1″”” www.effectivecooperation.org First High-Level Meeting of the Global Partnership for Effective Development Co-operation: Building Towards an Inclusive Post-2015 Development Agenda Mexico High Level Meeting Communiqué, 16 April 2014 I. The Global Partnership for Effective Development Co-operation and the implementation of the Post-2015 Development Agenda 1. We, Ministers and leading representatives of developing and developed countries, multilateral, regional and bilateral development and financial institutions, parliaments, local and regional authorities, private sector entities, philanthropic foundations, trade unions and civil society organizations, met in Mexico City on 15-16 April 2014, in a spirit of full inclusion and solidarity, for the First High Level Meeting of the Global Partnership for Effective Development Cooperation (GPEDC), to build upon the outcome of Busan. 2. Global development is at a critical juncture. Despite progress on the MDGs, poverty and inequality, in their multiple dimensions and across all regions, remain the central challenges. Slow and uneven global economic growth, insecurity in supplies of food, water and energy, lack of quality education and decent work for all, and instances of conflict, fragility and vulnerability to economic shocks, natural disasters, and health pandemics are also pressing concerns in many areas of the world. Managing climate change and the global commons add further complexity to our global agenda. At the same time, the possibilities for human development are immense and we have at our disposal the means to end poverty at global scale in the course of one generation. But to achieve this, we must muster our political will for bold and sustained action for shared development, improved gender equality, and the promotion and protection of human rights. 3. As the United Nations works to design a universal agenda for inclusive and sustainable development post 2015, to be implemented decisively, the GPEDC will seek to advance efforts to bring about more effective development cooperation, with poverty eradication at its core, as part of the “how” of the implementation of this new global agenda. With this purpose, we pledge to work in synergy and cooperation with others, such as the United Nations Development Cooperation Forum. 4. Critically, the GPEDC is committed to implementing a paradigm shift from aid effectiveness to effective development cooperation, sustained by the contribution and catalyzing effect of ODA, as the main source of international development assistance, in order to better support the long-term and broad developmental impact of a strengthened mobilization of domestic resources and the convergence of efforts of all public and private development stakeholders at all levels. 5. With this conviction, we undertake to fulfill all our commitments in support of financing for inclusive and sustainable development, particularly those agreed in the Monterrey Consensus and its follow up and at the United Nations Conferences on the Least Developed Countries and at Rio + 20, including ODA targets. Upon this foundation, we reaffirm our determination, as articulated at the Busan High Level Forum on Aid Effectiveness, to generate tangible results and opportunities for all, advance socio-economic transformations and secure a sustainable future that leaves no one behind. 6. We recognize that we are all part of a development agenda in which we participate on the basis of common goals and shared principles. In this context, we encourage increased efforts to support effective development cooperation based on our specific situations. We also reaffirm that South-South cooperation differs from North-South cooperation. The Nairobi Declaration forms the founding basis of South-South cooperation. The principles, commitments, actions and working arrangements agreed in the outcome document of the Busan High Level Forum on Aid Effectiveness and in this Communiqué of the First High-Level Meeting of the GPEDC shall be references for South-South partners on a voluntary basis.
2″”” www.effectivecooperation.org II. Concrete actions towards inclusive and sustainable development results II.A. Progress since Busan and inclusive development 7. North-South cooperation plays a distinctive role in the fulfillment of the commitments undertaken at the Busan High Level Forum on Aid Effectiveness in 2011. These commitments built upon the 2008 Accra Agenda for Action, the 2005 Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness, and the 2003 Rome Declaration on Harmonization. We welcome the valuable information provided by the GPEDC global monitoring report on the implementation of these commitments with the support of 46 countries that volunteered to participate in the exercise, as well as the additional data provided by other relevant national reports and by entities such as the post-Busan Building Blocks. Based upon this information, we recognize the progress made in upholding the Busan principles of country ownership, focus on results, inclusiveness, and transparency and mutual accountability. However, we also recognize that many more efforts and behavioral changes are required to fully implement these commitments. The unfinished aid effectiveness agenda remains a critical concern. Thus, with renewed political will and sense of urgency, we commit to expeditiously address identified shortcomings and bottlenecks through sustained concrete actions. As we move forward, we underline the following: Ownership of development priorities by developing countries 8. We acknowledge the actions undertaken in both donor and recipient countries as well as by multilateral institutions to ensure that ODA is aligned to national priorities and strategies and tailored to country-specific situations and needs. In this regard, we note in particular the work of the New Deal partners in strengthening country ownership, leadership and capacity in fragile and conflict-affected states, as well as the use of country systems in these contexts. 9. Looking ahead, we encourage recipient countries to continue promoting domestic reform and development agendas that contribute to the social and economic wellbeing of citizens and encourage donors to fully support these efforts. In this context, we agree to strengthen our actions to continue enhancing country ownership and leadership by aligning and tailoring aid to the national development agenda and context. In particular, we agree to invigorate efforts to strengthen and use country systems as the default approach and promote assessment and dialogue on the extent to which their use is appropriate, consider budget support in the appropriate mixture of delivery instruments, continue untying aid, enhance the localization of development cooperation, including by promoting local procurement, and support partner countries’ ambitions to better coordinate, assess and manage the plurality of aid. 10. Also, in accordance to the priorities and policies set out by recipient countries, we will continue avoiding aid fragmentation pursuing division of labor under country leadership, strengthening joint programming, taking actions to address the issue of countries that receive insufficient assistance, making better use of multilateral institutions and pooled funding facilities, and, on a priority basis, ensuring the predictability of ODA flows in line with the commitments undertaken in Paris, Accra and Busan. In this context, we encourage all providers of development assistance to actively support and participate in country-led coordination mechanisms. Focus on results 11. We recognize and encourage the broadening and strengthening of the initiatives, operational policies and instruments undertaken for improving country results frameworks in order to better manage, monitor, evaluate and communicate progress, and thus to provide a solid platform to promote scaling up of support, strengthening national capacities and leveraging additional resources and initiatives in support of the maximization and sustainability of development results and impacts, in accordance with the priorities and policies set out by recipient countries.
3″”” www.effectivecooperation.org Inclusive partnerships and development 12. We encourage continued progress in ensuring that all stakeholders and voices are duly acknowledged and the necessary space is given and expanded to enhance inclusive and democratic ownership of the development agenda, including through women’s empowerment, in the spirit of openness, trust, and mutual respect and learning from the different and complementary roles of all development partners. 13. We encourage strengthening the critical role of parliaments in linking citizens with government, laying down the legislative framework for effective development cooperation, including to facilitate private sector investments and revenue allocations toward inclusive and sustainable development, and overseeing development cooperation processes and action plans. 14. We also encourage providing further support to local and regional governments to enable them to assume more fully their roles in policy making, service delivery and in enhancing participation, transparency and accountability at the subnational level, including through decentralization, capacity building, access to data and legal protection. 15. Civil society organizations (CSOs) play an important role in enabling people to claim their rights, in promoting rights-based approaches, in shaping development policies and partnerships, and in overseeing their implementation. In this regard, we note the relevance of the Istanbul Principles and the International Framework for CSO Development Effectiveness. We also reaffirm our undertaking to implement fully our respective commitments to enable CSOs to exercise their roles as independent development actors, with a particular focus on an enabling environment, consistent with agreed international rights, that maximizes the contributions of CSOs to development and, in this context, we encourage inclusive and democratic multi-stakeholder dialogue at country level and the provision of related capacity building and supportive measures. 16. We recognize that the private sector is an important actor in development cooperation in partnership with the public sector and other stakeholders, as underlined in section II.E of this Communiqué. 17. We acknowledge the added value that philanthropic foundations bring to development cooperation. In particular, we welcome the voluntary Guidelines for Effective Philanthropic Engagement developed in conjunction with the OECD network of Foundations Working for Development and encourage continuous multi-stakeholder dialogue and cooperation as appropriate to foster their implementation and follow up. Transparency and accountability to each other 18. We acknowledge global progress made towards increased transparency and accountability, as more providers of cooperation are improving the availability of information on the scope and results and impacts of their cooperation actions and budgets, including through the efforts of those of us who have committed to do so to implement the common standard by 2015, taking into account the statistical reporting systems of the OECD-DAC and the complementary efforts of the International Aid Transparency Initiative. To ensure that the gains made on transparency at the global level translate into real benefits at country level, we encourage accelerated efforts to fulfill the commitments made in Paris, Accra and Busan in terms of timeliness, comprehensiveness, comparability, accessibility, usability and forward-looking nature of information, taking particular note to improve quality and thereby greater use of information, including by tracking and making public resource allocations for gender equality and women’s empowerment, as critical steps toward enhanced mutual accountability. By their turn, South-South cooperation partners will continue to improve the availability of information on the scope, results and impacts of their cooperation actions, developed in all modalities, according to methodologies conceived by developing countries that better fit their specificities.
4″”” www.effectivecooperation.org Supporting transition to resilience of fragile and conflict-affected states 19. We reaffirm the priority and urgency of supporting fragile and conflict-affected states in their transition out of fragility and towards resilience and the centrality of peace to sustainable development, including in the context of the Post-2015 Development Agenda. Those of us who have endorsed the New Deal jointly developed by the International Dialogue on Peacebuilding and Statebuilding and the g7+ group, will continue to fully implement our agreed commitments, and, to this end, we will set clear benchmarks and make concrete plans for cooperation delivery, ensure the fulfillment of both the FOCUS and TRUST principles. We collectively commit to address the challenges to improve the effectiveness and results of ODA going to the poorest fragile states. In addition, we will redouble our efforts to ensure that all development cooperation serves to reinforce stability and address the drivers of fragility identified by and at the country level. We recognize that such efforts will require additional support to the areas prioritized by the Peacebuilding and Statebuilding Goals as determined by context-specific assessments that include the voices of communities and civil society. II.B. Domestic resources mobilization 20. We recognize the critical challenge of ensuring the adequate mobilization of public and private domestic resources to support development, as underlined in the Monterrey Consensus. Adequate mobilization of government revenues is required for direct financing and for leveraging private funds for investments in public services and social protection, institutional and human development, basic infrastructure, and strong and inclusive economic growth. 21. We undertake to support the strengthening of taxation systems sustained by a broader tax base and a progressive structure that is fair and just, in line with international standards of tax good governance. We reaffirm our commitment to combating corruption, money laundering, and illicit financial flows, including by the return of stolen assets and the reinforcement of the implementation of the UN Convention against Corruption and other agreements to which we are party, such as the OECD Anti-Bribery Convention. We also welcome the OECD/G20 project on Base Erosion and Profit Shifting. Moreover, we acknowledge and further encourage efforts by countries, the UN Committee of Experts on International Cooperation in Tax Matters, and multilateral and bilateral institutions to enhance international cooperation and information exchange between countries on tax matters, and to provide expertise, technical assistance and capacity-building on fiscal matters as required by developing countries. 22. The strengthening and development of an inclusive domestic financial sector, affordable access of small and medium-sized enterprises, individuals and households to the full range and means of financial services, the reduction of transfer costs of migrant workers’ remittances, the transition of individuals and firms into the formal economy, the development of innovative financing instruments, as well as the sustainable management of natural resources and the governance of extractive industries, are also key avenues to support inclusive economic growth and mobilize and channel domestic resources for development, which we undertake to actively support in accordance with national priorities Innovative domestic private sector driven mechanisms and arrangements, such as special infrastructure funds, sovereign wealth and stabilization funds, and strengthening capacities of regional stock markets may also be prioritized under development cooperation by development partners. II.C. Middle Income Countries 23. Middle Income Countries (MICs) are categorized as such upon an indicator –income per capita–, which is limited in scope and does not capture the diversity and the complexity of the development challenges that these countries face, such as poverty, inequality, vulnerabilities to economic shocks, climate change and natural disasters, lack of innovation and competitiveness in dynamic economic sectors, risks of “middle-income trap”, and institutional weaknesses. MICs have the largest number of people in poverty in the world. Global development cooperation would not be effective if support to them were to be phased out.
5″”” www.effectivecooperation.org 24. We recognize the need to devise methodologies to better account for the complex and diverse realities of MICs and to provide an improved basis for flexible, targeted and differentiated strategies for effective development cooperation with MICs, based on their specific country situations and relevant sectorial and regional capacities, including through innovative finance mechanisms and the provision of loans and technical cooperation as well as grants where necessary, and bilateral ODA for those countries that still require so, in particular Lower-MICs, and we encourage concrete proposals from all stakeholders to address this challenge. 25. We stress that the support to MICs shall not be undertaken at the expense of the support provided to other categories of countries, such as Least Developed Countries, Small Island Developing States, and other low-income countries in Africa and other regions. These countries need continued support to overcome structural deficiencies in infrastructure, human capacity, vulnerability to economic downturns and institutional capacity constraints to ensure sustainable development. Moreover, we highlight the need to explore ways and means to support soft transitions of countries from a lower-income to a higher-income category in order to ensure that eventual adjustments on concessional regimes and other development cooperation instruments do not hamper the development gains achieved by these countries. 26. As we recognize the increasing importance of MICs in the global economy and in addressing global, regional and cross-border challenges, we acknowledge the important role that some MICs are playing as both providers and recipients of development cooperation and underline the importance of supporting their valuable role in South-South cooperation and in triangular cooperation. II.D. South-South Cooperation, Triangular Cooperation, and Knowledge Sharing 27. Southern partners are increasingly active in exchanging developmental experiences and in cooperating with other developing countries, especially through infrastructure and economic development, public services and social protection, resilience building, knowledge sharing, and regional cooperation and integration initiatives. We welcome the positive impact of these valuable cooperation efforts and encourage their broadening and strengthening, in partnership with all development stakeholders, while recognizing that North-South cooperation is still a main form of international development cooperation and that South-South cooperation is not a substitute but a complement to North-South cooperation. In this context, we welcome the initiatives undertaken by Southern partners to deepen the understanding of the nature and modalities of South-South cooperation and the ways and means to enhance its developmental impact as well as its potential synergies with the efforts of other development cooperation partners and modalities. 28. Triangular cooperation is an innovative way of inclusive partnering, which puts the role and will of the recipient countries at the core and provides an opportunity to bring together the diversity and richness of the experiences, lessons learned and different assets of Northern and Southern partners, as well as multilateral, regional and bilateral development and financial institutions, by maximizing, through well-supported cooperation schemes, the use of effective, locally owned solutions that are appropriate to specific country contexts. We encourage the deployment and scaling up of triangular cooperation initiatives, both at strategic and project level, which optimally draw on the respective advantages and complementary strengths of all development partners involved in accordance to the priorities and policies set out by recipient countries. 29. We recognize the importance of country-led knowledge sharing for development effectiveness, especially considering its valuable contribution to the enhancement of national and local capacities. Knowledge sharing can involve North-South, South-North, South-South and triangular and regional approaches including the engagement of public and private stakeholders and the valuable support of multilateral organizations. We encourage the development of networks for knowledge exchange, peer learning and coordination among all development partners. In this context, we encourage the active promotion of voluntary technology transfer, on mutually agreed terms and conditions, and the enhancement of capacity building in support of developing country efforts to address inclusive and sustainable development challenges.
6″”” www.effectivecooperation.org 30. Critically, as agreed in the Bali High-Level Meeting on Country-Led Knowledge Hubs in July 2012, we will foster the scaling up of knowledge sharing and mutual learning through knowledge hubs by strengthening the capacity of country institutions to systematically engage in results-oriented knowledge sharing at the domestic and international level. In the future, this initiative is expected to promote more country led processes of knowledge sharing, for which the next High-Level Meeting on Country-Led Knowledge Hubs, to be held in Seoul (Korea) on 23-26 June 2014 will be an important opportunity. II.E. Business as a Partner in Development 31. We recognize the important contribution of business to poverty eradication and sustainability through strong and inclusive economic growth, wealth and decent jobs creation, entrepreneurship, productivity and innovation, knowledge sharing and technology transfer, and expanded access to goods and services for all. In this context, we emphasize the critical importance of promoting an enabling business environment conducive to inclusive and sustainable development, in accordance with national public policy and regulatory frameworks. We also recognize the importance of private sector accountability. 32. We welcome the efforts made to strengthen and to put in place platforms and hubs for inclusive and structured multi-stakeholder dialogue on the broad range of public-private partnerships, including trade unions and civil society organizations, with the aim of improving the alignment of business and development core objectives through the enhancement of shared value delivery along the breadth of the value chain, sustainable consumption and production patterns, and corporate social and environmental responsibility. We look forward to learning from the results and development impact of these efforts and to working together in their follow-up. 33. We recognize the centrality of public policies for promoting a development that responds to the specific conditions and priorities of developing countries and, in this context, we encourage the development of innovative public-private finance mechanisms that appropriately share investment risks, maximize economic, social and environmental development impact next to financial returns, and enhance entrepreneurship, financial inclusion, and value addition. We also encourage further efforts to scale up private financing for development in partnership with all stakeholders in strategic sectors in accordance with national priorities. 34. Small and medium-size enterprises play a critical role in achieving inclusive economic growth, creating decent jobs, and expanding access of the poor to finance, goods and services, in all countries. We emphasize the need to fully support these enterprises and enhance their development impact, including through adequate framework conditions, strengthened financial inclusion, technical cooperation and capacity building. The growth of the domestic private sector is key to sustainable economic transformation and requires strong global investment. III. Working arrangements and evolving role of the GPEDC 35. We will convene every two years a High Level Meeting of the GPEDC to take stock on progress made and identify ways and means to further advance effective development cooperation. We welcome the proposals that have been made to host the next meeting of the HLM and ask the Steering Committee to finalize discussions on these proposals in advance of their next meeting. 36. We will continue advancing our process under the leadership of a Steering Committee that is accountable to and representative of the different constituencies and reflects the multi-stakeholder and action-oriented nature of the GPEDC. The Steering Committee will continue to meet regularly. With gratitude to the Steering Committee members stepping down, we congratulate the election of the Minister for Foreign Trade and Development Cooperation of the Netherlands and the Foreign Minister of Mexico as Co-Chairs. We also welcome the decision by African Ministers present to recommend to the June 2014 African Union Summit a successor from Africa to the position of Co-Chair for developing countries. The new composition of the Steering Committee is attached.
7″”” www.effectivecooperation.org 37. We welcome with appreciation Korea’s initiative on hosting an annual workshop to take stock and bring together partners to review the implementation of the Busan commitments at country level, in order to support building up of evidence-based global high level political dialogue and commitment on effective development cooperation. We support calls for a data revolution for sustainable development to build capacity for quality data collection and statistical analysis to monitor progress and evaluate impact. 38. We agree to undertake a comprehensive review of the global arrangements for monitoring and reporting on the fulfillment of the Busan commitments towards the end of 2015 or early 2016 with a view to assessing ways and means for their continuous improvement and their relevance to the upcoming Post-2015 Development Agenda. 39. We thank the United Nations Development Program and the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development for their support to the GPEDC and invite them to continue supporting its effective functioning. We will also explore ways and means for increased cooperation with regional organizations and platforms in order to strengthen their contribution to effective development cooperation. 40. Together, we undertake to make sure that the GPEDC continues to have a constructive and action-oriented role in international cooperation for development now and once a post-2015 framework is agreed. With this purpose, we entrust the Steering Committee with the responsibility of submitting the message and results of this First High-Level Meeting of the GPEDC as inputs to all convergent intergovernmental and multi-stakeholder processes, including the UN Development Cooperation Forum, the UN International Conference on Small Island Developing States, the International Conference on Financing for Development, and the UN deliberations to devise the Post 2015 Development Agenda.
8″”” www.effectivecooperation.org ANNEX 1 Voluntary Initiatives This Annex contains a range of voluntary initiatives from a range of countries and organisations. Only those countries, organisations and other actors who are cited as supporters/participants in each of these initiatives are currently committed to them. Further expressions of support for any of these initiatives would be welcome at any time, either during, or following the end of, the GPEDC High Level Meeting in Mexico City on 15-16 April 2014. As such, this Annex remains a living document. 1. Active support to “Tax Inspectors Without Borders” Belgium, France, the OECD Task Force on Tax and Development, Netherlands, the UK welcome the launch of the Tax Inspectors Without Borders initiative, and agree to identify and provide expert tax auditors to respond to concrete demands by developing countries for building audit capacity by early 2015. Contact: TaxandDevelopment@oecd.org 2. Africa Action Plan on Development Effectiveness Recognising that development policy commitments can only translate into concrete change when put into concrete action, the African Continent, under the leadership of the AUC/NEPAD Platform for Development Effectiveness, has developed the Africa Action Plan on Development Effectiveness. The Action Plan is based on the continent’s development priorities as expressed by the African Union Agenda 2063, the NEPAD Agenda, the 2011 African Consensus and Position on Development Effectiveness, and the African Position for the Post 2015 Agenda, as well as Regional and Continental Consultations held in preparation for the GPEDC High Level Meeting. The Plan sets out a shared vision for using effective development cooperation to advance financing for Africa’s development; South-South cooperation and regional integration; and inclusive economic transformation. The Plan includes action steps for priorities such as Domestic Resource Mobilisation, South-South, Private Sector, and the continued implementation of the Busan commitments at the country-level, with emphasis on the Mutual Accountability Standards for Africa as the basis for accountability mechanisms with partners and cemented on domestic accountability systems and processes. Contact: Florence Nazare, email@example.com 3. Additional efforts on International Aid Transparency Initiative Members of IATI propose that: • Busan endorsers should accelerate efforts to implement the common standard for electronic publication of timely, comprehensive and forward-looking information on their development cooperation by December 2015. • Other GPEDC members, including South-South Cooperation providers, CSOs and private sector actors should take voluntary action to increase the transparency of their development cooperation and financing for development along similar lines. • Developing countries and providers of development cooperation should work together to promote greater use of data, by ensuring sufficient coverage and quality of data published, making progress on automatic data exchange at country level, and building capacity of data managers and users. • There should be a light touch assessment of progress in early 2015 to support providers in identifying further actions necessary to meet their commitments by the December 2015 deadline. Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org
9″”” www.effectivecooperation.org 4. Business Hubs The UK, Sweden and the Netherlands are supporting new “Business Hubs” in developing countries, bringing together businesses, national governments, donors and civil society to agree practical steps to support private sector investment. Hubs are already being developed in Mozambique, Zambia and Colombia, and we will carry out scoping work for new hubs in Nigeria and Kenya. Contact: Tim Stern T-Stern@dfid.gov.uk 5. Business Roadmap The Partnering Initiative, supported by the UK are jointly launching a Roadmap to engage business as a core partner in development. Following a broad consultation with developing countries, aid agencies and businesses around the world, these participants have developed the Roadmap for working with the private sector, which sets out practical actions that governments and businesses can take to build more effective partnerships and drive more investment into developing countries. Contact: Tim Stern T-Stern@dfid.gov.uk 6. Civil Society Continuing Campaign for Effective Development CSO Partnership for Development Effectiveness (CPDE) launches a three-year programme “Civil Society Continuing Campaign for Effective Development”, an initiative undertaken with financial support of the governments of Canada, Ireland and Sweden through DFATD, IrishAid and SIDA, and aimed at delivering, by the end of 2016: • CSOs in at least 50 countries claiming their rights in multi-stakeholder development policy arenas; • CSOs in at least 50 countries working on their own effectiveness by promoting and practicing the Istanbul Principles; • Global development and development cooperation policies that are clearly influenced by CSO advocacy positions on human rights, democratic ownership and inclusive partnerships; and • Sub-regional, regional and global multi-stakeholder policy dialogue to advance international standards on enabling environment for CSOs. More information can be found at: www.csopartnership.org. Contact: Roberto Pinauin email@example.com 7. Collaboration to strengthen Civil Society-led South-South Cooperation through evidence and experience sharing Participatory Research in Asia (PRIA), the South-South Cooperation Research and Policy Centre (Articulação SUL) and the Institute of Development Studies (IDS) commit to continue the civil society – academic collaboration on CSO-led South-South Cooperation whose initial findings were launched at the Mexico meeting of the GPEDC, with a view to presenting concrete proposals by the time of the next GPEDC HLM. We commit to facilitating a debate with civil society organisations, social movements, research institutions and other interested parties on how best to strengthen CSO-led SSC through the sharing of experiences and proposals in the CSO-SSC Online Forum. We commit to continuing both the online and in-country dialogues through ongoing meetings supporting efforts by the Network of Southern Think-Tanks to strengthen the evidence base on South-South Cooperation and by the Working Groups of the CPDE to strengthen awareness of the contribution of CSO practices to development cooperation and of the role of Southern civil society as a development actor in its own right and to advocate for an enabling environment for CSO engagement in South-South Cooperation.
10″”” www.effectivecooperation.org More information can be found at http://cso-ssc.org;”http://cso-ssc.org/forum/#/20140415/mexico-focus-session-debate-2-3852100/ Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org 8. Commitment to increase aid to tax matters, and to refine ways to measure aid going to tax system development Australia and the OECD Task Force on Tax and Development commit to increase their aid targeted at tax matters by the next GPEDC HLM, recognising that a modest increase of aid directed at tax systems development would be commensurate with the importance of the tax and development agenda. The Task Force on Tax and Development also commits to refining ways to measure and take stock of aid targeted at tax matters. Contact: TaxandDevelopment@oecd.org 9. Commitment to perform risk analyses against exposure to illicit financial flows Belgium, the Netherlands, the OECD Task Force on Tax and Development and the World Bank commit to the development of a tool for proper risk assessments in developing countries by the time of the next GPEDC HLM, which would help countries assess the prevalence of one or another type of economic crimes, and determine appropriate responses, targeted on priority areas. They also commit to report back on their own actions at home to stem the tide of illicit financial flows from developing countries. Contact: OECD TaxandDevelopment@oecd.org; World Bank Kuntay Celik email@example.com and Emile Willebois firstname.lastname@example.org 10. Country Dialogues for Using and Strengthening Local Systems The Effective Institutions Platform (EIP) is launching the implementation of ‘Country Dialogues for Using and Strengthening Local Systems’, involving country level action, led by partner countries, towards the greater use of country systems and better integration of aid in the budget cycle. In particular, this initiative will: • Map local systems in country and the achievement of a common understanding between local donors and countries on priority ‘country systems’ as well as definitions of rules for ‘using country systems’ and integrating aid on budget (AoB). • Identify current opportunities and constraints in the strengthening and use of country systems, and integration of AoB. • Define joint Government-Donor next steps for achieving progress on strengthening and using country systems, and integrating AoB. The first pilot of this initiative will get underway during 2014. More information can be found at: Effective Institutions Platform: http://www.effectiveinstitutions.org/, CABRI: http://www.cabri-sbo.org/en/about-us. Contact: Steve Pierce, USAID – email@example.com 11. Country owned transition toward resilience and sustainable development The g7+ reiterates the importance of the country-owned and country-led transition toward resilience, and is therefore delighted to highlight its initiative on country-led assessments of fragility. So far, six g7+ countries have undertaken the fragility assessment and other member countries are intending to do so. The fragility assessment under the New Deal is a process that enables a constructive and forward-looking dialogue among different national stakeholders (government and civil society) to inform the development of peacebuilding and statebuilding
11″”” www.effectivecooperation.org priorities which makes the base for the National Development Strategy. To harmonize the development efforts around the national priorities and strengthen coordination, the recipient country and its development partners agree on a Compact as a short to medium term mechanism guiding country led-transition. Further information can be found at www.g7plus.org. 12. CSO Enabling Environment Framework and Guidelines The multi-stakeholder Task Team on CSO Development Effectiveness and Enabling Environment will endeavor to develop a framework and a set of guidelines on the CSO enabling environment (EE), consistent with agreed international human rights, to strengthen GPEDC Indicator Two, and advance democratic ownership in development processes, by the time of the next GPEDC HLM. Other GPEDC members are welcome to join this initiative. More information can be found at: taskteamcso.com. Contacts: Jacqueline Wood, Task Team Secretariat, firstname.lastname@example.org; Brian Tomlinson, Task Team Co-chair, email@example.com 13. Development Impact Bonds The UK is announcing new support for Development Impact Bonds, which pay investors on the basis of results delivered and have the potential to drive much-needed investment into developing countries. This work will bring together investors, Governments and aid agencies to design new investments and set up a new online ‘open source’ knowledge platform to share the findings to inform further investment. The UK is also committing £1.5 million to take the first steps to develop a Development Impact Bond on Sleeping Sickness in Uganda, a disease which reduces livestock productivity in Africa and costs between £1 billion and £4 billion per annum. This will be first use of this very new instrument in a developing country. Contact: Tim Stern T-Stern@dfid.gov.uk 14. Development of country roadmaps for local and regional governments United Cities and Local Government (UCLG) and Regions United (RU-FOGAR) commit to support the development, through national dialogue, of a set of country roadmaps for an initial 10 pilot countries by 2016, aimed at enhancing the contribution of Local and Regional Governments to the implementation of Busan’s commitments. By 2018, UCLG and RU-FOGAR also expect to be able to extend these to between 25 and 30 additional countries. Contacts: Edgardo Bilsky, UCLG, firstname.lastname@example.org, Carles Llorens, RU-FOGAR email@example.com. 15. Eastern and Southern Africa and Indian Ocean (ESA-IO) Reference Centre for Regional Development Effectiveness Diplomacy The Inter-Governmental Authority on Development (IGAD) and the Inter-Regional Coordinating Committee (IRCC) is committed to the further conceptualisation and implementation of an Eastern and Southern Africa and Indian Ocean (ESA-IO) Reference Centre for Regional Development Effectiveness Diplomacy, recognising the need to expand and strengthen the capacities of regional organisations to oversee and guide development cooperation in the different regions. Expected outcomes are:
12″”” www.effectivecooperation.org • A forum for facilitation and coordination is provided for the ESA-IO regional organisations on the implementation of their respective regional cooperation and integration agendas within the framework of the African continental integration agenda; • Partnerships are promoted and coordinated in support of the collective cross regional needs of the ESA-IO region within the frameworks of North-South, South-South and Triangular Cooperation; • Guidance, advisory services and capacity building are provided to the ESA-IO regional organisations and their partners on the linkages between integration commitments and implementation at national levels, including on the understanding and mobilisation of innovative financing in support of regional cooperation and integration; • The ESA-IO region’s capacity for political economy analysis is supported with regard to the formulation of harmonised positions on key issues relevant to the integration agendas; • Regional diplomacy skills and collective lobbying demarches are enhanced and supported. Contact: Vikramdityasing Bissoonauthsing, firstname.lastname@example.org 16. Endorsement of the “Principles for International Engagement in Supporting Developing Countries in Revenue Matters” Australia, Belgium, France, Germany, the OECD Task Force on Tax and Development, the UK and the World Bank are adopting the Principles for International Engagement in Supporting Developing Countries in Revenue Matters to ensure that, in order for tax reforms to be successful, support programmes are customised to fit the economic, structural, cultural, and political conditions in a country. They agree that they may form some partnerships with developing countries to perform self-assessments against these Principles of their support in revenue matters, to report back to the next GPEDC HLM. Contact point: TaxandDevelopment@oecd.org 17. EU Joint Programming: Helping to Manage Diversity The European Union highlights the importance of EU Joint Programming in moving to joint multi-annual strategic planning of country aid programmes, in collaboration with partner countries and other interested development actors. Participants in this initiative agree to support partner country ownership and leadership in joint programming processes, in particular by: 1. Promoting the extension of joint programming processes to more partner countries and other development partners to make full use of its potential, with a view to having joint programming processes operational in 40 or more partner countries by 2017; 2. EU guidance issued by the end of 2014 and regional seminars on joint programming held in five regions by mid-2015. Further work will also be taken forward to encourage building on and strengthening country results and monitoring frameworks and foster joint implementation and evaluation. More information can be found at: http://ec.europa.eu/europeaid/how/ensure-aid-effectiveness/index_en.htm. Contacts: Michael Kirosingh, Lino Molteni, Jost Kadel; European Commission, EUROPEAID-A2@ec.europa.eu, Alex Gerbrandij, Marie-Laure de Bergh; European External Action Service VI-B2@eeas.europa.eu. 18. Further work on Managing Diversity and Reducing Fragmentation All supporters of the Building Block “Managing Diversity and Reducing Fragmentation” will take further actions by the end of 2015, aimed at fostering global and peer learning and encouraging and supporting concrete actions by partner countries and development partners; namely:
13″”” www.effectivecooperation.org • supporting regional workshops for peer learning and catalysing country-level action, • gathering and communicating evidence on managing diversity and reducing fragmentation, and • advocating for diversity management and the reduction of fragmentation in global processes (e.g. GPEDC, UNDCF, OECD/DAC, SLDM on Multilateral Reform). More information can be found at: www.fragmentation-diversity.org Contact: Dr. Claudia Hiepe, BMZ email@example.com 19. Future International Cooperation Policy Network The Future International Cooperation Policy Network, represented at the GPEDC HLM in Mexico by Articulação SUL, China International Development Research Network, Participatory Research in Asia (PRIA), and the Institute of Development Studies (UK), commits to engaging in research-based mutual learning and knowledge dissemination, interacting with governments and non-state actors to contribute to the systematisation and dissemination of existing knowledge, and the co-construction of new knowledge on development innovations from the BRICS and other increasingly influential MICs. We will use this space to strengthen the knowledge infrastructure in our countries and sectoral and regional contexts. From now until the next GPEDC HLM, we commit to hosting dialogues and producing research which will enable this knowledge to be shared with a global public, helping to generate, map and articulate future international cooperation that can underpin a flourishing global society. More information can be found at: http://www.ids.ac.uk/project/future-international-cooperation-policy-network. Contact: Jennifer Constantine firstname.lastname@example.org 20. Gender Equality: delivering on the Busan Commitments Looking forward to the Beijing +20 Review as a pivotal moment to assess global progress on gender equality and women’s rights, UN Women, the OECD and the CSO Partnership for Effective Development Cooperation commit to work together, and with others, to intensify our efforts to: • Support countries including developed countries, to strengthen their systems to track and make public allocations for gender equality and women’s empowerment; • Encourage donors to increase their support to partner countries, UN Women and women’s organization to strengthen and monitor the effectiveness of the responsible institutions; • Deepen inclusive and democratic multi-stakeholder dialogue on gender equality and women’s rights at country and regional level; • Increase the number of countries engaged in future monitoring of the post-Busan gender equality indicator. Contact: Zohra Khan email@example.com 21. Guidelines for Effective Philanthropic Engagement The OECD Global Network of Foundations Working for Development (netFWD), in collaboration with the European Foundation Centre (EFC), Stars Foundation, UNDP and the Worldwide Initiative for Grantmakers Support (WINGS), and with support from the Rockefeller Foundation, have developed a set of voluntary and non-binding Guidelines for Effective Philanthropic Engagement which seek to enhance collaboration between the philanthropic sector and other development stakeholders, particularly governments, in order to accelerate global development efforts, across ‘Dialogue, Data/Knowledge Sharing and Partnering’. A series of country pilots will start in late 2014/early 2015. The OECD netFWD will then convene a meeting with all partners involved to take stock of results and challenges, and agree on next steps.
14″”” www.effectivecooperation.org More information can be found at: http://www.starsfoundation.org.uk/resources/guidelines-effective-philanthropic-engagement Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org 22. Highlighting the problem of potentially under-aided countries All supporters of the Building Block “Managing Diversity and Reducing Fragmentation” and the OECD DAC recognise the importance of addressing the issue of countries that receive insufficient assistance. In this context, participants in this initiative will, by the end of 2015, pursue individual and joint efforts to: • improve predictability and transparency in the process of aid allocation, • systematically monitor, at international level, countries that have been identified as potentially under-aided, • deepen the knowledge about the subset of fragile states that seems under-aided • identify concrete steps for considering the issue of under-aided countries in cross-country allocation decisions of individual providers. More information can be found at: www.fragmentation-diversity.org, www.oecd.org/dac/aid-architecture/fragmentation-orphans.htm. Contact: Dr. Claudia Hiepe, BMZ, email@example.com 23. Inclusive Business Action Network Germany commits to launching the “Inclusive Business Action Network” in the autumn of 2014. This Network will be aimed at unleashing the potential of the private sector for greater development impact, by supporting the scaling up and replication of inclusive business models, facilitating peer-to-peer learning among companies and Business-Business linkages, and promoting public-private dialogue. More information can be found at: https://www.giz.de/Wirtschaft/de/html/1745.html Contact: Arne Theissen, Inclusive Business Action Network – firstname.lastname@example.org 24. Japan’s ODA Charter Japan is committed to reviewing and revising its basic ODA policy, the ‘ODA charter’, in particular to align it more with the GPEDC principle of inclusiveness. In so doing, it will consult with a range of stakeholders in Japan, with a view to ultimately improving Japan’s development cooperation. This process is expected to be finalised by the end of 2014. More information can be found at: http://www.mofa.go.jp/policy/oda/index.html. 25. Korea’s GPEDC Learning & Accelerating Program In line with the initiative to host an annual workshop of the GPEDC to take stock and review the implementation of the Busan commitments, as noted in the Communiqué of the Mexico High Level Meeting, Korea has set out a plan to provide a training program for practitioners and mid-career officials from partner countries who are supposed to participate in the workshop. This training program will be conducted by the KOICA (Korea International Cooperation Agency). One of the main objectives of this program is to fill the gaps of awareness of the GPEDC and development effectiveness agenda, from the technical and policy perspective. It will also provide an opportunity to share the experiences and lessons on the implementation of the Busan commitments at country level in a way to complement the discussions at the workshop. In this context, the program will start in autumn 2014, back-to-back to the GPEDC worshop hosted by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Korea. Korea will develop this program through close consultation with the OECD-UNDP Joint Support Team. Contact: Hye R. Song, email@example.com
15″”” www.effectivecooperation.org 26. Launch of Coalition for Sustainably Resourced Public Service Delivery Australia, the OECD Task Force on Tax and Development, the United States and the World Bank will support the formation of a coalition with developing countries who are interested in performing an assessment of their domestic expenditure requirements and associated domestic revenue needs to help them reach post 2015 global development goals by the time of the next GPEDC HLM. These assessments will help both donors and partner countries to identify great disparities between the costs of achieving post 2015 outcomes at country level and apparent capacity to self-finance those costs – and, in turn, will help prioritize where reform in tax administration and policy can lead to an adequate and sustained level of public service delivery. Contact: David Dod, USAID firstname.lastname@example.org and OECD TaxandDevelopment@oecd.org 27. Launch of Learning Alliances on Public Sector Reform’ initiative The Effective Institutions Platform (EIP) is launching a ‘Learning Alliances on Public Sector Reform’ initiative, which will aim, by the time of the next GPEDC HLM, in particular to: • map Peer Learning Approaches in Public Sector Reform, • develop a Methodology Toolbox for Peer Learning in Public Sector Reform, • deliver a workshop in autumn 2014 in order start Peer Learning activities among EIP members, on the basis of which stories of change on institutional and organisational reform will be developed. Contact: Jennifer.MOREAU@oecd.org 28. Launch of the ‘ichallenge’ The Indicators of the Strength of Public Management Systems (ISPMS) Steering Committee and the Effective Institutions Platform (EIP) are launching the ‘ichallenge’, aimed at crowd sourcing ideas from the public for better indicators to measure the strength of country systems. Members of the public are invited to share their ideas for indicators by 1 July 2014. More information can be found at: www.worldbank.org/ichallenge. Contact: Jordan Holt, World Bank email@example.com 29. Network of Southern Think-Tanks Network of Southern Think-tanks (NeST), following a meeting hosted by CAITEC and UNDP China, shall initiate work to further contribute on South-South Cooperation (SSC). The network’s objectives would include: • reaching a common conception of SSC; • developing a conceptual framework of what SSC can contribute and formulating an associated roadmap; • developing indicators for impact assessment (recognizing national specificities); and • strengthening data collection. Contact: Sachin Chaturvedi, firstname.lastname@example.org 30. Open Government announcement The Open Government Partnership reaffirms that Open Government – in the form of enhanced transparency, citizen participation and government responsiveness – is essential to effective development cooperation. All Busan endorsers eligible for the Open Government Partnership but not currently participating should join in 2014.
16″”” www.effectivecooperation.org Citizens should have access to information, capacity, and channels to participate in government decision-making processes to ensure the effective allocation of resources for development efforts. GPEDC members who are already part of OGP should ensure they have an ambitious citizen engagement commitment in their next National Action Plan and present it at a high-level meeting in September 2014 on the margins of UNGA. More information can be found at: www.opengovpartnership.org. Contact: email@example.com 31. Partnership for Climate Finance and Development Participants committed to continue the Partnership for Climate Finance and Development, a voluntary multi-stakeholder initiative to ensure the effective deployment of climate finance through coherence and collaboration among climate change, finance and development cooperation communities at country, regional and global levels. The Partnership supports national climate change policy and planning as an integral part of developing countries’ overall national development plans and seeks to ensure that – where appropriate – these measures are financed, delivered and monitored through developing country systems in a transparent manner. As immediate next steps for 2014/15, the Partnership will support lesson learning and dialogue on the management of climate finance for development within and across regions, including through strengthened platforms for dialogue in Africa and Asia-Pacific and Latin America/Caribbean. For more information, please see: http://climatefinance-developmenteffectiveness.org/busan-partnership-for-action.html; http://www.oecd.org/development/environment-development/climate-partnership 32. Statement of Resolve by the National and Regional Arab development finance institutions, the Islamic Development Bank and the OPEC Fund for International Development The National and Regional Arab development finance institutions, the Islamic Development Bank and the OPEC Fund for International Development: • reiterate their commitment to a continuous and scaled up cooperation with their Partner countries reflecting the tenets of development effectiveness and country ownership; • reaffirm their support to the GPEDC and commit to contributing to its governance, as members of the Steering Committee and as active development partners in over one hundred developing countries for over forty years; • commit to the success of the GPEDC HLM and to the deepening of the GPEDC processes and commit to a follow-up meeting on the HLM by mid-June 2014 in Jeddah (Saudi Arabia) and to a round table early in 2016, on ways and means of enhancing the frameworks of South-South cooperation. 33. The Big Development DataShift CIVICUS, the global civil society alliance, launches The Big Development DataShift, an ambitious, multi-stakeholder initiative to leverage the potential of the data revolution in development by building the capacity of civil society around the world to collect, curate and use citizen-generated data. The DataShift will increase coverage of data initiatives in the global south, promote comparability of data across countries, and create new tools for monitoring the post-2015 sustainable development goals. More information can be found at www.thedatashift.org Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org
17″”” www.effectivecooperation.org 34. The Big Idea: Youth-led, data-driven accountability and governance Restless Development is piloting the Big Idea, a youth-led accountability and governance initiative. Open data in the hands of young people can effectively drive national- and local-level accountability and development progress. The Big Idea project is a multi-stakeholder partnership bringing together data experts, civil society, youth organisations, academia, the private sector and government. The project will equip young people with knowledge, skills and platforms to effectively interpret and use data in order to mobilise citizens to take action, and hold their governments accountable. The project will be implemented in Nepal, Tanzania and Ghana. We will capture and analyse information gathered during the implementation phase to form recommendations for project scale-up and the wider sector. We are calling on other stakeholders including the GPEDC to build on the learnings of our pilot programme to develop accountability mechanisms in which young people can take an active and leading role. Young people should be included as equal partners at all levels, from the grassroots to high-level spaces like the GPEDC SC. Restless Development and other youth organisations are committed to assist other stakeholders in putting this into practice. More information can be found at: http://restlessdevelopment.org/big-idea Contact: email@example.com. 35. The Partnership in Mozambique – An Agenda for Action Recognising the importance of the country-level delivery of the Busan principles Mozambique, Ireland, Finland and Switzerland, together with the Mozambican Debt Group, have agreed to develop a Joint Agenda for Action designed to accelerate delivery on the Busan commitments in Mozambique. This Joint Agenda for Action will lay out short and medium term measures to be implemented over the next two years, aimed at further strengthening and adapting Mozambique’s development cooperation architecture and supporting the implementation of Mozambique’s Busan Action Plan, by: • Enhancing national Ownership and Leadership of development cooperation partnerships • Focussing Results and Policy Dialogue on national development priorities • Incentivising, and better specifying, Accountability and Transparency • Building a more Inclusive Partnership by opening up existing mechanisms to new players. Contacts: firstname.lastname@example.org; email@example.com; Ulla.Jarvela-Seppinen@formin.fi; firstname.lastname@example.org; email@example.com 36. Welcome the development of the “Tax Administration Diagnostic Assessment Tool” (TADAT) The IMF, TADAT Steering Committee and Belgium welcome the development and implementation by the time of the next GPEDC HLM of the Tax Administration Diagnostic Assessment Tool which will provide a framework for assessing the strengths and weaknesses of a country’s tax administration. More information can be found at: www.tadat.org. 37. Working Group on Good Practice Principles for Value Chain Development in FCS IFC is leading a working group, including the Clingendael Institute, Spark, Shell, and relevant IFC/WBG teams to develop a conflict-relevant tool for accelerating value chain development and integrating local SMEs. The effort will entail developing, piloting, evaluating, refining and dissemination of practical tools for practitioners, focused on agribusiness and extractives investment in fragile and conflict-affected situations. This will start with a set of good practice
18″”” www.effectivecooperation.org principles that deeply incorporate conflict-sensitivity, on which we are seeking comment at valuechainFCS@ifc.org. Specific outcomes, expected by June 2015 will include: • A set of tools to identify risks, gaps and constraints in the ecosystem / enabling environment, including policy, regulatory, finance, social and environmental factors; • A methodology for engaging the anchor investor, local community and potential suppliers to define and develop necessary local capacity; • Mechanisms for building skills of youth in FCS to maximize the employment impact; • A cross-sectoral dialogue mechanism to structure collaboration among value chain partners; • A methodology for defining intermediate and long term results, and evaluating the effectiveness of the tools and approaches; and Dissemination of the approach to the industry through relevant associations. Contacts: Magdi M. Amin, IFC, Mamin2@ifc.org; Yannick du Pont, firstname.lastname@example.org. To partner or contribute your ideas, please email valuechainFCS@ifc.org Additional voluntary initiatives since the first High-Level Meeting of the Global Partnership for Effective Development Co-operation: 38. Strengthening comparable tax statistical indicators (added on 12 May 2014). The African Tax Administration Forum and the OECD Task Force on Tax and Development agree to support the construction of comparable revenue statistics in interested developing countries. They would expand the coverage of the OECD revenue statistics, which currently include OECD and Latin American countries, by incorporating African countries that expressed interest. The comparative statistics would include, among others, the following indicators: overall tax burdens as measured by tax to GDP ratios; the tax mix, i.e. the distribution of the total tax take by the main types of tax; and the share of tax revenues attributed to the different levels of government i.e. federal or central, state, local and social security. The availability of comparable tax indicators across countries allows for better informed decision making on fiscal policy to support sustainable and inclusive economic growth. Potential partners will discuss the appropriate partnership agreements and modalities for taking this work forward. It is expected that by the end of this year potential partners will meet to discuss the various elements of the project and to allow an implementation stage to begin. Contact point: Dr. Nara Monkam, Director: Research, African Tax Administration Forum (ATAF) Tel: +27 12 451 8811 Email: mailto:email@example.com. 39. Collaborative partner-donor evaluation initiative (added on 8 July 2014). Collaborative partner-donor evaluation is a tool for mutual accountability and learning. It is part of a strand of converging efforts aimed at strengthening partner country systems in support of good governance. As a learning-by-doing instrument, it is complementary to training programs, technical support, and advocacy. The initiative is designed to add value to other international efforts. It focuses on cooperation between development partners and second, it concentrates on collaborative evaluation activities that are intended to strengthen country evaluation systems. The first year study consists of a series of partner country studies, each one including: (1) a review of the Paris Declaration Evaluation process in terms of its contribution to building evaluation capacity; (2) the collection of positive stories of partner-donor evaluation work; and (3) an exploration of future opportunities for undertaking such work at partner country level. The study will end in an international workshop aimed at synthesizing the country studies and proposing steps forward.
19″”” www.effectivecooperation.org The objectives of the current study are: 1. To understand the capacity building potential of collaborative evaluation work, 2. To draw new lessons about evaluation capacity building strategies, and 3. To pave the way to a multi-annual partner-donor collaboration on evaluation work. Public organisations from 18 partner countries have volunteered for studies, and a provisional number of 15 donor institutions committed to providing financial and/or technical support. Country studies are now underway or being launched. More information at: http://www.oecd.org/dac/evaluation/collaborativepartnerdonorevaluation.htm Contact person: firstname.lastname@example.org ”
20″”” www.effectivecooperation.org ANNEX 2 New Composition of the Steering Committee (as agreed at the 5th meeting of the Global Partnership Steering Committee Abuja, 13-14 February 2014) !! Current composition of the Steering Committee of the Global Partnership (18 members): Breakdown of the six additional seats agreed in Abuja Co-Chairs of the Global Partnership and of the Steering Committee 1 Recipient of development co-operation 1 Provider and recipient of development co-operation 1 Provider of development co-operation Members of the Steering Committee 5 Representatives of recipients of development co-operation, at least one of which is a representative of the g7+ group of fragile and conflict-affected states 1 Representative of providers-recipients of development co-operation 3 Representatives of providers of development co-operation 1 Representative of private sector stakeholders 1 Representative of parliamentarians 1 Representative of civil society stakeholders 1 Representative of multilateral development banks 1 Representative of the UNDP/UNDG 1 Representative of the OECD/DAC Additional seats 1 Additional representative from Africa 1 Representative of providers-recipients of development co-operation 1 Representative of Arab providers 1 Representative of non-traditional civil society stakeholders / trade unions 1 Representative of foundations 1 Representative of local governments