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Philippines’s Constitution

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This complete constitution has been generated from excerpts of texts from the repository of the
Comparative Constitutions Project, and distributed on constituteproject.org .

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Philippines's Constitution of
1987

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Philippines 1987

Table of contents
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Preamble
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
ARTICLE I: NATIONAL TERRITORY
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

ARTICLE II: DECLARATION OF PRINCIPLES AND STATE POLICIES
PRINCIPLES

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
ARTICLE III: BILL OF RIGHTS
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
ARTICLE IV: CITIZENSHIP
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
ARTICLE V: SUFFRAGE
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
ARTICLE VI: LEGISLATIVE DEPARTMENT
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
ARTICLE VII: EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
ARTICLE VIII: JUDICIAL DEPARTMENT
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
ARTICLE IX: CONSTITUTIONAL COMMISSIONS
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
A. COMMON PROVISIONS
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
B. THE CIVIL SERVICE COMMISSION
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
C. THE COMMISSION ON ELECTIONS
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
D. THE COMMISSION ON AUDIT
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
ARTICLE X: LOCAL GOVERNMENT
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
ARTICLE XI: ACCOUNTABILITY OF PUBLIC OFFICERS
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
ARTICLE XII: NATIONAL ECONOMY AND PATRIMONY
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
ARTICLE XIII: SOCIAL JUSTICE AND HUMAN RIGHTS
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49

ARTICLE XIV: EDUCATION, SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, ARTS, CULTURE,
AND SPORTS

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
ARTICLE XV: THE FAMILY
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
ARTICLE XVI: GENERAL PROVISIONS
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
ARTICLE XVII: AMENDMENTS OR REVISIONS
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
ARTICLE XVIII: TRANSITORY PROVISIONS

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Preamble

Source of constitutional authority

General guarantee of equality

God or other deities

Motives for writing constitution

Preamble

We, the sovereign Filipino people, imploring the aid of Almighty God, in order to
build a just and humane society and establish a Government that shall embody our
ideals and aspirations, promote the common good, conserve and develop our
patrimony, and secure to ourselves and our posterity the blessings of independence
and democracy under the rule of law and a regime of truth, justice, freedom, love,
equality, and peace, do ordain and promulgate this Constitution.

ARTICLE I: NATIONAL TERRITORY

The national territory comprises the Philippine archipelago, with all the islands and
waters embraced therein, and all other territories over which the Philippines has
sovereignty or jurisdiction, consisting of its terrestrial, fluvial, and aerial domains,
including its territorial sea, the seabed, the subsoil, the insular shelves, and other
submarine areas. The waters around, between, and connecting the islands of the
archipelago, regardless of their breadth and dimensions, form part of the internal
waters of the Philippines.

ARTICLE II: DECLARATION OF PRINCIPLES
AND STATE POLICIES PRINCIPLES

PRINCIPLES
Sec 1

Type of government envisioned

The Philippines is a democratic and republican State. Sovereignty resides in the
people and all government authority emanates from them.
Sec 2

International law

The Philippines renounces war as an instrument of national policy, adopts the
generally accepted principles of international law as part of the law of the land and
adheres to the policy of peace, equally, justice, freedom, cooperation, and amity with
all nations.

Sec 3

Civilian authority is, at all times, supreme over the military. The Armed Forces of the
Philippines is the protector of the people and the State. Its goal is to secure the
sovereignty of the State and the integrity of the national territory.

Sec 4

Duty to serve in the military

The prime duty of the Government is to serve and protect the people. The
Government may call upon the people to defend the State and, in the fulfillment
thereof, all citizens may be required, under conditions provided by law, to render

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personal military or civil service.
Sec 5

Right to life

Right to own property

The maintenance of peace and order, the protection of life, liberty, and property, and
the promotion of the general welfare are essential for the enjoyment by all the
people of the blessings of democracy.

Sec 6

Inalienable rights

Separation of church and state
The separation of Church and State shall be inviolable.
Sec 7

Right to self determination

The State shall pursue an independent foreign policy. In its relations with other
states the paramount consideration shall be national sovereignty, territorial
integrity, national interest, and the right to self-determination.

Sec 8
The Philippines, consistent with the national interest, adopts and pursues a policy of
freedom from nuclear weapons in its territory.
Sec 9

The State shall promote a just and dynamic social order that will ensure the
prosperity and independence of the nation and free the people from poverty through
policies that provide adequate social services, promote full employment, a rising
standard of living, and an improved quality of life for all.

Sec 10
The State shall promote social justice in all phases of national development.
Sec 11

Human dignity

The State values the dignity of every human person and guarantees full respect for
human rights.
Sec 12

Rights of children

Right to life

The State recognizes the sanctity of family life and shall protect and strengthen the
family as a basic autonomous social institution. It shall equally protect the life of the
mother and the life of the unborn from conception. The natural and primary right
and duty of parents in the rearing of the young for civic efficiency and the
development of moral character shall receive the support of the Government.

Sec 13

Rights of children

The State recognizes the vital role of the youth in nation-building and shall promote
and protect their physical, moral, spiritual, intellectual, and social well-being. It shall
inculcate in the youth patriotism and nationalism, and encourage their involvement
in public and civic affairs.

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Sec 14

Equality regardless of gender

The State recognizes the role of women in nation-building, and shall ensure the
fundamental equality before the law of women and men.
Sec 15

Right to health care

The State shall protect and promote the right to health of the people and instill
health consciousness among them.
Sec 16

Protection of environment

The State shall protect and advance the right of the people to a balanced and
healthful ecology in accord with the rhythm and harmony of nature.
Sec 17

Reference to art

Right to culture

The State shall give priority to education, science and technology, arts, culture, and
sports to foster patriotism and nationalism, accelerate social progress, and promote
total human liberation and development.

Sec 18
The State affirms labor as a primary social economic force. It shall protect the rights
of workers and promote their welfare.
Sec 19
The State shall develop a self-reliant and independent national economy effectively
controlled by Filipinos.
Sec 20
The State recognizes the indispensable role of the private sector, encourages private
enterprise, and provides incentives to needed investments.
Sec 21
The State shall promote comprehensive rural development and agrarian reform.
Sec 22

Right to culture

Indigenous right to self governance

The State recognizes and promotes the rights of indigenous cultural communities
within the framework of national unity and development.
Sec 23
The State shall encourage non-governmental, community-based, or sectoral
organizations that promote the welfare of the nation.

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Sec 24
The State recognizes the vital role of communication and information in
nation-building.
Sec 25
The State shall ensure the autonomy of local governments.
Sec 26
The State shall guarantee equal access to opportunities for public service, and
prohibit political dynasties as may be defined by law.
Sec 27
The State shall maintain honesty and integrity in the public service and take positive
and effective measures against graft and corruption.
Sec 28
Subject to reasonable conditions prescribed by law, the State adopts and implements
a policy of full public disclosure of all its transactions involving public interest.
ARTICLE III: BILL OF RIGHTS
Sec 1

Guarantee of due process

General guarantee of equality

No person shall be deprived of life, liberty, or property without due process of law,
nor shall any person be denied the equal protection of the laws.
Sec 2

Regulation of evidence collection

Protection from unjustified restraint

Inalienable rights

Right to privacy

The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects
against unreasonable searches and seizures of whatever nature and for any purpose
shall be inviolable, and no search warrant or warrant of arrest shall issue except
upon probable cause to be determined personally by the judge after examination
under oath or affirmation of the complainant and the witnesses he may produce, and
particularly describing the place to be searched and the persons or things to be
seized.

Sec 3

1. The privacy of communication and correspondence shall be inviolable except
upon lawful order of the court, or when public safety or order requires
otherwise as prescribed by law.


Inalienable rights

Right to privacy

2. Any evidence obtained in violation of this or the preceding section shall be
inadmissible for any purpose in any proceeding.

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Sec 4

Freedom of assembly

Freedom of expression

Right of petition

Freedom of press

No law shall be passed abridging the freedom of speech, of expression, or of the
press, or the right of the people peaceably to assemble and petition the government
for redress of grievances.

Sec 5

Equality regardless of religion

Freedom of religion

Official religion

No law shall be made respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free
exercise thereof. The free exercise and enjoyment of religious profession and
worship, without discrimination or preference, shall forever be allowed. No religious
test shall be required for the exercise of civil or political rights.

Sec 6

Freedom of movement

The liberty of abode and of changing the same within the limits prescribed by law
shall not be impaired except upon lawful order of the court. Neither shall the right to
travel be impaired except in the interest of national security, public safety, or public
health, as may be provided by law.

Sec 7

Right to information

The right of the people to information on matters of public concern shall be
recognized. Access to official records, and to documents, and papers pertaining to
official acts, transactions, or decisions, as well as to government research data used
as basis for policy development, shall be afforded the citizen, subject to such
limitations as may be provided by law.

Sec 8

Freedom of association

Right to join trade unions

The right of the people, including those employed in the public and private sectors, to
form unions, associations, or societies for purposes not contrary to law shall not be
abridged.

Sec 9

Protection from expropriation
Private property shall not be taken for public use without just compensation.
Sec 10
No law impairing the obligation of contracts shall be passed.
Sec 11

Right to counsel

Free access to the courts and quasi-judicial bodies and adequate legal assistance
shall not be denied to any person by reason of poverty.
Sec 12

Regulation of evidence collection

Protection from self-incrimination

1. Any person under investigation for the commission of an offense shall have the
right to be informed of his right to remain silent and to have competent and
independent counsel preferably of his own choice. If the person cannot afford
the services of counsel, he must be provided with one. These rights cannot be
waived except in writing and in the presence of counsel.


Right to counsel

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2. No torture, force, violence, threat, intimidation, or any other means which
vitiate the free will shall be used against him. Secret detention places, solitary,
incommunicado, or other similar forms of detention are prohibited.


Prohibition of torture

3. Any confession or admission obtained in violation of this or Section 17 hereof
shall be inadmissible in evidence against him.

4. The law shall provide for penal and civil sanctions of violations of this section as
well as compensation to and rehabilitation of victims of torture or similar
practices, and their families.


Protection of victim's rights
Sec 13

Regulation of evidence collection

Protection from unjustified restraint

Right to pre-trial release

All persons, except those charged with offenses punishable by reclusion perpetua
when evidence of guilt is strong, shall, before conviction, be bailable by sufficient
securities, or be released on recognizance as may be provided by law. The right to
bail shall not be impaired even when the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus is
suspended. Excessive bail shall not be required.

Sec 14

Regulation of evidence collection

1. No person shall be held to answer for a criminal offense without due process of
law.


Guarantee of due process

2. In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall be presumed innocent until the
contrary is proved, and shall enjoy the right to be heard by himself and counsel,
to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation against him, to have a
speedy, impartial, and public trial, to meet the witnesses face to face, and to have
compulsory process to secure the attendance of witnesses and the production
of evidence in his behalf. However, after arraignment, trial may proceed
notwithstanding the absence of the accused provided that he has been duly
notified and his failure to appear is unjustifiable.


Right to examine evidence/witnesses

Right to fair trial

Presumption of innocence in trials

Right to public trial

Right to speedy trial
Sec 15

Protection from unjustified restraint

The privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended except in cases of
invasion or rebellion when the public safety requires it.
Sec 16

Right to speedy trial

All persons shall have the right to a speedy disposition of their cases before all
judicial, quasi-judicial, or administrative bodies.
Sec 17

Protection from self-incrimination
No person shall be compelled to be a witness against himself.
Sec 18
1. No person shall be detained solely by reason of his political beliefs and
aspirations.
2. No involuntary servitude in any form shall exist except as a punishment for a
crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted.


Prohibition of slavery

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Sec 19

Prohibition of cruel treatment

1. Excessive fines shall not be imposed, nor cruel, degrading or inhuman
punishment inflicted. Neither shall death penalty be imposed, unless, for
compelling reasons involving heinous crimes, the Congress hereafter provides
for it. Any death penalty already imposed shall be reduced to reclusion perpetua.


Prohibition of capital punishment

2. The employment of physical, psychological, or degrading punishment against
any prisoner or detainee or the use of substandard or inadequate penal facilities
under subhuman conditions shall be dealt with by law.

Sec 20

Rights of debtors
No person shall be imprisoned for debt or non-payment of a poll tax.
Sec 21

Prohibition of double jeopardy

No person shall be twice put in jeopardy of punishment for the same offense. If an act
is punished by a law and an ordinance, conviction or acquittal under either shall
constitute a bar to another prosecution for the same act.

Sec 22

Protection from ex post facto laws
No ex post facto law or bill of attainder shall be enacted.
ARTICLE IV: CITIZENSHIP
Sec 1

Requirements for birthright citizenship
The following are citizens of the Philippines:

1. Those who are citizens of the Philippines at the time of the adoption of this
Constitution;


2. Those whose fathers or mothers are citizens of the Philippines;

3. Those born before January 17, 1973, of Filipino mothers, who elect
Philippine citizenship upon reaching the age of majority; and


4. Those who are naturalized in accordance with law.

Requirements for naturalization
Sec 2

Requirements for birthright citizenship

Natural-born citizens are those who are citizens of the Philippines from birth
without having to perform any act to acquire or perfect their Philippine citizenship.
Those who elect Philippine citizenship in accordance with paragraph (3), Section 1
hereof shall be deemed natural-born citizens.

Sec 3

Conditions for revoking citizenship

Requirements for naturalization
Philippine citizenship may be lost or reacquired in the manner provided by law.

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Sec 4

Right to renounce citizenship

Citizens of the Philippines who marry aliens shall retain their citizenship, unless by
their act or omission they are deemed, under the law, to have renounced it.
Sec 5
Dual allegiance of citizens is inimical to the national interest and shall be dealt with
by law.
ARTICLE V: SUFFRAGE
Sec 1

Restrictions on voting

Suffrage may be exercised by all citizens of the Philippines not otherwise disqualified
by law, who are at least eighteen years of age, and who shall have resided in the
Philippines for at least one year and in the place wherein they propose to vote for at
least six months immediately preceding the election. No literacy, property, or other
substantive requirement shall be imposed on the exercise of suffrage.

Sec 2

Secret ballot

Restrictions on voting

The Congress shall provide a system for securing the secrecy and sanctity of the
ballot as well as a system for absentee voting by qualified Filipinos abroad.

The Congress shall also design a procedure for the disabled and the illiterates to vote
without the assistance of other persons. Until then, they shall be allowed to vote
under existing laws and such rules as the Commission on Elections may promulgate
to protect the secrecy of the ballot.

ARTICLE VI: LEGISLATIVE DEPARTMENT
Sec 1

Structure of legislative chamber(s)

Legislative initiatives by citizens

Referenda

The legislative power shall be vested in the Congress of the Philippines which shall
consist of a Senate and a House of Representatives, except to the extent reserved to
the people by the provision on initiative and referendum.

Sec 2

Structure of legislative chamber(s)

Size of second chamber

Second chamber selection

The Senate shall be composed of twenty-four Senators who shall be elected at large
by the qualified voters of the Philippines, as may be provided by law.
Sec 3

Minimum age for second chamber

Eligibility for second chamber

No person shall be a Senator unless he is a natural-born citizen of the Philippines,
and, on the day of the election, is at least thirty-five years of age, able to read and
write, a registered voter, and a resident of the Philippines for not less than two years
immediately preceding the day of the election.

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Sec 4

Scheduling of elections

Term length of second chamber

Term limits of second chamber

The term of office of the Senators shall be six years and shall commence, unless
otherwise provided by law, at noon on the thirteenth day of June next following their
election.
No Senator shall serve for more than two consecutive terms. Voluntary renunciation
of the office for any length of time shall not be considered as an interruption in the
continuity of his service for the full term for which he was elected.

Sec 5

1. The House of Representatives shall be composed of not more than two hundred
and fifty members, unless otherwise fixed by law, who shall be elected from
legislative districts apportioned among the provinces, cities, and the
Metropolitan Manila area in accordance with the number of their respective
inhabitants, and on the basis of a uniform and progressive ratio, and those who,
as provided by law, shall be elected through a party-list system of registered
national, regional, and sectoral parties of organizations.


Structure of legislative chamber(s)

Size of first chamber

First chamber selection

2. The party-list representatives shall constitute twenty per centum of the total
number of representatives including those under the party list. For three
consecutive terms after the ratification of this Constitution, one-half of the
seats allocated to party-list representatives shall be filled, as provided by law, by
selection or election from the labor, peasant, urban poor, indigenous cultural
communities, women, youth, and such other sectors as may be provided by law,
except the religious sector.


First chamber representation quotas

First chamber selection

3. Each legislative district shall comprise, as far as practicable, contiguous,
compact, and adjacent territory. Each city with a population of at least two
hundred fifty thousand, or each province, shall have at least one representative.


First chamber selection

4. Within three years following the return of every census, the Congress shall
make a reapportionment of legislative districts based on the standards provided
in this section.


Census

Electoral districts

First chamber selection
Sec 6

Minimum age for first chamber

Eligibility for first chamber

No person shall be a Member of the House of Representatives unless he is a
natural-born citizen of the Philippines and, on the day of the election, is at least
twenty-five years of age, able to read and write, and, except the party-list
representatives, a registered voter in the district in which he shall be elected, and a
resident thereof for a period of not less than one year immediately preceding the day
of the election.

Sec 7

Term length for first chamber

Term limits for first chamber

The Members of the House of Representatives shall be elected for a term of three
years which shall begin, unless otherwise provided by law, at noon on the thirtieth
day of June next following their election.

No Member of the House of Representatives shall serve for more than three
consecutive terms. Voluntary renunciation of the office for any length of time shall
not be considered as an interruption in the continuity of his service for the full term
for which he was elected.

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Sec 8

Scheduling of elections

Unless otherwise provided by law, the regular election of the Senators and the
Members of the House of Representatives shall be held on the second Monday of
May.

Sec 9

Replacement of legislators

In case of vacancy in the Senate or in the House of Representatives, a special election
may be called to fill such vacancy in the manner prescribed by law, but the Senator or
Member of the House of Representatives thus elected shall serve only for the
unexpired term.

Sec 10

Compensation of legislators

The salaries of Senators and Members of the House of Representatives shall be
determined by law. No increase in said compensation shall take effect until after the
expiration of the full term of all the Members of the Senate and the House of
Representatives approving such increase.

Sec 11

Immunity of legislators

A Senator or Member of the House of Representatives shall, in all offenses
punishable by not more than six years imprisonment, be privileged from arrest while
the Congress is in session. No Member shall be questioned nor be held liable in any
other place for any speech or debate in the Congress or in any committee thereof.

Sec 12

Earnings disclosure requirement

All Members of the Senate and the House of Representatives shall, upon assumption
of office, make a full disclosure of their financial and business interests. They shall
notify the House concerned of a potential conflict of interest that may arise from the
filing of a proposed legislation of which they are authors.

Sec 13

Outside professions of legislators

No Senator or Member of the House of Representatives may hold any other office or
employment in the Government, or any subdivision, agency, or instrumentality
thereof, including government-owned or controlled corporations or their
subsidiaries, during his term without forfeiting his seat. Neither shall he be
appointed to any office which may have been created or the emoluments thereof
increased during the term for which he was elected.

Sec 14

No Senator or Member of the House of Representatives may personally appear as
counsel before any court of justice or before the Electoral Tribunals, or quasi-judicial
and other administrative bodies. Neither shall he, directly or indirectly, be interested
financially in any contract with, or in any franchise or special privilege granted by the
Government, or any subdivision, agency, or instrumentality thereof, including any
government-owned or controlled corporation, or its subsidiary, during his term of
office. He shall not intervene in any matter before any office of the Government for
his pecuniary benefit or where he may be called upon to act on account of his office.

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Sec 15

Extraordinary legislative sessions

Length of legislative sessions

The Congress shall convene once every year on the fourth Monday of July for its
regular session, unless a different date is fixed by law, and shall continue to be in
session for such number of days as it may determine until thirty days before the
opening of its next regular session, exclusive of Saturdays, Sundays, and legal
holidays. The President may call a special session at any time.

Sec 16
1. The Senate shall elect its President and the House of Representatives its
Speaker, by a majority vote of all its respective Members.


Leader of first chamber

Leader of second chamber
Each House shall choose such other officers as it may deem necessary.

2. A majority of each House shall constitute a quorum to do business, but a smaller
number may adjourn from day to day and may compel the attendance of absent
Members in such manner, and under such penalties, as such House may provide.


Attendance by legislators

Quorum for legislative sessions

3. Each House may determine the rules of its proceedings, punish its Members for
disorderly behavior, and, with the concurrence of two-thirds of all its Members,
suspend or expel a Member. A penalty of suspension, when imposed, shall not
exceed sixty days.


Removal of individual legislators

4. Each House shall keep a Journal of its proceedings, and from time to time
publish the same, excepting such parts as may, in its judgment, affect national
security; and the yeas and nays on any question shall, at the request of one-fifth
of the Members present, be entered in the Journal.


Publication of deliberations

Secrecy of legislative votes
Each House shall also keep a Record of its proceedings.

5. Neither House during the sessions of the Congress shall, without the consent of
the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to any other place than that in
which the two Houses shall be sitting.

Sec 17

Electoral court powers

Electoral court selection

The Senate and the House of Representatives shall each have an Electoral Tribunal
which shall be the sole judge of all contests relating to the election, returns, and
qualifications of their respective Members. Each Electoral Tribunal shall be
composed of nine Members, three of whom shall be Justices of the Supreme Court to
be designated by the Chief Justice, and the remaining six shall be Members of the
Senate or the House of Representatives, as the case may be, who shall be chosen on
the basis of proportional representation from the political parties and the parties or
organizations registered under the party-list system represented therein. The senior
Justice in the Electoral Tribunal shall be its Chairman.

Sec 18

Legislative committees

There shall be a Commission on Appointments consisting of the President of the
Senate, as ex officio Chairman, twelve Senators, and twelve Members of the House
of Representatives, elected by each House on the basis of proportional
representation from the political parties and parties or organizations registered
under the party-list system represented therein. The Chairman of the Commission
shall not vote, except in case of a tie. The Commission shall act on all appointments
submitted to it within thirty session days of the Congress from their submission. The
Commission shall rule by a majority vote of all the Members.

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Sec 19

The Electoral Tribunals and the Commission on Appointments shall be constituted
within thirty days after the Senate and the House of Representatives shall have been
organized with the election of the President and the Speaker. The Commission on
Appointments shall meet only while the Congress is in session, at the call of its
Chairman or a majority of all its Members, to discharge such powers and functions as
are herein conferred upon it.

Sec 20

The records and books of accounts of the Congress shall be preserved and be open
to the public in accordance with law, and such books shall be audited by the
Commission on Audit which shall publish annually an itemized list of amounts paid to
and expenses incurred for each Member.

Sec 21

Legislative committees

The Senate or the House of Representatives or any of its respective committees may
conduct inquiries in aid of legislation in accordance with its duly published rules of
procedure. The rights of persons appearing in or affected by such inquiries shall be
respected.

Sec 22

Legislative oversight of the executive

The heads of departments may upon their own initiative, with the consent of the
President, or upon the request of either House, as the rules of each House shall
provide, appear before and be heard by such House on any matter pertaining to their
departments. Written questions shall be submitted to the President of the Senate or
the Speaker of the House of Representatives at least three days before their
scheduled appearance. Interpellations shall not be limited to written questions, but
may cover matters related thereto. When the security of the State or the public
interest so requires and the President so states in writing, the appearance shall be
conducted in executive session.

Sec 23

Designation of commander in chief

Power to declare/approve war

1. The Congress, by a vote of two-thirds of both Houses in joint session assembled,
voting separately, shall have the sole power to declare the existence of a state of
war.

2. In times of war or other national emergency, the Congress may, by law,
authorize the President, for a limited period and subject to such restrictions as it
may prescribe, to exercise powers necessary and proper to carry out a declared
national policy. Unless sooner withdrawn by resolution of the Congress, such
powers shall cease upon the next adjournment thereof.


Emergency provisions
Sec 24

Division of labor between chambers

Initiation of general legislation

First chamber reserved policy areas

Spending bills

Tax bills

All appropriation, revenue or tariff bills, bills authorizing increase of the public debt,
bills of local application, and private bills shall originate exclusively in the House of
Representatives, but the Senate may propose or concur with amendments.

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Sec 25

Spending bills

1. The Congress may not increase the appropriations recommended by the
President for the operation of the Government as specified in the budget. The
form, content, and manner of preparation of the budget shall be prescribed by
law.
2. No provision or enactment shall be embraced in the general appropriations bill
unless it relates specifically to some particular appropriation therein. Any such
provision or enactment shall be limited in its operation to the appropriation to
which it relates.

3. The procedure in approving appropriations for the Congress shall strictly follow
the procedure for approving appropriations for other departments and
agencies.
4. A special appropriations bill shall specify the purpose for which it is intended,
and shall be supported by funds actually available as certified by the National
Treasurer, or to be raised by a corresponding revenue proposal therein.

5. No law shall be passed authorizing any transfer of appropriations; however, the
President, the President of the Senate, the Speaker of the House of
Representatives, the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, and the heads of
Constitutional Commissions may, by law, be authorized to augment any item in
the general appropriations law for their respective offices from savings in other
items of their respective appropriations.

6. Discretionary funds appropriated for particular officials shall be disbursed only
for public purposes to be supported by appropriate vouchers and subject to such
guidelines as may be prescribed by law.

7. If, by the end of any fiscal year, the Congress shall have failed to pass the general
appropriations bill for the ensuing fiscal year, the general appropriations law for
the preceding fiscal year shall be deemed reenacted and shall remain in force
and effect until the general appropriations bill is passed by the Congress.

Sec 26
1. Every bill passed by the Congress shall embrace only one subject which shall be
expressed in the title thereof.

2. No bill passed by either House shall become a law unless it has passed three
readings on separate days, and printed copies thereof in its final form have been
distributed to its Members three days before its passage, except when the
President certifies to the necessity of its immediate enactment to meet a public
calamity or emergency. Upon the last reading of a bill, no amendment thereto
shall be allowed, and the vote thereon shall be taken immediately thereafter,
and the yeas and nays entered in the Journal.

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Sec 27

1. Every bill passed by the Congress shall, before it becomes a law, be presented to
the President. If he approves the same, he shall sign it; otherwise, he shall veto it
and return the same with his objections to the House where it originated, which
shall enter the objections at large in its Journal and proceed to reconsider it. If,
after such reconsideration, two-thirds of all the Members of such House shall
agree to pass the bill, it shall be sent, together with the objections, to the other
House by which it shall likewise be reconsidered, and if approved by two-thirds
of all the Members of that House, it shall become a law. In all such cases, the
votes of each House shall be determined by yeas or nays, and the names of the
Members voting for or against shall be entered in its Journal. The President shall
communicate his veto of any bill to the House where it originated within thirty
days after the date of receipt thereof; otherwise, it shall become a law as if he
had signed it.


Division of labor between chambers

Approval of general legislation

Initiation of general legislation

Veto override procedure

2. The President shall have the power to veto any particular item or items in an
appropriation, revenue, or tariff bill, but the veto shall not affect the item or
items to which he does not object.


Approval of general legislation
Sec 28
1. The rule of taxation shall be uniform and equitable. The Congress shall evolve a
progressive system of taxation.

2. The Congress may, by law, authorize the President to fix within specified limits,
and subject to such limitations and restrictions as it may impose, tariff rates,
import and export quotas, tonnage and wharfage dues, and other duties or
imposts within the framework of the national development program of the
Government.

3. Charitable institutions, churches and parsonages or convents appurtenant
thereto, mosques, non-profit cemeteries, and all lands, buildings, and
improvements, actually, directly, and exclusively used for religious, charitable, or
educational purposes shall be exempt from taxation.


Tax status of religious organizations

4. No law granting any tax exemption shall be passed without the concurrence of a
majority of all the Members of the Congress.
Sec 29
1. No money shall be paid out of the Treasury except in pursuance of an
appropriation made by law.

2. No public money or property shall be appropriated, applied, paid, or employed,
directly or indirectly, for the use, benefit, or support of any sect, church,
denomination, sectarian institution, or system of religion, or of any priest,
preacher, minister, or other religious teacher, or dignitary as such, except when
such priest, preacher, minister, or dignitary is assigned to the armed forces, or to
any penal institution, or government orphanage or leprosarium.

3. All money collected on any tax levied for a special purpose shall be treated as a
special fund and paid out for such purpose only. If the purpose for which a
special fund was created has been fulfilled or abandoned, the balance, if any,
shall be transferred to the general funds of the Government.

Sec 30
No law shall be passed increasing the appellate jurisdiction of the Supreme Court as
provided in this Constitution without its advice and concurrence.

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Sec 31
No law granting a title of royalty or nobility shall be enacted.
Sec 32

Legislative initiatives by citizens

Referenda

The Congress shall, as early as possible, provide for a system of initiative and
referendum, and the exceptions therefrom, whereby the people can directly propose
and enact laws or approve or reject any act or law or part thereof passed by the
Congress or local legislative body after the registration of a petition therefor signed
by at least ten per centum of the total number of registered voters, of which every
legislative district must be represented by at least three per centum of the
registered voters thereof.

ARTICLE VII: EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT
Sec 1

Name/structure of executive(s)
The executive power shall be vested in the President of the Philippines.
Sec 2

Finance bills

Foreign affairs representative

Minimum age of head of state

Eligibility for head of state

No person may be elected President unless he is a natural-born citizen of the
Philippines, a registered voter, able to read and write, at least forty years of age on
the day of the election, and a resident of the Philippines for at least ten years
immediately preceding such election.

Sec 3

Deputy executive

There shall be a Vice-President who shall have the same qualifications and term of
office and be elected with and in the same manner as the President. He may be
removed from office in the same manner as the President.

The Vice-President may be appointed as a Member of the Cabinet. Such
appointment requires no confirmation.
Sec 4

Head of state selection

The President and the Vice-President shall be elected by direct vote of the people
for a term of six years which shall begin at noon on the thirtieth day of June next
following the day of the election and shall end at noon of the same date six years
thereafter. The President shall not be eligible for any reelection. No person who has
succeeded as President and has served as such for more than four years shall be
qualified for election to the same office at any time.


Head of state term length

Head of state term limits

No Vice-President shall serve for more than two successive terms. Voluntary
renunciation of the office for any length of time shall not be considered as an
interruption in the continuity of the service for the full term for which he was
elected.


Head of state term limits

Unless otherwise provided by law, the regular election for President and
Vice-President shall be held on the second Monday of May.


Scheduling of elections

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The returns of every election for President and Vice-President, duly certified by the
board of canvassers of each province or city, shall be transmitted to the Congress,
directed to the President of the Senate. Upon receipt of the certificates of canvass,
the President of the Senate shall, not later than thirty days after the day of the
election, open all the certificates in the presence of the Senate and the House of
Representatives in joint public session, and the Congress, upon determination of the
authenticity and due execution thereof in the manner provided by law, canvass the
votes.

The person having the highest number of votes shall be proclaimed elected, but in
case two or more shall have an equal and highest number of votes, one of them shall
forthwith be chosen by the vote of a majority of all the Members of both Houses of
the Congress, voting separately.

The Congress shall promulgate its rules for the canvassing of the certificates.

The Supreme Court, sitting en banc, shall be the sole judge of all contests relating to
the election, returns, and qualifications of the President or Vice-President, and may
promulgate its rules for the purpose.

Sec 5

God or other deities

Oaths to abide by constitution

Before they enter on the execution of their office, the President, the Vice-President,
or the Acting President shall take the following oath or affirmation:

"I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully and conscientiously fulfill my
duties as President (or Vice-President or Acting President) of the Philippines,
preserve and defend its Constitution, execute its laws, do justice to every man, and
consecrate myself to the service of the Nation. So help me God." (In case of
affirmation, last sentence will be omitted.)

Sec 6

The President shall have an official residence. The salaries of the President and
Vice-President shall be determined by law and shall not be decreased during their
tenure. No increase in said compensation shall take effect until after the expiration
of the term of the incumbent during which such increase was approved. They shall
not receive during their tenure any other emolument from the Government or any
other source.

Sec 7
The President-elect and the Vice-President-elect shall assume office at the
beginning of their terms.
If the President-elect fails to qualify, the Vice-President-elect shall act as President
until the President-elect shall have qualified.
If a President shall not have been chosen, the Vice-President-elect shall act as
President until a President shall have been chosen and qualified.

If at the beginning of the term of the President, the President-elect shall have died or
shall have become permanently disabled, the Vice-President-elect shall become
President.

Where no President and Vice-President shall have been chosen or shall have
qualified, or where both shall have died or become permanently disabled, the
President of the Senate or, in case of his inability, the Speaker of the House of
Representatives shall act as President until a President or a Vice-President shall
have been chosen and qualified.

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The Congress shall, by law, provide for the manner in which one who is to act as
President shall be selected until a President or a Vice-President shall have qualified,
in case of death, permanent disability, or inability of the officials mentioned in the
next preceding paragraph.

Sec 8

Head of state replacement

In case of death, permanent disability, removal from office, or resignation of the
President, the Vice-President shall become the President to serve the unexpired
term. In case of death, permanent disability, removal from office, or resignation of
both the President and Vice-President, the President of the Senate or, in case of his
inability, the speaker of the House of Representatives, shall then act as President
until the President or Vice-President shall have been elected and qualified.

The Congress shall, by law, provide who shall serve as President in case president of
death, permanent disability, or resignation of the Acting President. He shall serve
until the President or Vice-President shall have been elected and qualified, and be
subject to the same restrictions of powers and disqualifications as the Acting
President.

Sec 9

Whenever there is a vacancy in the Office of the Vice-President during the term for
which he was elected, the President shall nominate a Vice-President from among the
Members of the Senate and the House of Representatives who shall assume office
upon confirmation by a majority vote of all the Members of both Houses of the
Congress, voting separately.

Sec 10

The Congress shall, at ten o'clock in the morning of the third day after the vacancy in
the offices of the President and Vice-President occurs, convene in accordance with
its rules without need of a call and within seven days enact a law calling for a special
election to elect a President and a Vice-President to be held not earlier than
forty-five days nor later than sixty days from the time of such call. The bill calling
such special election shall be deemed certified under paragraph 2, Section 26, Article
VI of this Constitution and shall become law upon its approval on third reading by
the Congress. Appropriations for the special election shall be charged against any
current appropriations and shall be exempt from the requirements of paragraph 4,
Section 25, Article VI of this Constitution. The convening of the Congress cannot be
suspended nor the special election postponed. No special election shall be called if
the vacancy occurs within eighteen months before the date of the next presidential
election.

Sec 11

Whenever the President transmits to the President of the Senate and the Speaker of
the House of Representatives his written declaration that he is unable to discharge
the powers and duties of his office, and until he transmits to them a written
declaration to the contrary, such powers and duties shall be discharged by the
Vice-President as Acting President.
Whenever a majority of all the Members of the Cabinet transmit to the President of
the Senate and to the Speaker of the House of Representatives their written
declaration that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his
office, the Vice-President shall immediately assume the powers and duties of the
office as Acting President.

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Thereafter, when the President transmits to the President of the Senate and to the
Speaker of the House of Representatives his written declaration that no inability
exists, he shall reassume the powers and duties of his office. Meanwhile, should a
majority of all the Members of the Cabinet transmit within five days to the President
of the Senate and to the Speaker of the House of Representatives their written
declaration that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his
office, the Congress shall decide the issue. For that purpose, the Congress shall
convene, if it is not in session, within forty-eight hours, in accordance with its rules
and without need of call.

If the Congress, within ten days after receipt of the written declaration or, if not in
session, within twelve days after it is required to assemble, determines by a
two-thirds vote of both Houses, voting separately, that the President is unable to
discharge the powers and duties of his office, the Vice-President shall act as
President; otherwise, the President shall continue exercising the powers and duties
of his office.

Sec 12

In case of serious illness of the President, the public shall be informed of the state of
his health. The Members of the Cabinet in charge of national security and foreign
relations and the Chief of Staff of the Armed Forces of the Philippines, shall not be
denied access to the President during such illness.

Sec 13

Establishment of cabinet/ministers

Eligibility for cabinet

Eligibility for head of state

The President, Vice-President, the Members of the Cabinet, and their deputies or
assistants shall not, unless otherwise provided in this Constitution, hold any other
office or employment during their tenure. They shall not, during said tenure, directly
or indirectly, practice any other profession, participate in any business, or be
financially interested in any contract with, or in any franchise, or special privilege
granted by the Government or any subdivision, agency, or instrumentality thereof,
including government-owned or controlled corporations or their subsidiaries. They
shall strictly avoid conflict of interest in the conduct of their office.

The spouse and relatives by consanguinity or affinity within the fourth civil degree of
the President shall not during his tenure be appointed as Members of the
Constitutional Commissions, or the Office of the Ombudsman, or as Secretaries,
Undersecretaries, chairmen or heads of bureaus or offices, including
government-owned or controlled corporations and their subsidiaries.

Sec 14

Cabinet removal

Appointments extended by an Acting President shall remain effective, unless
revoked by the elected President within ninety days from his assumption or
reassumption of office.

Sec 15

Two months immediately before the next presidential elections and up the end of his
term, a President or Acting President shall not make appointments, except
temporary appointments to executive positions when continued vacancies therein
will prejudice public service or endanger public safety.

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Sec 16

Establishment of cabinet/ministers

Cabinet selection

Selection of active-duty commanders

The President shall nominate and, with the consent of the Commission on
Appointments, appoint the heads of the executive departments, ambassadors, other
public ministers and consuls, or officers of the armed forces from the rank of colonel
or naval captain, and other officers whose appointments are vested in his in his
Constitution. He shall also appoint all other officers of the Government whose
appointments are not otherwise provided for by law, and those whom he may be
authorized by law to appoint. The Congress may, by law, vest the appointment of
other officers lower in rank in the President alone, in the courts, or in the heads of
departments, agencies, commissions, or boards.

The President shall have the power to make appointments during the recess of the
Congress, whether voluntary or compulsory, but such appointments shall be
effective only until disapproval by the Commission on Appointments or until the
next adjournment of the Congress.

Sec 17
The President shall have control of all the executive departments, bureaus, and
offices. He shall ensure that the laws be faithfully executed.
Sec 18

Emergency provisions

The President shall be the Commander-in-Chief of all armed forces of the Philippines
and whenever it becomes necessary, he may call out such armed forces to prevent or
suppress lawless violence, invasion or rebellion. In case of invasion or rebellion, when
the public safety requires it, he may, for a period not exceeding sixty days, suspend
the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus or place the Philippines or any part thereof
under martial law. Within forty-eight hours from the proclamation of martial law or
the suspension of the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus, the President shall
submit a report in person or in writing to the Congress. The Congress, voting jointly,
by a vote of at least a majority of all its Members in regular or special session, may
revoke such proclamation or suspension, which revocation shall not be set aside by
the President. Upon the initiative of the President, the Congress may, in the same
manner, extend such proclamation or suspension for a period to be determined by
the Congress, if the invasion or rebellion shall persist and public safety requires it.


Designation of commander in chief

The Congress, if not in session, shall, within twenty-four hours following such
proclamation or suspension, convene in accordance with its rules without need of a
call.

The Supreme Court may review, in an appropriate proceeding filed by any citizen,
the sufficiency of the factual basis of the proclamation of martial law or the
suspension of the privilege of the writ or the extension thereof, and must promulgate
its decision thereon within thirty days from its filing.
A state of martial law does not suspend the operation of the Constitution, nor
supplant the functioning of the civil courts or legislative assemblies, nor authorize
the conferment of jurisdiction on military courts and agencies over civilians where
civil courts are able to function, nor automatically suspend the privilege of the writ.

The suspension of the privilege of the writ shall apply only to persons judicially
charged for rebellion or offenses inherent in or directly connected with invasion.
During the suspension of the privilege of the writ, any person thus arrested or
detained shall be judicially charged within three days, otherwise he shall be released.

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Sec 19

Head of state powers

Power to pardon

Except in cases of impeachment, or as otherwise provided in this Constitution, the
President may grant reprieves, commutations, and pardons, and remit fines and
forfeitures, after conviction by final judgement.

He shall also have the power to grant amnesty with the concurrence of a majority of
all the Members of the Congress.
Sec 20

The President may contract or guarantee foreign loans on behalf of the Republic of
the Philippines with the prior concurrence of the Monetary Board, and subject to
such limitations as may be provided by law. The Monetary Board shall, within thirty
days from the end of every quarter of the calendar year, submit to the Congress a
complete report of its decisions on applications for loans to be contracted or
guaranteed by the Government or government-owned and controlled corporations
which would have the effect of increasing the foreign debt, and containing other
matters as may be provided by law.

Sec 21

Foreign affairs representative

Treaty ratification

No treaty or international agreement shall be valid and effective unless concurred in
by at least two-thirds of all the Members of the Senate.
Sec 22

Tax bills

The President shall submit to the Congress within thirty days from the opening of
every regular session, as the basis of the general appropriations bill, a budget of
expenditures and sources of financing, including receipts from existing and proposed
revenue measures.

Sec 23

Legislative oversight of the executive

The President shall address the Congress at the opening of its regular session. He
may also appear before it at any other time.
ARTICLE VIII: JUDICIAL DEPARTMENT
Sec 1

Protection of judges' salaries

Structure of the courts

The judicial power shall be vested in one Supreme Court and in such lower courts as
may be established by law.

Judicial power includes the duty of the courts of justice to settle actual controversies
involving rights which are legally demandable and enforceable, and to determine
whether or not there has been a grave abuse of discretion amounting to lack or
excess of jurisdiction on the part of any branch or instrumentality of the
Government.

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Sec 2

The Congress shall have the power to define, prescribe, and apportion the
jurisdiction of the various courts but may not deprive the Supreme Court of its
jurisdiction over cases enumerated in Section 5 hereof.

No law shall be passed reorganizing the Judiciary when it undermines the security of
tenure of its Members.
Sec 3

Judicial independence

Protection of judges' salaries

the Judiciary shall enjoy fiscal autonomy. Appropriations for the Judiciary may not
be reduced by the legislature below the amount appropriated for the previous year
and, after approval, shall be automatically and regularly released.

Sec 4

1. The Supreme Court shall be composed of a Chief Justice and fourteen Associate
Justices. It may sit en banc or, in its discretion, in divisions of three, five, or seven
Members. Any vacancy shall be filled within ninety days from the occurrence
thereof.

2. All cases involving the constitutionality of a treaty, international or executive
agreement, or law, which shall be heard by the Supreme Court en banc, and all
other cases which under the Rules of Court are required to be heard en banc,
including those involving the constitutionality, application, or operation of
presidential decrees, proclamations, orders, instructions, ordinances, and other
regulations, shall be decided with the concurrence of a majority of the Members
who actually took part in the deliberations on the issues in the case and voted
thereon.


Head of state decree power

Treaty ratification

Legal status of treaties

Constitutionality of legislation

3. Cases or matter heard by a division shall be decided or resolved with the
concurrence of a majority of the Members who actually took part in the
deliberations on the issues in the case and voted thereon, and in no case,
without the concurrence of at least three of such Members. When the required
number is not obtained, the case shall be decided en banc: Provided, that no
doctrine or principle of law laid down by the court in a decision rendered en
banc or in division may be modified or reversed except by the court sitting en
banc.

Sec 5

Supreme court powers
The Supreme Court shall have the following powers:

1. Exercise original jurisdiction over cases affecting ambassadors, other public
ministers and consuls, and over petitions for certiorari, prohibition,
mandamus, quo warranto, and habeas corpus.

2. Review, revise, reverse, modify, or affirm on appeal or certiorari, as the law
or the Rules of Court may provide, final judgments and orders of lower
courts in.


Right to appeal judicial decisions

Judicial precedence

a. All cases in which the constitutionality or validity of any treaty,
international or executive agreement, law, presidential decree,
proclamation, order, instruction, ordinance, or regulation is in
question.


Legal status of treaties

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b. All cases involving the legality of any tax, impost, assessment, or toll, or
any penalty imposed in relation thereto.


c. All cases in which the jurisdiction of any lower court is in issue.

d. All criminal cases in which the penalty imposed is reclusion perpetua or
higher.


e. All cases in which only an error or question of law is involved.

3. Assign temporarily judges of lower courts to other stations or public
interest may require. Such temporary assignment shall not exceed six
months without the consent of the judge concerned.


4. Order a change of venue or place of trial to avoid a miscarriage of justice.

5. Promulgate rules concerning the protection and enforcement of
constitutional rights, pleading, practice, and procedure in all courts, the
admission to the practice of law, the Integrated Bar, and legal assistance to
the underprivileged Such rules shall provide a simplified and inexpensive
procedure for the speedy disposition of cases, shall be uniform for all courts
of the same grade, and shall not diminish, increase, or modify substantive
rights. Rules of procedure of special courts and quasi-judicial bodies shall
remain effective unless disapproved by the Supreme Court.

6. Appoint all officials and employees of the Judiciary in accordance with the
Civil Service Law.
Sec 6
The Supreme Court shall have administrative supervision over all courts and the
personnel thereof.
Sec 7

1. No person shall be appointed Member of the Supreme Court or any lower
collegiate court unless he is a natural-born citizen of the Philippines. A Member
of the Supreme Court must be at least forty years of age, and must have been for
fifteen years or more a judge of a lower court or engaged in the practice of law in
the Philippines.


Minimum age of supreme court judges

Eligibility for supreme court judges

2. The Congress shall prescribe the qualifications of judges of lower courts, but no
person may be appointed judge thereof unless he is a citizen of the Philippines
and a member of the Philippine Bar.

3. A Member of the Judiciary must be a person of proven competence, integrity,
probity, and independence.

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Sec 8

Establishment of judicial council

1. A Judicial and Bar Council is hereby created under the supervision of the
Supreme Court composed of the Chief Justice as ex officio Chairman, the
Secretary of Justice, and a representative of the Congress as ex officio
Members, a representative of the Integrated Bar, a professor of law, a retired
Member of the Supreme Court, and a representative of the private sector.
2. The regular members of the Council shall be appointed by the President for a
term of four years with the consent of the Commission on Appointments. Of the
Members first appointed, the representative of the Integrated Bar shall serve
for four years, the professor of law for three years, the retired Justice for two
years, and the representative of the private sector for one year.

3. The Clerk of the Supreme Court shall be the Secretary ex officio of the Council
and shall keep a record of its proceedings.

4. The regular Members of the Council shall receive such emoluments as may be
determined by the Supreme Court. The Supreme Court shall provide in its
annual budget the appropriations for the Council.
5. The Council shall have the principal function of recommending appointees to the
Judiciary. It may exercise such other functions and duties as the Supreme Court
may assign to it.

Sec 9

Supreme court selection

Ordinary court selection

The Members of the Supreme Court and judges of lower courts shall be appointed by
the President from a list of at least three nominees prepared by the Judicial and Bar
Council for every vacancy. Such appointments need no confirmation.

For the lower courts, the President shall issue the appointments within ninety days
from the submission of the list.
Sec 10

The salary of the Chief Justice and of the Associate Justices of the Supreme Court,
and of judges of lower courts shall be fixed by law. During their continuance in office,
their salary shall not be decreased.

Sec 11

Supreme court term length

Supreme/ordinary court judge removal

Mandatory retirement age for judges

The Members of the Supreme Court and judges of lower courts shall hold office
during good behavior until they reach the age of seventy years or become
incapacitated to discharge the duties of their office. The Supreme Court en banc
shall have the power to discipline judges of lower courts, or order their dismissal by a
vote of a majority of the Members who actually took part in the deliberations on the
issues in the case and voted thereon.

Sec 12
The Members of the Supreme Court and of other courts established by law shall not
be designated to any agency performing quasi-judicial or administrative functions.

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Sec 13

Supreme court opinions

The conclusions of the Supreme Court in any case submitted to it for decision en
banc or in division shall be reached in consultation before the case is assigned to a
Member for the writing of the opinion of the Court. A certification to this effect
signed by the Chief Justice shall be issued and a copy thereof attached to the record
of the case and served upon the parties. Any Member who took no part, or dissented,
or abstained from a decision or resolution must state the reason therefor. The same
requirements shall be observed by all lower collegiate courts.

Sec 14

Right to appeal judicial decisions

Supreme court opinions

No decision shall be rendered by any court without expressing therein clearly and
distinctly the facts and the law on which it is based.
No petition for review or motion for reconsideration of a decision of the court shall
be refused due course or denied without stating the legal basis therefor.
Sec 15

1. All cases or matters filed after the effectivity of this Constitution must be
decided or resolved within twenty-four months from date of submission for the
Supreme Court, and, unless reduced by the Supreme Court, twelve months for
all lower collegiate courts, and three months for all other lower courts.

2. A case or matter shall be deemed submitted for decision or resolution upon the
filing of the last pleading, brief, or memorandum required by the Rules of Court
or by the court itself.

3. Upon the expiration of the corresponding period, a certification to this effect
signed by the Chief Justice or the presiding judge shall forthwith be issued and a
copy thereof attached to the record of the case or matter, and served upon the
parties. The certification shall state why a decision or resolution has not been
rendered or issued within said period.

4. Despite the expiration of the applicable mandatory period, the court, without
prejudice to such responsibility as may have been incurred in consequence
thereof, shall decide or resolve the case or matter submitted thereto for
determination, without further delay.

Sec 16

The Supreme Court shall, within thirty days from the opening of each regular session
of the Congress, submit to the President and the Congress an annual report on the
operations and activities of the Judiciary.
ARTICLE IX: CONSTITUTIONAL
COMMISSIONS

A. COMMON PROVISIONS
Sec 1

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The Constitutional Commissions, which shall be independent, are the Civil Service
Commission, the Commission on Elections, and the Commission on Audit.
Sec 2

No Member of a Constitutional Commission shall, during his tenure, hold any other
office or employment. Neither shall he engage in the practice of any profession or in
the active management or control of any business which in any way may be affected
by the functions of his office, nor shall he be financially interested, directly or
indirectly, in any contract with, or in any franchise or privilege granted by the
Government, any of its subdivisions, agencies, or instrumentalities, including
government-owned or controlled corporations or their subsidiaries.

Sec 3
The salary of the Chairman and the Commissioners shall be fixed by law and shall not
be decreased during their tenure.
Sec 4
The Constitutional Commissions shall appoint their officials and employees in
accordance with law.
Sec 5
The Commission shall enjoy fiscal autonomy. Their approved annual appropriations
shall be automatically and regularly released.
Sec 6

Each Commission en banc may promulgate its own rules concerning pleadings and
practice before it or before any of its offices. Such rules however shall not diminish,
increase, or modify substantive rights.

Sec 7

Each Commission shall decide by a majority vote of all its Members any case or
matter brought before it within sixty days from the date of its submission for
decision or resolution. A case or matter is deemed submitted for decision or
resolution upon the filing of the last pleading, brief, or memorandum required by the
rules of the Commission or by the Commission itself. Unless otherwise provided by
this Constitution or by law, any decision, order, or ruling of each Commission may be
brought to the Supreme Court on certiorari by the aggrieved party within thirty days
from receipt of a copy thereof.

Sec 8
Each Commission shall perform such other functions as may be provided by law.

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B. THE CIVIL SERVICE COMMISSION
Sec 1

1. The civil service shall be administered by the Civil Service Commission
composed of a Chairman and two Commissioners who shall be natural-born
citizens of the Philippines and, at the time of their appointment, at least
thirty-five years of age, with proven capacity for public administration, and must
not have been candidates for any elective position in the elections immediately
preceding their appointment.

2. The Chairman and the Commissioners shall be appointed by the President with
the consent of the Commission on Appointments for a term of seven years
without reappointment. Of those first appointed, the Chairman shall hold office
for seven years, a Commissioner for five years, and another Commissioner for
three years, without reappointment.

Appointment to any vacancy shall be only for the unexpired term of the
predecessor. In no case shall any Member be appointed or designated in a
temporary or acting capacity.

Sec 2

1. The civil service embraces all branches, subdivisions, instrumentalities, and
agencies of the Government, including government-owned or controlled
corporations with original charters.

2. Appointments in the civil service shall be made only according to merit and
fitness to be determined, as far as practicable, and, except to positions which are
policy determining primarily confidential, or highly technical, by competitive
examination.


Civil service recruitment

3. No officer or employee in the civil service shall be removed or suspended except
for cause provided by law.
4. No officer or employee in the civil service shall engage, directly or indirectly, in
any electioneering or partisan political campaign.

5. The right to self-organization shall not be denied to government employees.

6. Temporary employees of the Government shall be given such protection as may
be provided by law.
Sec 3

The Civil Service Commission, as the central personnel agency of the Government,
shall establish a career service and adopt measures to promote morale, efficiency,
integrity, responsiveness, progressiveness, and courtesy in the civil service. It shall
strengthen the merit and rewards system, integrate all human resources
development programs for all levels and ranks, and institutionalize a management
climate conductive to public accountability. It shall submit to the President and the
Congress an annual report on its personnel programs.

Sec 4
All public officers and employees shall take an oath or affirmation to uphold and
defend this Constitution.

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Sec 5

The Congress shall provide for the standardization of compensation of government
officials and employees, including those in government-owned or controlled
corporations with original charters, taking into account the nature of the
responsibilities pertaining to, and the qualifications required for their positions.

Sec 6

No candidate who has lost in any election shall, within one year after such election,
be appointed to any office in the Government or any government-owned or
controlled corporations or in any of their subsidiaries.

Sec 7
No elective official shall be eligible for appointment or designation in any capacity to
any public office or position during his tenure.

Unless otherwise allowed by law or by the primary functions of his position, no
appointive official shall hold any other office or employment in the Government or
any subdivision, agency or instrumentality thereof, including government-owned or
controlled corporations or their subsidiaries.

Sec 8

No elective or appointive public officer or employee shall receive additional, double,
or indirect compensation, unless specifically authorized by law, nor accept without
the consent of the Congress, any present, emolument, office, or title of any kind from
any foreign government.

Pensions or gratuities shall not be considered as additional, double, or indirect
compensation.
C. THE COMMISSION ON ELECTIONS
Sec 1

Electoral commission

1. There shall be a Commission on Elections composed of a Chairman and six
Commissioners who shall be natural-born citizens of the Philippines and, at the
time of their appointment, at least thirty-five years of age, holders of a college
degree, and must not have been candidates for any elective position in the
immediately preceding elections.

However, a majority thereof, including the Chairman, shall be members of the
Philippine Bar who have been engaged in the practice of law for at least ten
years.

2. The Chairman and the Commissioners shall be appointed by the President with
the consent of the Commission on Appointments for a term of seven years
without reappointment. Of those first appointed, three Members shall hold
office for seven years, two Members for five years, and the last Members for
three years, without reappointment. Appointment to any vacancy shall be only
for the unexpired term of the predecessor. In no case shall any Member be
appointed or designated in a temporary or acting capacity.

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Sec 2

Electoral commission
The Commission on Elections shall exercise the following powers and functions:

1. Enforce and administer all laws and regulations relative to the conduct of an
election, plebiscite, initiative, referendum, and recall.

2. Exercise exclusive original jurisdiction over all contests relating to the elections,
returns, and qualifications of all elective regional, provincial, and city officials
and appellate jurisdiction over all contests involving elective municipal officials
decided by trial courts of general jurisdiction, or involving elective barangay
officials decided by trial courts of limited jurisdiction.

Decisions, final orders, or rulings of the Commission on election contests
involving elective municipal and barangay offices shall be final, executory, and
not appealable.
3. Decide, except those involving the right to vote, all questions affecting elections,
including determination of the number and location of polling places,
appointment of election officials and inspectors, and registration of voters.

4. Deputize, with the concurrence of the President, law enforcement agencies and
instrumentalities of the Government, including the Armed Forces of the
Philippines, for the exclusive purpose of ensuring free, orderly, honest, peaceful,
and credible elections.

5. Register, after sufficient publication, political parties, organizations, or
coalitions which, in addition to other requirements, must present their platform
or program of government; and accredit citizens' arms of the Commission on
Elections. Religious denominations and sects shall not be registered. Those
which seek to achieve their goals through violence or unlawful means, or refuse
to uphold and adhere to this Constitution, or which are supported by any foreign
government shall likewise be refused registration.


Campaign financing

Prohibited political parties

Restrictions on political parties

Regulation of political parties

Financial contributions from foreign governments and their agencies to political
parties, organizations, coalitions, or candidates related to elections constitute
interference in national affairs and, when accepted, shall be an additional
ground for the cancellation of their registration with the Commission, in
addition to other penalties that may be prescribed by law.

6. File, upon a verified complaint, or on its own initiative, petitions in court for
inclusion or exclusion of voters; investigate and, where appropriate, prosecute
cases of violations of election laws, including acts or omissions constituting
election frauds, offenses, and malpractices.
7. Recommend to the Congress effective measures to minimize election spending,
including limitation of places where propaganda materials shall be posted, and
to prevent and penalize all forms of election frauds, offenses, malpractices, and
nuisance candidacies.

8. Recommend to the President the removal of any officer or employee it has
deputized, or the imposition of any other disciplinary action, for violation or
disregard of, or disobedience to its directive, order, or decision.

9. Submit to the President and the Congress a comprehensive report on the
conduct of each election, plebiscite, initiative, referendum, or recall.
Sec 3

The Commission on Elections may sit en banc or in two divisions, and shall
promulgate its rules of procedure in order to expedite disposition of election cases,
including pre-proclamation controversies. All such election cases shall be heard and
decided in division, provided that motions for reconsideration of decisions shall be
decided by the Commission en banc.

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Sec 4

The Commission may, during the election period, supervise or regulate the
enjoyment or utilization of all franchises or permits for the operation of
transportation and other public utilities, media of communication or information, all
grants, special privileges, or concessions granted by the Government or any
subdivision, agency, or instrumentality thereof, including any government-owned or
controlled corporation or its subsidiary. Such supervision or regulation shall aim to
ensure equal opportunity, time, and space, and the right to reply, including
reasonable, equal rates therefor, for public information campaigns and forums
among candidates in connection with the objective of holding free, orderly, honest,
peaceful, and credible elections.

Sec 5

No pardon, amnesty, parole, or suspension of sentence for violation of election laws,
rules, and regulations shall be granted by the President without the favorable
recommendation of the Commission.

Sec 6
A free and open party system shall be allowed to evolve according to the free choice
of the people, subject to the provisions of this Article.
Sec 7

No votes cast in favor of a political party, organization, or coalition shall be valid,
except for those registered under the party-list system as provided in this
Constitution.

Sec 8

Political parties, or organizations or coalitions registered under the party-list system,
shall not be represented in the voters' registration boards, boards of election
inspectors, boards of canvassers, or other similar bodies. However, they shall be
entitled to appoint poll watchers in accordance with law.

Sec 9

Unless otherwise fixed by the Commission in special cases, the election period shall
commence ninety days before the day of election and shall end thirty days
thereafter.

Sec 10
Bona fide candidates for any public office shall be free from any form of harassment
and discrimination.
Sec 11

Funds certified by the Commission as necessary to defray the expenses for holding
regular and special elections, plebiscites, initiatives, referenda, and recalls, shall be
provided in the regular or special appropriations and, once approved, shall be
released automatically upon certification by the Chairman of the Commission.

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D. THE COMMISSION ON AUDIT
Sec 1

1. There shall be a Commission on Audit composed of a Chairman and two
Commissioners, who shall be natural-born citizens of the Philippines and, at the
time of their appointment, at least thirty-five years of age, certified public
accountants with not less than ten years of auditing experience, or members of
the Philippine Bar who have been engaged in the practice of law for at least ten
years, and must not have been candidates for any elective position in the
elections immediately preceding their appointment. At no time shall all
Members of the Commission belong to the same profession.

2. The Chairman and the Commissioners shall be appointed by the President with
the consent of the Commission on Appointments for a term of seven years
without reappointment. Of those first appointed, the Chairman shall hold office
for seven years, one Commissioner for five years, and the other Commissioner
for three years, without reappointment. Appointment to any vacancy shall be
only for the unexpired portion of the term of the predecessor. In no case shall
any Member be appointed or designated in a temporary or acting capacity.

Sec 2

1. The Commission on Audit shall have the power, authority, and duty to examine,
audit, and settle all accounts pertaining to the revenue and receipts of, and
expenditures or uses of funds and property, owned or held in trust by, or
pertaining to, the Government, or any of its subdivisions, agencies, or
instrumentalities, including government-owned and controlled corporations
with original charters, and on a post audit basis

a. constitutional bodies, commissions and offices that have been granted
fiscal autonomy under this Constitution;


b. autonomous state colleges and universities;

c. other government-owned owned or controlled corporations and their
subsidiaries; and

d. such non-governmental entities receiving subsidy or equity, directly or
indirectly, from or through the Government, which are required by law or
the granting institution to submit to such audit as a condition of subsidy or
equity.

However, where the internal control system of the audited agencies is
inadequate, the Commission may adopt such measures, including temporary or
special pre-audit, as are necessary and appropriate to correct the deficiencies. It
shall keep the general accounts of the Government and, for such period as may
be provided by law, preserve the vouchers and other supporting papers
pertaining thereto.
2. The Commission shall have exclusive authority, subject to the limitations in this
Article, to define the scope of its audit and examination, establish the techniques
and methods required therefor, and promulgate accounting and auditing rules,
and regulations including those for the prevention and disallowance of irregular,
unnecessary, excessive, extravagant, or unconscionable expenditures, or uses of
government funds and properties.

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Sec 3

No law shall be passed exempting any entity of the Government or its subsidiary in
any guise whatever, or any investment of public funds, from the jurisdiction of the
Commission on Audit.

Sec 4

The Commission shall submit to the President and the Congress, within the time
fixed by law, an annual report covering the financial condition and operation of the
Government, its subdivisions, agencies, and instrumentalities, including government
owned or controlled corporations, and non-governmental entities subject to its
audit, and recommend measures necessary to improve their effectiveness and
efficiency. It shall submit such other reports as may be required by law.

ARTICLE X: LOCAL GOVERNMENT
GENERAL PROVISIONS
Sec 1

Subsidiary unit government

The territorial and political subdivisions of the Republic of the Philippines are the
provinces, cities, municipalities, and barangays. There shall be autonomous regions
in Muslim Mindanao and the Cordilleras as hereinafter provided.

Sec 2

Right to culture

Indigenous right to self governance

Organic laws
The territorial and political subdivisions shall enjoy local autonomy.
Sec 3

Municipal government

Subsidiary unit government

The Congress shall enact a local government code which shall provide for a more
responsive and accountable local government structure instituted through a system
of decentralization with effective mechanisms of recall, initiative, and referendum,
allocate among the different local government units their powers, responsibilities,
and resources, and provide for the qualifications, election, appointment and removal,
term, salaries, powers and functions and duties of local officials, and all other matters
relating to the organization and operation of the local units.

Sec 4

The President of the Philippines shall exercise general supervision over local
governments. Provinces with respect to component cities and municipalities, and
cities and municipalities with respect to component barangays shall ensure that the
acts of their component units are within the scope of their prescribed powers and
functions.

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Sec 5

Municipal government

Subsidiary unit government

Each local government unit shall have the power to create its own sources of
revenues and to levy taxes, fees, and charges subject to such guidelines and
limitations as the Congress may provide, consistent with the basic policy of local
autonomy. Such taxes, fees, and charges shall accrue exclusively to the local
governments.

Sec 6

Municipal government

Subsidiary unit government

Local government units shall have a just share, as determined by law, in the national
taxes which shall be automatically released to them.
Sec 7

Subsidiary unit government

Local governments shall be entitled to an equitable share in the proceeds of the
utilization and development of the national wealth within their respective areas, in
the manner provided by law, including sharing the same with the inhabitants by way
of direct benefits.

Sec 8

Municipal government

Subsidiary unit government

The term of office of elective local officials, except barangay officials, which shall be
determined by law, shall be three years and no such official shall serve for more than
three consecutive terms. Voluntary renunciation of the office for any length of time
shall not be considered as an interruption in the continuity of his service for the full
term for which he was elected.

Sec 9

Municipal government

Subsidiary unit government

Legislative bodies of local governments shall have sectoral representation as may be
prescribed by law.
Sec 10

No province, city, municipality, or barangay may be created, divided, merged,
abolished, or its boundary substantially altered, except in accordance with the
criteria established in the local government code and subject to approval by a
majority of the votes cast in a plebiscite in the political units directly affected.

Sec 11

Municipal government

Subsidiary unit government

The Congress may, by law, create special metropolitan political subdivisions, subject
to a plebiscite as set forth in Section 10 hereof. The component cities and
municipalities shall retain their basic autonomy and shall be entitled to their own
local executives and legislative assemblies. The jurisdiction of the metropolitan
authority that will thereby be created shall be limited to basic services requiring
coordination.

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Sec 12

Cities that are highly urbanized, as determined by law, and component cities whose
charters prohibit their voters from voting for provincial elective officials, shall be
independent of the province. The voters of component cities within a province,
whose charters contain no such prohibition, shall not be deprived of their right to
vote for elective provincial officials.

Sec 13

Local government units may group themselves, consolidate or coordinate their
efforts, services, and resources for purposes commonly beneficial to them in
accordance with law.

Sec 14

The President shall provide for regional development councils or other similar
bodies composed of local government officials, regional heads of departments and
other government offices, and representatives from non-governmental
organizations within the regions for purposes of administrative decentralization to
strengthen the autonomy of the units therein and to accelerate the economic and
social growth and development of the units in the region.

AUTONOMOUS REGIONS
Sec 15

There shall be created autonomous regions in Muslim Mindanao and in the
Cordilleras consisting of provinces, cities, municipalities, and geographical areas
sharing common and distinctive historical and cultural heritage, economic and social
structures, and other relevant characteristics within the framework of this
Constitution and the national sovereignty as well as territorial integrity of the
Republic of the Philippines.

Sec 16
The President shall exercise general supervision over autonomous regions to ensure
that laws are faithfully executed.
Sec 17
All powers, functions, and responsibilities not granted by this Constitution or by law
to the autonomous regions shall be vested in the National Government.

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Sec 18

Organic laws

The Congress shall enact an organic act for each autonomous region with the
assistance and participation of the regional consultative commission composed of
representatives appointed by the President from a list of nominees from
multisectoral bodies. The organic act shall define the basic structure of government
for the region consisting of the executive department and legislative assembly, both
of which shall be elective and representative of the constituent political units. The
organic acts shall likewise provide for special courts with personal, family, and
property law jurisdiction consistent with the provisions of this Constitution and
national laws.

The creation of the autonomous region shall be effective when approved by majority
of the votes cast by the constituent units in a plebiscite called for the purpose,
provided that only provinces, cities, and geographic areas voting favorably in such
plebiscite shall be included in the autonomous region.

Sec 19

Organic laws

The first Congress elected under this Constitution shall, within eighteen months
from the time of organization of both Houses, pass the organic acts for the
autonomous regions in Muslim Mindanao and the Cordilleras.

Sec 20

Within its territorial jurisdiction and subject to the provisions of this Constitution
and national laws, the organic act of autonomous regions shall provide for legislative
powers over:


1. Administrative organization;

2. Creation of sources of revenues:

3. Ancestral domain and natural resources:

4. Personal, family, and property relations;

5. Regional urban and rural planning development;

6. Economic, social, and tourism development;

7. Educational policies;

8. Preservation and development of the cultural heritage; and

9. Such other matters as may be authorized by law for the promotion of the
general welfare of the people of the region.

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Sec 21

Right to culture

Indigenous right to self governance

The preservation of peace and order within the regions shall be the responsibility of
the local police agencies which shall be organized, maintained, supervised, and
utilized in accordance with applicable laws. The defense and security of the regions
shall be the responsibility of the National Government.
ARTICLE XI: ACCOUNTABILITY OF PUBLIC
OFFICERS

Sec 1

Public office is a public trust. Public officers and employees must at all times be
accountable to the people, serve them with utmost responsibility, integrity, loyalty,
and efficiency, act with patriotism and justice, and lead modest lives.

Sec 2

Head of state removal

Head of state immunity

The President, the Vice-President, the Members of the Supreme Court, the
Members of the Constitutional Commissions, and the Ombudsman may be removed
from office, on impeachment for, and conviction of, culpable violation of the
Constitution, treason, bribery, graft and corruption, other high crimes, or betrayal of
public trust. All other public officers and employees may be removed from office as
provided by law, but not by impeachment.

Sec 3

Head of state removal

Supreme/ordinary court judge removal

1. The House of Representatives shall have the exclusive power to initiate all cases
of impeachment.

2. A verified compliant for impeachment may be filed by any Member of the House
of Representatives or by any citizen upon a resolution of endorsement by any
Member thereof, which shall be included in the Order of Business within ten
session days, and referred to the proper Committee within three session days
thereafter. The Committee, after hearing, and by a majority vote of all its
Members, shall submit its report to the House within sixty session days from
such referral, together with the corresponding resolution. The resolution shall
be calendared for consideration by the House within ten session days from
receipt thereof.

3. A vote of at least one-third of all the Members of the House shall be necessary
either to affirm a favorable resolution with the Articles of Impeachment of the
Committee, or override its contrary resolution. The vote of each Member shall
be recorded.

4. In case the verified compliant or resolution of impeachment is filed by at least
one third of all the Members of the House, the same shall constitute the Articles
of Impeachment, and trial by the Senate shall forthwith proceed.

5. No impeachment proceedings shall be initiated against the same official more
than once within a period of one year.

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6. The Senate shall have the sole power to try and decide all cases of impeachment.
When sitting for that purpose, the Senators shall be on oath or affirmation.
When the President of the Philippines is on trial, the Chief Justice of the
Supreme Court shall preside, but shall not vote. No person shall be convicted
without the concurrence of two-thirds of all the Members of the Senate.

7. Judgment in cases of impeachment shall not extend further than removal from
office and disqualification to hold any office under the Republic of the
Philippines, but the party convicted shall nevertheless be liable and subject to
prosecution, trial, and punishment according to law.


Head of state immunity

8. The Congress shall promulgate its rules on impeachment to effectively carry out
the purpose of this section.
Sec 4

Head of state removal

The present anti-graft court known as the Sandiganbayan shall continue to function
and exercise its jurisdiction as now or hereafter may be provided by law.
Sec 5

Head of state removal

Ombudsman

There is hereby created the independent Office of the Ombudsman, composed of
the Ombudsman to be known as Tanodbayan, one overall Deputy and at least one
Deputy each for Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao. A separate Deputy for the military
establishment may likewise be appointed.

Sec 6

Head of state removal

Supreme/ordinary court judge removal

The officials and employees of the Office of the Ombudsman, other than the
Deputies, shall be appointed by the Ombudsman according to the Civil Service Law.
Sec 7

The existing Tanodbayan shall hereafter be known as the Office of the Special
Prosecutor. It shall continue to function and exercise its powers as now or hereafter
may be provided by law, except those conferred on the Office of the Ombudsman
created under this Constitution.

Sec 8

The Ombudsman and his Deputies shall be natural-born citizens of the Philippines,
and at the time of their appointment, at least forty years old, of recognized probity
and independence, and members of the Philippine Bar, and must not have been
candidates for any elective office in the immediately preceding election. The
Ombudsman must have for ten years or more been a judge or engaged in the practice
of law in the Philippines.

During their tenure, they shall be subject to the same disqualifications and
prohibitions as provided for in Section 2 of Article IX-A of this Constitution.
Sec 9

Ombudsman

The Ombudsman and his Deputies shall be appointed by the President from a list of
at least six nominees prepared by the Judicial and Bar Council, and from a list of
three nominees for every vacancy thereafter. Such appointments shall require no
confirmation. All vacancies shall be filled within three months after they occur.

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Sec 10

The Ombudsman and his Deputies shall have the rank of Chairman and Members,
respectively, of the Constitutional Commissions, and they shall receive the same
salary, which shall not be decreased during their term of office.

Sec 11

Ombudsman

The Ombudsman and his Deputies shall serve for a term of seven years without
reappointment. They shall not be qualified to run for any office in the election
immediately succeeding their cessation from office.

Sec 12

The Ombudsman and his Deputies, as protectors of the people, shall act promptly on
complaints filed in any form or manner against public officials or employees of the
Government, or any subdivision, agency or instrumentality thereof, including
government-owned or controlled corporations, and shall, in appropriate cases, notify
the complainants of the action taken and the result thereof.

Sec 13

Ombudsman
The Office of the Ombudsman shall have the following powers, functions, and duties.

1. Investigate on its own, or on complaint by any person, any act or omission
of any public official, employee, office or agency, when such act or omission
appears to be illegal, unjust, improper, or inefficient.

2. Direct, upon complaint or at its own instance, any public official or
employee of the Government, or any subdivision, agency or instrumentality
thereof, as well as of any government-owned or controlled corporation
with original charter, to perform and expedite any act or duty required by
law, or to stop, prevent, and correct any abuse or impropriety in the
performance of duties.

3. Direct the officer concerned to take appropriate action against a public
official or employee at fault, and recommend his removal, suspension,
demotion, fine, censure, or prosecution, and ensure compliance therewith.

4. Direct the officer concerned, in any appropriate case, and subject to such
limitations as may be provided by law, to furnish it with copies of
documents relating to contracts or transactions entered into by his office
involving the disbursement or use of public funds or properties, and report
any irregularity to the Commission on Audit for appropriate action.

5. Request any government agency for assistance and information necessary
in the discharge of its responsibilities, and to examine, if necessary,
pertinent records and documents.

6. Publicize matters covered by its investigation when circumstances so
warrant and with due prudence.

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7. Determine the causes of inefficiency, red tape, mismanagment, fraud, and
corruption in the Government and make recommendations for their
elimination and the observance of high standards of ethics and efficiency.

8. Promulgate its rules of procedure and exercise such other powers or
perform such functions or duties as may be provided by law.
Sec 14
The Office of the Ombudsman shall enjoy fiscal autonomy. Its approved annual
appropriations shall be automatically and regularly released.
Sec 15

The right of the State to recover properties unlawfully acquired by public officials or
employees, from them or from their nominees or transferees, shall not be barred by
prescription, laches, or estoppel.

Sec 16

No loan, guaranty, or other form of financial accommodation for any business
purpose may be granted, directly or indirectly, by any government-owned or
controlled bank or financial institution to the President, the Vice-President, the
Members of the Cabinet, the Congress, the Supreme Court, and the Constitutional
Commissions, the Ombudsman, or to any firm or entity in which they have
controlling interest, during their tenure.

Sec 17

A public officer or employee shall, upon assumption of office and as often thereafter
as may be required by law, submit a declaration under oath of his assets, liabilities,
and net worth. In the case of the President, the Vice-President, the Members of the
Cabinet, the Congress, the Supreme Court, the Constitutional Commissions and
other constitutional offices, and officers of the armed forces with general or flag
rank, the declaration shall be disclosed to the public in the manner provided by law.

Sec 18

Public officers and employees owe the State and this Constitution allegiance at all
times, and any public officer or employee who seeks to change his citizenship or
acquire the status of an immigrant of another country during his tenure shall be dealt
with by law.

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ARTICLE XII: NATIONAL ECONOMY AND
PATRIMONY

Sec 1

Right to work

The goals of the national economy are a more equitable distribution of opportunities,
income, and wealth; a sustained increase in the amount of goods and services
produced by the nation for the benefit of the people; and an expanding productivity
as the key to raising the quality of life for all, especially the underprivileged.

The State shall promote industrialization and full employment based on sound
agricultural development and agrarian reform, through industries that make full and
efficient use of human and natural resources, and which are competitive in both
domestic and foreign markets. However, the State shall protect Filipino enterprises
against unfair foreign competition and trade practices.

In the pursuit of these goals, all sectors of the economy and all regions of the country
shall be given optimum opportunity to develop. Private enterprises, including
corporations, cooperatives, and similar collective organizations, shall be encouraged
to broaden the base of their ownership.

Sec 2

Ownership of natural resources

All lands of the public domain, waters, minerals, coal, petroleum, and other mineral
oils, all forces of potential energy, fisheries, forests or timber, wildlife, flora and
fauna, and other natural resources are owned by the State. With the exception of
agricultural lands, all other natural resources shall not be alienated. The exploration,
development, and utilization of natural resources shall be under the full control and
supervision of the State. The State may directly undertake such activities, or it may
enter into co-production, joint venture, or production-sharing agreements with
Filipino citizens, or corporations or associations at least sixty per centum of whose
capital is owned by such citizens. Such agreements may be for a period not exceeding
twenty-five years, renewable for not more than twenty-five years, and under such
terms and conditions as may be provided by law. In cases of water rights for
irrigation, water supply, fisheries, or industrial uses other than the development of
water power, beneficial use may be the measure and limit of the grant.

The State shall protect the nation's marine wealth in its archipelagic waters,
territorial sea, and exclusive economic zone, and reserve its use and enjoyment
exclusively to Filipino citizens.
The Congress may, by law, allow small-scale utilization of natural resources by
Filipino citizens, as well as cooperative fish farming, with priority to subsistence
fishermen and fish-workers in rivers, lakes, bays, and lagoons.

The President may enter into agreements with foreign-owned corporations
involving either technical or financial assistance for large-scale exploration,
development, and utilization of minerals, petroleum, and other mineral oils according
to the general terms and conditions provided by law, based on real contributions to
the economic growth and general welfare of the country. In such agreements, the
State shall promote the development and use of local scientific and technical
resources.

The President shall notify the Congress of every contract entered into in accordance
with this provision, within thirty days from its execution.

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Sec 3

Lands of the public domain are classified into agricultural, forest or timber, mineral
lands, and national parks. Agricultural lands of the public domain may be further
classified by law according to the uses to which they may be devoted. Alienable lands
of the public domain shall be limited to agricultural lands. Private corporations or
associations may not hold such alienable lands of the public domain except by lease,
for a period not exceeding twenty-five years, renewable for not more than
twenty-five years, and not to exceed one thousand hectares in area. Citizens of the
Philippines may lease not more than five hundred hectares, or acquire not more than
twelve hectares thereof by purchase, homestead, or grant.

Taking into account the requirements of conservation, ecology, and development,
and subject to the requirements of agrarian reform, the Congress shall determine, by
law, the size of lands of the public domain which may be acquired, developed, held, or
leased and the conditions therefor.

Sec 4

The Congress shall, as soon as possible, determine by law the specific limits of forest
lands and national parks, marking clearly their boundaries on the ground. Thereafter,
such forest lands and national parks shall be conserved and may not be increased nor
diminished, except by law. The Congress shall provide, for such period as it may
determine, measures to prohibit logging in endangered forests and watershed areas.

Sec 5

The State, subject to the provisions of this Constitution and national development
policies and programs, shall protect the rights of indigenous cultural communities to
their ancestral lands to ensure their economic, social, and cultural well-being.
The Congress may provide for the applicability of customary laws governing
property rights or relations in determining the ownership and extent of ancestral
domain.

Sec 6

Right to establish a business

The use of property bears a social function, and all economic agents shall contribute
to the common good. Individuals and private groups, including corporations,
cooperatives, and similar collective organizations, shall have the right to own,
establish, and operate economic enterprises, subject to the duty of the State to
promote distributive justice and to intervene when the common good so demands.

Sec 7

Save in cases of hereditary succession, no private lands shall be transferred or
conveyed except to individuals, corporations, or associations qualified to acquire or
hold lands of the public domain.

Sec 8

Notwithstanding the provisions of Section 7 of this Article, a natural-born citizen of
the Philippines who has lost his Philippine citizenship may be a transferee of private
lands, subject to limitations provided by law.

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Sec 9

Economic plans

The Congress may establish an independent economic and planning agency headed
by the President, which shall, after consultations with the appropriate public
agencies, various private sectors, and local government units, recommend to
Congress, and implement continuing integrated and coordinated programs and
policies for national development.

Until the Congress provides otherwise, the National Economic and Development
Authority shall function as the independent planning agency of the government.
Sec 10

The Congress shall, upon recommendation of the economic and planning agency,
when the national interest dictates, reserve to citizens of the Philippines or to
corporations or associations at least sixty per centum of whose capital is owned by
such citizens, or such higher percentage as Congress may prescribe, certain areas of
investments. The Congress shall enact measures that will encourage the formation
and operation of enterprises whose capital is wholly owned by Filipinos.

In the grant of rights, privileges, and concessions covering the national economy and
patrimony, the State shall give preference to qualified Filipinos.
The State shall regulate and exercise authority over foreign investments within its
national jurisdiction and in accordance with its national goals and priorities.
Sec 11

No franchise, certificate, or any other form of authorization for the operation of a
public utility shall be granted except to citizens of the Philippines or to corporations
or associations organized under the laws of the Philippines at least sixty per centum
of whose capital is owned by such citizens, nor shall such franchise, certificate, or
authorization be exclusive in character or for a longer period than fifty years.
Neither shall any such franchise or right be granted except under the condition that
it shall be subject to amendment, alteration, or repeal by the Congress when the
common good so requires. The State shall encourage equity participation in public
utilities by the general public. The participation of foreign investors in the governing
body of any public utility enterprise shall be limited to their proportionate share in
its capital, and all the executive and managing officers of such corporation or
association must be citizens of the Philippines.

Sec 12
The State shall promote the preferential use of Filipino labor, domestic materials and
locally produced goods, and adopt measures that help make them competitive.
Sec 13
The State shall pursue a trade policy that serves the general welfare and utilizes all
forms and arrangements of exchange on the basis of equality and reciprocity.

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Sec 14

Right to enjoy the benefits of science

The sustained development of a reservoir of national talents consisting of Filipino
scientists, entrepreneurs, professionals, managers, high-level technical manpower
and skilled workers and craftsmen in all fields shall be promoted by the State. The
State shall encourage appropriate technology and regulate its transfer for the
national benefit.

The practice of all professions in the Philippines shall be limited to Filipino citizens,
save in cases prescribed by law.
Sec 15
The Congress shall create an agency to promote the viability and growth of
cooperatives as instruments for social justice and economic development.
Sec 16

The Congress shall not, except by general law, provide for the formation,
organization, or regulation of private corporations. Government-owned or
controlled corporations may be created or established by special charters in the
interest of the common good and subject to the test of economic viability.

Sec 17

In times of national emergency, when the public interest so requires, the State may,
during the emergency and under reasonable terms prescribed by it, temporarily take
over or direct the operation of any privately owned public utility or business affected
with public interest.

Sec 18

The State may, in the interest of national welfare or defense, establish and operate
vital industries and, upon payment of just compensation, transfer to public
ownership utilities and other private enterprises to be operated by the Government.

Sec 19
The State shall regulate or prohibit monopolies when the public interest so requires.
No combinations in restraint of trade or unfair competition shall be allowed.
Sec 20

The Congress shall establish an independent central monetary authority, the
members of whose governing board must be natural-born Filipino citizens, of known
probity, integrity, and patriotism, the majority of whom shall come from the private
sector. They shall also be subject to such other qualifications and disabilities as may
be prescribed by law. The authority shall provide policy direction in the areas of
money, banking, and credit. It shall have supervision over the operations of banks
and exercise such regulatory powers as may be provided by law over the operations
of finance companies and other institutions performing similar functions.

Until the Congress otherwise provides, the Central Bank of the Philippines,
operating under existing laws, shall function as the central monetary authority.

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Sec 21

Foreign loans may only be incurred in accordance with law and the regulation of the
monetary authority. Information on foreign loans obtained or guaranteed by the
Government shall be made available to the public.

Sec 22

Acts which circumvent or negate any of the provisions of this Article shall be
considered inimical to the national interest and subject to criminal and civil
sanctions, as may be provided by law.
ARTICLE XIII: SOCIAL JUSTICE AND HUMAN
RIGHTS

Sec 1

The Congress shall give highest priority to the enactment of measures that protect
and enhance the right of all the people to human dignity, reduce social economic, and
political inequalities, and remove cultural inequities by equitably diffusing wealth
and political power for the common good.


Human dignity

Provisions for wealth redistribution

To this end, the State shall regulate the acquisition, ownership, use, and disposition
of property and its increments.
Sec 2
The promotion of social justice shall include the commitment to create economic
opportunities based on freedom of initiative and self-reliance.
LABOR
Sec 3

Right to join trade unions

The State shall afford full protection to labor, local and overseas, organized and
unorganized, and promote full employment and equality of employment
opportunities for all.

It shall guarantee the rights of all workers to self-organization, collective bargaining
and negotiations, and peaceful concerted activities, including the right to strike in
accordance with law. They shall be entitled to security of tenure, humane conditions
of work, and a living wage. They shall also participate in policy and decision-making
processes affecting their rights and benefits as may be provided by law.


Right to safe work environment

Right to reasonable standard of living

Right to strike

The State shall promote the principle of shared responsibility between workers and
employers and the preferential use of voluntary modes in settling disputes, including
conciliation, and shall enforce their mutual compliance therewith to foster industrial
peace.

The State shall regulate the relations between workers and employers, recognizing
the right of labor to its just share in the fruits of production and the right of
enterprises to reasonable returns on investments, and to expansion and growth.

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AGRARIAN AND NATURAL RESOURCES REFORM
Sec 4

The State shall, by law, undertake an agrarian reform program founded on the right
of farmers and regular farmworkers, who are landless, to own directly or collectively
the lands they till or, in the case of other farmworkers, to receive a just share of the
fruits thereof. To this end, the State shall encourage and undertake the just
distribution of all agricultural lands, subject to such priorities and reasonable
retention limits as the Congress may prescribe, taking into account ecological,
developmental, or equity considerations, and subject to the payment of just
compensation. In determining retention limits, the State shall respect the rights of
small landowners. The State shall further provide incentives for voluntary
land-sharing.

Sec 5

The State shall recognize the right of farmers, farmworkers, and landowners, as well
as cooperatives, and other independent farmers' organizations to participate in the
planning, organization, and management of the program, and shall provide support
to agriculture through appropriate technology and research, and adequate financial,
production, marketing, and other support services.

Sec 6

The State shall apply the principles of agrarian reform or stewardship, whenever
applicable in accordance with law, in the disposition or utilization of other natural
resources, including lands of the public domain under lease or concession suitable to
agriculture, subject to prior rights, homestead rights of small settlers, and the rights
of indigenous communities to their ancestral lands.


Provisions for wealth redistribution

The State may resettle landless farmers and farmworkers in its own agricultural
estates which shall be distributed to them in the manner provided by law.
Sec 7

Provisions for wealth redistribution

The State shall protect the rights of subsistence fishermen, especially of local
communities, to the preferential use of the communal marine and fishing resources,
both inland and offshore. It shall provide support to such fishermen through
appropriate technology and research, adequate financial, production, and marketing
assistance, and other services. The State shall also protect, develop, and conserve
such resources. The protection shall extend to offshore fishing grounds of
subsistence fishermen against foreign intrusion. Fishworkers shall receive a just
share from their labor in the utilization of marine and fishing resources.

Sec 8

Provisions for wealth redistribution

The State shall provide incentives to landowners to invest the proceeds of the
agrarian reform program to promote industrialization, employment creation, and
privatization of public sector enterprises. Financial instruments used as payment for
their lands shall be honored as equity in enterprises of their choice.

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URBAN LAND REFORM AND HOUSING
Sec 9

Provisions for wealth redistribution

The State shall, by law, and for the common good, undertake, in cooperation with the
private sector, a continuing program of urban land reform and housing which will
make available at affordable cost decent housing and basic services to
underprivileged and homeless citizens in urban centers and resettlement areas. It
shall also promote adequate employment opportunities to such citizens. In the
implementation of such program the State shall respect the rights of small property
owners.

Sec 10
Urban or rural poor dwellers shall not be evicted nor their dwelling demolished,
except in accordance with law and in a just and humane manner.
No resettlement of urban or rural dwellers shall be undertaken without adequate
consultation with them and the communities where they are to be relocated.
HEALTH
Sec 11

State support for the elderly

State support for the disabled

State support for children

Right to health care

The State shall adopt an integrated and comprehensive approach to health
development which shall endeavor to make essential goods, health and other social
services available to all the people at affordable cost. There shall be priority for the
needs of the underprivileged sick, elderly, disabled, women, and children. The State
shall endeavor to provide free medical care to paupers.

Sec 12

Right to health care

The State shall establish and maintain an effective food and drug regulatory system
and undertake appropriate health manpower development and research, responsive
to the country's health needs and problems.

Sec 13

Right to health care

The State shall establish a special agency for disabled persons for their
rehabilitation, self-development and self-reliance, and their integration into the
mainstream of society.

WOMEN
Sec 14

The State shall protect working women by providing safe and healthful working
conditions, taking into account their maternal functions, and such facilities and
opportunities that will enhance their welfare and enable them to realize their full
potential in the service of the nation.

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ROLE AND RIGHTS OF PEOPLES ORGANIZATIONS
Sec 15

The State shall respect the role of independent people's organizations to enable the
people to pursue and protect, within the democratic framework, their legitimate and
collective interests and aspirations through peaceful and lawful means.
People's organizations are bona fide associations of citizens with demonstrated
capacity to promote the public interest and with identifiable leadership,
membership, and structure.

Sec 16

The right of the people and their organizations to effective and reasonable
participation at all levels of social, political, and economic decision-making shall not
be abridged. The State shall, by law, facilitate the establishment of adequate
consultation mechanisms.

HUMAN RIGHTS
Sec 17
1. There is hereby created an independent office called the Commission on Human
Rights.


Human rights commission

2. The Commission shall be composed of a Chairman and four Members who must
be natural-born citizens of the Philippines and a majority of whom shall be
members of the Bar. The term of office and other qualifications and disabilities
of the Members of the Commission shall be provided by law.


Human rights commission

3. Until this Commission is constituted, the existing Presidential Committee on
Human Rights shall continue to exercise its present functions and powers.
4. The approved annual appropriations of the Commission shall be automatically
and regularly released.
Sec 18

Human rights commission
The Commission on Human Rights shall have the following powers and functions.

1. Investigate, on its own or on complaint by any party, all forms of human
rights violations involving civil and political rights;

2. Adopt its operational guidelines and rules of procedure, and cite for
contempt for violations thereof in accordance with the Rules of Court;

3. Provide appropriate legal measures for the protection of human rights of all
persons within the Philippines, as well as Filipinos residing abroad, and
provide for preventive measures and legal aid services to the
underprivileged whose human rights have been violated or need
protection;


4. Exercise visitatorial powers over jails, prisons, or detention facilities.

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5. Establish a continuing program of research, education, and information to
enhance respect for the primacy of human rights.

6. Recommend to the Congress effective measures to promote human rights
and to provide for compensation to victims of violations of human rights, or
their families,


Protection of victim's rights

7. Monitor the Philippine Government's compliance with international treaty
obligations on human rights,


Treaty ratification

8. Grant immunity from prosecution to any person whose testimony or whose
possession of documents or other evidence is necessary or convenient to
determine the truth in any investigation conducted by it or under its
authority.

9. Request the assistance of any department, bureau, office, or agency in the
performance of its functions,


10. Appoint its officers and employees in accordance with law; and

11. Perform such other duties and functions as may be provided by law.
Sec 19

The Congress may provide for other cases of violations of human rights that should
fall within the authority of the Commission, taking into account its
recommendations.

ARTICLE XIV: EDUCATION, SCIENCE AND
TECHNOLOGY, ARTS, CULTURE, AND
SPORTS

EDUCATION
Sec 1
The State shall protect and promote the right of all citizens to quality education at all
levels and shall take appropriate steps to make such education accessible to all.
Sec 2
The State shall.

1. Establish, maintain, and support a complete, adequate, and integrated
system of education relevant to the needs of the people and society,

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2. Establish and maintain a system of free public education in the elementary
and high school levels. Without limiting the natural right of parents to rear
their children, elementary education is compulsory for all children of school
age.


Right to academic freedom

Compulsory education

Free education

3. Establish and maintain a system of scholarship grants, student loan
programs, subsidies, and other incentives which shall be available to
deserving students in both public and private schools, especially to the
underprivileged,

4. Encourage non-formal, informal, and indigenous learning systems, as well
as self-learning, independent, and out-of-school study programs
particularly those that respond to community needs; and

5. Provide adult citizens, the disabled, and out-of-school youth with training in
civics, vocational efficiency, and other skills.
Sec 3
1. All educational institutions shall include the study of the Constitution as part of
the curricula.

2. They shall inculcate patriotism and nationalism, foster love of humanity, respect
for human rights, appreciation of the role of national heroes in the historical
development of the country, teach the rights and duties of citizenship,
strengthen ethical and spiritual values, develop moral character and personal
discipline, encourage critical and creative thinking, broaden scientific and
technological knowledge, and promote vocational efficiency.

3. At the option expressed in writing by the parents or guardians, religion shall be
allowed to be taught to their children or wards in public elementary and high
schools within the regular class hours by instructors designated or approved by
the religious authorities of the religion to which the children or wards belong,
without additional cost to the Government.

Sec 4

1. The State recognizes the complementary roles of public and private institutions
in the educational system and shall exercise reasonable supervision and
regulation of all educational institutions

2. Educational institutions, other than those established by religious groups and
mission boards, shall be owned solely by citizens of the Philippines or
corporations or associations at least sixty per centum of the capital of which is
owned by such citizens. The Congress may, however, require increased Filipino
equity participation in all educational institutions.

The control and administration of educational institutions shall be vested in
citizens of the Philippines.

No educational institution shall be established exclusively for aliens and no
group of aliens shall comprise more than one-third of the enrollment in any
school. The provisions of this subsection shall not apply to schools established
for foreign diplomatic personnel and their dependents and, unless otherwise
provided by law, for

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