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International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families

International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and
Members of Their Families

Adopted by General Assembly resolution 45/158 of 18 December 1990

Preamble

The States Parties to the present Convention,

Taking into account the principles embodied in the basic instruments of the United Nations concerning
human rights, in particular the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the International Covenant on
Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, the
International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination, the Convention on
the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women and the Convention on the Rights of the
Child,

Taking into account also the principles and standards set forth in the relevant instruments elaborated
within the framework of the International Labour Organisation, especially the Convention concerning
Migration for Employment (No. 97), the Convention concerning Migrations in Abusive Conditions and
the Promotion of Equality of Opportunity and Treatment of Migrant Workers (No.143), the
Recommendation concerning Migration for Employment (No. 86), the Recommendation concerning
Migrant Workers (No.151), the Convention concerning Forced or Compulsory Labour (No. 29) and the
Convention concerning Abolition of Forced Labour (No. 105), Reaffirming the importance of the
principles contained in the Convention against Discrimination in Education of the United Nations
Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization,

Recalling the Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or
Punishment, the Declaration of the Fourth United Nations Congress on the Prevention of Crime and the
Treatment of Offenders, the Code of Conduct for Law Enforcement Officials, and the Slavery
Conventions,

Recalling that one of the objectives of the International Labour Organisation, as stated in its
Constitution, is the protection of the interests of workers when employed in countries other than their
own, and bearing in mind the expertise and experience of that organization in matters related to
migrant workers and members of their families,

Recognizing the importance of the work done in connection with migrant workers and members of their
families in various organs of the United Nations, in particular in the Commission on Human Rights and
the Commission for Social Development, and in the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United
Nations, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization and the World Health
Organization, as well as in other international organizations,

Recognizing also the progress made by certain States on a regional or bilateral basis towards the
protection of the rights of migrant workers and members of their families, as well as the importance
and usefulness of bilateral and multilateral agreements in this field,

Realizing the importance and extent of the migration phenomenon, which involves millions of people
and affects a large number of States in the international community,

Aware of the impact of the flows of migrant workers on States and people concerned, and desiring to
establish norms which may contribute to the harmonization of the attitudes of States through the
acceptance of basic principles concerning the treatment of migrant workers and members of their
families,

Considering the situation of vulnerability in which migrant workers and members of their families
frequently-find themselves owing, among other things, to their absence from their State of origin and
to the difficulties they may encounter arising from their presence in the State of employment,

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Convinced that the rights of migrant workers and members of their families have not been sufficiently
recognized everywhere and therefore require appropriate international protection,

Taking into account the fact that migration is often the cause of serious problems for the members of
the families of migrant workers as well as for the workers themselves, in particular because of the
scattering of the family,

Bearing in mind that the human problems involved in migration are even more serious in the case of
irregular migration and convinced therefore that appropriate action should be encouraged in order to
prevent and eliminate clandestine movements and trafficking in migrant workers, while at the same
time assuring the protection of their fundamental human rights,

Considering that workers who are non-documented or in an irregular situation are frequently employed
under less favourable conditions of work than other workers and that certain employers find this an
inducement to seek such labour in order to reap the benefits of unfair competition,

Considering also that recourse to the employment of migrant workers who are in an irregular situation
will be discouraged if the fundamental human rights of all migrant workers are more widely recognized
and, moreover, that granting certain additional rights to migrant workers and members of their
families in a regular situation will encourage all migrants and employers to respect and comply with
the laws and procedures established by the States concerned,

Convinced, therefore, of the need to bring about the international protection of the rights of all migrant
workers and members of their families, reaffirming and establishing basic norms in a comprehensive
convention which could be applied universally,

Have agreed as follows:

Part I: Scope and Definitions

Article 1

1. The present Convention is applicable, except as otherwise provided hereafter, to all migrant workers
and members of their families without distinction of any kind such as sex, race, colour, language,
religion or conviction, political or other opinion, national, ethnic or social origin, nationality, age,
economic position, property, marital status, birth or other status.

2. The present Convention shall apply during the entire migration process of migrant workers and
members of their families, which comprises preparation for migration, departure, transit and the entire
period of stay and remunerated activity in the State of employment as well as return to the State of
origin or the State of habitual residence.

Article 2

For the purposes of the present Convention:

1. The term “migrant worker” refers to a person who is to be engaged, is engaged or has been
engaged in a remunerated activity in a State of which he or she is not a national.

2.

(a) The term “frontier worker” refers to a migrant worker who retains his or her habitual residence in a
neighbouring State to which he or she normally returns every day or at least once a week;

(b) The term “seasonal worker” refers to a migrant worker whose work by its character is dependent
on seasonal conditions and is performed only during part of the year;

(c) The term “seafarer”, which includes a fisherman, refers to a migrant worker employed on board a
vessel registered in a State of which he or she is not a national;

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(d) The term “worker on an offshore installation” refers to a migrant worker employed on an offshore
installation that is under the jurisdiction of a State of which he or she is not a national;

(e) The term “itinerant worker” refers to a migrant worker who, having his or her habitual residence in
one State, has to travel to another State or States for short periods, owing to the nature of his or her
occupation;

(f) The term “project-tied worker” refers to a migrant worker admitted to a State of employment for a
defined period to work solely on a specific project being carried out in that State by his or her
employer;

(g) The term “specified-employment worker” refers to a migrant worker:

(i) Who has been sent by his or her employer for a restricted and defined period of time to a State of
employment to undertake a specific assignment or duty; or

(ii) Who engages for a restricted and defined period of time in work that requires professional,
commercial, technical or other highly specialized skill; or

(iii) Who, upon the request of his or her employer in the State of employment, engages for a restricted
and defined period of time in work whose nature is transitory or brief; and who is required to depart
from the State of employment either at the expiration of his or her authorized period of stay, or earlier
if he or she no longer undertakes that specific assignment or duty or engages in that work;

(h) The term “self-employed worker” refers to a migrant worker who is engaged in a remunerated
activity otherwise than under a contract of employment and who earns his or her living through this
activity normally working alone or together with members of his or her family, and to any other
migrant worker recognized as self-employed by applicable legislation of the State of employment or
bilateral or multilateral agreements.

Article 3

The present Convention shall not apply to: (a) Persons sent or employed by international organizations
and agencies or persons sent or employed by a State outside its territory to perform official functions,
whose admission and status are regulated by general international law or by specific international
agreements or conventions;

(b) Persons sent or employed by a State or on its behalf outside its territory who participate in
development programmes and other co-operation programmes, whose admission and status are
regulated by agreement with the State of employment and who, in accordance with that agreement,
are not considered migrant workers;

(c) Persons taking up residence in a State different from their State of origin as investors;

(d) Refugees and stateless persons, unless such application is provided for in the relevant national
legislation of, or international instruments in force for, the State Party concerned;

(e) Students and trainees;

(f) Seafarers and workers on an offshore installation who have not been admitted to take up residence
and engage in a remunerated activity in the State of employment.

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Article 4

For the purposes of the present Convention the term ”members of the family” refers to persons
married to migrant workers or having with them a relationship that, according to applicable law,
produces effects equivalent to marriage, as well as their dependent children and other dependent
persons who are recognized as members of the family by applicable legislation or applicable bilateral or
multilateral agreements between the States concerned.

Article 5

For the purposes of the present Convention, migrant workers and members of their families:

(a) Are considered as documented or in a regular situation if they are authorized to enter, to stay and
to engage in a remunerated activity in the State of employment pursuant to the law of that State and
to international agreements to which that State is a party;

(b) Are considered as non-documented or in an irregular situation if they do not comply with the
conditions provided for in subparagraph (a) of the present article.

Article 6

For the purposes of the present Convention:

(a) The term “State of origin” means the State of which the person concerned is a national;

(b) The term “State of employment” means a State where the migrant worker is to be engaged, is
engaged or has been engaged in a remunerated activity, as the case may be;

(c) The term “State of transit,’ means any State through which the person concerned passes on any
journey to the State of employment or from the State of employment to the State of origin or the
State of habitual residence.

Part II: Non-discrimination with Respect to Rights

Article 7

States Parties undertake, in accordance with the international instruments concerning human rights, to
respect and to ensure to all migrant workers and members of their families within their territory or
subject to their jurisdiction the rights provided for in the present Convention without distinction of any
kind such as to sex, race, colour, language, religion or conviction, political or other opinion, national,
ethnic or social origin, nationality, age, economic position, property, marital status, birth or other
status.

Part III: Human Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of their Families

Article 8

1. Migrant workers and members of their families shall be free to leave any State, including their State
of origin. This right shall not be subject to any restrictions except those that are provided by law, are
necessary to protect national security, public order (ordre public), public health or morals or the rights
and freedoms of others and are consistent with the other rights recognized in the present part of the
Convention.

2. Migrant workers and members of their families shall have the right at any time to enter and remain
in their State of origin.

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Article 9

The right to life of migrant workers and members of their families shall be protected by law.

Article 10

No migrant worker or member of his or her family shall be subjected to torture or to cruel, inhuman or
degrading treatment or punishment.

Article 11

1. No migrant worker or member of his or her family shall be held in slavery or servitude.

2. No migrant worker or member of his or her family shall be required to perform forced or compulsory
labour.

3. Paragraph 2 of the present article shall not be held to preclude, in States where imprisonment with
hard labour may be imposed as a punishment for a crime, the performance of hard labour in
pursuance of a sentence to such punishment by a competent court.

4. For the purpose of the present article the term “forced or compulsory labour” shall not include:

(a) Any work or service not referred to in paragraph 3 of the present article normally required of a
person who is under detention in consequence of a lawful order of a court or of a person during
conditional release from such detention;

(b) Any service exacted in cases of emergency or clamity threatening the life or well-being of the
community;

(c) Any work or service that forms part of normal civil obligations so far as it is imposed also on
citizens of the State concerned.

Article 12

1. Migrant workers and members of their families shall have the right to freedom of thought,
conscience and religion. This right shall include freedom to have or to adopt a religion or belief of their
choice and freedom either individually or in community with others and in public or private to manifest
their religion or belief in worship, observance, practice and teaching.

2. Migrant workers and members of their families shall not be subject to coercion that would impair
their freedom to have or to adopt a religion or belief of their choice.

3. Freedom to manifest one’s religion or belief may be subject only to such limitations as are
prescribed by law and are necessary to protect public safety, order, health or morals or the
fundamental rights and freedoms of others.

4. States Parties to the present Convention undertake to have respect for the liberty of parents, at
least one of whom is a migrant worker, and, when applicable, legal guardians to ensure the religious
and moral education of their children in conformity with their own convictions.

Article 13

1. Migrant workers and members of their families shall have the right to hold opinions without
interference.

2. Migrant workers and members of their families shall have the right to freedom of expression; this
right shall include freedom to seek, receive and impart information and ideas of all kinds, regardless of

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frontiers, either orally, in writing or in print, in the form of art or through any other media of their
choice.

3. The exercise of the right provided for in paragraph 2 of the present article carries with it special
duties and responsibilities. It may therefore be subject to certain restrictions, but these shall only be
such as are provided by law and are necessary:

(a) For respect of the rights or reputation of others;

(b) For the protection of the national security of the States concerned or of public order (ordre public)
or of public health or morals;

(c) For the purpose of preventing any propaganda for war;

(d) For the purpose of preventing any advocacy of national, racial or religious hatred that constitutes
incitement to discrimination, hostility or violence.

Article 14

No migrant worker or member of his or her family shall be subjected to arbitrary or unlawful
interference with his or her privacy, family, home, correspondence or other communications, or to
unlawful attacks on his or her honour and reputation. Each migrant worker and member of his or her
family shall have the right to the protection of the law against such interference or attacks.

Article 15

No migrant worker or member of his or her family shall be arbitrarily deprived of property, whether
owned individually or in association with others. Where, under the legislation in force in the State of
employment, the assets of a migrant worker or a member of his or her family are expropriated in
whole or in part, the person concerned shall have the right to fair and adequate compensation.

Article 16

1. Migrant workers and members of their families shall have the right to liberty and security of person.

2. Migrant workers and members of their families shall be entitled to effective protection by the State
against violence, physical injury, threats and intimidation, whether by public officials or by private
individuals, groups or institutions.

3. Any verification by law enforcement officials of the identity of migrant workers or members of their
families shall be carried out in accordance with procedure established by law.

4. Migrant workers and members of their families shall not be subjected individually or collectively to
arbitrary arrest or detention; they shall not be deprived o their liberty except on such grounds and in
accordance with such procedures as are established by law.

5. Migrant workers and members of their families who are arrested shall be informed at the time of
arrest as far as possible in a language they understand of the reasons for their arrest and they shall be
promptly informed in a language they understand of any charges against them.

6. Migrant workers and members of their families who are arrested or detained on a criminal charge
shall be brought promptly before a judge or other officer authorized by law to exercise judicial power
and shall be entitled to trial within a reasonable time or to release. It shall not be the general rule that
while awaiting trial they shall be detained in custody, but release may be subject to guarantees to
appear for trial, at any other stage of the judicial proceedings and, should the occasion arise, for the
execution of the judgement.

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7. When a migrant worker or a member of his or her family is arrested or committed to prison or
custody pending trial or is detained in any other manner:

(a) The consular or diplomatic authorities of his or her State of origin or of a State representing the
interests of that State shall, if he or she so requests, be informed without delay of his or her arrest or
detention and of the reasons therefor;

(b) The person concerned shall have the right to communicate with the said authorities. Any
communication by the person concerned to the said authorities shall be forwarded without delay, and
he or she shall also have the right to receive communications sent by the said authorities without
delay;

(c) The person concerned shall be informed without delay of this right and of rights deriving from
relevant treaties, if any, applicable between the States concerned, to correspond and to meet with
representatives of the said authorities and to make arrangements with them for his or her legal
representation.

8. Migrant workers and members of their families who are deprived of their liberty by arrest or
detention shall be entitled to take proceedings before a court, in order that that court may decide
without delay on the lawfulness of their detention and order their release if the detention is not lawful.
When they attend such proceedings, they shall have the assistance, if necessary without cost to them,
of an interpreter, if they cannot understand or speak the language used.

9. Migrant workers and members of their families who have been victims of unlawful arrest or
detention shall have an enforceable right to compensation.

Article 17

1. Migrant workers and members of their families who are deprived of their liberty shall be treated with
humanity and with respect for the inherent dignity of the human person and for their cultural identity.

2. Accused migrant workers and members of their families shall, save in exceptional circumstances, be
separated from convicted persons and shall be subject to separate treatment appropriate to their
status as unconvicted persons. Accused juvenile persons shall be separated from adults and brought as
speedily as possible for adjudication.

3. Any migrant worker or member of his or her family who is detained in a State of transit or in a State
of employment for violation of provisions relating to migration shall be held, in so far as practicable,
separately from convicted persons or persons detained pending trial.

4. During any period of imprisonment in pursuance of a sentence imposed by a court of law, the
essential aim of the treatment of a migrant worker or a member of his or her family shall be his or her
reformation and social rehabilitation. Juvenile offenders shall be separated from adults and be
accorded treatment appropriate to their age and legal status.

5. During detention or imprisonment, migrant workers and members of their families shall enjoy the
same rights as nationals to visits by members of their families.

6. Whenever a migrant worker is deprived of his or her liberty, the competent authorities of the State
concerned shall pay attention to the problems that may be posed for members of his or her family, in
particular for spouses and minor children.

7. Migrant workers and members of their families who are subjected to any form of detention or
imprisonment in accordance with the law in force in the State of employment or in the State of transit
shall enjoy the same rights as nationals of those States who are in the same situation.

8. If a migrant worker or a member of his or her family is detained for the purpose of verifying any
infraction of provisions related to migration, he or she shall not bear any costs arising therefrom.

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Article 18

1. Migrant workers and members of their families shall have the right to equality with nationals of the
State concerned before the courts and tribunals. In the determination of any criminal charge against
them or of their rights and obligations in a suit of law, they shall be entitled to a fair and public hearing
by a competent, independent and impartial tribunal established by law.

2. Migrant workers and members of their families who are charged with a criminal offence shall have
the right to be presumed innocent until proven guilty according to law.

3. In the determination of any criminal charge against them, migrant workers and members of their
families shall be entitled to the following minimum guarantees:

(a) To be informed promptly and in detail in a language they understand of the nature and cause of
the charge against them;

(b) To have adequate time and facilities for the preparation of their defence and to communicate with
counsel of their own choosing;

(c) To be tried without undue delay;

(d) To be tried in their presence and to defend themselves in person or through legal assistance of
their own choosing; to be informed, if they do not have legal assistance, of this right; and to have
legal assistance assigned to them, in any case where the interests of justice so require and without
payment by them in any such case if they do not have sufficient means to pay;

(e) To examine or have examined the witnesses against them and to obtain the attendance and
examination of witnesses on their behalf under the same conditions as witnesses against them;

(f) To have the free assistance of an interpreter if they cannot understand or speak the language used
in court;

(g) Not to be compelled to testify against themselves or to confess guilt.

4. In the case of juvenile persons, the procedure shall be such as will take account of their age and the
desirability of promoting their rehabilitation.

5. Migrant workers and members of their families convicted of a crime shall have the right to their
conviction and sentence being reviewed by a higher tribunal according to law.

6. When a migrant worker or a member of his or her family has, by a final decision, been convicted of
a criminal offence and when subsequently his or her conviction has been reversed or he or she has
been pardoned on the ground that a new or newly discovered fact shows conclusively that there has
been a miscarriage of justice, the person who has suffered punishment as a result of such conviction
shall be compensated according to law, unless it is proved that the non-disclosure of the unknown fact
in time is wholly or partly attributable to that person.

7. No migrant worker or member of his or her family shall be liable to be tried or punished again for an
offence for which he or she has already been finally convicted or acquitted in accordance with the law
and penal procedure of the State concerned.

Article 19

1. No migrant worker or member of his or her family shall be held guilty of any criminal offence on
account of any act or omission that did not constitute a criminal offence under national or international
law at the time when the criminal offence was committed, nor shall a heavier penalty be imposed than
the one that was applicable at the time when it was committed. If, subsequent to the commission of

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the offence, provision is made by law for the imposition of a lighter penalty, he or she shall benefit
thereby.

2. Humanitarian considerations related to the status of a migrant worker, in particular with respect to
his or her right of residence or work, should be taken into account in imposing a sentence for a
criminal offence committed by a migrant worker or a member of his or her family.

Article 20

1. No migrant worker or member of his or her family shall be imprisoned merely on the ground of
failure to fulfil a contractual obligation.

2. No migrant worker or member of his or her family shall be deprived of his or her authorization of
residence or work permit or expelled merely on the ground of failure to fulfil an obligation arising out
of a work contract unless fulfilment of that obligation constitutes a condition for such authorization or
permit.

Article 21

It shall be unlawful for anyone, other than a public official duly authorized by law, to confiscate,
destroy or attempt to destroy identity documents, documents authorizing entry to or stay, residence or
establishment in the national territory or work permits. No authorized confiscation of such documents
shall take place without delivery of a detailed receipt. In no case shall it be permitted to destroy the
passport or equivalent document of a migrant worker or a member of his or her family.

Article 22

1. Migrant workers and members of their families shall not be subject to measures of collective
expulsion. Each case of expulsion shall be examined and decided individually.

2. Migrant workers and members of their families may be expelled from the territory of a State Party
only in pursuance of a decision taken by the competent authority in accordance with law.

3. The decision shall be communicated to them in a language they understand. Upon their request
where not otherwise mandatory, the decision shall be communicated to them in writing and, save in
exceptional circumstances on account of national security, the reasons for the decision likewise stated.
The persons concerned shall be informed of these rights before or at the latest at the time the decision
is rendered.

4. Except where a final decision is pronounced by a judicial authority, the person concerned shall have
the right to submit the reason he or she should not be expelled and to have his or her case reviewed
by the competent authority, unless compelling reasons of national security require otherwise. Pending
such review, the person concerned shall have the right to seek a stay of the decision of expulsion.

5. If a decision of expulsion that has already been executed is subsequently annulled, the person
concerned shall have the right to seek compensation according to law and the earlier decision shall not
be used to prevent him or her from re-entering the State concerned.

6. In case of expulsion, the person concerned shall have a reasonable opportunity before or after
departure to settle any claims for wages and other entitlements due to him or her and any pending
liabilities.

7. Without prejudice to the execution of a decision of expulsion, a migrant worker or a member of his
or her family who is subject to such a decision may seek entry into a State other than his or her State
of origin.

8. In case of expulsion of a migrant worker or a member of his or her family the costs of expulsion
shall not be borne by him or her. The person concerned may be required to pay his or her own travel
costs.

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9. Expulsion from the State of employment shall not in itself prejudice any rights of a migrant worker
or a member of his or her family acquired in accordance with the law of that State, including the right
to receive wages and other entitlements due to him or her.

Article 23

Migrant workers and members of their families shall have the right to have recourse to the protection
and assistance of the consular or diplomatic authorities of their State of origin or of a State
representing the interests of that State whenever the rights recognized in the present Convention are
impaired. In particular, in case of expulsion, the person concerned shall be informed of this right
without delay and the authorities of the expelling State shall facilitate the exercise of such right.

Article 24

Every migrant worker and every member of his or her family shall have the right to recognition
everywhere as a person before the law.

Article 25

1. Migrant workers shall enjoy treatment not less favourable than that which applies to nationals of the
State of employment in respect of remuneration and:

(a) Other conditions of work, that is to say, overtime, hours of work, weekly rest, holidays with pay,
safety, health, termination of the employment relationship and any other conditions of work which,
according to national law and practice, are covered by these terms;

(b) Other terms of employment, that is to say, minimum age of employment, restriction on home work
and any other matters which, according to national law and practice, are considered a term of
employment.

2. It shall not be lawful to derogate in private contracts of employment from the principle of equality of
treatment referred to in paragraph 1 of the present article.

3. States Parties shall take all appropriate measures to ensure that migrant workers are not deprived
of any rights derived from this principle by reason of any irregularity in their stay or employment. In
particular, employers shall not be relieved of any legal or contractual obligations, nor shall their
obligations be limited in any manner by reason of such irregularity.

Article 26

1. States Parties recognize the right of migrant workers and members of their families:

(a) To take part in meetings and activities of trade unions and of any other associations established in
accordance with law, with a view to protecting their economic, social, cultural and other interests,
subject only to the rules of the organization concerned;

(b) To join freely any trade union and any such association as aforesaid, subject only to the rules of
the organization concerned;

(c) To seek the aid and assistance of any trade union and of any such association as aforesaid.

2. No restrictions may be placed on the exercise of these rights other than those that are prescribed by
law and which are necessary in a democratic society in the interests of national security, public order
(ordre public) or the protection of the rights and freedoms of others.

Article 27

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1. With respect to social security, migrant workers and members of their families shall enjoy in the
State of employment the same treatment granted to nationals in so far as they fulfil the requirements
provided for by the applicable legislation of that State and the applicable bilateral and multilateral
treaties. The competent authorities of the State of origin and the State of employment can at any time
establish the necessary arrangements to determine the modalities of application of this norm.

2. Where the applicable legislation does not allow migrant workers and members of their families a
benefit, the States concerned shall examine the possibility of reimbursing interested persons the
amount of contributions made by them with respect to that benefit on the basis of the treatment
granted to nationals who are in similar circumstances.

Article 28

Migrant workers and members of their families shall have the right to receive any medical care that is
urgently required for the preservation of their life or the avoidance of irreparable harm to their health
on the basis of equality of treatment with nationals of the State concerned. Such emergency medical
care shall not be refused them by reason of any irregularity with regard to stay or employment.

Article 29

Each child of a migrant worker shall have the right to a name, to registration of birth and to a
nationality.

Article 30

Each child of a migrant worker shall have the basic right of access to education on the basis of equality
of treatment with nationals of the State concerned. Access to public pre-school educational institutions
or schools shall not be refused or limited by reason of the irregular situation with respect to stay or
employment of either parent or by reason of the irregularity of the child’s stay in the State of
employment.

Article 31

1. States Parties shall ensure respect for the cultural identity of migrant workers and members of their
families and shall not prevent them from maintaining their cultural links with their State of origin. 2.
States Parties may take appropriate measures to assist and encourage efforts in this respect.

Article 32

Upon the termination of their stay in the State of employment, migrant workers and members of their
families shall have the right to transfer their earnings and savings and, in accordance with the
applicable legislation of the States concerned, their personal effects and belongings.

Article 33

1. Migrant workers and members of their families shall have the right to be informed by the State of
origin, the State of employment or the State of transit as the case may be concerning:

(a) Their rights arising out of the present Convention;

(b) The conditions of their admission, their rights and obligations under the law and practice of the
State concerned and such other matters as will enable them to comply with administrative or other
formalities in that State. 2. States Parties shall take all measures they deem appropriate to
disseminate the said information or to ensure that it is provided by employers, trade unions or other
appropriate bodies or institutions. As appropriate, they shall co-operate with other States concerned.

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3. Such adequate information shall be provided upon request to migrant workers and members of their
families, free of charge, and, as far as possible, in a language they are able to understand.

Article 34

Nothing in the present part of the Convention shall have the effect of relieving migrant workers and
the members of their families from either the obligation to comply with the laws and regulations of any
State of transit and the State of employment or the obligation to respect the cultural identity of the
inhabitants of such States.

Article 35

Nothing in the present part of the Convention shall be interpreted as implying the regularization of the
situation of migrant workers or members of their families who are non-documented or in an irregular
situation or any right to such regularization of their situation, nor shall it prejudice the measures
intended to ensure sound and equitable-conditions for international migration as provided in part VI of
the present Convention.

Part IV: Other Rights of Migrant Workers and Members of their Families who are
Documented or ina Regular Situation

Article 36

Migrant workers and members of their families who are documented or in a regular situation in the
State of employment shall enjoy the rights set forth in the present part of the Convention in addition
to those set forth in part III.

Article 37

Before their departure, or at the latest at the time of their admission to the State of employment,
migrant workers and members of their families shall have the right to be fully informed by the State of
origin or the State of employment, as appropriate, of all conditions applicable to their admission and
particularly those concerning their stay and the remunerated activities in which they may engage as
well as of the requirements they must satisfy in the State of employment and the authority to which
they must address themselves for any modification of those conditions.

Article 38

1. States of employment shall make every effort to authorize migrant workers and members of the
families to be temporarily absent without effect upon their authorization to stay or to work, as the case
may be. In doing so, States of employment shall take into account the special needs and obligations of
migrant workers and members of their families, in particular in their States of origin.

2. Migrant workers and members of their families shall have the right to be fully informed of the terms
on which such temporary absences are authorized.

Article 39

1. Migrant workers and members of their families shall have the right to liberty of movement in the
territory of the State of employment and freedom to choose their residence there.

2. The rights mentioned in paragraph 1 of the present article shall not be subject to any restrictions
except those that are provided by law, are necessary to protect national security, public order (ordre
public), public health or morals, or the rights and freedoms of others and are consistent with the other
rights recognized in the present Convention.

Article 40

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1. Migrant workers and members of their families shall have the right to form associations and trade
unions in the State of employment for the promotion and protection of their economic, social, cultural
and other interests.

2. No restrictions may be placed on the exercise of this right other than those that are prescribed by
law and are necessary in a democratic society in the interests of national security, public order (ordre
public) or the protection of the rights and freedoms of others.

Article 41

1. Migrant workers and members of their families shall have the right to participate in public affairs of
their State of origin and to vote and to be elected at elections of that State, in accordance with its
legislation.

2. The States concerned shall, as appropriate and in accordance with their legislation, facilitate the
exercise of these rights.

Article 42

1. States Parties shall consider the establishment of procedures or institutions through which account
may be taken, both in States of origin and in States of employment, of special needs, aspirations and
obligations of migrant workers and members of their families and shall envisage, as appropriate, the
possibility for migrant workers and members of their families to have their freely chosen
representatives in those institutions.

2. States of employment shall facilitate, in accordance with their national legislation, the consultation
or participation of migrant workers and members of their families in decisions concerning the life and
administration of local communities.

3. Migrant workers may enjoy political rights in the State of employment if that State, in the exercise
of its sovereignty, grants them such rights.

Article 43

1. Migrant workers shall enjoy equality of treatment with nationals of the State of employment in
relation to:

(a) Access to educational institutions and services subject to the admission requirements and other
regulations of the institutions and services concerned;

(b) Access to vocational guidance and placement services;

(c) Access to vocational training and retraining facilities and institutions;

(d) Access to housing, including social housing schemes, and protection against exploitation in respect
of rents;

(e) Access to social and health services, provided that the requirements for participation in the
respective schemes are met;

(f) Access to co-operatives and self-managed enterprises, which shall not imply a change of their
migration status and shall be subject to the rules and regulations of the bodies concerned;

(g) Access to and participation in cultural life.

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2. States Parties shall promote conditions to ensure effective equality of treatment to enable migrant
workers to enjoy the rights mentioned in paragraph 1 of the present article whenever the terms of
their stay, as authorized by the State of employment, meet the appropriate requirements.

3. States of employment shall not prevent an employer of migrant workers from establishing housing
or social or cultural facilities for them. Subject to article 70 of the present Convention, a State of
employment may make the establishment of such facilities subject to the requirements generally
applied in that State concerning their installation.

Article 44

1. States Parties, recognizing that the family is the natural and fundamental group unit of society and
is entitled to protection by society and the State, shall take appropriate measures to ensure the
protection of the unity of the families of migrant workers.

2. States Parties shall take measures that they deem appropriate and that fall within their competence
to facilitate the reunification of migrant workers with their spouses or persons who have with the
migrant worker a relationship that, according to applicable law, produces effects equivalent to
marriage, as well as with their minor dependent unmarried children.

3. States of employment, on humanitarian grounds, shall favourably consider granting equal
treatment, as set forth in paragraph 2 of the present article, to other family members of migrant
workers.

Article 45

1. Members of the families of migrant workers shall, in the State of employment, enjoy equality of
treatment with nationals of that State in relation to:

(a) Access to educational institutions and services, subject to the admission requirements and other
regulations of the institutions and services concerned;

(b) Access to vocational guidance and training institutions and services, provided that requirements for
participation are met;

(c) Access to social and health services, provided that requirements for participation in the respective
schemes are met;

(d) Access to and participation in cultural life.

2. States of employment shall pursue a policy, where appropriate in collaboration with the States of
origin, aimed at facilitating the integration of children of migrant workers in the local school system,
particularly in respect of teaching them the local language.

3. States of employment shall endeavour to facilitate for the children of migrant workers the teaching
of their mother tongue and culture and, in this regard, States of origin shall collaborate whenever
appropriate.

4. States of employment may provide special schemes of education in the mother tongue of children of
migrant workers, if necessary in collaboration with the States of origin.

Article 46

Migrant workers and members of their families shall, subject to the applicable legislation of the States
concerned, as well as relevant international agreements and the obligations of the States concerned
arising out of their participation in customs unions, enjoy exemption from import and export duties and
taxes in respect of their personal and household effects as well as the equipment necessary to engage
in the remunerated activity for which they were admitted to the State of employment:

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(a) Upon departure from the State of origin or State of habitual residence;

(b) Upon initial admission to the State of employment;

(c) Upon final departure from the State of employment;

(d) Upon final return to the State of origin or State of habitual residence.

Article 47

1. Migrant workers shall have the right to transfer their earnings and savings, in particular those funds
necessary for the support of their families, from the State of employment to their State of origin or any
other State. Such transfers shall be made in conformity with procedures established by applicable
legislation of the State concerned and in conformity with applicable international agreements.

2. States concerned shall take appropriate measures to facilitate such transfers.

Article 48

1. Without prejudice to applicable double taxation agreements, migrant workers and members of their
families shall, in the matter of earnings in the State of employment:

(a) Not be liable to taxes, duties or charges of any description higher or more onerous than those
imposed on nationals in similar circumstances;

(b) Be entitled to deductions or exemptions from taxes of any description and to any tax allowances
applicable to nationals in similar circumstances, including tax allowances for dependent members of
their families. 2. States Parties shall endeavour to adopt appropriate measures to avoid double
taxation of the earnings and savings of migrant workers and members of their families.

Article 49

1. Where separate authorizations to reside and to engage in employment are required by national
legislation, the States of employment shall issue to migrant workers authorization of residence for at
least the same period of time as their authorization to engage in remunerated activity.

2. Migrant workers who in the State of employment are allowed freely to choose their remunerated
activity shall neither be regarded as in an irregular situation nor shall they lose their authorization of
residence by the mere fact of the termination of their remunerated activity prior to the expiration of
their work permits or similar authorizations.

3. In order to allow migrant workers referred to in paragraph 2 of the present article sufficient time to
find alternative remunerated activities, the authorization of residence shall not be withdrawn at least
for a period corresponding to that during which they may be entitled to unemployment benefits.

Article 50

1. In the case of death of a migrant worker or dissolution of marriage, the State of employment shall
favourably consider granting family members of that migrant worker residing in that State on the basis
of family reunion an authorization to stay; the State of employment shall take into account the length
of time they have already resided in that State.

2. Members of the family to whom such authorization is not granted shall be allowed before departure
a reasonable period of time in order to enable them to settle their affairs in the State of employment.

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3. The provisions of paragraphs I and 2 of the present article may not be interpreted as adversely
affecting any right to stay and work otherwise granted to such family members by the legislation of the
State of employment or by bilateral and multilateral treaties applicable to that State.

Article 51

Migrant workers who in the State of employment are not permitted freely to choose their remunerated
activity shall neither be regarded as in an irregular situation nor shall they lose their authorization of
residence by the mere fact of the termination of their remunerated activity prior to the expiration of
their work permit, except where the authorization of residence is expressly dependent upon the
specific remunerated activity for which they were admitted. Such migrant workers shall have the right
to seek alternative employment, participation in public work schemes and retraining during the
remaining period of their authorization to work, subject to such conditions and limitations as are
specified in the authorization to work.

Article 52

1. Migrant workers in the State of employment shall have the right freely to choose their remunerated
activity, subject to the following restrictions or conditions.

2. For any migrant worker a State of employment may:

(a) Restrict access to limited categories of employment, functions, services or activities where this is
necessary in the interests of this State and provided for by national legislation;

(b) Restrict free choice of remunerated activity in accordance with its legislation concerning recognition
of occupational qualifications acquired outside its territory. However, States Parties concerned shall
endeavour to provide for recognition of such qualifications.

3. For migrant workers whose permission to work is limited in time, a State of employment may also:

(a) Make the right freely to choose their remunerated activities subject to the condition that the
migrant worker has resided lawfully in its territory for the purpose of remunerated activity for a period
of time prescribed in its national legislation that should not exceed two years;

(b) Limit access by a migrant worker to remunerated activities in pursuance of a policy of granting
priority to its nationals or to persons who are assimilated to them for these purposes by virtue of
legislation or bilateral or multilateral agreements. Any such limitation shall cease to apply to a migrant
worker who has resided lawfully in its territory for the purpose of remunerated activity for a period of
time prescribed in its national legislation that should not exceed five years.

4. States of employment shall prescribe the conditions under which a migrant worker who has been
admitted to take up employment may be authorized to engage in work on his or her own account.
Account shall be taken of the period during which the worker has already been lawfully in the State of
employment.

Article 53

1. Members of a migrant worker’s family who have themselves an authorization of residence or
admission that is without limit of time or is automatically renewable shall be permitted freely to choose
their remunerated activity under the same conditions as are applicable to the said migrant worker in
accordance with article 52 of the present Convention.

2. With respect to members of a migrant worker’s family who are not permitted freely to choose their
remunerated activity, States Parties shall consider favourably granting them priority in obtaining

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permission to engage in a remunerated activity over other workers who seek admission to the State of
employment, subject to applicable bilateral and multilateral agreements.

Article 54

1. Without prejudice to the terms of their authorization of residence or their permission to work and
the rights provided for in articles 25 and 27 of the present Convention, migrant workers shall enjoy
equality of treatment with nationals of the State of employment in respect of:

(a) Protection against dismissal;

(b) Unemployment benefits;

(c) Access to public work schemes intended to combat unemployment;

(d) Access to alternative employment in the event of loss of work or termination of other remunerated
activity, subject to article 52 of the present Convention.

2. If a migrant worker claims that the terms of his or her work contract have been violated by his or
her employer, he or she shall have the right to address his or her case to the competent authorities of
the State of employment, on terms provided for in article 18, paragraph 1, of the present Convention.

Article 55

Migrant workers who have been granted permission to engage in a remunerated activity, subject to
the conditions attached to such permission, shall be entitled to equality of treatment with nationals of
the State of employment in the exercise of that remunerated activity.

Article 56

1. Migrant workers and members of their families referred to in the present part of the Convention
may not be expelled from a State of employment, except for reasons defined in the national legislation
of that State, and subject to the safeguards established in part III.

2. Expulsion shall not be resorted to for the purpose of depriving a migrant worker or a member of his
or her family of the rights arising out of the authorization of residence and the work permit.

3. In considering whether to expel a migrant worker or a member of his or her family, account should
be taken of humanitarian considerations and of the length of time that the person concerned has
already resided in the State of employment.

Part V: Provisions Applicable to Particular Categories of Migrant Workers and Members of
their Families

Article 57

The particular categories of migrant workers and members of their families specified in the present
part of the Convention who are documented or in a regular situation shall enjoy the rights set forth in
part m and, except as modified below, the rights set forth in part IV.

Article 58

1. Frontier workers, as defined in article 2, paragraph 2 (a), of the present Convention, shall be
entitled to the rights provided for in part IV that can be applied to them by reason of their presence
and work in the territory of the State of employment, taking into account that they do not have their
habitual residence in that State.

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2. States of employment shall consider favourably granting frontier workers the right freely to choose
their remunerated activity after a specified period of time. The granting of that right shall not affect
their status as frontier workers.

Article 59

1. Seasonal workers, as defined in article 2, paragraph 2 (b), of the present Convention, shall be
entitled to the rights provided for in part IV that can be applied to them by reason of their presence
and work in the territory of the State of employment and that are compatible with their status in that
State as seasonal workers, taking into account the fact that they are present in that State for only part
of the year.

2. The State of employment shall, subject to paragraph 1 of the present article, consider granting
seasonal workers who have been employed in its territory for a significant period of time the possibility
of taking up other remunerated activities and giving them priority over other workers who seek
admission to that State, subject to applicable bilateral and multilateral agreements.

Article 60

Itinerant workers, as defined in article 2, paragraph 2 (A), of the present Convention, shall be entitled
to the rights provided for in part IV that can be granted to them by reason of their presence and work
in the territory of the State of employment and that are compatible with their status as itinerant
workers in that State.

Article 61

1. Project-tied workers, as defined in article 2, paragraph 2 (of the present Convention, and members
of their families shall be entitled to the rights provided for in part IV except the provisions of article 43,
paragraphs I (b) and (c), article 43, paragraph I (d), as it pertains to social housing schemes, article
45, paragraph I (b), and articles 52 to 55.

2. If a project-tied worker claims that the terms of his or her work contract have been violated by his
or her employer, he or she shall have the right to address his or her case to the competent authorities
of the State which has jurisdiction over that employer, on terms provided for in article 18, paragraph
1, of the present Convention.

3. Subject to bilateral or multilateral agreements in force for them, the States Parties concerned shall
endeavour to enable project-tied workers to remain adequately protected by the social security
systems of their States of origin or habitual residence during their engagement in the project. States
Parties concerned shall take appropriate measures with the aim of avoiding any denial of rights or
duplication of payments in this respect.

4. Without prejudice to the provisions of article 47 of the present Convention and to relevant bilateral
or multilateral agreements, States Parties concerned shall permit payment of the earnings of project-
tied workers in their State of origin or habitual residence.

Article 62

1. Specified-employment workers as defined in article 2, paragraph 2 (g), of the present Convention,
shall be entitled to the rights provided for in part IV, except the provisions of article 43, paragraphs I
(b) and (c), article 43, paragraph I (d), as it pertains to social housing schemes, article 52, and article
54, paragraph 1 (d).

2. Members of the families of specified-employment workers shall be entitled to the rights relating to
family members of migrant workers provided for in part IV of the present Convention, except the
provisions of article 53.

Article 63

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1. Self-employed workers, as defined in article 2, paragraph 2 (h), of the pre sent Convention , shall
be entitled to the rights provided for in part IV with the exception of those rights which are exclusively
applicable to workers having a contract of employment.

2. Without prejudice to articles 52 and 79 of the present Convention, the termination of the economic
activity of the self-employed workers shall not in itself imply the withdrawal of the authorization for
them or for the members of their families to stay or to engage in a remunerated activity in the State of
employment except where the authorization of residence is expressly dependent upon the specific
remunerated activity for which they were admitted.

Part VI: Promotion of sound, equitable, humane and lawful conditions in connection with
international migration of workers and members of their families

Article 64

1. Without prejudice to article 79 of the present Convention, the States Parties concerned shall as
appropriate consult and co-operate with a view to promoting sound, equitable and humane conditions
in connection with international migration of workers and members of their families.

2. In this respect, due regard shall be paid not only to labour needs and resources, but also to the
social, economic, cultural and other needs of migrant workers and members of their families involved,
as well as to the consequences of such migration for the communities concerned.

Article 65

1. States Parties shall maintain appropriate services to deal with questions concerning international
migration of workers and members of their families. Their functions shall include, inter alia :

(a) The formulation and implementation of policies regarding such migration;

(b) An exchange of information. consultation and co-operation with the competent authorities of other
States Parties involved in such migration;

(c) The provision of appropriate information, particularly to employers, workers and their organizations
on policies, laws and regulations relating to migration and employment, on agreements concluded with
other States concerning migration and on other relevant matters;

(d) The provision of information and appropriate assistance to migrant workers and members of their
families regarding requisite authorizations and formalities and arrangements for departure, travel,
arrival, stay, remunerated activities, exit and return, as well as on conditions of work and life in the
State of employment and on customs, currency, tax and other relevant laws and regulations.

2. States Parties shall facilitate as appropriate the provision of adequate consular and other services
that are necessary to meet the social, cultural and other needs of migrant workers and members of
their families.

Article 66

1. Subject to paragraph 2 of the present article, the right to undertake operations with a view to the
recruitment of workers for employment in another State shall be restricted to:

( a ) Public services or bodies of the State in which such operations take place;

( b ) Public services or bodies of the State of employment on the basis of agreement between the
States concerned;

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( c ) A body established by virtue of a bilateral or multilateral agreement.

2. Subject to any authorization, approval and supervision by the public authorities of the States Parties
concerned as may be established pursuant to the legislation and practice of those States, agencies,
prospective employers or persons acting on their behalf may also be permitted to undertake the said
operations.

Article 67

1. States Parties concerned shall co-operate as appropriate in the adoption of measures regarding the
orderly return of migrant workers and members of their families to the State of origin when they
decide to return or their authorization of residence or employment expires or when they are in the
State of employment in an irregular situation.

2. Concerning migrant workers and members of their families in a regular situation, States Parties
concerned shall co-operate as appropriate, on terms agreed upon by those States, with a view to
promoting adequate economic conditions for their resettlement and to facilitating their durable social
and cultural reintegration in the State of origin.

Article 68

1. States Parties, including States of transit, shall collaborate with a view to preventing and eliminating
illegal or clandestine movements and employment of migrant workers in an irregular situation. The
measures to be taken to this end within the jurisdiction of each State concerned shall include:

(a) Appropriate measures against the dissemination of misleading information relating to emigration
and immigration;

(b) Measures to detect and eradicate illegal or clandestine movements of migrant workers and
members of their families and to impose effective sanctions on persons, groups or entities which
organize, operate or assist in organizing or operating such movements;

(c) Measures to impose effective sanctions on persons, groups or entities which use violence, threats
or intimidation against migrant workers or members of their families in an irregular situation.

2. States of employment shall take all adequate and effective measures to eliminate employment in
their territory of migrant workers in an irregular situation, including, whenever appropriate, sanctions
on employers of such workers. The rights of migrant workers vis-à-vis their employer arising from
employment shall not be impaired by these measures.

Article 69

1. States Parties shall, when there are migrant workers and members of their families within their
territory in an irregular situation, take appropriate measures to ensure that such a situation does not
persist.

2. Whenever States Parties concerned consider the possibility of regularizing the situation of such
persons in accordance with applicable national legislation and bilateral or multilateral agreements,
appropriate account shall be taken of the circumstances of their entry, the duration of their stay in the
States of employment and other relevant considerations, in particular those relating to their family
situation.

Article 70

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States Parties shall take measures not less favourable than those applied to nationals to ensure that
working and living conditions of migrant workers and members of their families in a regular situation
are in keeping with the standards of fitness, safety, health and principles of human dignity.

Article 71

1. States Parties shall facilitate, whenever necessary, the repatriation to the State of origin of the
bodies of deceased migrant workers or members of their families.

2. As regards compensation matters relating to the death of a migrant worker or a member of his or
her family, States Parties shall, as appropriate, provide assistance to the persons concerned with a
view to the prompt settlement of such matters. Settlement of these matters shall be carried out on the
basis of applicable national law in accordance with the provisions of the present Convention and any
relevant bilateral or multilateral agreements.

Part VII: Application of the Convention

Article 72

1.

(a) For the purpose of reviewing the application of the present Convention, there shall be established a
Committee on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families
(hereinafter referred to as “the Committee”);

(b) The Committee shall consist, at the time of entry into force of the present Convention, of ten and,
after the entry into force of the Convention for the forty-first State Party, of fourteen experts of high
moral standing, impartiality and recognized competence in the field covered by the Convention.

2.

(a) Members of the Committee shall be elected by secret ballot by the States Parties from a list of
persons nominated by the States Parties, due consideration being given to equitable geographical
distribution, including both States of origin and States of employment, and to the representation of the
principal legal systems. Each State Party may nominate one person from among its own nationals;

(b) Members shall be elected and shall serve in their personal capacity.

3. The initial election shall be held no later than six months after the date of the entry into force of the
present Convention and subsequent elections every second year. At least four months before the date
of each election, the Secretary-General of the United Nations shall address a letter to all States Parties
inviting them to submit their nominations within two months. The Secretary-General shall prepare a
list in alphabetical order of all persons thus nominated, indicating the States Parties that have
nominated them, and shall submit it to the States Parties not later than one month before the date of
the corresponding election, together with the curricula vitae of the persons thus nominated.

4. Elections of members of the Committee shall be held at a meeting of States Parties convened by the
Secretary-General at United Nations Headquarters. At that meeting, for which two thirds of the States
Parties shall constitute a quorum, the persons elected to the Committee shall be those nominees who
obtain the largest number of votes and an absolute majority of the votes of the States Parties present
and voting.

5.

(a) The members of the Committee shall serve for a term of four years. However, the terms of five of
the members elected in the first election shall expire at the end of two years; immediately after the
first election, the names of these five members shall be chosen by lot by the Chairman of the meeting
of States Parties;

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(b) The election of the four additional members of the Committee shall be held in accordance with the
provisions of paragraphs 2, 3 and 4 of the present article, following the entry into force of the
Convention for the forty-first State Party. The term of two of the additional members elected on this
occasion shall expire at the end of two years; the names of these members shall be chosen by lot by
the Chairman of the meeting of States Parties;

(c) The members of the Committee shall be eligible for re-election if renominated.

6. If a member of the Committee dies or resigns or declares that for any other cause he or she can no
longer perform the duties of the Committee, the State Party that nominated the expert shall appoint
another expert from among its own nationals for the remaining part of the term. The new appointment
is subject to the approval of the Committee.

7. The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall provide the necessary staff and facilities for the
effective performance of the functions of the Committee.

8. The members of the Committee shall receive emoluments from United Nations resources on such
terms and conditions as the General Assembly may decide.

9. The members of the Committee shall be entitled to the facilities, privileges and immunities of
experts on mission for the United Nations as laid down in the relevant sections of the Convention on
the Privileges and Immunities of the United Nations.

Article 73

1. States Parties undertake to submit to the Secretary-General of the United Nations for consideration
by the Committee a report on the legislative, judicial, administrative and other measures they have
taken to give effect to the provisions of the present Convention:

(a) Within one year after the entry into force of the Convention for the State Party concerned;

(b) Thereafter every five years and whenever the Committee so requests.

2. Reports prepared under the present article shall also indicate factors and difficulties, if any, affecting
the implementation of the Convention and shall include information on the characteristics of migration
flows in which the State Party concerned is involved.

3. The Committee shall decide any further guidelines applicable to the content of the reports.

4. States Parties shall make their reports widely available to the public in their own countries.

Article 74

1. The Committee shall examine the reports submitted by each State Party and shall transmit such
comments as it may consider appropriate to the State Party concerned. This State Party may submit to
the Committee observations on any comment made by the Committee in accordance with the present
article. The Committee may request supplementary information from States Parties when considering
these reports.

2. The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall, in due time before the opening of each regular
session of the Committee, transmit to the Director-General of the International Labour Office copies of
the reports submitted by States Parties concerned and information relevant to the consideration of
these reports, in order to enable the Office to assist the Committee with the expertise the Office may
provide regarding those matters dealt with by the present Convention that fall within the sphere of
competence of the International Labour Organisation. The Committee shall consider in its deliberations
such comments and materials as the Office may provide.

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3. The Secretary-General of the United Nations may also, after consultation with the Committee,
transmit to other specialized agencies as well as to intergovernmental organizations, copies of such
parts of these reports as may fall within their competence.

4. The Committee may invite the specialized agencies and organs of the United Nations, as well as
intergovernmental organizations and other concerned bodies to submit, for consideration by the
Committee, written information on such matters dealt with in the present Convention as fall within the
scope of their activities.

5. The International Labour Office shall be invited by the Committee to appoint representatives to
participate, in a consultative capacity, in the meetings of the Committee.

6. The Committee may invite representatives of other specialized agencies and organs of the United
Nations, as well as of intergovernmental organizations, to be present and to be heard in its meetings
whenever matters falling within their field of competence are considered.

7. The Committee shall present an annual report to the General Assembly of the United Nations on the
implementation of the present Convention, containing its own considerations and recommendations,
based, in particular, on the examination of the reports and any observations presented by States
Parties.

8. The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall transmit the annual reports of the Committee to
the States Parties to the present Convention, the Economic and Social Council, the Commission on
Human Rights of the United Nations, the Director-General of the International Labour Office and other
relevant organizations.

Article 75

1. The Committee shall adopt its own rules of procedure.

2. The Committee shall elect its officers for a term of two years.

3. The Committee shall normally meet annually.

4. The meetings of the Committee shall normally be held at United Nations Headquarters.

Article 76

1. A State Party to the present Convention may at any time declare under this article that it recognizes
the competence of the Committee to receive and consider communications to the effect that a State
Party claims that another State Party is not fulfilling its obligations under the present Convention.
Communications under this article may be received and considered only if submitted by a State Party
that has made a declaration recognizing in regard to itself the competence of the Committee. No
communication shall be received by the Committee if it concerns a State Party which has not made
such a declaration. Communications received under this article shall be dealt with in accordance with
the following procedure:

(a) If a State Party to the present Convention considers that another State Party is not fulfilling its
obligations under the present Convention, it may, by written communication, bring the matter to the
attention of that State Party. The State Party may also inform the Committee of the matter. Within
three months after the receipt of the communication the receiving State shall afford the State that sent
the communication an explanation, or any other statement in writing clarifying the matter which
should include, to the extent possible and pertinent, reference to domestic procedures and remedies
taken, pending or available in the matter;

(b) If the matter is not adjusted to the satisfaction of both States Parties concerned within six months
after the receipt by the receiving State of the initial communication, either State shall have the right to
refer the matter to the Committee, by notice given to the Committee and to the other State;

24

(c) The Committee shall deal with a matter referred to it only after it has ascertained that all available
domestic remedies have been invoked and exhausted in the matter, in conformity with the generally
recognized principles of international law. This shall not be the rule where, in the view of the
Committee, the application of the remedies is unreasonably prolonged;

(d) Subject to the provisions of subparagraph ( c ) of the present paragraph, the Committee shall
make available its good offices to the States Parties concerned with a view to a friendly solution of the
matter on the basis of the respect for the obligations set forth in the present Convention;

(e) The Committee shall hold closed meetings when examining communications under the present
article;

(f) In any matter referred to it in accordance with subparagraph ( b ) of the present paragraph, the
Committee may call upon the States Parties concerned, referred to in subparagraph ( b ), to supply
any relevant information;

(g) The States Parties concerned, referred to in subparagraph ( b ) of the present paragraph, shall
have the right to be represented when the matter is being considered by the Committee and to make
submissions orally and/or in writing;

(h) The Committee shall, within twelve months after the date of receipt of notice under subparagraph
(b) of the present paragraph, submit a report, as follows:

(i) If a solution within the terms of subparagraph (d) of the present paragraph is reached, the
Committee shall confine its report to a brief statement of the facts and of the solution reached;

(ii) If a solution within the terms of subparagraph (d) is not reached, the Committee shall, in its report,
set forth the relevant facts concerning the issue between the States Parties concerned. The written
submissions and record of the oral submissions made by the States Parties concerned shall be
attached to the report. The Committee may also communicate only to the States Parties concerned
any views that it may consider relevant to the issue between them.

In every matter, the report shall be communicated to the States Parties concerned.

2. The provisions of the present article shall come into force when ten States Parties to the present
Convention have made a declaration under paragraph 1 of the present article. Such declarations shall
be deposited by the States Parties with the Secretary-General of the United Nations, who shall
transmit copies thereof to the other States Parties. A declaration may be withdrawn at any time by
notification to the Secretary-General. Such a withdrawal shall not prejudice the consideration of any
matter that is the subject of a communication already transmitted under the present article; no further
communication by any State Party shall be received under the present article after the notification of
withdrawal of the declaration has been received by the Secretary-General, unless the State Party
concerned has made a new declaration.

Article 77

1. A State Party to the present Convention may at any time declare under the present article that it
recognizes the competence of the Committee to receive and consider communications from or on
behalf of individuals subject to its jurisdiction who claim that their individual rights as established by
the present Convention have been violated by that State Party. No communication shall be received by
the Committee if it concerns a State Party that has not made such a declaration.

2. The Committee shall consider inadmissible any communication under the present article which is
anonymous or which it considers to be an abuse of the right of submission of such communications or
to be incompatible with the provisions of the present Convention.

3. The Committee shall not consider any communication from an individual under the present article
unless it has ascertained that:

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(a) The same matter has not been, and is not being, examined under another procedure of
international investigation or settlement;

(b) The individual has exhausted all available domestic remedies; this shall not be the rule where, in
the view of the Committee, the application of the remedies is unreasonably prolonged or is unlikely to
bring effective relief to that individual.

4. Subject to the provisions of paragraph 2 of the present article, the Committee shall bring any
communications submitted to it under this article to the attention of the State Party to the present
Convention that has made a declaration under paragraph 1 and is alleged to be violating any
provisions of the Convention. Within six months, the receiving State shall submit to the Committee
written explanations or statements clarifying the matter and the remedy, if any, that may have been
taken by that State.

5. The Committee shall consider communications received under the present article in the light of all
information made available to it by or on behalf of the individual and by the State Party concerned.

6. The Committee shall hold closed meetings when examining communications under the present
article.

7. The Committee shall forward its views to the State Party concerned and to the individual.

8. The provisions of the present article shall come into force when ten States Parties to the present
Convention have made declarations under paragraph 1 of the present article. Such declarations shall
be deposited by the States Parties with the Secretary-General of the United Nations, who shall
transmit copies thereof to the other States Parties. A declaration may be withdrawn at any time by
notification to the Secretary-General. Such a withdrawal shall not prejudice the consideration of any
matter that is the subject of a communication already transmitted under the present article; no further
communication by or on behalf of an individual shall be received under the present article after the
notification of withdrawal of the declaration has been received by the Secretary-General, unless the
State Party has made a new declaration.

Article 78

The provisions of article 76 of the present Convention shall be applied without prejudice to any
procedures for settling disputes or complaints in the field covered by the present Convention laid down
in the constituent instruments of, or in conventions adopted by, the United Nations and the specialized
agencies and shall not prevent the States Parties from having recourse to any procedures for settling a
dispute in accordance with international agreements in force between them.

Part VIII: General provisions

Article 79

Nothing in the present Convention shall affect the right of each State Party to establish the criteria
governing admission of migrant workers and members of their families. Concerning other matters
related to their legal situation and treatment as migrant workers and members of their families, States
Parties shall be subject to the limitations set forth in the present Convention.

Article 80

Nothing in the present Convention shall be interpreted as impairing the provisions of the Charter of the
United Nations and of the constitutions of the specialized agencies which define the respective
responsibilities of the various organs of the United Nations and of the specialized agencies in regard to
the matters dealt with in the present Convention.

Article 81

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1. Nothing in the present Convention shall affect more favourable rights or freedoms granted to
migrant workers and members of their families by virtue of:

(a) The law or practice of a State Party; or

(b) Any bilateral or multilateral treaty in force for the State Party concerned.

2. Nothing in the present Convention may be interpreted as implying for any State, group or person
any right to engage in any activity or perform any act that would impair any of the rights and
freedoms as set forth in the present Convention.

Article 82

The rights of migrant workers and members of their families provided for in the present Convention
may not be renounced. It shall not be permissible to exert any form of pressure upon migrant workers
and members of their families with a view to their relinquishing or foregoing any of the said rights. It
shall not be possible to derogate by contract from rights recognized in the present Convention. States
Parties shall take appropriate measures to ensure that these principles are respected.

Article 83

Each State Party to the present Convention undertakes:

(a) To ensure that any person whose rights or freedoms as herein recognized are violated shall have
an effective remedy, notwithstanding that the violation has been committed by persons acting in an
official capacity;

(b) To ensure that any persons seeking such a remedy shall have his or her claim reviewed and
decided by competent judicial, administrative or legislative authorities, or by any other competent
authority provided for by the legal system of the State, and to develop the possibilities of judicial
remedy;

(c) To ensure that the competent authorities shall enforce such remedies when granted.

Article 84

Each State Party undertakes to adopt the legislative and other measures that are necessary to
implement the provisions of the present Convention.

Part IX: Final provisions

Article 85

The Secretary-General of the United Nations is designated as the depositary of the present
Convention.

Article 86

1. The present Convention shall be open for signature by all States. It is subject to ratification.

2. The present Convention shall be open to accession by any State.

3. Instruments of ratification or accession shall be deposited with the Secretary-General of the United
Nations.

Article 87

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1. The present Convention shall enter into force on the first day of the month following a period of
three months after the date of the deposit of the twentieth instrument of ratification or accession.

2. For each State ratifying or acceding to the present Convention after its entry into force, the
Convention shall enter into force on the first day of the month following a period of three months after
the date of the deposit of its own instrument of ratification or accession.

Article 88

A State ratifying or acceding to the present Convention may not exclude the application of any Part of
it, or, without prejudice to article 3, exclude any particular category of migrant workers from its
application.

Article 89

1. Any State Party may denounce the present Convention, not earlier than five years after the
Convention has entered into force for the State concerned, by means of a notification in writing
addressed to the Secretary-General of the United Nations.

2. Such denunciation shall become effective on the first day of the month following the expiration of a
period of twelve months after the date of the receipt of the notification by the Secretary-General of the
United Nations.

3. Such a denunciation shall not have the effect of releasing the State Party from its obligations under
the present Convention in regard to any act or omission which occurs prior to the date at which the
denunciation becomes effective, nor shall denunciation prejudice in any way the continued
consideration of any matter which is already under consideration by the Committee prior to the date at
which the denunciation becomes effective.

4. Following the date at which the denunciation of a State Party becomes effective, the Committee
shall not commence consideration of any new matter regarding that State.

Article 90

1. After five years from the entry into force of the Convention a request for the revision of the
Convention may be made at any time by any State Party by means of a notification in writing
addressed to the Secretary-General of the United Nations. The Secretary-General shall thereupon
communicate any proposed amendments to the States Parties with a request that they notify him
whether they favour a conference of States Parties for the purpose of considering and voting upon the
proposals. In the event that within four months from the date of such communication at least one third
of the States Parties favours such a conference, the Secretary-General shall convene the conference
under the auspices of the United Nations. Any amendment adopted by a majority of the States Parties
present and voting shall be submitted to the General Assembly for approval.

2. Amendments shall come into force when they have been approved by the General Assembly of the
United Nations and accepted by a two-thirds majority of the States Parties in accordance with their
respective constitutional processes.

3. When amendments come into force, they shall be binding on those States Parties that have
accepted them, other States Parties still being bound by the provisions of the present Convention and
any earlier amendment that they have accepted.

Article 91

1. The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall receive and circulate to all States the text of
reservations made by States at the time of signature, ratification or accession.

2. A reservation incompatible with the object and purpose of the present Convention shall not be
permitted.

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3. Reservations may be withdrawn at any time by notification to this effect addressed to the Secretary-
General of the United Nations, who shall then inform all States thereof. Such notification shall take
effect on the date on which it is received.

Article 92

1. Any dispute between two or more States Parties concerning the interpretation or application of the
present Convention that is not settled by negotiation shall, at the request of one of them, be submitted
to arbitration. If within six months from the date of the request for arbitration the Parties are unable to
agree on the organization of the arbitration, any one of those Parties may refer the dispute to the
International Court of Justice by request in conformity with the Statute of the Court.

2. Each State Party may at the time of signature or ratification of the present Convention or accession
thereto declare that it does not consider itself bound by paragraph 1 of the present article. The other
States Parties shall not be bound by that paragraph with respect to any State Party that has made
such a declaration.

3. Any State Party that has made a declaration in accordance with paragraph 2 of the present article
may at any time withdraw that declaration by notification to the Secretary-General of the United
Nations.

Article 93

1. The present Convention, of which the Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish texts
are equally authentic, shall be deposited with the Secretary-General of the United Nations.

2. The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall transmit certified copies of the present
Convention to all States.

In witness whereof the undersigned plenipotentiaries, being duly authorized thereto by their respective
Governments, have signed the present Convention.

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