions of the President of the Republic
. . . . . . . . . . . . 59
Article 184: Election of the President and [the] Vice-President of the Republic
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59

Article 185: Requirements to Opt for the Positions of President and Vice-President of the
Republic

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60

Article 186: Prohibitions to Opt for the Offices of President or Vice-President of the
Republic

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
Article 187: Prohibition of Re-election
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
Article 188: Convocation for Elections and Taking of Possession
. . . . . . . 61
Article 189: Temporary or Absolute Absence [Falta] of the President of the Republic
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
SECOND SECTION: [The] Vice-President of the Republic
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
Article 190: [The] Vice-President of the Republic
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
Article 191: [The] Functions of the Vice-President
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
Article 192: Absence [falta] of the Vice President
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
THIRD SECTION: [The] Ministers of State
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
Article 193: [The] Ministries
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
Article 194: Functions of the Minister
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
Article 195: [The] Council of Ministers and their Responsibility
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
Article 196: Requirements to be [a] Minister of State
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
Article 197: Prohibitions to be Minister of State
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
Article 198: Report [Memoria] of the Activities of the Ministries

constituteproject.org
PDF generated: 04 Feb 2020, 23:43

Page 8
Guatemala 1985 (rev. 1993)

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
Article 199: Obligatory Appearance in Interpellations
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
Article 200: Vice-Ministers of State
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
Article 201: Responsibility of the Ministers and the Vice-Ministers
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
Article 202: [The] Secretaries of the Presidency
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
CHAPTER IV: [The] Judicial Organ
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
FIRST SECTION: General Provisions
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
Article 203: Independence of the Judicial Organ and the Power to Judge
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
Article 204: Essential Conditions of the Administration of Justice
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
Article 205: Guarantees of the Judicial Organ
. . . . . . . . . 65
Article 206: Right of Preliminary Hearing [antejuicio] for Magistrates and Judges
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
Article 207: Requirements to be a Magistrate or Judge
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
Article 208: Period of Functions of the Magistrates and Judges
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
Article 209: Appointment of Judges and Auxiliary Personnel
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
Article 210: [The] Law of the Civil Service of the Judicial Organ
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
Article 211: Instances in all Proceedings
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
Article 212: Specific Jurisdiction of the Tribunals
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
Article 213: Budget of the Judicial Organ
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
SECOND SECTION: [The] Supreme Court of Justice
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
Article 214: Composition [Integración] of the Supreme Court of Justice
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
Article 215: Election of the Supreme Court of Justice
. . . . . . . . . . . . 67
Article 216: Requirements to be a Magistrate of the Supreme Court of Justice
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
THIRD SECTION: [The] Court of Appeals and Other Tribunals
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
Article 217: [The] Magistrates
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
Article 218: Composition [Integración] of the Court of Appeals
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
Article 219: [The] Military Tribunals
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
Article 220: [The] Tribunals of Accounts
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
Article 221: [The] Contentious-Administrative Tribunal
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
Article 222: Substitute Magistrates
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
TITLE V: Structure and Organization of the State
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
CHAPTER I: Electoral Political Regime
. . . . . . . 69
Article 223: Freedom in the Formation and Functioning of the Political Organizations
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
CHAPTER II: Administrative Regime
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
Article 224: Administrative Division
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
Article 225: National Council of Urban and Rural Development
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
Article 226: Regional Council of Urban and Rural Development
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
Article 227: [The] Governors
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
Article 228: Departmental Council
. . . . . . . . 71
Article 229: Financial Contribution of the Central Government to the Departments

constituteproject.org
PDF generated: 04 Feb 2020, 23:43

Page 9
Guatemala 1985 (rev. 1993)

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
Article 230: General Registry of Property
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
Article 231: [The] Metropolitan Region
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
CHAPTER III: Regime of Control and Supervision [Fiscalización] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
Article 232: Office of the Comptroller General of Accounts [Contraloría] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
Article 233: Election of the Comptroller General of Accounts
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
Article 234: Qualifications of the Comptroller General of Accounts
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
Article 235: Faculties of the Comptroller General of Accounts
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
Article 236: Legal Recourses
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
CHAPTER IV: [The] Financial Regime
. . . . . . . . . 72
Article 237: [The] General Budget of [the] Revenues and Expenditures of the State
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
Article 238: [The] Organic Law of the Budget
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
Article 239: Principle of Legality
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
Article 240: [The] Source of [the] Investments and Expenditures of the State
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
Article 241: [The] Rendering of [the] Accounts of the State
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
Article 242: Fund of Guarantee
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
Article 243: Principle of [the] Capacity [Capcidad] to Pay
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
CHAPTER V: [The] Army
. . . . . . . . . . . 75
Article 244: [The] Integration, Organization, and Objectives [Fines] of the Army
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
Article 245: Prohibition of Illegal Armed Groups
. . . . . . . . 76
Article 246: Responsibilities [Cargos] and Attributions of the President in the Army
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
Article 247: Requirements to be an Officer of the Army
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
Article 248: Prohibitions
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
Article 249: Cooperation of the Army
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
Article 250: Legal Regime of the Armed Forces
. . . . . 77
CHAPTER VI: The Public Ministry and the Office of the Procurator General of the Nation
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
Article 251: The Public Ministry
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
Article 252: The Office of the Procurator General of the Nation
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
CHAPTER VII: [The] Municipal Regime
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
Article 253: [The] Municipal Autonomy
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
Article 254: [The] Municipal Government
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
Article 255: [The] Economic Resources of the Municipality
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
Article 257: Allocation for the Municipalities
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
Article 258: Right of [the] Mayors to [a] Preliminary Hearing
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
Article 259: Court of Municipal Affairs
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
Article 260: Privileges and Guarantees of [the] Municipal Assets [Bienes] . . . . . . . . . 79
Article 261: Prohibitions Against Exemption from Taxes or Municipal Assessments
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
Article 262: [The] Law of [the] Municipal Service
. . . 79
TITLE VI: Constitutional Guarantees and Defense of the Constitutional Order

constituteproject.org
PDF generated: 04 Feb 2020, 23:43

Page 10
Guatemala 1985 (rev. 1993)

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
CHAPTER I: [The Recourse of] Personal Exhibition
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
Article 263: [The] Right to [the recourse of] Personal Exhibition
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
Article 264: Responsibilities of the Offenders [Infractores] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
CHAPTER II: The Recourse of] Amparo
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
Article 265: [The] Proceeding of [the recourse of] Amparo
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
CHAPTER III: [The] Unconstitutionality of the Laws
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
Article 266: [The] Unconstitutionality of the Laws in Specific Cases
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
Article 267: [The] Unconstitutionality of the Laws of General Character
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
CHAPTER IV: [The] Court of Constitutionality
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
Article 268: [The] Essential Function of the Court of Constitutionality
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
Article 269: Integration of the Court of Constitutionality
. . . . . . . . . . . . 81
Article 270: Requirements of the Magistrates of the Court of Constitutionality
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
Article 271: [The] Presidency of the Court of Constitutionality
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
Article 272: Functions of the Court of Constitutionality
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
CHAPTER V: [The] Commission and [the] Procurator of Human Rights
. . . . . . . 83
Article 273: [The] Human Rights Commission and [the] Procurator of the Commission
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
Article 274: [The] Procurator of Human Rights
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
Article 275: Attributions of the Procurator of Human Rights
. . . . 84
CHAPTER VI: Law of [the Recourses of] Amparo, Personal Exhibition and Constitutionality
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
Article 276: Constitutional Law in the Matter
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
TITLE VII: Reforms to the Constitution
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
SOLE CHAPTER: Reforms to the Constitution
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
Article 277: Initiative
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
Article 278: National Constituent Assembly
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
Article 279: [The] Deputies to the National Constituent Assembly
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
Article 280: Reforms by the Congress and [the] Popular Consultation
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
Article 281: Articles Not Subject to Reform
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
TITLE VIII: Transitory and Final Provisions
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
SOLE CHAPTER: Transitory and Final Provisions
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
Article 1: Law of the Civil Service of the Legislative Organ
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
Article 2: Lower Level [Menores] Courts
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
Article 3: Conservation of Nationality
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
Article 4: De facto Government
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
Article 5: General Elections
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
Article 6: [The] Congress of the Republic
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
Article 7: Dissolution of the National Constituent Assembly
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
Article 8: [The] Presidency of the Republic
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
Article 9: [The] Municipalities

constituteproject.org
PDF generated: 04 Feb 2020, 23:43

Page 11
Guatemala 1985 (rev. 1993)

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
Article 10: [The] Supreme Court of Justice
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
Article 11: [The] Executive Organ
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
Article 12: [The] Budget
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
Article 13: Allocation for [Improving] Literacy
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
Article 14: National Committee for [Improving] Literacy
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
Article 15: Integration of Petén
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
Article 16: Decree-Laws
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
Article 17: Financing to Political Parties
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
Article 18: Revelation [Divulgación] of the Constitution
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
Article 19: Belize [Belice] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
Article 20: Headings [epígrafes] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
Article 21: Effectiveness of the Constitution
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
Article 22: Abrogation [Derogatoria]

constituteproject.org
PDF generated: 04 Feb 2020, 23:43

Page 12
Guatemala 1985 (rev. 1993)

Preamble

Source of constitutional authority

God or other deities

Motives for writing constitution

Preamble
INVOKING THE NAME OF GOD

We, the representatives of the people of Guatemala, elected freely and
democratically, gathered in [the] National Constituent Assembly, with the goal of
legally and politically organizing the State; affirming the primacy of the human
person as [the] subject and purpose [fin] of the social order; recognizing the family as
the primary and fundamental genesis of the spiritual and moral values of the society
and the State, as [the one] responsible for promoting the common good, of the
consolidation of the regime of legality, security, justice, equality, freedom and peace;
inspired by the ideals of our forefathers and embracing [recogiendo] our traditions
and cultural heritage; decided to promote the complete validity [vigencia] of the
Human Rights within a stable, permanent, and popular institutional order, [one] where the governed and the governors [can] proceed with absolute attachment to
the law;

SOLEMNLY DECREE, SANCTION, AND PROMULGATE THE FOLLOWING:
POLITICAL CONSTITUTION OF THE REPUBLIC OF GUATEMALA

TITLE I: The Human Person, Objectives and
Duties of the State

SOLE CHAPTER
Article 1: Protection of the Person
The State of Guatemala is organized to protect the person and the family; its
supreme objective is the realization of the common good.
Article 2: Duties of the State

It is the duty of the State to guarantee to the inhabitants of the Republic the life, the
freedom, the justice, the security, the peace, and the integral development of the
person.

TITLE II: Human Rights
CHAPTER I: Individual Rights
Article 3: [The] Right to Life

Right to life

The State guarantees and protects the human life from its conception, as well as the
integrity and security of the person.

constituteproject.org
PDF generated: 04 Feb 2020, 23:43

Page 13
Guatemala 1985 (rev. 1993)

Article 4: Freedom and Equality

Human dignity

General guarantee of equality

Equality regardless of gender

Prohibition of slavery

In Guatemala[,] all [of the] human beings are free and equal in dignity and rights. The
man and the woman, whatever their civil status may be, have equal opportunities
and responsibilities. No person can be subject to servitude or to another condition
that diminishes his or her dignity. The human beings must exercise [guardar] brotherly behavior among them.

Article 5: [The] Freedom of Action

Freedom of opinion/thought/conscience

All persons have the right to do what the law does not prohibit; [the persons] are not
obligated to obey orders that are not based in law or issued in accordance to it.
Neither may they be persecuted or harassed for their opinions or for acts that do not
imply an infraction of it.

Article 6: Legal Detention

No person may be arrested or detained, except for cause of [a] crime or [a] offense
[falta] and by virtue of a order issued in accordance to the law [and] by a competent
judicial authority. The cases of flagrant crime or offense are excepted. The detained
[person] will be placed at the provision of the competent judicial authority within a
time limit not exceeding six hours, and may not be subject to any other authority.

The functionary, or agent of the authority who infringes what is established in this
Article will be sanctioned according to the Law, and the tribunals, of office, will
initiate the corresponding process.

Article 7: Notification of the Cause of Detention

Any person [who is] detained must be notified immediately, in a verbal or written
form, of the cause that motivated his [or her] detention, [the] authority which
ordered it and the place where he [or she] will remain. The same notification must be
made through the most rapid means to the person designated by the detained
[person] and the authority will be responsible for the effectiveness of the
notification.

Article 8: Rights of the Detained

All detained [persons] must be informed immediately of their rights in a form that
will be understandable, especially [of the right] to use a defender [defensor], who
may be present at all police and judicial diligences. The detained [person] cannot be
obligated to testify except before a competent judicial authority.

Article 9: Interrogation [Interrogatorio] of Those Detained
or Imprisoned
The judicial authorities are the only ones competent to interrogate those [who are] detained or imprisoned. This diligence must be practiced within a time that does not
exceed twenty-four hours.

Extrajudicial questioning lacks any probatory value.

constituteproject.org
PDF generated: 04 Feb 2020, 23:43

Page 14
Guatemala 1985 (rev. 1993)

Article 10: Legal Detention Center

The persons apprehended by the authority may not be taken to places of detention,
arrest, or imprisonment different from those which are legally and publicly
designated to that effect. The provisional centers of detention, arrest, or
imprisonment, shall be different from those where the sentences [condenas] are to
be fulfilled.

The authorities and their agents, who violate what is established in this Article, will
be personally responsible.
Article 11: Detention for Faults [Faltas] or Infractions

The persons whose identities can be established by means of documents, [through] the testimony of witnesses of substance [de persona de arraigo], or by [its] own
authority, may not remain detained for faults or infractions.

In such cases, under the penalty of the corresponding sanction, the authority will
limit its duty [cometido] to report the evidence to the competent judge and to warn
the offender, as to appear before the same within the subsequent 48 business
[hábiles] hours. To that effect, all of the days of the year, and within the hours
comprehended between eight and eighteen hours[,] are business [hours].

Whoever disobeys the summons [emplazamiento] will be sanctioned according to
the law. The person who may not be identified according to what is established in
this Article, will be placed at the provision of the nearest judicial authority, within the
first hour following his [or her] detention.

Article 12: Right to Defense

The defense of the person and his [or her] rights are inviolable. No one may be
sentenced or deprived from his [or her] rights, without being summoned, heard and
defeated in a legal process before a competent and pre-established judge and
tribunal.

No person may be tried by Special or Secret Tribunals, nor through proceedings that
are not pre-established legally.
Article 13: Motives for a Order [Auto] of Imprisonment

A order of imprisonment may not be dictated, without previous information of a
crime having been committed and without the concurrence [of] sufficient rational
motives to believe that the detained person has committed it or [has] participated in
it.

The police authorities may not present[,] of office, before the media of social
communication, any person who has not been previously investigated [indagada] by
a competent tribunal.
Article 14: Presumption of Innocence and Publicity of the
Process
Any person is innocent, while not being judicially declared responsible, in a duly
executory sentence.


Presumption of innocence in trials

constituteproject.org
PDF generated: 04 Feb 2020, 23:43

Page 15
Guatemala 1985 (rev. 1993)
The detained, the offended, the Public Ministry and the attorneys who have been
designated by the interested [persons], in a verbal or written form, have the right to
take cognizance of, personally, all the actions, documents, and penal diligences
without any reservation and in an immediate form.


Right to examine evidence/witnesses
Article 15: Non-retroactivity of the Law

Protection from ex post facto laws

The law does not have retroactive effect, except in penal matters when it favors the
defendant [reo].
Article 16: Declaration against Oneself and [against] Relatives


Protection from self-incrimination

In a penal process, no person can be obligated to testify against oneself, against his
[or her] spouse or person of legal union, or against relatives within the levels [grados] of law.
Article 17: There Is No Offense or Penalty without a Prior
Law
The actions or omissions that are not qualified as crimes or faults and that [are] punishable [penadas] by a law [that is] prior to their perpetration[,] are not
punishable.


Principle of no punishment without law
There is no prison for debt.

Rights of debtors
Article 18: Death Penalty
The death penalty may not be imposed in the following cases:

a. With basis on presumptions;

b. On women;

c. On those older than sixty years of age;

d. On those convicted of political and common crimes connected with political
[ones]; and

e. On [those] convicted and whose extradition has been granted under such
condition.

Against a sentence that imposes the death penalty, all of the pertinent legal
recourses [recursos], including that of cassation[,] will be admissible; this [recourse] will always be admitted for its processing. The penalty will be executed after all of
the recourses are exhausted.

The Congress of the Republic can abolish the death penalty.

constituteproject.org
PDF generated: 04 Feb 2020, 23:43

Page 16
Guatemala 1985 (rev. 1993)

Article 19: Penitentiary System

The penitentiary system must tend to the social rehabilitation and reeducation of the
prisoners [reclusos] and to comply[,] in their treatment, with [observance to] the
following minimum norms:

a. They must be treated as human beings; they must not be discriminated
against for any reason whatsoever, or be infringed with cruel treatment,
physical, moral, [or] psychic tortures, duress or harassments, labor
incompatible with their physical state, actions that denigrate their dignity,
or make them victims of exactions, or be submitted to scientific
experiment.


Prohibition of corporal punishment

Prohibition of cruel treatment

Prohibition of torture

b. They must fulfill the penalties in the places designated to such effect. The
penal centers are of civil character and with specialized personnel; and

c. They have the right to communicate, when they so request, with their
families, defense attorney, religious assistant or physician [medico], and in
its case, with the diplomatic or consular representative of their own
nationality.

The infraction of any of the norms established in this Article, gives the right to the
detained [person] to claim of the State an indemnification for the damages caused[,] and the Supreme Court of Justice will order his [or her] immediate protection.

The State must create and promote the conditions for the exact fulfillment of what is
provided for [perceptuado] in this Article.
Article 20: Minors of Age

Privileges for juveniles in criminal process

The minors of age who violate [transgredan] the law are not imputable. Their
treatment must be directed towards an integral education [that is] proper for
childhood and adolescence.

The minors, whose conduct violates a penal law, will be assisted by specialized
institutions and personnel. For no reason can they be incarcerated in penal centers
or [centers] of detention [that are] intended for adults. A specific law will regulate
this matter.

Article 21: Sanctions for Public Functionaries or
Employees

The public functionaries or employees or [the] other persons who give or execute
orders against the provisions in the two previous Articles, in addition to the
sanctions imposed on them by the law, will be immediately removed [destituidos] from their offices [cargos], as the case may be, and disqualified from the holding of
any public office or employment.

The custodian who makes inappropriate use of measures or arms against a detained
or imprisoned [person], will be held responsible in accordance with the Penal Law.
The crime committed in such circumstances is imprescriptible.

constituteproject.org
PDF generated: 04 Feb 2020, 23:43

Page 17
Guatemala 1985 (rev. 1993)

Article 22: Penal and Police Records

The penal and police records are not a cause for persons to be restricted in the
exercise of their rights which are guaranteed by this Constitution and the laws of the
Republic, except when they limited by the law, or in a final [firme] sentence, and for
the term established in it.

Article 23: Inviolability of the Home

Inalienable rights

Right to privacy

The home [vivienda] is inviolable. No one may penetrate the dwelling of someone
else without the permission of the resident who inhabits it, except by the written
order of a competent judge in which the reason for the diligence is specified and
never before six or after eighteen hours. Such diligence will always be carried out in
the presence of the interested party, or his [or her] representative [mandatario].

Article 24: Inviolability of Correspondence, Documents,
and Books


Right to privacy

The correspondence of any person, his [or her] documents, and books are inviolable.
They may only be inspected or seized, by virtue of a firm resolution dictated by a
competent judge and with the legal formalities. The secrecy of correspondence and
telephone, radio, and cablegram communications and of other products of the
modern technology is guaranteed.


Inalienable rights

The books, documents and archives related with the payment of taxes, rates, charges
[arbitrios], and contributions, may be revised by the competent authority in
accordance with the law. It is punishable to disclose the amount of taxes paid, [the] earnings, losses, expenses, and any other data referring to the revised accounts of
individual or juridical persons, with the exception of general balances, of which
publication is ordered by the law.


Regulation of evidence collection

The documents or [the] information obtained in violation of this Article neither
produce faith nor may be used as evidence in trial.


Regulation of evidence collection
Article 25: Registry of Persons and Vehicles

The registry of the persons and of the vehicles, can only be drawn up [efectuarse] by
the elements of the security forces when a justifying cause is established for the
same. For that effect, the elements of the security forces must appear wearing the
appropriate uniform and belong to the same sex as the subjects [being] requisitioned,
having to keep the respect for the dignity, privacy and decorum of the persons.

Article 26: Freedom of Movement [Locomoción]

Any person has [the] freedom to enter, remain, transit, and exit from the national
territory and change domiciles or residences, without other limitations than those
established by the law.


Freedom of movement

No Guatemalan may be exiled or forbidden from entering the national territory or be
denied a passport or other identification documents.
Guatemalans can enter and exit the country without fulfilling the requirement of a
visa.
The law will determine the responsibilities incurred by those who infringe this
provision.

constituteproject.org
PDF generated: 04 Feb 2020, 23:43

Page 18
Guatemala 1985 (rev. 1993)

Article 27: Right of Asylum
Guatemala recognizes the right of asylum and grants it in accordance with the
international practices.


Protection of stateless persons
The extradition is regulated by that provided in the international treaties.

International law

The extradition of Guatemalans will not be initiated for political crimes, and they will
not be handed over to a foreign government, except for what is established in [the] treaties and conventions regarding crimes against humanity or against the
international law.


Extradition procedure

The expulsion from the national territory of a political refugee will not be accorded,
with destination to the country that seeks him [or her].
Article 28: Right of Petition

Right of petition

The inhabitants of the Republic of Guatemala have the right to direct, individually or
collectively, petitions to the authority, who is obligated to process them and resolve
them according to the law.

In administrative matters the term to resolve the petitions and to notify the
resolutions may not exceed thirty days.

In fiscal matters, to challenge administrative resolutions in those procedures
[expedientes] that originate in exceptions [reparos] or adjustments for any tax, the
previous payment of the tax or any guarantee will not be required of the taxpayer
[contribuyente].

Article 29: Free Access to Tribunals and Dependencies of
the State
Every person has free access to the tribunals, dependencies and offices of the State,
in order to exercise their actions and enforce their rights in accordance with the law.
Only foreigners may avail themselves of diplomatic channels in case of a denial of
justice.

The sole fact that a resolution [fallo] may be adverse to their interests[,] is not
qualified as such a denial[,] and in any case, the legal recourses established by the
Guatemalan laws must have been exhausted.

Article 30: Publicity of the Administrative Acts

Right to information

All of the acts of the administration are public. The interested [persons] are entitled
to obtain, at any time, reports, copies, reproductions, and certifications that they
[may] request and the display of the dossiers [expedientes] that they may wish to
consult, except when dealing with military or diplomatic matters relating to national
security, or details provided by individuals under the guarantee of confidentiality.

Article 31: Access to Archives and State Registries

Right to information

All persons have the right to take cognizance of what the archives, records, or any
other form of State registries contain about them, and [regarding] the purpose for
which such data is used, as well as their correction, rectification, and updating
[actualización]. Registries and records of political affiliation, except for those
pertaining to the electoral authorities and to the political parties[,] are prohibited.

constituteproject.org
PDF generated: 04 Feb 2020, 23:43

Page 19
Guatemala 1985 (rev. 1993)

Article 32: Objective of [the] Summons

The appearance before an authority, functionary, or public employee is not
obligatory, if in the corresponding summons the objective of the diligence is not
expressly stated.
Article 33: Right of Assembly and Demonstration
[Manifestación]


Freedom of assembly
The right of peaceful assembly and without weapons is recognized.

The rights of assembly and of public demonstration may not be restricted,
diminished, or restrained; and the law shall regulate them with the sole purpose of
guaranteeing the public order.

The religious manifestations outside of temples are permitted and are regulated by
the law.
For the exercise of these rights a prior notification by the organizers before the
competent authority will suffice.
Article 34: Right of Association

Freedom of association
The right of free association is recognized.

No one is obligated to associate [with] or to form part of mutual-interest
[autodefensa] or similar groups or associations. The case of professional associations
is excepted.

Article 35: Freedom of Expression of Thought

Freedom of expression

Freedom of opinion/thought/conscience

Freedom of press

The expression of thought through any means of dissemination, without censorship
or prior permission, is free. This constitutional right may not be restrained by [the] law or by any governmental provision. [The person] who by using the freedom should
fail to respect private life or morals, will be held responsible in accordance with the
law. Whoever may feel offended has the right of publication of his [or her] defense,
clarifications, and rectifications.

The publications which contain denunciations, criticisms, or accusations
[imputaciones] against functionaries or public employees for actions conducted in
the performance of their duties[,] do not constitute a crime or a fault.

The functionaries and [the] public employees can request a tribunal of honor,
composed in the form determined by the law, to declare that the publication that
affects them is based on inaccurate facts or that the charges made against them are
unfounded. A court ruling [fallo] that vindicates the offended, must be published in
the same media of social communication where the accusation appeared.
The activity of the means of social communication is of public interest and in no case
may they be expropriated. They may not be closed, attached [embargados],
interfered with, confiscated, or seized [decomisados], nor may the enterprises,
plants, equipment, machinery, and gear [enseres] of the means of communication be
interrupted in their functioning, for faults or crimes in the expression of thought.

The access to the sources of information is free and no authority may limit this right.

The authorization, limitation or cancellation of the concessions granted by the State
to persons, may not be used as elements of pressure or duress [coacción] to limit the
exercise of the freedom of expression of thought.

constituteproject.org
PDF generated: 04 Feb 2020, 23:43

Page 20
Guatemala 1985 (rev. 1993)

A jury will take exclusive cognizance of the crimes or faults to which this Article
refers.
Everything that relates to this constitutional right is regulated in the Constitutional
Law for the Expression of Thought [Ley Constitucional de Emisión del Pensamiento].
The owners of the means of social communication must provide socio-economic
coverage to their reporters, through the contracting of life insurance.
Article 36: Freedom of Religion

Freedom of religion

The exercise of all the religions is free. Any person has the right to practice his [or
her] religion or belief, in public and in private, through teaching, cult and observance,
without other limits than the public order and the due respect for the dignity of the
hierarchy and the faithful [followers] of [the] other beliefs [credos].

Article 37: Juridical Personality of the Churches

Tax status of religious organizations

The juridical personality of the Catholic Church is recognized. The other churches,
cults, entities, and associations of religious character will obtain the recognition of
their juridical personality in accordance with the rules of their institution[,] and the
Government may not deny it[,] aside from reasons of public order.

The State will extend to the Catholic Church, without any cost, [the] titles of
ownership of the real assets which it holds peacefully for its own purposes, as long as
they have formed part of the patrimony of the Catholic Church in the past. The
property assigned to third parties or those which the State has traditionally assigned
to their services[,] may not be affected.

The real assets of the religious entities assigned [destinados] to cult, to education,
and to social assistance, enjoy exemption from taxes, assessments, and
contributions.

Article 38: Possession and Bearing of Arms

Right to bear arms

The right to own [tenencia] weapons for personal use, not prohibited by the law, in
the place of inhabitation, is recognized. There will not be an obligation to hand them
over, except in cases ordered by a competent judge.

The right to bear arms is recognized, [and is] regulated by the law.
Article 39: Private Property

Right to own property

Right to transfer property

Private property is guaranteed as a right inherent to the human person. Any person
can freely dispose of his [or her] property in accordance with the law.

The State guarantees the exercise of this right and must create the conditions that
enable [faciliten] the owner to use and enjoy his [or her] property, in such a way as to
achieve individual progress and the national development to [the] benefit of all
Guatemalans.

Article 40: Expropriation

Protection from expropriation

In specific cases, private property can be expropriated for reasons of duly proven
collective utility, social benefit or public interest. The expropriation must be subject
to the proceedings specified by the law, and the affected asset will be appraised by
experts taking its actual value as a basis.

constituteproject.org
PDF generated: 04 Feb 2020, 23:43

Page 21
Guatemala 1985 (rev. 1993)

The indemnification must be prior and in an effective currency of legal tender, unless
another form of compensation is agreed upon with the interested party.

Only in [the] cases of war, public calamity, or serious disruption of peace can a
property be occupied or intervened, or be expropriated without prior compensation,
but the latter must be made immediately following the end of the emergency. The
law will establish the norms to be followed with enemy property.

The form of payment of the indemnifications due to the expropriation of idle
[ociosas] lands will be determined by the law. In no case will the deadline [término] to
make such payment effective exceed ten years.

Article 41: Protection of the Right of Ownership

The right of ownership may not be limited in any form due to political activity or
crime. The confiscation of property and the imposition of confiscatory fines are
prohibited. In no case may the fines exceed the value of the unpaid tax.

Article 42: [The] Right of the Author or Inventor

Provisions for intellectual property

The right of an author and an inventor is recognized; the titleholders of the same will
enjoy the exclusive ownership of their work or invention, in accordance with the law
and the international treaties.

Article 43: Freedom of Industry, Trade, and Work
The freedom of industry, trade, and work is recognized, except for the limitations
that due to social motives or the national interest are imposed by the law.
Article 44: [The] Rights Inherent to the Human Person

The rights and [the] guarantees granted by the Constitution do not exclude others
that, even though they are not expressly mentioned in it, are inherent to the human
person.

The social interest prevails over the individual [particular] interest.

The laws and the government provisions or [those of] any other order that reduce,
restrict, or distort the rights guaranteed by the Constitution are void ipso jure.
Article 45: Action Against Offenders [Infractores] and
Legitimacy of Resistance

The action to prosecute the violators of human rights is public and may be exercised
through a simple denunciation, without any guarantee or formality whatsoever. The
resistance of the people for the protection and defense of the rights and guarantees
granted in the Constitution[,] is legitimate.

Article 46: Preeminence of [the] International Law

International law

Legal status of treaties

The general principle that within matters of human rights, the treaties and
agreements approved and ratified by Guatemala, have preeminence over the
internal law[,] is established.

constituteproject.org
PDF generated: 04 Feb 2020, 23:43

Page 22
Guatemala 1985 (rev. 1993)

CHAPTER II: Social Rights
FIRST SECTION: The Family
Article 47: Protection of the Family

Right to found a family

Provision for matrimonial equality

The State guarantees the social, economic, and juridical protection of the family. It
will promote its organization on the legal basis of marriage, the equal rights of the
spouses, [the] responsible paternity and the right of the persons to decide freely the
number and the spacing [espaciamiento] of their children.

Article 48: De facto Unions
The State recognizes de facto unions and the law will regulate [perceptuará] everything relative to it.
Article 49: Matrimony

Provision for civil marriage

The [state of] matrimony may be authorized by the mayors [alcaldes], council
members, notaries in exercise [of their function] and [by] religious ministers
authorized [facultados] by the corresponding administrative authority.

Article 50: Equality of the Children

Rights of children

All of the children are equal before the law and they have the same rights. Any
discrimination is punishable.
Article 51: Protection of [the] Minors and [of] the Elderly

State support for the elderly

State support for children

The State will protect the physical, mental, and moral health of the minors of age and
of the elderly. It will guarantee to them their right to food, health, education, and
security and social prevision.

Article 52: Maternity
The [state of] maternity has the protection of the State, which in special form will see
to the strict compliance of the rights and obligations that derive from it.
Article 53: [The] Disabled [Minusválidos] 
State support for the disabled

The State guarantees the protection of the disabled and of those persons who suffer
from physical, psychic, or sensory limitations. Their medical-social care, as well as the
promotion of the policies and the services that make their rehabilitation and their
integral reincorporation into society possible, are declared to be of national interest.
The law will regulate this matter and will create the technical and executory organs
that are necessary.

Article 54: Adoption

State support for children

The State recognizes and protects adoption. The adopted [person] acquires the
status of child of the adopter. The protection of orphaned children and of abandoned
children is declared of national interest.

constituteproject.org
PDF generated: 04 Feb 2020, 23:43

Page 23
Guatemala 1985 (rev. 1993)

Article 55: Obligation to Provide Food
The refusal to supply food in the form prescribed by the law is punishable.
Article 56: Actions Against Causes of Family Disintegration

The actions against alcoholism, drug addiction, and other causes of family
disintegration[,] are declared to be of social interest. The State must take the
adequate measures of prevention, treatment, and rehabilitation to make said actions
effective, for the well being of the individual, the family, and the society.

SECOND SECTION: Culture
Article 57: Right to Culture

Right to enjoy the benefits of science

Every person has the right to participate freely in the cultural and artistic life of the
community, as well as [to] benefit from the scientific and technological progress of
the Nation.

Article 58: Cultural Identity
The right of the persons and of the communities to their cultural identity in
accordance to their values, their language, and their customs[,] is recognized.
Article 59: Protection and Research of the Culture

Right to culture

It is [a] primary obligation of the State to protect, promote, and disseminate
[divulgar] the national culture; [to] issue the laws and provisions that tend to its
enrichment, restoration, preservation, and recuperation; [to] promote and regulate
its scientific research, as well as the creation and [the] application of [the] appropriate technology.

Article 60: Cultural Heritage [Patrimonio]

The paleontological, archeological, historical, and artistic assets [bienes] and values
of the country form [part of] the cultural heritage of the Nation and are under the
protection of the State. Their transfer, export, or alteration, except in the cases
determined by the law, is prohibited.

Article 61: Protection of the Cultural Heritage

The archaeological sites, [the] collections of monuments and the Cultural Center of
Guatemala [Centro Cultural de Guatemala], will receive special attention from the
State, with the purpose of preserving its characteristics and safeguarding
[resguardar] its historical value and cultural assets. The Tikal National Park, the
Archeological Park of Quiriguá, and the city of Ancient [Antigua] Guatemala, will be
subject to a special conservation regime because they have been declared [part of
the] Heritage of the World [Patrimonio Mundial], as well as those that acquire a
similar recognition.

constituteproject.org
PDF generated: 04 Feb 2020, 23:43

Page 24
Guatemala 1985 (rev. 1993)

Article 62: Protection of Traditional Art, Folklore, and
Handicrafts


Reference to art

The national artistic expression, the popular art, the folklore, and the autochthonous
handicrafts and industries, must be [the] object of special protection by the State,
with the purpose of preserving their authenticity. The State will propitiate the
opening of national and international markets for the free commercialization of the
work of the artists and artisans, promoting their production and adequate
technification [tecnificación].

Article 63: Right to Creative Expression

Reference to art

Reference to science

The State guarantees free creative expression, [it] supports and encourages the
scientist, the intellectual and the national artist, promoting their formation and
professional and economic improvement.

Article 64: Natural Heritage

The conservation, protection and improvement of the natural heritage of the
Nation[,] is declared [to be] of national interest. The State will promote the creation
of national parks, reservations, and natural sanctuaries [refugios], which are
inalienable. A law will guarantee their protection and that of the fauna and the flora
that exists within them.

Article 65: Preservation and Promotion of Culture

The activity of the State with regards to the preservation and promotion of the
culture and its manifestations, will be the charge [cargo] of a specific organ with its
own budget.

THIRD SECTION: Indigenous Communities
Article 66: Protection of Ethnic Groups

Guatemala is formed by diverse ethnic groups among which are found the
indigenous groups of Mayan descent. The State recognizes, respects, and promotes
their forms of life, customs, traditions, forms of social organization, the use of the
indigenous attire by men and women, [and their] languages and dialects.

Article 67: Protection of the Indigenous Agricultural Lands
and Cooperatives

The lands of the cooperatives, [the] indigenous communities or any other forms of
communal or collective possession of agrarian ownership, as well as the family
patrimony and the people's housing, will enjoy special protection of the State, [and] of preferential credit and technical assistance, which may guarantee their possession
and development, in order to assure an improved quality of life to all of the
inhabitants.

The indigenous communities and others that hold lands that historically belong to
them and which they have traditionally administered in special form, will maintain
that system.

constituteproject.org
PDF generated: 04 Feb 2020, 23:43

Page 25
Guatemala 1985 (rev. 1993)

Article 68: Lands for Indigenous Communities
Through special programs and adequate legislation, the State will provide state lands
to the indigenous communities who may need them for their development.
Article 69: Transfer [Traslación] of Workers and their
Protection

The labor activities that involve the transfer of workers outside of their
communities, will be the object of protection and legislation to assure adequate
conditions of health, security, and social prevision that prevent the payment of
wages [that are] not adjusted to the law, the disintegration of those communities and
in general all of discriminatory treatment.

Article 70: Specific Law
A law will regulate the matters related to this section.
FOURTH SECTION: Education
Article 71: Right to Education

Right to academic freedom

The freedom of education and educational [docente] criteria is guaranteed. It is the
obligation of the State to provide and facilitate education to its inhabitants without
any discrimination whatsoever. The foundation and maintenance of cultural
educational centers and museums is declared to be of public utility and necessity.

Article 72: Objectives [Fines] of Education
Education has as its primary objective the integral development of the human
person, the knowledge of reality and national and universal culture.

Education, instruction, social development and the systematic teaching of the
Constitution of the Republic and of the human rights are declared to be of national
interest.
Article 73: Freedom of Education and the Economic
Assistance of the State

The family is the source of the education and the parents are entitled to choose what
is to be taught [impartirse] to their minor children. The State may subsidize the
gratuitous private educational centers and the law will regulate what is relative to
this matter. The private educational centers shall function under the inspection of
the State. They are obligated to fulfill [llenar], at least, [the] official study plans and
programs. As cultural centers they will be enjoy the exemption of all types of taxes
and assessments.

Religious education is optional in the official establishments and can be taught
during ordinary hours, without any discrimination.
The State will contribute to the maintenance of religious education without any
discrimination.

constituteproject.org
PDF generated: 04 Feb 2020, 23:43

Page 26
Guatemala 1985 (rev. 1993)

Article 74: Obligatory Education

Compulsory education

Free education

The inhabitants have the right and the obligation to receive initial, pre-primary,
primary and basic education, within the age limits established by the law.

The education provided by the State is gratuitous.
The State will provide and promote scholarships and educational credits.

Scientific, technological, and humanistic education constitute objectives that the
State must guide and develop [ampliar] permanently.
The State shall promote special education, diversified [education] and
extracurricular [extraescolar] [education].
Article 75: Literacy

Literacy is declared [to be] of national urgency and it is a social obligation to
contribute to it. The State will organize it and promote it with all the necessary
resources.

Article 76: Educational System and Bilingual Education
The administration of the educational system must be decentralized and
regionalized.
In the schools established in regions with a predominantly indigenous population,
the education must be provided preferentially in [a] bilingual form.
Article 77: Obligations of Business Owners

The owners of the industrial, agricultural, livestock, and commercial businesses are
obligated to establish and maintain, in accordance with the law, [the] schools, day
care centers, and cultural centers for their workers and school population.

Article 78: Teaching Faculty [Magisterio]

The State will promote the economic, social, and cultural improvement of the
teaching faculty, including the right to retirement that makes possible their effective
dignification [dignificación].

The rights acquired by the national teaching faculty are of a minimal and
irrenounceable character. The law will regulate these matters.
Article 79: Agricultural Education

Agricultural study, apprenticeship, explication, commercialization and
industrialization are declared to be of national interest. The National Central School
of Agriculture [Escuela Nacional Central de Agricultura] is created as an autonomous
decentralized entity, with juridical personality and its own patrimony; it must
organize, direct, and develop plans of agricultural, livestock, and forestry study of the
Nation at the intermediate level; and it will be governed by its own organic law, with
an allocation of an amount of no less than five percent of the regular budget of the
Ministry of Agriculture.

constituteproject.org
PDF generated: 04 Feb 2020, 23:43

Page 27
Guatemala 1985 (rev. 1993)

Article 80: Promotion of the Science and the Technology

Reference to science

The State recognizes and promotes science and technology as fundamental bases of
national development. The law will establish norms for [normará] what is pertinent.
Article 81: Titles and Diplomas

The titles and diplomas of which the issuance corresponds to the State, have full
legal validity. The rights acquired for the exercise of the professions accredited by
said titles, must be respected and no provisions of any kind may be issued that limit
or restrict these rights.

FIFTH SECTION: Universities

Article 82: Autonomy of the University of San Carlos de
Guatemala

The University of San Carlos de Guatemala, is an autonomous institution with
juridical personality. In its character of [being] the only State university[,] it
exclusively corresponds to it to direct, organize, and develop the superior education
and the professional university education of the State, as well as the dissemination of
the culture in all [of] its manifestations. It will promote by every means within its
reach the research in every area of the human knowledge and will cooperate in the
study and solution of the national problems.

It is governed by its Organic Law and by the statutes and regulations that it emits,
having to observe in the conformation of its directive organs, the principle of
representation of its titular professors [catedráticos], its graduates and its students.
Article 83: Government of the University of San Carlos de
Guatemala

The government of the University of San Carlos de Guatemala corresponds to the
Superior University Council [Consejo Superior Universitario], integrated by the
Rector, who presides over it; the deans of the faculties; a representative of the
professional association [colegio], graduated from the University of San Carlos de
Guatemala, which corresponds to each faculty; a titular professor and a student for
each faculty.

Article 84: Budgetary Allocation for the University of San
Carlos de Guatemala

A specific [privativa] budgetary allocation corresponds to the University of San
Carlos de Guatemala [that is] no less than five percent of the General Budget of
Ordinary Revenues of the State, which must generate an adequate budgetary
increase sufficient to cover the growth in the student population or the
improvement of the academic level.

Article 85: Private Universities

To the private universities, which are independent institutions, corresponds the
organization and development of the private superior education of the Nation, with
the purpose of contributing to the professional formation, to the scientific research,

constituteproject.org
PDF generated: 04 Feb 2020, 23:43

Page 28
Guatemala 1985 (rev. 1993)

to the cultural dissemination and to the study and solution of the national problems.

When the functioning of a private university is authorized, it will have juridical
personality and [the] freedom to create its faculties and institutes, to develop its
academic and teaching activities, as well as to elaborate its plans and programs of
study.

Article 86: Council of the Superior Private Education

The Council of the Superior Private Education [Consejo de la Enseñanza Privada
Superior] will have as its functions to see to the maintaining of the academic level in
the private universities without undermining their independence and to authorize
the creation of new universities; it is integrated by two delegates from the University
of San Carlos de Guatemala, two delegates from the private universities and one
delegate elected by the presidents of the professional colleges who do not hold any
office [cargo] in any university.

The presidency will be exercised in a rotating form. The law will regulate this matter.

Article 87: Recognition of Degrees, Titles, Diplomas, and
Incorporations
In Guatemala only degrees, titles, and diplomas granted by the legally established
universities organized to function in the country[,] will be recognized, except for
what is provided in international treaties.

The University of San Carlos de Guatemala, is the only one entitled [facultada] to
resolve the incorporations of the professionals graduated from foreign universities
and to set the prior requirements which must fulfilled for that purpose, as well as to
recognize the titles and diplomas of university character protected by the
international treaties. The titles granted by Central American universities will have
full validity in Guatemala when the basic centralization of the study plans is
achieved.

Legal provisions that grant privileges to the detriment of those exercising a
profession with a title or who have been legally authorized to exercise it, may not be
adopted.

Article 88: Tax Exemptions and Deductions
The universities are exempt from the payment of all types of taxes, assessments, and
contributions without any exception whatsoever.
The donations given to universities, cultural or scientific institutions will be
deductible from the net revenue prior to assessing the income tax.
The State can provide economic assistance to private universities, for the fulfillment
of their own objectives.

The University of San Carlos de Guatemala and the private universities may neither
be [the] object of processes of execution nor may they be intervened, except in those
cases where the private universities assume obligations through civil, mercantile, or
labor contracts.

Article 89: Granting of Degrees, Titles, and Diplomas
Only the universities that are legally authorized may grant degrees and issue titles
and graduation diplomas within superior education.

constituteproject.org
PDF generated: 04 Feb 2020, 23:43

Page 29
Guatemala 1985 (rev. 1993)

Article 90: Professional Association [Colegiación]

The association of university professionals is obligatory and it will have as is its
objectives the moral, scientific, technical, and material improvement of the
university professions and the control of their exercise.

The professional associations, as work [gremiales] associations with a juridical
personality, shall function in accordance with the Law of the Professional
Association [Ley de Colegiación Profesional], obligatorily[,] and the statutes of each
association will be approved with independence from the universities from which its
members have graduated.

They will contribute to the strengthening of the autonomy of the University of San
Carlos de Guatemala and for the purposes and goals of all the universities of the
country.
In every matter related to the improvement of the scientific and the cultural-
technical level of the university professions, the universities of the country will be
able to require the participation of the professional associations.

SIXTH SECTION: Sports
Article 91: Budgetary Allocation for Sports

It is the duty of the State to encourage and promote physical education and [the
practice of] sports. To that effect, a specific allocation no smaller than three percent
of the General Budget of Ordinary Revenues of the State will be set. From such
allocation[,] fifty percent will be destined to the federated sports sector through its
administrative organs, in the form established by [the] law; twenty-five percent to
physical education, recreation, and school sports; and twenty-five percent to
non-federated sports.

Article 92: Autonomy of Sports

The autonomy of federated sports is recognized and guaranteed through its
administrative [rectores] organs, the Autonomous Sports Confederation of
Guatemala [Confederación Deportiva Autónoma de Guatemala] and the
Guatemalan Olympic Committee [Comité Olímpico Guatemalteco], which have
juridical personality and their own patrimony, being exempt from all types of taxes
and assessments.

SEVENTH SECTION: Health, Security, and Social
Assistance

Article 93: Right to Health

Right to health care

The enjoyment of health is a fundamental right of the human being, without any
discrimination.

constituteproject.org
PDF generated: 04 Feb 2020, 23:43

Page 30
Guatemala 1985 (rev. 1993)

Article 94: Obligation of the State, Regarding Health and
Social Assistance


Right to health care

The State will see to the health and the social assistance of all the inhabitants. It will
develop, through its institutions, actions of prevention, promotion, recovery,
rehabilitation, coordination and those complementary ones [that are] appropriate in
order to procure [for them] the most complete physical, mental, and social wellbeing.

Article 95: Health, [a] Public Asset
The health of the inhabitants of the Nation is a public asset [bien]. All persons and
institutions are obligated to see to its conservation and reestablishment.
Article 96: Quality Control of Products

The State will control the quality of food products, pharmaceuticals, chemicals and of
everything that can affect the health and the well being of the inhabitants. It will see
to the establishment and programming of the primary attention to health, and for
the improvement of the conditions of the basic environmental sanitation
[saneamiento] of the least protected communities.

Article 97: [The] Environment and [the] Ecological Balance

Protection of environment

The State, the municipalities and the inhabitants of the national territory are
obligated to promote [propiciar] the social, economic, and technological
development that prevents the pollution [contaminación] of the environment and
maintains the ecological balance. All the necessary regulations will be dictated to
guarantee that the use [utilización y el aprovechamiento] of the fauna, [the] flora,
[the] land, and [the] water, are conducted rationally, avoiding their depredation.

Article 98: Community Participation in Health Programs
The communities have the right and the duty to actively participate in the planning,
execution, and evaluation of [the] health programs.
Article 99: Feeding and Nutrition

The State will see to it that the food and the nutrition of the population meet the
minimum health requirements. The specialized institutions of the State must
coordinate their actions among themselves or with [the] international organs
dedicated to health, [in order] to achieve an effective national food system.

Article 100: Social Security

The State recognizes and guarantees the right to social security for the benefit of the
inhabitants of the Nation. Its regime is instituted as a public function, in a national,
unitary, and obligatory manner.

The State, the employers, and the workers covered by the regime, with the sole
exception of that provided by Article 88 of this Constitution, have the obligation to
contribute to the financing of such regime and [the] right to participate in its
direction, seeking [procurando] its progressive improvement.

The application of the social security regime corresponds to the Guatemalan Social
Security Institute [Instituto Guatemalteco de Seguridad Social], which is an

constituteproject.org
PDF generated: 04 Feb 2020, 23:43

Page 31
Guatemala 1985 (rev. 1993)
autonomous entity with juridical personality, [and with] its own patrimony and
functions; it enjoys a total exemption from taxes, contributions and assessments,
whether established or to be established. The Guatemalan Social Security Institute
must participate with the health institutions in [a] coordinated manner.

The Executive Organ will allocate annually in the Budget of Revenues and
Expenditures of the State, a specific portion [partida] to cover the share [cuota] that
corresponds to the State as such and as an employer, which may not be transferred
or canceled during the fiscal year [ejercicio] and [that] will be establish in accordance
with the technical actuarial studies of the Institute.

Against the resolutions dictated in this matter, [the] administrative and
contentious-administrative recourses proceed in accordance with the law. When
dealing with benefits [prestaciones] that the regime must provide, the tribunals of
labor and social prevision will take cognizance.

EIGHTH SECTION: Work
Article 101: [The] Right to Work

Right to work

Duty to work

To work is a right and a social obligation of the person. The labor regime of the
country must be organized in accordance with the principles of social justice.
Article 102: Minimum Social Rights of Labor Legislation
The minimum social rights that form the basis of the labor legislation and the activity
of the tribunals and [the] authorities [are]:

a. The right to the free choice [elección] of work and the satisfactory
economic conditions that guarantee a dignified existence for the worker
and his [or her] family;


Right to choose occupation

Right to safe work environment

Right to reasonable standard of living

b. That all work be equitably remunerated, except with what the law
determines in that regard;


Right to equal pay for work

c. The equality of salary for the same rendered work in equality of conditions,
productivity, and seniority;

d. The obligation to pay the worker in currency of legal tender. However, the
field worker [trabajador de campo] can receive, by choice [a su voluntad],
food products until up to thirty percent of his [or her] salary. In this case the
employer will provide those products at a price no superior than their cost;

e. The freedom from lien [inembargabilidad] of the salary in the cases
determined by the law. The personal work implements may not be subject
to a lien for any reason. Nevertheless, for the protection of the family of the
worker and by judicial order, part of the salary can be retained and
delivered to the corresponding [party];

f. The periodic establishment [fijación] of the minimum salary in accordance
with the law;

constituteproject.org
PDF generated: 04 Feb 2020, 23:43

Page 32
Guatemala 1985 (rev. 1993)

g. The ordinary effective workday [jornada] can neither exceed eight hours of
work per day, nor forty-four hours per week, equivalent to forty-eight
hours for the exclusive purpose of the payment of the salary.

The ordinary effective workday on the night shift can neither exceed six
hours per day, nor thirty-six hours per week. The mixed ordinary effective
workday can neither exceed seven hours per day, nor forty-two hours per
week. All work effectively performed outside [of the] ordinary working
hours, constitutes an extraordinary workday and must be remunerated as
such. The law will determine the very qualified situations of exception
where the provisions relative to the workdays are not applicable.

Those that by provision of the law, by custom or by agreement with the
employers work less than forty-four hours per week during the day,
thirty-six hours during the night, or forty-two hours in mixed-schedule
workdays, will have the right to receive the weekly salary in its entirety.

It is understood that effective work means the entire time that the worker
remains under the orders or at the disposal of the employer;

h. The right of the worker to a day of remunerated rest for each ordinary
work week or for any six consecutive workdays. The holidays [días de
asueto] recognized by the law will also be remunerated;


Right to rest and leisure

i. The right of the worker to fifteen working days of paid vacation after each
year of continuous service, with the exception of agricultural enterprise
workers, who will have the right to ten working days [of vacation]. The
vacations must be effective and the employer may not compensate such
right in a different manner, except when the labor relationship already
acquired would cease;

j. The obligation of the employer to grant[,] every year[,] a bonus [aguinaldo] of no less than one hundred percent of the monthly salary, or the one
already established if greater, to those workers who may have worked for
an uninterrupted year prior to the date of the payment. The law will
regulate the form of payment. For those workers with less than one year of
service, such bonus will be covered proportionally to the time [of duration] of [the] work;

k. The protection of the working woman and [the] regulation of the conditions
under which she must render her services.

There may not be differences established between married and single
women in terms of [the] work. The law will regulate the protection of the
maternity rights of the working woman, who may not be required to
[conduct any] work that may require an effort that puts her pregnancy in
jeopardy [gravidez]. The working mother will enjoy a compulsory rest
[period] [descanso forzoso] paid on the basis of one hundred percent of her
salary, during the thirty days prior to giving birth and [during] the
subsequent forty-five days. During the period of lactation she will have the
right to two periods of extraordinary rest, during her workday. The
prenatal and postnatal rest periods will be expanded according to her
physical conditions, by medical prescription;

constituteproject.org
PDF generated: 04 Feb 2020, 23:43

Page 33
Guatemala 1985 (rev. 1993)

l. Minors under fourteen years of age may not be employed in any type of
work, except for the exceptions established by the law. It is forbidden to
employ [ocupar] minors in works that are incompatible with their physical
capacity or that endanger their moral formation.


Limits on employment of children

The workers older than sixty years of age will be the object of a treatment
[that is] adequate to their age;

m. The protection and [the] promotion [fomento] of the work of the blind, the
disabled and the persons with physical, psychic, or nervous deficiencies.

n. The preference of Guatemalan workers over foreigners in equality of
conditions and in the percentages determined by the law. In comparable
[paridad] circumstances, no Guatemalan worker may earn a lesser salary
than a foreigner, be subject to inferior conditions of employment, or obtain
lesser economic advantages or other benefits [prestaciones];

ñ. The establishment of the norms of obligatory compliance for employers
and workers in the individual and collective labor contracts. The employers
and [the] employees will procure the economic development of their
enterprise for [their] common benefit;

o. The obligation of the employer to indemnify with the salary of one month
for each year of continuous service when unjustifiably or indirectly
dismissing [despida] a worker, as long as the law does not establish another
more appropriate [conveniente] system that would provide the worker
with better provisions.

For the effects of computing the continuous services[,] the date in which
the work relation began will be taken into account, whichever it may be;

p. It is the obligation of the employer to provide to the spouse or partner, the
minor children or the disabled [relatives] of a worker who may die while in
service, a benefit [prestación] equivalent to the salary of one month for
each year worked. This benefit will be covered by monthly payments and its
amount will not be less than the final salary received by the worker.

If death should occur for a reason of which risk is entirely covered by the
social security regime, this obligation of the employer will cease. In case
that this method should not cover the benefit completely, the employer
must pay the difference;

q. The right to the free unionization [sindicalización] of the workers. This right
can be exercised without any discrimination and without being subject to
any previous authorization, having only to fulfill the requirements
established by the law. The workers may not be dismissed for participating
in the establishment of a [labor] union, [and] must be abler to enjoy such a
right from the time that they notify the General Inspectorate of Labor
[Inspección General de Trabajo].


Right to join trade unions

constituteproject.org
PDF generated: 04 Feb 2020, 23:43

Page 34
Guatemala 1985 (rev. 1993)
Only the Guatemalans by birth can intervene in the organization, direction
and advising of [labor] unions. The cases of governmental technical
assistance and what is provided in international treaties or in intra-union
conventions authorized by the Executive Organ[,] are excepted;

r. The establishment of economic institutions and of social prevision which, in
benefit of the workers, grant benefits of all types, especially for disability,
retirement, and survival;

s. If the employer should not be able to prove a reasonable cause for the
dismissal, he [or she] must pay the salary of one month to the worker to
compensate for damages and losses if the case should be settled in a court
of first instance, two monthly salaries if the sentence is appealed, and[,] if
the legal process should last longer than two months, [the employer] must
pay fifty percent of the salary of the worker for each month beyond that
deadline, up to a maximum of six months in this case; and

t. The State will participate in international or regional agreements and
treaties relating to labor matters and which grant better protection of
conditions to [the] workers.

In such cases, what is established in said agreements and treaties will be
considered as part of the minimum rights enjoyed by the workers of the
Republic of Guatemala.

Article 103: Protection [Tutelaridad] of the Labor Laws

The laws that regulate the relations between employers and workers are
conciliatory, protective [tutelares] for the workers and [they] will attend to all the
pertinent economic and social factors. For agricultural work[,] the law will especially
take into account their needs and the zones in which it is executed.

All of the conflicts concerning [the] work [activity] are subject to a specific [privativa] jurisdiction. The law will establish the norms corresponding to that jurisdiction and
the organs charged with [encargadas] putting them into practice.
Article 104: Right to Strike [Huelga] and to Work Stoppage
[Paro]


Right to strike

The right to strike and to work stoppage exercised in accordance with the law, after
all conciliation procedures have been exhausted, is recognized. These rights can be
exercised solely for reasons of economic-social order. The laws shall establish the
cases and situations where the strike and work stoppage will not be allowed.

Article 105: Housing of the Workers

Right to shelter

The State, through the specific entities, will support the planning and construction of
housing complexes [conjuntos], establishing the adequate systems for financing,
which would make it possible to involve the different programs, so that the workers
may opt for adequate housing and meet [the] health requirements.

The owners of enterprises [empresas] are obligated to provide to their workers, in
the cases established by the law, [the] housing units that meet the aforementioned
requirements.

constituteproject.org
PDF generated: 04 Feb 2020, 23:43

Page 35
Guatemala 1985 (rev. 1993)

Article 106: Irrenouncability of the Labor Rights

The rights consigned in this section are irrenounceable for the workers, susceptible
of being exceeded [superado] through individual or collective contracting, and in the
form established by the law. For this objective the State will encourage and protect
collective negotiation. The stipulations that call for the renunciation, reduction,
distortion [tergiversación], or limitation of the rights recognized for the workers in
the Constitution, in the law, in the international treaties ratified by Guatemala, in the
regulations or in [any] other provisions with regards to work, will be void ipso jure
and will not obligate the workers, even if they are expressed in a collective or
individual labor contract, in an agreement or in another document.

In case of doubt in the interpretation or scope of [the] legal provisions, regulations,
or contractual [provisions] within the labor matters, they will be interpreted in the
most favorable sense for the workers.

NINTH SECTION: [The] Workers of the State
Article 107: [The] Workers of the State
The workers of the State are at the service of the public administration and never of
a political party, group, organization or [of] any person.
Article 108: Regime of the Workers of the State

The relations of the State and its decentralized or autonomous entities with its
workers are governed by the Law of the Civil Service [Ley de Servicio Civil], with the
exception of those governed by the own laws or provisions of such entities.
The workers of the State or of its decentralized or autonomous entities which by law
or by custom receive benefits [prestaciones] that exceed those established in the
Law of the Civil Service, will retain that treatment.

Article 109: Payroll Workers

The workers of the State and its decentralized or autonomous entities who work
[with payment] through payroll, will receive [the] salaries, benefits, and rights that
are equal to those of the other workers of the State.

Article 110: Indemnification

When the workers of the State are dismissed without a reasonable cause, [they] will
receive the equivalent of the salary of one month for each year of continuous service
rendered. In no case will this right exceed ten months of salary.

Article 111: [The] Regime of Decentralized Entities

The decentralized entities of the State, which perform economic functions similar to
[those of] enterprises of [a] private character, will be governed in their working
relations with the personnel at their service by the common labor laws, as long as
they do not diminish other acquired rights.

constituteproject.org
PDF generated: 04 Feb 2020, 23:43

Page 36
Guatemala 1985 (rev. 1993)

Article 112: Prohibition of Performing [Desempeñar] More
Than One Public Office
No person may perform more than one remunerated employment or public office,
with the exception of those who render services in educational centers or [in social] assistance institutions and as long as the [time] schedules are compatible.

Article 113: Right to Opt for Public Employment or Office
The Guatemalans have the right to opt for public employment or office and to do so
only their capabilities, fitness, and honesty will be taken into account.
Article 114: Revision to Retirement

When a worker of the State who enjoys the benefit of retirement, returns to a public
office, such retirement will cease immediately, but at the end of the new work
relationship, he [or she] has the right to opt for the revision of the corresponding
benefit [expediente] and to the granting of the benefit derived from the time served
and of the last wage received, during the new office.

In accordance to the possibilities of the State, it will proceed to periodically revise
the amounts assigned for retirements, pensions and allowances [montepíos].
Article 115: Free Coverage by the Guatemalan Social
Security Institute to Retirees

The persons[,] who enjoy retirement, pension, or allowance payments from the State
and the autonomous and decentralized entities, have the right to receive
gratuitously the complete coverage for the medical services by the Guatemalan
Social Security Institute.

Article 116: Regulation of the Strike for the Workers of the
State
The associations, groups, and unions formed by the workers of the State and its
decentralized and autonomous entities, may not participate in partisan political
activities.

The right to strike of the workers of the State and its decentralized and autonomous
entities is recognized. This right can only be exercised in the form provided by the
law of the matter and in no case may it affect the provision [atención] of the essential
public services.

Article 117: Option for the Passive Classes Regime

The workers of the decentralized or autonomous entities who are neither subject to
deductions for the passive classes fund [fondo de clases pasivas], nor enjoy the
corresponding benefits, may attach [themselves] to this regime and, the respective
dependency, in this case, must accept the request of the interested [person] and
order the one responsible to make the corresponding deductions.

constituteproject.org
PDF generated: 04 Feb 2020, 23:43

Page 37
Guatemala 1985 (rev. 1993)

TENTH SECTION: Economic and Social Regime
Article 118: Principles of the Economic and Social Regime

Right to work

The economic and social regime of the Republic of Guatemala is based on the
principles of social justice.

It is the obligation of the State to guide the national economy to achieve the
utilizations of the natural resources and the human potential, to increase wealth and
to try to achieve full employment and the equitable distribution of the national
income.

When deemed as necessary, the State will act by complementing private initiative
and activity, for the achievement of the stated purposes.
Article 119: [The] Obligations of the State
The following are the fundamental obligations of the State:

a. To promote the economic development of the Nation, stimulating the
initiative in agricultural, livestock, industrial, tourist, and other types of
activities.

b. To promote in a systematic manner the administrative economic
decentralization, to achieve an adequate regional development of the
country;

c. To adopt the means that may be necessary for the conservation,
development and exploitation [aprovechamiento] of the natural resources
in an efficient form;

d. To see to the raising of the standard of living of all the inhabitants of the
country, securing [procurando] the wellbeing of the family;

e. To promote and protect the creation and functioning of [the] cooperatives,
providing them with the necessary technical and financial aid;

f. To grant incentives, in accordance to the law, to the industrial enterprises
[empresas] that may be established in the interior of the Republic and who
contribute to decentralization;

g. To promote with priority the construction of popular housing [projects],
through financing systems which are adequate so that the greatest number
of Guatemalan families may enjoy them in ownership. When concerning
emerging or cooperatively-held housing, the system of possession
[tenencia] may be different;

h. To prevent the functioning of excessive practices leading to the
concentration of assets and means of production in detriment of the
collectivity;

constituteproject.org
PDF generated: 04 Feb 2020, 23:43

Page 38
Guatemala 1985 (rev. 1993)

i. The defense of the consumers and [the] users with regards to the
preservations of the quality of the domestic and export consumer products
to guarantee their health, security, and legitimate economic interests;


Protection of consumers

j. To actively promote programs of rural development which tend to increase
and diversify the national production based on the principle of private
property and of the protection of family patrimony. The peasant
[campesino] and the artisan must be provided with technical and economic
assistance;


k. To protect the formation of capital, savings and investment;

l. To promote the ordered and efficient development of the domestic and
foreign trade of the country, promoting markets for national products;

m. To maintain within the economic policy, a congruent relationship between
the public spending and the national production; and

n. To create the conditions adequate to promote the investment of national
and foreign capital.
Article 120: Intervention in [the] Enterprises that Provide
Public Services
In case of force majeure and for the strictly necessary time period, the State can
intervene in the enterprises that provide essential public services for the community,
if their functioning is obstructed.

Article 121: [The] Assets of the State

Ownership of natural resources
The following are assets of the State:

a. Those of public domain;

b. The waters of the maritime zone that border the shores of its territory, the
lakes, the navigable rivers and their banks, the secondary rivers [ríos
vertientes] and the streams that serve as the international limit of the
Republic, the waterfalls and headwaters for hydroelectric exploitation, the
underground waters and [the] others that are susceptible to regulation by
the law and the waters not exploited by individuals to the extent and limit
set by the law.

c. Those which constitute the patrimony of the State, including those of the
municipality and of the decentralized or autonomous entities;

d. The terrestrial maritime zone, the continental shelf and the air space, in the
extension and the form determined by the laws or the international treaties
ratified by Guatemala;

constituteproject.org
PDF generated: 04 Feb 2020, 23:43

Page 39
Guatemala 1985 (rev. 1993)

e. The subsoil, the deposits of hydrocarbons and minerals, as well as any other
organic or inorganic substances of the subsoil;


f. The archeological monuments and relics;

g. The fiscal and municipal revenues, as well as those of a private character
which are assigned by the laws to the decentralized and autonomous
entities; and


h. The radio-electric frequencies.

Radio
Article 122: [The] Territorial Reserves of the State

The State reserves for itself the dominion over a strip of land [faja terrestre] of three
kilometers along the oceans, counted from the superior line of the tide; of two
hundred meters around the shores of the lakes; of one hundred meters on each bank
of the navigable rivers; and of fifty meters around the sources and springs supplying
water to the populated places [poblaciones].

[The following] are excepted from the stated reserves:

a.

-->