A Diagnostic Study of Togolese Civil Society

CIV IC U S: C iv il S ocie ty I n dex R ep ort f o r T ogo

W ORLD A LLIA NC E F O R C IT IZ E N P A R TIC IP A TIO N

A D IA G NO ST IC S T U DY O F
T O GO LESE C IV IL S O CIE TY

Lom é, 2 006

I N TER NATIO NAL A C TIO N R ESE A R CH P R O JE C T C O ORDIN ATED B Y C IV IC U S

CIV IC U S: C iv il S ocie ty I n dex R ep ort f o r T ogo
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T
A BLE O F C O NTE N TS
ACK NOW LED GM EN TS
T A BLE O F C O NTEN TS
T A BLES A ND F IG URES
L IS T O F A CRO N YM S
E X EC U TIV E S U M M ARY
I N TR O D UCTIO N
I . CIV IL S O CIE TY I N D EX P R O JE C T B A CK G RO UND & A PPR O A CH

1 . Pro je ct B ac k gro und
2 . Pro je ct A pp ro ach
I I. C IV IL S O CIE TY I N T O GO

1 . H is to ric al B ack gro un d
2 . C oncep t o f C iv il S ocie ty i n T ogo
3 . M ap pin g o f C iv il S ocie ty i n T ogo
I II. A NA LY SIS O F C IV IL S O CIE T Y
1 .
STR U CTU RE
1 .1 T he e x te n t o f t h e c iv il s o cie ty p arti c ip atio n
1 .2 D ep th o f C iti z en P artic ip atio n i n c iv il s o cie ty
1 .3 D iv ers it y o f C iv il S erv ic e p arti c ip atio n
1 .4 L ev el o f O rg an is a tio n
1 .5 I n te r-R ela tio ns w ith in C iv il S ocie ty
1 .6 C iv il S ocie ty R eso urc es
2 . E
N VIR O NM EN T
2 .1 P oli ti c a l C onte x t
2 .2 B asic R ig hts a n d F re ed o m
2 .3 S ocio -e co no m ic C on te x t
2 .4 S ocio -c u ltu ra l C onte x t
2 .5 L eg al E nvir o n m en t
2 .6 S ta te – C iv il S ocie ty R ela tio n s
2 .7 P riv ate S ecto r – C iv il S ocie ty R ela tio ns
3 .
V ALU ES
3 .1 D em ocra cy
3 .2 T ra n sp are n cy
3 .3 T ole ra n ce
3 .4 N on-v io le n ce
3 .5 G en der E quity
3 .6 P overty E ra d ic atio n
3 .7 E nvir o nm en ta l S usta in ab ility

CIV IC U S: C iv il S ocie ty I n dex R ep ort f o r T ogo
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4
. I
M PA CT
4 .1 I n flu en cin g P ublic P oli c y
4 .2 H old in g t h e S ta te a n d P riv ate C orp ora tio ns A cco unta b le
4 .3 R esp ond in g t o S ocia l I n te re st
4 .4 E m pow erin g C itiz en s
4 .5 M eetin g S ocie ta l N eed s
I V . S T R EN G TH S A ND W EA KN ESS E S O F T O GO LE SE C IV IL S O CIE TY
V . C O N CLU SIO N

A nnex es
B ib lio gra p h y

CIV IC U S: C iv il S ocie ty I n dex R ep ort f o r T ogo
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A
CK NO W LE D G EM EN TS
T he C IV IC U S I n dex p ro je ct o n c iv il s o cie ty i n T ogo h as b een i m ple m en te d b y t h e F ed era tio n
o f N GOs in T ogo in p artn ers h ip w ith P la n T ogo an d C iv ic u s:W orld A lli a n ce fo r C it iz en
P artic ip atio n ( C IV IC U S) b ase d in S outh A fric a . P la n T ogo f in an ced th e r e se arc h p ro je ct a n d
t h e c o sts r e la te d to th e p ubli c atio n o f th e r e p ort a s w ell a s th e u se o f its h u m an r e so urc e s f o r
t h e c o ord in atio n. C IV IC U S’ c o ntr ib utio n w as te ch n ic al a n d fo cu se d o n d ata c o ll e cti o n to ols
a n d a m onth ly p ro gre ss re v ie w o f th e re se arc h w ork . F O N GTO , th e str u ctu re in c h arg e o f
o rg an is in g a n d p ro m otin g c iv il s o cie ty , c o nducte d , w ith th e c o lla b ora tio n o f its n etw ork o f
N GO s, t h e f ie ld r e se arc h a ctiv iti e s.
T he S ta k eh old er A sse ssm en t G ro up (S A G) a ssig ned a ro le to e ach o f th e fo ur d im en sio ns
c o nsid ere d a s c h ara cte ris ti c s o f th e a ctio ns o f a C iv il S ocie ty O rg an is a tio n ( C SO ) to w ard s t h e
d ev elo p m en t o f t h e c o un tr y , i .e ., s tr u ctu re , e n v ir o n m en t, v alu es a n d i m pact.
W e th an k M s. C O N RA D , R esid en t- R ep re se n ta tiv e of Pla n In te rn atio nal in T ogo, w ho
u nders to o d v ery e arly th at s u pp orti n g th e o rg an is a ti o n o f c iv il s o cie ty c o uld o nly b e e ffic ie n t
w it h a p rio r d ia g nosis o f i t s c u rre n t s itu ati o n. A s s h e s to od b y t h at c o nvic ti o n, s h e s u ccessfu lly
l e d P la n T og o i n to c o m mittin g r e so urc es t o t h e a c co m plis h m en t o f t h e p re se n t s tu dy .
W e w ou ld als o lik e to ex te n d our gra ti tu d e to M s. Ja n in e SC H ALL-E M DEN , Sen io r
P ro gra m m e O ffic er w ho m onito re d , in a v ery p ro fe ssio nal m an n er, all th e sta g es o f th e
p ro je ct. W e ack now le d ge M r. Fin n HEIN RIC H , Pro gra m me M an ag er, fo r valu ab le
o bse rv atio ns a n d re m ark s re la tiv e to th e p re -s c o rin g re p ort. M ay C IV IC U S re ceiv e th ro ugh
t h e a b ove m en ti o n ed p ers o ns o ur g ra tit u d e fo r th e te ch n ic a l a ss is ta n ce a n d m eth odolo gic al
f ra m ew ork m ad e a v aila b le t o u s f o r t h e c o ndu ct o f t h is p ro je ct.
W e se iz e th e opportu nity to ex pre ss our sin cere ap pre cia ti o n to th e m em bers of th e
C onsu lta tiv e C om mitte e w hose c o n tr ib utio ns to th e e v alu atio n o f c iv il s o cie ty in T ogo w ere
v ery s ig nif ic an t. T hey s p ecif ic ally g o t o :
T he R ep re se n ta ti v e o f th e T ogo le se S ta te , M r. N AM P ak éd am o f th e P D LP/O NG d iv is io n o f
t h e M in is tr y of D ev elo p m en t an d T errito ry m an ag em en t, V en era te d T ra d itio n al C hie fs ,
T ogbui A GOKOLI of N ots è , Pre sid en t of tr a d iti o n al ch ie fs in T og o, T ogbui A do boli
G ASS O U , C hie f o f A hlo n c o unty , a n d T ogbu i K oss i A M EG NO NA A DA KO II, C hie f o f
D ali a co unty (H ah o), M r. M AGBEN G A S im on, R ep re se n ta tiv e of th e U nite d N atio n s
D ev elo p m en t P ro gra m m e (U N DP) R ep re se n ta tio n in T ogo, M rs . G LIT H O A dolé , P ro fe ss o r
a t U niv ers it é d e L om é, M r. L A RE L A NTO NE K an fitin e, E co n o m is t, A ss is ta n t P ro fe ss o r,
U niv ers it é de Lom é, M rs . Cla ir e QUEN U M , Pre sid en t of th e wom en ’s asso cia tio n
F L O RA IS O N , M rs . M ic h èle D éd év i E K U E, P re sid en t o f th e A sso cia tio n C CoF T , M rs .
E D O RH K ay ik poe, P re sid en t o f W iL D AF T ogo, P asto r A GBI-A W UM E o f th e E van g elic a l
P re sb y te ria n C hurc h of T ogo, R ep re se n ta tiv e of re lig io us org an is a tio ns, M r. D JE N DA
A ris ti d e, E xecu tiv e D ir e cto r o f th e U nio n o f N GO s in T ogo (U ONG TO ), M r. G BET C H I
K odjo , P re sid en t of A HEPE P ro du cers U nio n, R ep re se n ta tiv e of ag ric u ltu ra l pro du cers ’
a ss o cia tio ns, M r. G UELI A . E ts è Je an P au l of U NSIT , R ep re se n ta tiv e of T ra d e U nio n
o rg an iz atio n s, M r. E D EH K odjo vi, R ep re se n ta ti v e o f E m plo y ers , M r. A bdoula y e N ab ie m a o f
t h e asso cia tio n O AD EL, F O LLY – S O DO GA F olli k o é P ie rre fro m th e N G O « H oriz o n
D év elo ppem en t » , R ep re se n ta tiv e o f y outh o rg an is a tio ns, M r. A TTIO GBE P ie rro t, f ro m N an a
F M , M r. P O U LI G erm ain fro m R ad io Z ép h ir , re p re se n ta ti v e o f th e in dep en den t m ed ia , a n d
M r. C LU M SO N E K LU S im éo n, V ic e P re sid en t o f th e T ogole se L eag u e fo r H um an R ig hts
( L TD H), R ep re se n ta tiv e o f t h e h u m an r ig hts o rg an is a tio ns.

CIV IC U S: C iv il S ocie ty I n dex R ep ort f o r T ogo
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W
e th an k th e a d m in is tr a to rs o f th e d if fe re n t s e rv ic es th at fa cilit a te d th e w ork b y p ro vid in g
i n fo rm atio n, d o cu m en ta tio n o r g uid an ce t o t h e d ata c o ll e ctio n a g en ts .
W e c o ngra tu la te th e te am o f s ta tis tic ia n s a n d d ata c o lle ctio n a g en ts w ho w ork ed u n der th e
s u perv is io n o f M r. D JO KE G usta v e a n d w en t b ey ond th eir c o ntr a c tu al r e q uir e m en ts f o r s u ch
a n a p pre cia b le r e su lt.
O ur g ra titu d e g o es to th e s tu den t a n d p ro fe ss io nal s u rv ey ors w ho v is ite d d if fe re n t s e rv ic es
a cro ss th e n atio n al te rrit o ry in th e q uest fo r k ey in fo rm ati o n id en tif ie d as re le v an t to th e
r e se arc h fra m ew ork , b y th e m em bers o f S A G . W e w ou ld n ot h av e ach ie v ed th ese g oals
w it h out t h em .
F in ally , w e ack now le d ge th e m em bers of th e N atio nal In dex Tea m , M r. A M EG EE
K odjo pata p a, C hie f o f O pera tio ns o f P la n T ogo a n d p ro je c t c o o rd in ato r a n d M r. N Y A KU,
R ese arc h A ssis ta n t an d E xecu tiv e D ir e c to r of FO NG TO , fo r th eir co m mit m en t to th e
a cco m plis h m en t a n d s u ccess o f t h e p ro cess.
AHY I Y ves A yité
Pre sid en t o f F O N GTO B oard o f D ir e cto rs

CIV IC U S: C iv il S ocie ty I n dex R ep ort f o r T ogo
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T A BLES

T ab le I .1 : Partic ip atin g c o untr ie s i n t h e i m ple m en ta tio n o f t h e C S I n dex ( 2 003-2 0 05)
T ab le I .2 : Partic ip atio n i n t h e C SI p ro je ct l if e c y cle
T ab le I II.1 .1 : In dic ato rs a sse ssin g t h e e x te n t o f c it iz en p arti c ip atio n
T ab le I II.1 .2 : In dic ato rs a sse ssin g d ep th o f c it iz en p arti c ip atio n
T ab le I II.1 .3 : In dic ato rs a sse ssin g t h e d iv ers ity o f c iv il s o cie ty p arti c ip atio n
T ab le I II.1 .4 : In dic ato rs a sse ssin g t h e l e v el o f o rg an is a ti o ns
T ab le I II.1 .5 : In dic ato rs a sse ssin g t h e r e la ti o nsh ip s w ith in c iv il s o cie ty
T ab le I II.1 .6 : In dic ato rs a sse ssin g t h e r e so urc es o f c iv il s o cie ty
T ab le I II.2 .1 : In dic ato rs a sse ssin g t h e p oli tic al c o n te x t
T ab le I II.2 .2 : In dic ato rs a sse ssin g b asic r ig h ts a n d f re e d o m
T ab le I II.2 .3 : In dic ato rs a sse ssin g t h e s o cio -e co no m ic c o nte x t
T ab le I II.2 .4 : In dic ato rs a sse ssin g t h e s o cio -c u ltu ra l c o nte x t
T ab le I II.2 .5 : In dic ato rs a sse ssin g t h e l e g al e n vir o n m en t
T ab le I II.2 .6 : In dic ato rs a sse ssin g t h e s ta te -c iv il s o cie ty r e la ti o nsh ip
T ab le I II.2 .7 : In dic ato rs a sse ssin g p riv ate s e c to r-c iv il s o cie ty r e la ti o nsh ip
T ab le I II.3 .1 : In dic ato rs a sse ssin g d em ocra cy
T ab le I II.3 .2 : In dic ato rs a sse ssin g t r a n sp are n cy
T ab le I II.3 .3 : In dic ato rs a sse ssin g t o le ra n ce
T ab le I II.3 .4 : In dic ato rs a sse ssin g n on-v io le n ce
T ab le I II.3 .5 : In dic ato rs a sse ssin g g en d er e q uit y
T ab le I II.3 .6 : In dic ato rs a sse ssin g p ov erty r e d uctio n
T ab le I II.3 .7 : In dic ato rs o f e n vir o n m en ta l p ro te ctio n
T ab le I II.4 .1 : In dic ato rs a sse ssin g i n flu en ce o n p ub lic p o li c y
T ab le I II.4 .2 : In dic ato rs a sse ssin g h old in g t h e s ta te a n d p riv ate c o rp ora tio ns a cco un ta b le
T ab le I II.4 .3 : In dic ato rs a sse ssin g r e sp onse s t o s o cia l i n te re st
T ab le I II.4 .4 : In dic ato rs a sse ssin g e m pow erin g c it iz en s
T ab le I II.4 .5 : In dic ato rs a sse ssin g m ee tin g s o cia l n eed s
F IG URES

F ig ure 1 : Dia m ond o f T ogole se c iv il s o cie ty
F ig ure I .2 .1 : Civ il S ocie ty D ia m ond T ool
F ig ure I .2 .3 : CSI p ro je c t c y cle
F ig ure I I.1 : Countr y i n fo rm atio n
F ig ure I I.2 : Map p in g T ogole se s o cie ty
F ig ure I I.3 : Map p in g T ogole se c iv il s o cie ty
F ig ure I II.1 .1 : S ubdim en sio n s c o re s i n S tr u ctu re d im en sio n
F ig ure I II.1 .2 : M em bers h ip i n d if fe re n t t y pes o f C SO
F ig ure I II.1 .3 : A vail a b il ity o f c o m munic atio n r e so u rc e s i n T ogo
F ig ure I II.2 .1 : S ubdim en sio n s c o re s i n E nvir o n m en t d im en sio n
F ig ure I II.3 .1 : S ubdim en sio n s c o re s i n V alu es d im en sio n.
F ig ure I II.4 .1 : S ubdim en sio n s c o re s i n I m pact d im en sio n
F ig ure I V .1 .1 : D ia m ond o f T ogole se c iv il s o cie ty

CIV IC U S: C iv il S ocie ty I n dex R ep ort f o r T ogo
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L IS T O F A C RO NY M S
A PE : Ass o cia tio ns d es P are n ts d ’É lè v es
A SM EN E: Ass o cia tio n p our l a S an té d e l a M ère d u N ouveau -n é e t d e l ’ E nfa n t
C A R: Com it é d ’A ctio n p our l e R en ouv eau
C SO : Civ il S ocie ty O rg an is a tio n
C CoF T : Conse il C onsu lt a tif d es F em mes d u T ogo
C IV IC U S: Civ ic u s: W orld A lli a n ce f o r C itiz en P arti c ip atio n
C D PA : Conven tio n D ém ocra tiq ue d es P eu ple s A fric a in s
C O PE D : Cen tr e p our l ’ O bse rv atio n e t l a P ro m otio n d e l ’ E ta t d e D ro it
C RT: Cro ix R oug e T ogola is e
C V D: Com it é V il la g eo is d e D év elo pp em en t
D SR P: Docu m en t S tr a té g iq u e d e R éd u ctio n d e l a P au v re té
E B C : Enq uête B udget C onso m matio n
E FA M TO : Enq uête s u r l a F am ill e a u T ogo
F ID H: Féd éra tio n I n te rn atio n al d es D ro its d e l ’ H om me
F O NG TO : Féd éra tio n d es O NG a u T og o
G F2D : Gro upe d e R éfle x io n F em me D ro it e t D ém ocra tie
S C O RESE /P H CI: Gro upe d e R ech erc h e p our le D év elo ppem en t S ocio -É co n o m iq u e e n v ue
d e l a P ro m otio n H um ain e e t d e l a C oopéra tio n I n te rn atio n ale
H AA C: Hau te A uto rité d e l ’ A udio V is u elle e t d e l a C om munic atio n
C SI-T ogo: Civ il S ocie ty I n dex – T ogo
L IT : Lig ue d es I n dép en dan ts p our l a T ra n sp are n ce
L TD H: Lig ue T ogola is e d es D ro its d e l ’ H om me
M DG: Mille n n iu m D ev elo p m en t G oals
N GO : Non-G overn m en ta l O rg an iz atio n
N IT : Natio n al I n dex T ea m
O CD I: Org an is a tio n d e l a C harité p our u n D év elo ppem en t I n té g ra l
O SA T: Obse rv ato ir e d e l a S écu rité A li m en ta ir e a u T og o
P A CH S: Pro gra m me d ’A id e H um an ita ir e a u x C as S ocia u x
P R O V ONAT: Pro m otio n d u V olo nta ria t N atio n al a u T ogo
R A FIA : Rech erc h e, A ppui e t F orm atio n a u x I n it ia tiv es d ’A uto -d év elo ppem en t
R EFA M P: Rése au d es F em mes A ncie n s M in is tr e s e t P arle m en ta ir e s
R ELU TET: Rése au d e L utt e c o ntr e l a T ra ite d es E nfa n ts a u T ogo
R PT : Rass e m ble m en t d u P eu p le T ogola is
S A G: Sta k eh o ld er A sse ssm en t G ro up
S C T: Socié té C iv ile T ogo la is e
S O CO D EV I: Socié té d e C oopéra ti o n p our l e D év elo ppem en t I n te rn atio n al
U ND P: Unite d N ati o ns D ev elo pm en t P ro gra m me
U FC : Unio n d es F orc es d e C han g em en t
U JIT : Unio n d es J o urn alis te s I n dép en d an ts d u T ogo
U L: Univ ers it é d e L om é
U ON G TO Unio n d es O NG d u T ogo
U RD : Unité d e R ech erc h e D ém ogra p h iq u e
W ACEM : West A fric a C em en t
W ag es: Wom en a n d A sso cia ti o ns f o r G ain b oth E co no m ic a n d S ocia l
W AN EP: West A fric a N etw ork f o r P ea ce B uild in g
W iL D AF/ Wom en i n L aw a n d D ev elo p m en t i n A fric a/ F em mes e n D ro it
F eD DA F-T O GO : e t D év elo ppem en t e n A friq ue, S ectio n T og o

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E
X EC U TIV E S U M MARY
F ro m Ju ly 2005 to M arc h 2006 F O N GTO w ork ed in partn ers h ip w ith P la n T ogo an d
C IV IC U S: W orld A llia n ce fo r C it iz en P artic ip atio n to im ple m en t th e C iv il S ocie ty In dex
S horte n ed A sse ss m en t T ool ( C SI-S A T) s tu dy i n T ogo.
A p re li m in ary re p ort w as p re se n te d to th e S ta k eh old er A ss e ss m en t G ro up (S A G) p ro vid in g
i n fo rm atio n o n t h e “ S tr u ctu re ”, “ E nv ir o n m en t” , “ V alu es” , a n d “ Im pact” o f a c tio ns c arrie d o ut
b y T ogole se c iv il s o cie ty to p ro m ote th e d ev elo p m en t o f th e s o cie ty in g en era l. M em bers o f
t h e S A G a re r e p re se n ta tiv es o f t h e c o untr y ’s s o cia l f o rc es. T he r e p ort w as a n aly se d a n d s c o re s
w ere a ttr ib u te d t o a ll i n d ic ato rs f o llo w in g C IV IC U S’ s c o rin g c rit e ria . T he r e su lts w ere u se d t o
g en era te a D ia m ond t h at r e fle cts t h e s itu atio n o f t h e c iv il s o cie ty i n T ogo .
F ig u re 1 : D ia m on d o f t h e T ogole se c iv il s o cie ty

T he C iv il S ocie ty In dex p ut to g eth er v alu ab le in fo rm atio n a b out T ogo le se c iv il s o cie ty th at
w as p re v io u sly u nk now n to c iv il s o cie ty s ta k eh old ers a n d is in dic a ti v e o f th e c h alle n ges th at
l i e a h ead .
A n in -d ep th a n aly sis o f th e in fo rm atio n o n c iv il s o cie ty w as c o nd ucte d u sin g th e fo llo w in g
f o ur d im en sio ns: S tr u ctu re , E nvir o n m en t, V alu es, a n d I m pac t.
S tr u ctu re
W ith re g ard to th e c iv il s o cie ty ’s s tr u ctu re , it is d if fic u lt to o ffe r p re cis e in fo rm atio n o n th e
1 .0
0 .7
0 .8
1 .4 0
1
2
3
S tr u ctu re
E nvir o n m en t
Im pact
V alu es

CIV IC U S: C iv il S ocie ty I n dex R ep ort f o r T ogo
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p
erc en ta g e o f th e T ogo le se p opu la tio n th at a re in volv ed in c h arity a ss o cia tio ns o r c arry o ut
b en ev ole n t w ork o n a r e g ula r b asis . I t is o nly r e cen tl y th at a N atio nal V olu nte er P ro gra m m e
( P R O V ON AT) h as b ee n i m ple m en te d .
T he l i m ite d p opula rity o f t h e n o tio n o f c iv il s o cie ty a n d th e r o le s o f i ts a cto rs l i m its C SO a re a
a n d cap ac it y of in te rv en tio n. C urr e n tly , th e co untr y is ex perie n cin g a criti c al eco n o m ic ,
s o cia l, p oliti c al, a n d c u ltu ra l e n vir o n m en t th at is n ot c o n du civ e to th e e v olu tio n o f it s c iv il
s o cie ty . W hils t T ogole se e n g ag e v ery ra re ly in n on p arti s a n p oliti c al a c ti o ns, th e n u m ber o f
a ss o cia tio ns h as m ult ip lie d sin ce th e d em ocra tic m ov em en t o f th e ‘9 0s. A n im porta n t p art
( 4 2% ) o f th e p op ula tio n b elo ng s to a t le ast o n e C SO a n d is in volv ed in m utu al h elp a c tio ns
t h at a re c o m para b le t o b en ev ole n ce.
M ost Togole se C SO s th at are natio n ally an d in te rn atio nally know n are m ad e up of
i n te lle ctu als a n d o th er e lite g ro ups. T he o rg an is a tio ns a re c o ncen tr a te d in th e c ap ita l c ity ,
L om e, where th ey ben efit fro m th e oppo rtu nity of co lla b ora tin g wit h th e Sta te
a d m in is tr a ti o n’s te ch n ic al se rv ic es, re p re se n ta tiv es of politi c al partie s an d dev elo p m en t
p artn ers . Self -re g ula tio n mec h an is m s fo r CSO s ex is t but are not bein g effe ctiv ely
i m ple m en te d a n d m ost C SO m an ag ers d o n o t r e sp ec t t h em .
T here is a r e al d efic it in c iti z en sh ip e d ucatio n th at w ill e m po w er th e p o pula tio n to p arti c ip ate
i n p ro m otin g i t s o w n d ev elo p m en t a n d i n stitu te a “ re p ort” c u ltu re .
T ogole se C SO s h av e a v ery fra g il e s u sta in ab il ity a s th ey s tr o ngly d ep en d o n a b ro ad fo r th e
f in an cin g o f th eir a c tiv itie s. T hus, th eir a ctiv itie s h av e b een in hib ite d s in ce th e s u sp en sio n o f
t h e co op era tio n b etw een T ogo an d th e E uro pean U nio n an d o th er d onors fo r in su ffic ie n t
d em ocra cy a n d tr a n sp are n cy in p ublic m an ag em en t. A t th e s a m e ti m e, th ese a ss o cia ti o n s d o
n ot hav e str o ng in te rre la tio ns an d bare ly co m munic a te , ex ch an g e in fo rm atio n, sh are
e x p erie n ces o r c o op era te w ith in s tr a te g ic a llia n ces t o s e t u p a f ra m ew ork f o r c o m mon a ctio ns.
E nvir o n m en t
T he c u rre n t o pera ti n g e n vir o n m en t is n ot f a v oura b le f o r th e p ro m otio n o f c iv il s o cie ty a n d it
i s th e r e sp o nsib ili ty o f C SO s to w ork o n im pro vin g it. O n th e p o li ti c al g ro u nd, th e c o untr y is
i n th e p ro cess o f fa m ili a ris in g its e lf w it h d em ocra ti c v alu es, b oth a t th e le v el o f th e sta te
a p p ara tu s a n d th e p olit ic a l p artie s. T he d ela y o bse rv ed in th e d ecen tr a lis a tio n p ro cess is a
m is s e d o p po rtu n it y f o r t h e a p pre n tic esh ip o f d em ocra cy a t t h e g ra ssro ots l e v el.
W hils t th ere is a n in cre asin g im pov eris h m en t o f th e p opula tio n, th e so cio -e co no m ic c ris is
w it h w hic h th e c o u ntr y h as b een c o nfro nte d fo r th e la st tw o d ec ad es h as d im in is h ed s o cia l
t r u st.
U nti l n ow , n eith er th e S ta te n or th e p riv ate s e cto r c o nsid ers c iv il s o cie ty a s a r e al p artn er in
d ev elo p m en t. C om pare d to o th er p o pula ti o ns in th e s u b r e g io n, th e T og ole se a re k n ow n to b e
m ore p ac if ic an d to le ra n t. N ev erth ele ss, fru str a tio n an d te n sio n ex ace rb ate d b y p oli ti c ia n s
( b ase d o n e th n ic o r tr ib al d if fe re n ces) in o rd er to m ain ta in o r c h an ge th e e x is tin g s y ste m h av e
b een s p ark in g v io le n t c la sh es s p ora d ic ally .
T he a n aly sis r e v eals th at c iv il s o cie ty o p era te s in a v ery d if f ic u lt p o liti c al, s o cia l, e co no m ic ,
c u ltu ra l a n d l e g al e n v ir o n m en t t h at c o ntr ib ute s t o c u rb in g i ts d ev elo p m en t a n d p ro m otio n.

CIV IC U S: C iv il S ocie ty I n dex R ep ort f o r T ogo
1 0

V
alu es
T ole ra n ce, n on-v io le n ce, h onesty a n d c iv ic a ctio n a re c ru m blin g in fa v our o f th e p urs u it o f
p ers o nal in te re sts . T he p op ula tio n i s e x pose d to c o rru pti o n o n a d aily b asis b u t a ls o w it n ess e s
a la ck o f tr a n sp are n cy in th e m an ag em en t o f p ubli c a ffa ir s . V io le n ce is g ain in g m om en tu m
w it h in th e p opula tio n a n d re ach es it s p eak d urin g th e e le c to ra l p erio d, a lt h oug h s o m e C SO s
h av e b een ad vo ca tin g fo r n on-v io le n ce . T he p opula ti o n w hic h is th e m ain v ic ti m o f th is
v io le n ce h as ex pre sse d g re a t sa ti s fa ctio n fo llo w in g th e im ple m en ta tio n o f a n ew p oli ti c al
d ia lo gu e.
D em ocra cy , g en d er eq u ity an d th e p ro te ctio n o f th e en vir o n m en t are ele m en ts th at b ett e r
e x pla in th e “ v alu es” d im en sio n in th e c ase o f T ogo. T ole ra n ce a n d n on -v io le n ce a re n ot y et a
w ay o f li f e f o r T ogole se c iv il s o cie ty . T he s c o re a ttr ib u te d to th is d im en sio n r e fle cts th e f a c t
t h at a la rg e m ajo rity o f th e v alu es c o nsid ere d a b o ve a re n o t a p pli e d m uch w ith in c iv il s o cie ty .
N oneth ele ss , e ffo rts a re m ad e t o p ro m ote t h em w ith in t h e T ogole se s o cie ty i n g en era l.
T he m ajo rit y of C SO s are en g ag ed in th e fie ld o f p overty re d uctio n an d en v ir o n m en ta l
p ro te ctio n b ut t h eir i n itia tiv es l a ck s u pport a n d p ublic v is ib ility .
I m pact
T he i m pact o f C SO s’ a c tio ns o n t h e d ev elo p m en t o f t h e c o un tr y h as b ee n l i m ite d s o f a r. T heir
e ffo rts to in flu en ce s o cia l p olic ie s in f a v our o f m arg in alis e d g ro ups h av e h ad li m it e d im pac t.
T hey h av e n ot in itia te d a ctio ns th at w ould m ak e th e s ta te a n d th e p riv ate s e cto r a c co unta b le .
B ein g clo se r to gra ss ro o ts popula ti o ns, C SO s hav e acq uir e d a deep know le d g e of th eir
p ro ble m s a n d th us u se th eir lim ite d m ean s to s tr e n gth en c o m munity c a p acitie s a n d e n ab le th e
p opula tio ns t o c o ndu ct c o ll e ctiv e a c tio n s i n o rd er t o r e so lv e t h eir p ro ble m s.
T o fa cilit a te th e ev o lu tio n o f T ogole se civ il so cie ty , C SO s m ust im pro ve th eir str u ctu ra l
a sp ects by co m munic atin g an d sh arin g in fo rm atio n, co o pera tin g am on g th em se lv es an d
e sta b lis h in g se lf -re g u la ti o n m ech an is m s. They sh o uld w ork to im pro v e th eir cu rre n t
e n vir o n m en t a n d e ffe ctiv ely ta k e u p th eir “ w atc h d og” r o le v is -à -v is th e s ta te a n d th e p riv ate
s e c to r. In ad ditio n, th ey sh ou ld b uild th eir so cia l cap it a l an d g ain th e so cia l tr u st o f th e
p opula tio n i n g en era l.
T he C IV IC U S C iv il S ocie ty I n dex p ro je ct p ro v id es C SO s a n d s ta k eh o ld ers w it h a w ea lth o f
i n fo rm atio n to b ette r o rie n ta te th eir fu tu re c ap acit y b uild in g a ctiv itie s. T here a re re aso n s to
b elie v e th at, if C SO s a n d o th er re le v an t a cto rs a d dre ss th e m ain d efic ie n cie s, T ogo le se c iv il
s o cie ty co uld beco m e a key driv in g fo rc e to w ard s th e co untr y ’s dem ocra tis a tio n an d
d ev elo p m en t.

CIV IC U S: C iv il S ocie ty I n dex R ep ort f o r T ogo
1 1

I
N TR O DUC TIO N
F ro m Ju ly 2 00 5 to M arc h 2 0 06 th e C iv il S ocie ty In dex (C SI) S horte n ed A sse ss m en t T ool
( S A T) w as c o n du cte d in T ogo. It w as p art o f th e in te rn atio nal C SI p ro je c t im ple m en te d in
m ore th an 50 co untr ie s an d co ord in ate d by CIV IC U S: W orld Alli a n ce fo r Cit iz en
P artic ip atio n . T his d ocu m en t r e p orts t h e f in d in gs o f t h e C SI S A T o f T ogo.
C IV IC U S i s a g lo b al a ll ia n ce o f C SO s a n d a im s a t s tr e n g th en in g c iv il s o cie ti e s a n d p ro m otin g
c iti z en p arti c ip atio n t h ro ugh out th e w orld . T he C IV IC U S C SI is a p arti c ip ato ry a sse ss m en t o f
c iv il s o cie ty a t t h e n atio n al l e v el.
U nli k e th e fu ll C SI, th e S A T is o nly b ase d o n se c o nd ary d ata . T he C SI-S A T p ro je ct w as
i m ple m en te d in T ogo b y a N atio n al In dex T ea m (N IT ) le d b y a S ta k eh old er A sse ss m en t
G ro up ( S A G), w ith t h e s u pport o f t h e C IV IC U S t e am b ase d i n S outh A fr ic a.
T he N IT p ro cesse d a n d sy nth esiz ed in fo rm atio n a n d d ata re la tiv e to c iv il so cie ty in T ogo,
w hic h w as c o lle cte d f ro m a v arie ty o f s e co nd ary s o urc es. T he in fo rm ati o n a n d d ata s e rv ed a s
a b asis f o r a p re li m in ary r e p ort a n d w ere u se d b y th e S A G to s c o re th e 7 4 in dic ato rs in clu ded
i n t h e C SI m eth o do lo gy . T he f in al r e p o rt w as a d opte d d urin g a w ork sh o p h eld i n L om é o n 8 -9
A ugust 2 006 , w hic h s a w th e p arti c ip atio n o f c iv il s o cie ty a ctiv is ts , s ta te re p re se n ta ti v es, th e
d onor c o m m unity ( d ev elo p m en t p artn ers ) a n d o th er s ta k eh o ld ers .

T he p ro je c t’ s i n te rn atio n al t e a m h ead quarte re d i n S outh A fric a a ssis te d t h e N IT t e ch n ic ally b y
g iv in g a d vic e, e x ch an g in g i n fo rm atio n a n d s h arin g d ocu m en ta tio n.
T he C IV IC U S C SI is an in te rn ati o n al pro je ct im ple m en te d in m ore th an 50 co un tr ie s
w orld w id e. T he c o m para tiv e a sp ect o f th e p ro je ct is f a c ili ta te d b y th e a d opti o n o f a s ta n d ard
a p pro ach a n d fra m ew ork , w hile th e c o nte x t- v alid ity is e n han ced b y th e p oss ib il ity to a d ap t
s o m e i n dic ato rs t o c u ltu ra l b ack gro u nds, s p ec if ic s o cio -e co no m ic f a cto rs a n d p oliti c al r e a lit ie s
o f a g iv en c o untr y .
W e h ope th at m em bers a n d p artn ers o f th e d ev elo p m en t c o m munity w ill f in d h ere a le ad f o r
a ctio ns t o w ard s t h e s tr e n gth en in g o f c iv il s o cie ty i n T ogo.
S T R U CTU RE O F T H E R EPO RT
T his p ublic atio n i s o rg an iz ed i n f o ur ( 4 ) s e ctio ns.
 Sectio n I p re se n ts t h e h is to ric al b ack gro und o f t h e C SI-S A T, i ts c o n cep tu al f ra m ew ork
a n d t h e r e se arc h m eth od olo gy a d opte d .
 Sectio n I I p ain ts t h e c h ara cte ris tic s o f T ogole se c iv il s o cie ty w ith s p ecif ic e m phasis o n
t h e c o un tr y ’s m ajo r h is to ric al e v en ts a n d re fe re n ces. It p re se n ts th e p ro cess th ro ugh
w hic h t h e m ap o f T og ole se c iv il s o cie ty w as e la b ora te d a n d p in poin ts t h e s o cia l f o rc es
i n t h e c o untr y a n d t h e n atu re o f t h eir i n te rre la tio n s.
 Sectio n III an aly se s Togole se civ il so cie ty on th e basis of th e fo llo w in g fo ur
d im en sio ns: S tr u ctu re , E nvir o n m en t, V alu es, an d Im pact. F or each d im en sio n , th e
a n aly sis w as bro ken dow n in to su bdim en sio ns. In tu rn , th e su bd im en sio ns w ere
d iv id ed i n to i n dic ato rs .
 Sectio n IV offe rs a co nclu siv e an aly sis of th e fin din gs an d pro vid es an ov era ll
i n te rp re ta tio n o f t h e g en era l s ta tu s o f c iv il s o cie ty i n T og o.

CIV IC U S: C iv il S ocie ty I n dex R ep ort f o r T ogo
1 2

I . C IV IL S O CIE T Y I N DEX – S H ORTEN ED A SSE SSM EN T
T O OL A PP R O ACH

1 . PR O JE C T
BA CK GRO UN D
T he id ea of a Civ il Socie ty In dex orig in ate d in 1997 , w hen th e in te rn atio n al non-
g overn m en ta l o rg an is a tio n C IV IC U S: W orld A llia n ce f o r C it iz en P artic ip atio n p ub lis h ed th e
N ew C iv ic A tl a s co n ta in in g pro fil e s of civ il so cie ty in 60 co un tr ie s aro und th e w orld
( C IV IC U S 1 997). T o im pro v e th e c o m para b ili ty a n d q uali ty o f th e in fo rm atio n c o nta in ed in
t h e N ew C iv ic A tla s, C IV IC U S d ec id ed to e m bark o n th e d ev elo p m en t o f a c o m pre h en siv e
a ss e ss m en t to ol f o r c iv il s o cie ty , th e C iv il S ocie ty I n dex ( H ein ric h 2 0 04 ; H ollo w ay 2 0 01 ). I n
1 999, H elm ut A nheie r, th e th en d ir e cto r o f th e C en tr e f o r C iv il S ocie ty a t th e L ond on S ch ool
o f E co no m ic s, p la y ed a s ig nif ic an t r o le i n t h e c re atio n o f t h e C SI c o ncep t ( A nheie r 2 004). T he
c o n cep t w as t e ste d i n f o urte en c o u ntr ie s d urin g a p ilo t p h ase , w hic h l a ste d f ro m 2 000 t o 2 002.
U pon co m ple tio n o f th e p il o t p h ase , th e p ro je ct ap pro ach w as th o ro ughly ev alu ate d an d
r e fin ed . I n its c u rre n t im ple m en ta ti o n p hase ( 2 003-2 005), C IV IC U S a n d its c o un tr y p artn ers
a re i m ple m en tin g t h e p ro je c t i n m ore t h an 5 0 c o u ntr ie s ( s e e T ab le I .1 ).
T ab le I .1 : P artic ip atin g c o u ntr ie s t o t h e i m ple m en ta tio n o f t h e C S I n d ex ( 2 00 3-2 0 05)
1
1. Arg en ti n a
2 . Arm en ia
3 . Aze rb aij a n
4 . Boli v ia
5 . Bulg aria
6 . Burk in a F aso
7 . Chil e
8 . Chin a
9 . Costa R ic a
1 0. C ro atia
1 1. C ypru s
1 2. C zech R ep ublic
1 3. E ast T im or
1 4. E cu ad or
1 5. E gy pt
1 6. Fij i
1 7. T he G am bia
1 8. G eo rg ia
1 9. G erm an y 2
0. G han a
2 1. G re ece
2 2. G uate m ala
2 3. H ond ura s
2 4. H ong K ong ( V R C hin a)
2 5. In do nesia
2 6. Ita ly
2 7. Ja m aic a
2 8. L eb an on
2 9. M aced onia
3 0. M au ritiu s
3 1. M ong olia
3 2. M onte n eg ro
3 3. N ep al
3 4. N eth erla n d s
3 5. N ig eria
3 6. N orth ern I r e la n d
3 7. O ris sa ( In dia ) 3
8. Pale sti n e
3 9. Pola n d
4 0. R om an ia
4 1. R ussia
4 2. Sco tl a n d
4 3. Serb ia
4 4. Sie rra L eo ne
4 5. Slo ven ia
4 6. Sou th K ore a
4 7. T aiw an
4 8. T og o
4 9. T urk ey
5 0. U gan da
5 1. U kra in e
5 2. U ru guay
5 3. V ie tn am
5 4. W ale s

I n J u ly 2 005 F O N GTO a p plie d to C IV IC U S f o r th e im ple m en ta tio n o f th e C SI-S A T in T ogo
a n d w as a c cep te d . D ue c h ie fly to tim e c o nstr a in ts , th e s h orte n ed a ss e ss m en t to o l w as a p p li e d
i n T ogo, w ith th e o bje c tiv e o f im ple m en tin g a ls o p rim ary r e se arc h in th e n ex t p ro je ct p h ase .
T he ob je c ti v e w as to co ndu ct an ex h au stiv e se co ndary data re v ie w co uple d w ith key
s ta k eh old ers ’ in dic a tio ns o n th e s a te o f c iv il s o cie ty in o rd er to d eriv e re co m men dati o n s fo r
c o n cre te a c tio ns. A fu rth er e le m en t o f in te re st fo r F O N GTO w as th e p ote n tia l c o m paris o n
w it h n eig hb ourin g c o untr ie s a s t h e C SI i s a ls o b ein g i m ple m en te d i n G han a a n d B urk in a F aso .
T he C SI-S A T w as th us im ple m en te d in T ogo b y th e F ed era tio n o f N GO s (F O NGTO ), w ith
t h e f in an cia l s u pport o f P la n T ogo, f ro m J u ly 2 00 5 t o J a n u ary 2 006.

CIV IC U S: C iv il S ocie ty I n dex R ep ort f o r T ogo
1 3

2
. PR O JE C T
A PP R O ACH A N D M ETH ODO LO GY

T he C SI u se s a c o m pre h en siv e p ro je ct im ple m en ta tio n a p pro ach a n d a s tr u ctu re d f ra m ew ork
t o c o lle ct d ata o n th e s ta te o f c iv il s o cie ty o n th e n atio nal le v el. A t th e c o re o f th e p ro je c t
a p pro ach is a b ro ad a n d e n co m passin g d efin it io n o f c iv il s o cie ty , w hic h in fo rm s th e o v era ll
p ro je ct i m ple m en ta tio n p ro cess. T o a ss e ss t h e s ta te o f c iv il s o cie ty i n a g iv en c o un tr y , t h e C SI
e x am in es fo ur k ey d im en sio ns o f c iv il so cie ty , n am ely it s str u ctu re , e x te rn al e n vir o n m en t,
v alu es a n d im pact o n s o cie ty a t la rg e. E ach o f th ese f o ur d im en sio ns is c o m pose d o f a s e t o f
s u bdim en sio ns, w hic h a g ain a re m ad e u p o f a s e t o f in div id ual in dic a to rs . T hese in dic ato rs
f o rm th e b asis f o r th e C SI d ata c o lle ctio n p ro cess. T he in d ic ato rs a ls o in fo rm th e a sse ss m en t
e x erc is e u n derta k en b y a S ta k eh old er A ss e ssm en t G ro up (S A G). T he C SI p ro je ct a p pro ach ,
c o n cep tu al f ra m ew ork a n d r e se arc h a n d a ss e ss m en t m eth odo lo gy a re d esc rib ed i n d eta il i n t h e
r e m ain d er o f t h is s e ctio n .
2

2 .1 . C on ce p tu al f r a m ew ork
H ow to d efin e c iv il s o cie ty ? A t th e h eart o f th e C SI’s c o nce p tu al f ra m ew ork is o bvio usly th e
c o n cep t o f c iv il s o cie ty . C IV IC U S d efin es c iv il s o cie ty a s th e s p ace b etw een th e f a m ily , s ta te
a n d th e m ark et, w here p eo ple c o m e to geth er to p urs u e th eir in te re sts ( H ein ric h 2 004 ). I n th is
r e sp ect, an d d if fe re n t fro m m ost o th er c iv il so cie ty c o ncep ts , th e C SI h as tw o in te re stin g
f e a tu re s. F ir s t, it a im s t o g o b ey ond th e u su al f o cu s o n f o rm al a n d in stitu tio nalis e d C SO s, a n d
t a k es a cco u nt o f in fo rm al c o alit io ns a n d g ro u ps. S eco nd, w hile c iv il so cie ty is so m eti m es
p erc eiv ed a s a s p h ere in w hic h p ositiv e a ctiv iti e s a n d v alu es re ig n , C IV IC U S s e ek s to a ls o
i n clu de n eg ativ e m an if e sta tio ns o f civ il so cie ty in th e asse ss m en t. T he co ncep t th ere fo re
c o v ers n ot o nly c h arita b le a sso cia tio ns o r e n vir o n m en ta l o rg an is a tio n s, b ut a ls o g ro ups s u ch
a s sk in h ead s a n d a g gre ss iv e sp orts fa n s. T he C SI-S A T a sse ss e s th e e x te n t to w hic h C SO s
s u pport d em ocra cy a n d to le ra n ce, a n d a ls o th e e x te n t to w hic h th ey th em se lv es a re in to le ra n t
o r e v en v io le n t.
H ow to c o n cep tu ali s e th e s ta te o f c iv il s o cie ty ? T o a sse ss th e s ta te o f c iv il s o cie ty , th e C SI
e x am in es c iv il s o cie ty a lo ng f o ur m ain d im en sio ns:
· The str u ctu re of civ il so cie ty (e .g . nu m ber of m em bers , ex te n t of giv in g an d
v olu nte erin g , nu m ber an d fe atu re s of um bre lla org an is a tio ns an d civ il so cie ty
i n fra str u ctu re , h u m an a n d f in an cia l r e so urc es);
· The e x te rn al e n vir o n m en t in w hic h c iv il s o cie ty e x is ts a n d f u nctio ns ( e .g . le g is la tiv e,
p oliti c al, c u ltu ra l a n d e co no m ic c o nte x t, t h e r e la tio n sh ip b etw een c iv il s o cie ty a n d t h e
s ta te , a s w ell a s t h e p riv ate s e c to r);
· T he v a lu es p ra ctic ed a n d p ro m ote d w ith in th e c iv il so cie ty a re n a (e .g . d em ocra cy ,
t o le ra n ce o r p ro te ctio n o f t h e e n vir o n m en t) ; a n d
· The im pa ct o f a ctiv itie s p urs u ed b y c iv il so cie ty a c to rs (e .g . p ub li c p olic y im pact,
e m pow erm en t o f p eo ple , m ee tin g s o cie ta l n eed s).

E ach o f t h ese m ain d im en sio ns i s d iv id ed i n to a s e t o f s u bdim en sio ns t h at c o nta in a t o ta l o f 7 4
i n dic ato rs .
3 T hese in dic ato rs are at th e h eart o f th e C SI an d fo rm th e b asis o f th e d ata
p re se n te d in th is r e p ort. T he in dic ato r— su bdim en sio n— dim en sio n fra m ew ork u nderp in s th e

2 F or a d eta il e d d esc rip tio n o f t h e C SI a p pro ach , s e e H ein ric h ( 2 00 4). 3 S ee A ppen dix 2 , L is t o f i n dic a to rs a n d t e ch nic al n ote s.

CIV IC U S: C iv il S ocie ty I n dex R ep ort f o r T ogo
1 4

e
n tir e p ro cess o f d ata c o lle ctio n, th e w rit in g o f th e r e se arc h r e p ort a n d th e S A G’s a sse ss m en t
o f T ogole se civ il so cie ty . It is als o use d to str u ctu re th e prim ary co m pon en t of th is
p ubli c atio n.
T o v is u all y p re se n t th e s c o re s o f th e fo ur m ain d im en sio ns, th e C SI-S A T m ak es u se o f th e
C iv il S ocie ty D ia m ond to ol (s e e fig ure I.2 .1 fo r a n e x am ple ).
4 T he C iv il S ocie ty D ia m on d
g ra p h, w ith its fo ur e x tr e m it ie s, v is u ally su m m aris e s th e str e n gth s a n d w eak n esse s o f c iv il
s o cie ty .
T he d ia g ra m i s t h e r e su lt o f t h e i n d iv id ual Fig u re I .2 .1 : C iv il S ocie ty D ia m on d T ool
i n dic ato r sc o re s ag gre g ate d in to
s u bdim en sio n an d th en dim en sio n
s c o re s. A s it cap tu re s th e ess e n ce o f
t h e s ta te o f c iv il s o cie ty a cro ss it s k ey
d im en sio ns, th e Civ il Socie ty
D ia m ond pro vid es a use fu l sta rtin g
p oin t fo r in te rp re ta tio n s an d
d is c u ssio ns ab ou t w hat civ il so cie ty
l o oks l ik e i n a g iv en c o u ntr y . S in ce t h e
D ia m ond does no t ag gre g ate th e
d im en sio n s c o re s in to a s in gle s c o re , it
c an not, an d sh ould not, be use d to
r a n k co un tr ie s ac co rd in g to th eir sc o re s o n th e fo ur d im en sio n s. S uch an ap p ro ach w as
d ee m ed in ap pro pria te f o r a c iv il s o cie ty a sse ss m en t, w ith s o m an y m ulti- fa c ete d d im en sio ns,
c o ntr ib u tin g fa c to rs a n d a cto rs . T he D ia m ond a ls o d ep ic ts c iv il s o cie ty a t a c erta in p oin t in
t i m e a n d th ere fo re l a ck s a d y nam ic p ers p ectiv e. H ow ev er, i f a p plie d i t e ra tiv ely , i t c an b e u se d
t o c h art th e d ev elo p m en t o f c iv il s o cie ty o ver tim e, a n d c o m pare th e s ta te o f c iv il s o cie tie s
a cro ss c o u ntr ie s ( A nheie r 2 00 4).
W hat is u n iq ue a bou t th e C SI-S A T? A s s ta te d a b ov e, th e C SI-S A T is a s u bsta n ti a lly s h orte r
v ers io n o f th e fu ll C SI, a s it u se s a le ss p artic ip ato ry a n d le ss c o m pre h en siv e a p p ro ac h to
c o lle c tin g th e in fo rm atio n o n th e s ta te o f c iv il s o cie ty in a p arti c u la r c o u ntr y . D if fe re n t f ro m
t h e fu ll C SI, th e C SI-S A T re li e s o n e x is tin g d ata o n ly a n d d oes n ot in clu de th e c o n su lt a tiv e
a n d a ctio n-p la n n in g s ta g es o f th e f u ll C SI. H ow ev er, i ts c o n cep tu al f ra m ew ork a n d b re ad th o f
i n dic ato rs i s t h e s a m e a s i n t h e f u ll C SI.

2 .2 . P ro je ct M eth od olo gy
T he c u rre n t s e ctio n d esc rib es th e m eth ods a d op te d to c o ll e ct a n d p ro cess th e d ata u se d b y th e
C iv il S ocie ty I n dex p ro je ct.
D ata C olle cti o n: P rio r to th e d ata c o ll e ctio n, m em bers o f th e N atio n al In dex T eam (N IT )
w ere in tr o duced to th e b ack gro u nd o f th e p ro je ct, its re se arc h fra m ew ork a n d m eth odolo gy ,
a n d th e m ean in g o f e a ch in d iv id u al in dic ato r. A n im porta n t d ocu m en ta tio n o n in fo rm atio n
a n d d ata re la tiv e to re ta in ed in dic ato rs w as p ut to geth er. T he c o ll e cte d in fo rm atio n a n d d ata
w ere p ro cesse d a n d m erg ed i n to a u se r-frie n dly d ata b ase m ad e a c cessib le t o e v ery one.

4 T he C iv il S ocie ty D ia m on d w as d ev elo p ed f o r C IV IC U S b y H elm ut A nheie r ( s e e A nheie r 2 00 4).

0 1 2 3 S tr u ctu re
E nvir o n m en t
Im pact
V alu es

CIV IC U S: C iv il S ocie ty I n dex R ep ort f o r T ogo
1 5

I
t is w orth m en tio n in g th at th e N IT d id f a ce s o m e d if fic u lti e s th at, lu ck ily , d id n ot im pact o n
i ts re li a b il ity in te rm s of re se arc h . For ex am ple , so m e Sta te ad m in is tr a tio n te ch nic a l
d ep artm en ts a n d C SO s w ere r e lu cta n t to p ro vid e d ata to th e p ro je ct, f e arin g th ey m ay b e u se d
f o r u nknow n p urp o se s. T he le tte rs a n d e x p la n ati o n e ffo rts f ro m th e p ro je ct te am d id n ot h elp
m uch . F or m ost a g en ts in c h arg e o f d ata in th ese in sti tu tio ns, a n o ffic ia l a u th oris a tio n fro m
t h eir su perio rs w as re q uir e d b efo re th ey co nse n te d in p ro vid in g th e d ata . S uch b eh av io ur
s ig nals th e e x is te n ce o f s tr a in ed re la tio n s b etw een m em bers o f th e d ev elo p m en t c o m munity
a n d t h e S ta te .
A v ery li m ite d n u m ber o f s tu die s c o nducte d b y m em bers o f th e d ev elo p m en t c o m munity o n
s o cie ta l f a cts i n T ogo a re a v ail a b le . T he l a st p op ula ti o n c en su s w as c o nd ucte d i n 1 98 1 a n d t h e
s ta tis tic s obta in ed are ex tr a p ola te d ones. T he N IT had to m ak e esti m atio n s base d on
i n fo rm atio n d ra w n fro m o th er n ati o nal a n d in te rn atio n al p o pula ti o n s tu die s o n T og o. U p to
n ow , n o o th er s tu dy o n c iv il s o cie ty i n T ogo h as b een p ublis h ed .
D ata S co rin g: T he v ario us d ata s o urc es a re c o lla te d a n d s y nth esiz ed b y th e C SI p ro je ct te a m
i n a f ir s t d ra ft c o untr y r e p o rt, w hic h i s s tr u ctu re d a lo ng t h e C SI i n dic ato rs , s u bdim en sio ns a n d
d im en sio ns. T his r e p ort p re se n ts th e b asis f o r th e in dic ato r s c o rin g e x erc is e . I n th is e x erc is e ,
e ach s c o re is r a te d o n a s c a le o f 0 to 3 , w ith 0 b ein g th e lo w est a ss e ss m en t p ossib le a n d 3 th e
m ost p osit iv e. T he s c o rin g o f e ach in dic a to r is b ase d o n a s h ort d esc rip tio n o f th e in d ic ato r
a n d a m ostly q uali t a ti v ely d efin ed sc a le o f sc o re s fro m 0 to 3 .
5 T he sc o rin g ex erc is e is
m odelle d a lo ng a “ citi z en ju ry ” a p pro ach (J e ffe rs o n C en tr e 2 002), in w hic h c it iz e n s c o m e
t o geth er to d elib era te a n d m ak e a d ecis io n o n a p ub lic is su e, b ase d o n p re se n te d fa cts . T he
S A G ’s r o le is to g iv e a s c o re ( s im il a r to p assin g a ju dg em en t) o n e ach in dic ato r b ase d o n th e
e v id en ce (o r d ata ) p re se n te d b y th e N atio n al In dex T ea m (N IT ) in th e fo rm o f th e d ra ft
c o untr y re p ort. T he e v id en ce w as p re se n te d in th e fo rm o f a “ p re -s c o rin g re p ort” o n c iv il
s o cie ty i n T ogo .
T he s c o rin g p ro cess w as c o ndu cte d i n T ogo a s f o llo w s:
F ir s t, m em bers o f th e S A G re ceiv ed th e (p re -s c o rin g) re p o rt p rio r to th e m ee tin g. O nce th e
s c o rin g p ro ced ure w as c o m monly a d opte d a t th e m ee tin g, th e S A G m em bers w ere d iv id ed
i n to f o ur te a m s. E ach te a m w as a ss ig ned to p ro cess o n e o f th e d im en sio ns. M em bers o f e ach
t e am d is c u sse d a n d ag re ed u pon th e sc o re s to b e aw ard ed to e ach in dic ato r. D iv erg en ces
a m ong te a m m em bers w ere r e p orte d a t th e g en era l s e ss io n. T he d iv erg en ces m ostly o ccu rre d
w it h in m em bers o f th e te am s th at p ro ce ss e d th e “E nvir o n m en t” an d “V alu e” d im en sio ns.
D urin g th e g en era l s e ssio n, e a ch te am r e p orte d th e s c o re s a ttr ib ute d a n d th e d iv erg en ces w ere
d is c u sse d a n d re so lv ed . D if fe re n ces e x is te d w hen la rg e g ap s (o f a t le ast 2 p o in ts ) e x is te d
b etw een th e s c o re s o f i n div id u al m em bers o f t h e s a m e t e am . O n t h at b asis , 1 4 in d ic ato rs w ere
r e -d is c u sse d a n d r e -s c o re d d urin g t h e g en era l s e ssio n.
U sin g th e s c o re s o f in div id ual in d ic ato rs , m em bers o f th e S A G c o m pu te d th e r e su lt s f o r e ach
s u bdim en sio n, an d th en e a ch d im en sio n. T he D ia m on d o f civ il so cie ty in T ogo w as th en
d ra w n o n t h e b asis o f t h e i n d iv id u al s c o re s a w ard ed t o t h e f o ur d im en sio ns.
M em bers o f th e S A G in te rp re te d th e D ia m on d o f c iv il so cie ty in T og o a s su gg estin g th at
C SO s s h ou ld lo ok in to im pro v in g th eir E nv ir o n m en t o f e x is te n ce. T hey s h ou ld e n h an ce th eir

5 S ee A ppen dix 2 , L is t o f i n dic a to rs a n d t e ch nic al n ote s.

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a
b ili tie s to w ork to geth er w ith in a co nsu lta tiv e str u ctu re in ord er to pro m ote univ ers a l
( V alu es), t h e b asis f o r a n y s o cia l c h an g e ( I m pac t) .
T he S A T im ple m en ta tio n in T ogo a b o ve a ll s o ugh t to s ti m ula te d is c u ssio n a n d r e fle ctio n o n
c iv il s o cie ty , w hic h i s a r a th er n asc en t t o p ic i n t h is c o nte x t. K ey s ta k eh old ers s u ch a s t h e S A G
w ere m in ed f o r in fo rm atio n d ue to a n eed f o r m uch s e co n dary d ata . I n s e v era l in sta n ces, th e
o pin io ns an d p ers o nal k now le d g e o f th e S A G m em bers w ere u se d to co m ple te th e sc an t
i n fo rm atio n a v aila b le . T he im ple m en ta tio n o f a fu ll C SI, in clu d in g its d iv ers e p rim ary d ata
g ath erin g a n d c o nv en in g a ctiv itie s, is p la n n ed fo r a n ex t p h ase o f th e p ro je ct in o rd er to fil l
i n ev ita b le d ata g ap s.

2 .3 . L in kin g r ese a rch t o a ctio n
A cc o rd in g to th e R ussia n p la y w rig h t A nto n C hek hov (1 8 60- 1 904), « K now le d g e h as n o
v alu e if it is n ot a p pli e d . » T he m ain o bje ctiv e o f th e c u rre n t s tu dy is to h elp s tr e n gth en th e
c ap acit ie s o f m em bers o f c iv il s o cie ty i n T ogo.
T he C iv il S ocie ty I n dex is n ot o nly li m ite d to th e p ro du ctio n o f in fo rm atio n, it a ls o lo ok s to
d ev elo p th e k now le d g e o f c iv il s o cie ty a n d l in k i t to t h e r e fle ctio n a n d a ctio ns o f i t s m em bers .
T o s e cu re s u ch li n ks, th e in d ex u se s m eth ods a n d p rin cip le s o f p arti c ip ativ e a ctio n-re se arc h
( S ee F re ir e 1 974; F als -B ord a 1 991; C ham bers 1 997; K nig ht/C hig udu e t a l. 2 002: 3 3-3 6)
F our c o nsid era ti o ns a re t o b e m en tio ned :
F ir s t c o nsid era ti o n : T he C SI w as c o m ple te d b y a n d f o r c iv il s o cie ty w it h th e u lti m ate g o al o f
s tr e n gth en in g t h e c ap acit y o f C SO s. N ot o nly d oes i t p ro vid e i n fo rm atio n , b ut i t a ls o p ro m ote s
s o cia l c h an g e.
S ec o nd c o nsid era tio n : t h e C SI c all e d o n t h e p artic ip atio n o f t h e b en efic ia rie s a n d m em bers . I n
t h is p arti c u la r c ase , it in volv ed p ro m ote rs a t a ll l e v els . H ow ev er, s in ce p artic ip atio n d ep en ded
o n th e lif e c y cle o f th e p ro je ct, s p ecif ic g ro ups o f a ctin g m em bers w ere in vo lv ed a t s p ecif ic
s ta g es.
T ab le I .2 : P artic ip atio n i n t h e C SI p ro je c t l if e c y cle
S ta g e T
yp e o f
p artic ip atio n R
esp on sib le a ctin g
m em bers E
ngag ed a ctin g m em ber s
C oncep tio n Consu lta ti o n CIV IC U S Pilo t p h ase p artn ers , e x perts
A dap tin g t o t h e n atio n al
l e v el C
onsu lta ti o n
D ecis io n m ak in g N
atio nal I n dex T eam
( N IT ) S
ta k eh old er A sse ssm en t G ro up
( S A G)
R ese arc h In pu t C on su lta tio n Specia lis ts i n
p arti c ip ativ e r e se arc h R
eg io n al a cto rs , e x perts , c iti z e n s
i n t h e c o m munity
D ata p ro cessin g ( S co rin g) Decis io n m ak in g SA G NIT
T hir d c o nsid era ti o n : th is c o nsid era tio n is lin ked to th e s e co nd o ne. T he p arti c ip ativ e p ro cess
g uara n te es th e d esir e d ty pes o f a c tio ns a n d a s a c o nse q u en ce p ro m ote rs p la n th e a p pro p ria te
p oli c y , b ase d o n t h e c o m bin atio n o f c o ll e cte d e m pir ic al d ata a n d a n orm ativ e e v alu atio n.
F ourth c o nsid era tio n: th e im pli c atio n o f re se arc h ers a n d a c to rs /u se rs th ro ughou t th e p ro je c t
h elp ed b re ak d o w n b arrie rs a n d f a cil ita te t h e d ev elo p m en t o f m utu al r e la tio ns.

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T
hus, th e C SI c re ate s th e fr a m ew ork b ase d o n p rin cip le s a n d te ch niq u es d ev elo p ed th ro ugh
p arti c ip ativ e r e se arc h . I t a ls o u se s s o cia l r e se arc h m eth ods s u ch a s s u rv ey s a n d d esk r e v ie w s.
I n t h e c ase o f t h e s h orte n ed i n d ex , n o c la ssic al s u rv ey h as e v er b een c o n du cte d .
A n atio n al w ork sh op o n th e re la tio n « K now le d ge-a ctio n » w as o rg an is e d b y th e In dex a n d
w as atte n d ed b y d if f e re n t a cto rs o f civ il so cie ty in clu din g m an y o f th ose in vo lv ed in th e
r e se arc h p ro cess ( fo r e x am ple , m em bers o f th e S A G, th e r e g io n al c o nsu lta tio n p artic ip an ts o r
k ey i n fo rm an ts i n c ase s o f s p ec if ic r e se arc h q u estio ns o r t o p ic s.)
T he n ati o n al w ork sh op a im ed a t tw o o bje ctiv es: fir s t, to e n g ag e th e p artic ip an ts in a c rit ic a l
d is c u ssio n a n d a n aly sis o f th e r e su lts d eriv ed f r o m th e C SI in iti a tiv e. T hus, it w ould f o ste r a
c o m mon unders ta n din g of th e cu rre n t sta te of civ il so cie ty an d th e ch all e n g es it fa c es.
A ch ie v in g th e f ir s t o bje ctiv e is a p re -re q uis it e f o r th e s e co n d o ne w hic h e x pects p artic ip an ts
t o id en ti f y , o n th e b asis o f th e re se arc h re su lts , sp ecif ic str e n gth s a n d w eak n esse s o f c iv il
s o cie ty a s p ote n ti a l s o urc es f o r i ts g ro w th .
W hen ap pro pria te , th e natio nal w ork sh op m ay ad d an oth er ob je ctiv e perta in in g to th e
p la n n in g o f sp ec if ic a ctio ns to b e c o m ple te d b y th e p artic ip an ts . In th is p ro je ct c y cle , th e
e v alu atio n, re fle cti o n a n d a ctio ns a re lin ked to th e g en era l p artic ip ativ e n atu re , w hic h is a n
e ss e n ti a l c o ndit io n f o r t h e s u ccess o f t h e a ctio n.
F ig u re I .2 .3 : C SI p ro je ct c y cle

Refle ctio n

E valu atio n Actio n

S ev era l m eth ods a re u se d to re in fo rc e th e c o hesio n a n d c o ntin u ed e x is te n ce o f c iv il s o cie ty .
T he o n e w hic h is s o le ly u se d b y th e C SI c o m bin es a s c ie n tif ic e v alu atio n w it h a p artic ip ati v e
a p pro ach . It h as th e m erit o f b rin gin g, m obilis in g an d str e n gth en in g th e co m mit m en t o f
d if fe re n t a cto rs o f c iv il s o cie ty a n d i ts e x te rn al p arti c ip an ts .
C onse q u en tl y , C IV IC U S b eli e v es th at k now le d ge h as le ss v alu e w hen n ot a p p li e d . A t th e
s a m e t im e, k now le d g e i s e ss e n ti a l f o r t a k in g o n s ig nif ic an t a c tio ns.

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I
I. CIV IL S O CIE TY I N T O GO

1. HIS T O RIC AL O VER VIE W O F CIV IL S O CIE TY IN T O GO
Fig u re I I . 1 : C ou ntr y i n fo rm atio n
Desp it e th e deep m uta ti o ns th at h av e
m ark ed th e h is to ric al e v olu tio n o f th is
t in y b u t s tr a te g ic c o untr y , th e “ A fr ic an
s o lid arit y ” s till e x is ts in b oth u rb an a n d
r u ra l are as. The man ner in whic h
p eo ple h an d le th eir d ail y lif e an d th e
w ay th ey g ath er to d ea l w ith im po rta n t
i s su es a re g o od e x am ple s.
W hat is th e ess e n ce of th e so lid arity
a m ong p eo p le a n d h ow d o th ey c h oose
t h eir le ad ers h ip ? What str e n g th en s
l e ad ers ’ le g it im acy an d w hat is th e
e x te n t o f t h eir c o n stit u en cy ?
H ow do th ey gath er to defe n d th eir
i n te re sts when th ey are th re a te n ed ?
T hese are q uestio ns th at aro se d u rin g
t h e c o nfig ura tio n o f c iv il s o cie ty .
D if fe re n t ty pes o f c iv il s o cie ty o rg an iz a tio ns ( C SO s) h av e e x is te d in T ogo s in ce th e c o lo n ia l
e ra a n d a fte r th e c re atio n o f th e T ogole se sta te . S om e e v en e x is te d b efo re c o lo n is a tio n a s
a ss o cia tio ns (s e lf help ) an d so lid arity m ov em en ts . T heir so le obje c tiv e w as to cu ltiv ate
s o li d arity a m ong m em bers a n d p ro m ote th e d ev elo p m en t o f g ro ups o f in div id u als s e ttl e d in
t h e s a m e a re a o r o rig in atin g f ro m t h e s a m e r e g io n .
T hey w ere , f o r e x am ple th e « B è H ab obo » ( g ath erin g o f th e B è); th e « G uin U nio n » f o r th e
m obilis a tio n o f i n div id u als o f G uin o rig in , o r a ss o cia tio ns o f v il la g e i m mig ra n ts i n t h e c iti e s.
T he T ogo le se e x p erie n ce c o nfir m s th e ru le s ta tin g th at c iv il s o cie ty ra ll ie s w hen th e g en era l
i n te re sts o f th e city are th re ate n ed . T hus, ass o cia tio ns fo und it u rg en t to b ett e r o rg an is e
t h em se lv es in c itie s a s w ell a s in ru ra l a re as in o rd er to fa ce th e c o lo nis e rs . T he ra lly in g
e le m en t w as s o lid arity , o uts id e f a m ili e s, to f a ce a b oss o r g ro u ps o f b osse s. O ne c an m en tio n
t h e c ase o f th e T ra d e U nio n m ovem en ts se t u p b y th e d ecre e o f A ugu st 7 1 944 in sti tu tin g
p ro fe ssio nal T ra d e U nio ns o n c o lo nia l te rrito rie s, a n d p ro m ulg ate d in T ogo o n O cto b er 3
1 944 ( J O TT; N o. 4 7 0).
T he s tr u ggle fo r in dep en den ce in T ogo h as c o ntr ib ute d to e lu cid ate th ese o rg an is e d g ro ups
k now n a s n atio nalis t f o rc es s u pportin g t h e p o li tic al c la ss.
H is to ric ally , th ese s o cia l fo rc es e x is te d u nd er th e th re e s u bse q uen t E uro p ean d o m in atio ns to
w hic h th e co untr y was su bje c te d . They were th e Germ an pro te cto ra te , th e Britis h
a d m in is tr a ti o n a n d th e F re n ch su perv is io n. T og ole se re actio ns to c o lo nia l d o m in atio n h av e
b een v ery sig nif ic an t. O f th e th re e, m an y re g re t th e G erm an d o m in atio n co m pare d to an
a ccep ta tio n o f th e B ritis h d om in atio n p erio d a n d a r e se n tm en t o f th e F re n ch d o m in atio n. T his
C ou n tr y : T ogo
C ou n tr y s iz e ( s q uare K m ): 5 6,7 85
P op u la tio n ( m illi o n s 2 00 4): 6 .0
P op u la tio n d en sit y : 9 0 h bts /k m 2
P op u la tio n u nder 1 5 y ea rs: 4 3.7 %
U rb an p op ula tio n : 3 5 .2 %
S ea ts i n p arlia m en t h eld b y w om en ( 2 005): 6 .2 %
L an gu ag e G ro u ps
: F re n ch ( o ffic ia l) , E w e a n d M in a in
S outh , K ab iy è, T em a n d M oba i n N orth
E th nic G ro u ps
: M ore th an 4 0 n ativ e A fric a n , la rg est
a n d m ost im porta n t are A dja /E w e, K ab iy è/T em an d
P ara g ourm a
R elig io u s G ro u ps
: T ra d it io n al b elie fs 51 % , C hris tia n
2 9% , M uslim 2 0%
H DI S co re & R an k in g ( 2 003 ): 0 .5 12 ( 1 4 3)
G DP p er c a p it a ( U S $ 2 003 ): $ 1,6 96
P op u la tio n l iv in g w it h l e ss t h an U S$ 2 a d ay: 7 2 .2 %

CIV IC U S: C iv il S ocie ty I n dex R ep ort f o r T ogo
1 9

r
e se n tm en t of th e Fre n ch do m in atio n perio d ex pla in s w hy th e natio n al str u ggle fo r
i n dep en d en ce w as s ig n if ic an t i n t h e ‘ 5 0s.
I n 1 946 , th e U nite d N atio ns a g re e d th at T ogo w ould b e p la ced u n der F re n ch s u perv is io n a s
p art o f i ts o th er c o lo nie s.
T hro ughou t t h e 1 950s, c iv il s o cie ty s p earh ead ed t h e s tr o ng r e je ctio n o f t h e F re n ch d o m in atio n
i n T ogo. F or i n sta n ce, g ro ups o f w om en c ro sse d t h e b o rd er d ay a n d n ig ht t o s e n d l e tte rs t o t h e
U nit e d N atio n s (U N ) in o rd er to ale rt w orld o pin io n. F our su bse q uen t U N fie ld m is s io n s
c o n clu d ed th at th e re fe re n du m o rg an is e d b y th e F re n ch d id n ot re fle c t p opula r o p in io n. T he
U N r e q ueste d f ro m F ra n ce t h e o rg an is a ti o n o f a n oth er r e fe re n du m o n A pril 2 7 1 956 u n der t h e
s u perv is io n o f U N fo rc e s. V ery d ete rm in ed , th e so cia l fo rc es w on th e re fe re n du m fo r th e
i n dep en d en ce o f t h e c o u ntr y i n 1 960.
.
I n th eir do cu m en t « C onfe re n ce R ep ort on th e C iv il S ocie ty in T ogo : D efin iti o n of th e
C oncep t a n d R ev ie w » P ro fe ss o rs N ’b u ék é A dovi G O EH A KU E a n d B . C O U LIB A LY a sse rt
t h e f o llo w in g:
“ T ra d e U nio n s’ a ctio n s w ere v ery c riti c a l in th e s tr u ggle o f T ogo to w ard s in dep en den ce.
T he g en era l s tr ik e d ecre ed o n D ec em ber 2 7, 2 8, a n d 2 9 1 9 57 r e q u estin g th e d is so lv in g o f
t h e th en T err ito ria l A ss e m bly a n d th e o rg an is a tio n o f n ew tr a n sp are n t c o n su lta tio n s u n der
U N s u perv is io n , w as e sp ecia lly d ecis iv e. T he r e su lt o f th is a ctio n w as th e e v en t o f A pril 2 7,
1 958 a n nou ncin g th e c h oic e o f I n dep en den ce b y th e T og ole se . T he S ecre ta ry G en era l o f
T ra de U nio n is ts w as to b e a n om in ate d m em ber o f th e f ir s t g overn m en t a s th e M in is te r o f
L abou r”
R elig io us in sti tu tio ns su ch as cath oli c an d ev an g elic al ch urc h es w ere in ch arg e of th e
r e lig io us ed ucatio n an d so cia l pro m otio n (e d ucatio n, health , an d asso cia tiv e lif e ) of th e
p opula tio n.
S ubse q uen t to in d ep en den ce, th e le a d ers f e lt th e n eed to m ain ta in n atio n al c o h esio n t h ro u gh a
p oli tic al m an if e sta tio n str a te g y in ord er to re in fo rc e patr io tic cu ltu re . T o ach ie v e th at
o bje cti v e, a ll th e s o cia l fo rc e s o f th e c o untr y w ere ra llie d u nder a o n e p arty s ta te in th e 3 rd
R ep ub li c fro m 1967 to 1991. W om en ’s asso cia tio ns, th e Y outh an d so m e co rp ora te
o rg an is a tio n s were org an iz ed as win gs of th e sta te party (R PT ) an d ex te n d ed to
n eig hbourh o od c ells i n t h e w hole c o untr y , i n clu d in g r e m ote a re a s.
I n a n e ffo rt t o p ro m ote n atio n al s o lid arity , o ne c o uld n ot e x p ect a b ett e r s tr u ctu re t h an th e o n e
c re ate d u nd er th e s ta te p arty . H ow ev er, w hen q uestio ned to d ay , T ogo le se a g re e m ostly o n th e
f a c t th at th e g ig an ti c e ff o rt o f c o h esio n a n d n ati o nal u nity f a ile d to a ch ie v e it s o b je ctiv es. O n
t h e c o n tr a ry , c la n a n d e th nic c la sh es a ris e a t e v ery p re sid en tia l e le ctio n.
A cc o rd in g to p olit ic al s c ie n ti s ts , T ogo a ls o fe lt th e n eed to a d h ere to d em ocra tic p rin cip le s
f ro m 1 990 o nw ard s, s u b se q u en t to th e e v en ts in E aste rn E uro pe. It w as th e n eed fo r a n ew
o rie n ta tio n i n t h e s tr u ctu rin g o f i ts c iv il s o cie ty .
T he d em ocra tic o p en ness fa cil it a te d th e se tti n g u p o f se v era l a ss o cia tio ns, so m e o f w hic h
w ere cre ate d fo r th e so le purp ose of parti c ip atin g in th e N atio nal C onfe re n ce fo r th e
R eco n cili a ti o n o f T ogole se .

CIV IC U S: C iv il S ocie ty I n dex R ep ort f o r T ogo
2 0

F
oll o w in g th e N atio n al C onfe re n ce, se v era l of th ese ass o cia tio ns m uta te d in to politi c a l
p arti e s, o rg an is a tio ns f o r t h e d efe n ce o f m arg in alis e d p o pula tio ns o r s im ply i n to o rg an is a tio n s
f o r th e d efe n ce o f h u m an r ig hts . T hey d id it w it h out a n y p rio r p re p ara ti o n w ith r e g ard to t h eir
i d en tit ie s, v is io ns a n d m is s io n s.
T he f ir s t N GOs w ere e ith er r e p re se n ta tio ns o f in te rn atio n al N GOs o r c re ate d b y m em bers o f
t h e elit e , fo rm er se rv an ts of re lig io us org an is a tio ns or Public A dm in is tr a tio n so cia l
d ep artm en ts . A m ong o th ers , o ne c an m en tio n C A TH W ELL, th e T ogo le se R ed C ro ss (C ro ix
R oug e T ogo la is e ), A TB EF, C A RIT A S, S O TO PR O DER , E PT a n d O IC .
T he a d v en t o f p olit i c al p lu ra lis m g av e th e p o pula tio n a n o pportu nity to o rg an is e its e lf in to
a ss o cia tio ns in o rd er to p artic ip ate in p o li tic al d eb ate s. T hus, th e m ajo rity o f th e e x is tin g
a ss o cia tio ns m uta te d in to lo cal N GO s. F ac in g th is ev olu ti o n, dy nam ic pre ss gro up s an d
j o urn alis t a sso cia tio ns a ls o e m erg ed .
T w o t e x ts u nderp in t h e l e g al f ra m ew ork s u rro und in g a sso cia ti o ns a n d N GO s i n T ogo :

1. The 1 901 l a w o n a ss o cia tio ns i n g en era l a n d e x te n ded t o N GO s
2 . The 9 2-1 30 d ecre e o f M ay 2 7, 1 992 se tt in g th e co n ditio ns fo r co opera tio n
a m ong g ov ern m en ts a n d N GOs.

2 .
T H E CO NCEPT O F CIV IL S O CIE T Y IN T O G O
S in ce th e ‘9 0s, e sp ecia ll y w ith th e ad ven t o f d em ocra cy , th e co n cep t o f c iv il so cie ty h as
g ain ed in te re st, th oug h th e fo rc es it a d dre sse s su ch a s tr a d e u nio ns, w om en ’s a ss o cia tio n s,
y outh a n d i n te ll e ctu als h av e e x is te d s in ce t h e f o u ndin g o f t h e S ta te . T hese f o rc es a ls o p la y ed a
c ru cia l r o le i n t h e c o un tr y ’s s tr u ggle f o r i n dep en d en ce.
A s a m att e r o f f a ct, t h e C SO s a re r e la te d t o a sso cia tio ns u n der t h e F re n ch l a w o f 1 9 01.
I n T ogo, a n y i n itia ti v e t o c re ate a C SO f ir s t t a k es t h e f o rm o f a n a ss o cia tio n a n d i s e sta b lis h ed
u nder th e c o ntr a ct f o r a sso cia tio ns s e t b y th e la w n o. 4 0-4 84 o f J u ly 1 , 1 90 1. T his F re n ch la w
w as m odif ie d b y th e la w s-d ecre es o f O cto b er 2 3, 1 93 5 a n d A pril 1 2, 1 93 9. T here a fte r, it w as
d ecla re d b y D ecre e 4 6.4 32 o f M arc h 1 3, 1 946 a p pli c ab le t o T ogo u nder i t s 1 st a n d 2
n d t i tl e s.
E very a ss o cia tio n is f ir s t a ccre d it e d b y th e M in is tr y o f H om e A ff a ir s a n d S ec u rity . T hen , th e
M in is tr y o f T errito ria l M an ag em en t an d D ev elo p m en t ev alu ate s th e sp ecif ic atio ns o f th e
N GO . It is w orth m en ti o nin g th at th e s p ecif ic atio ns o f a n N GO c o nfe r o n it s o m e b en efits
s u ch a s t h e e x onera tio n f ro m t h e p ay m en t o f c erta in t a x es.
T he c o ncep t o f c iv il s o cie ty h as g ain ed in te re st s in ce d ev elo p m en t a c to rs re aliz ed th at m ost
p overty re la te d p ro ble m s are g en era te d fro m in ap pro pria te p olit ic a l d ecis io ns o n citi z en s’
l iv es. T hus a ris e s th e n eed to id en tif y a n ta g on is t re p re se n ta tiv e fo rc es o f th e p o pula ti o n to
l i m it t h e s h o rtc o m in gs.
T here is n o u nan im ously a ccep te d d efin it io n fo r c iv il s o cie ty a m ongst th e T ogole se a s y et.
E ach a cto r w ork in g w it h in a n a ss o cia tio n f o r th e d efe n ce o f c o m mon in te re sts o r p artic u la rly
t h ose fro m m arg in alis e d gro ups (p o or, dis a d van ta g ed or ex clu d ed ) in te rp re t th e co n cep t
d if fe re n tly .

CIV IC U S: C iv il S ocie ty I n dex R ep ort f o r T ogo
2 1

T
he d efe n ce o f c o m mon in te re sts o r th e p ro te ctio n o f m arg in alis e d so cia l fo rc es’ in te re sts
s e e m s to b e th e p rin cip al s e lf -a ss ig ned r o le o f T ogole se C SO s. B ut u nfo rtu nate ly th ere is n o
o rg an is e d s tr u ctu re o f C SO s t o u nd erta k e c o m m on a n d c o ncerte d a ctio n s.
O n th e o th er h an d, b ecau se re p re se n ta tiv es o f th e in te re sts o f g ra ss ro ots co m munitie s are
m ostly in te ll e ctu als r e sid in g in c itie s, C SO s e x h ib it e lit is t a n d r e fin ed b eh av io ur. D esp it e th e
f a c t th at th e 1 901 la w a llo w s C SO s to b eco m e a ctiv e o nce th ey h av e a p p li e d fo r o ff ic ia l
a ccre d ita tio n, on ly th e w ell str u ctu re d on es “w ith offic ia l (le g al) docu m en ta ti o n ” are
a ck now le d g ed b y t h e g overn m en t.
3 .
M APP IN G TO GOLESE C IV IL S O CIE TY
F or th e purp ose of th e an aly sis of civ il so cie ty in Togo, SA G m em bers ad opte d a
m eth odolo g y b ase d o n t h e A ctiv e P artic ip atio n R ese arc h M eth o d ( A PR M .)
W hat are th e ch ara cte ris ti c s of T ogole se civ il so cie ty ? W hat ty pes of re la tio n s does it
e n te rta in w it h o th er k ey a cto rs o f g lo bal s o cie ty ?
A nsw ers to th ese tw o questio ns w ere o bta in ed th ro ugh a re p re se n ta tio n pro cess of civ il
s o cie ty a s a g ro up o f s o cia l fo rc es in c o m paris o n w ith th e S ta te a n d th e p riv ate s e cto r. T his
p ro cess w as c arrie d o u t t h ro ug h a n a n aly tic al e x erc is e b y t h e S A G m em bers .
O n th at b asis , a lis t o f th e d if fe re n t ty pes o f c iv il so cie ty o rg an is a tio n s in T ogo h as b een
e la b ora te d t o i n clu d e:

1. Relig io u s o rg an is a tio n s
2 . Tra d e u nio n s
3 . Ple a d in g C SO s (e .g ., civ ic actio n s, so cia l ju stic e, p ea ce, h u m an rig hts , co nsu m er
g ro ups)
4 . Serv ic e o rg an is a tio n s ( e .g ., C SO c o m munity d ev elo p m en t, li t e ra cy , s o cia l a n d h ealth
s e rv ic es)
5 . O rg an is a tio n s a ctiv e in t h e a rea s o f e d uca tio n , t r a in in g a n d r e se a rch ( e .g . g ro up s
o f e x perts , r e so urc e c en tr e s, n on-p ro fit s c h oo ls , p ubli c e d uca tio n o rg an is a tio ns)
6 . In dep en den t m ed ia ( p riv ate a n d c o m munit y m ed ia )
7 . W om en ’s a ss o cia tio n s
8 . Stu den t a n d Y ou th a ss o cia tio n s
9 . Asso cia tio n s of so cio -e co n om ic a lly m arg in alis e d gro u ps (e .g ., th e poo r, th e
h o m ele ss, t h e l a n d le ss , i m mig ra n ts a n d r e fu gee s)
1 0. A sso cia tio n s of so cia l an d h ea lt h se rv ic es (e .g ., ch arit a b le org an is a tio ns ra is in g
f u nds f o r r e se arc h /h ealth s e rv ic es, a sso cia tio ns f o r t h e h an dic ap p ed )
1 1. P ro fe ssio n al a n d B usin ess a sso cia tio n s (e .g ., c h am bers o f c o m merc e, p ro fe ss io nal
a ss o cia tio ns)
1 2. C om mun it y org an is a tio n s (e .g ., vil la g e asso cia tio ns, neig hbourh ood co m mitt e es,
c o m munity d ev elo p m en t o rg an is a tio ns)
1 3. C om mun it y g ro u ps/a sso cia tio n s (e .g ., fu nera l so cie tie s, se lf h elp g ro ups, p are n ts ’
a ss o cia tio ns)
1 4. E nvir o n m en ta l o rg an is a tio n s
1 5. A rts a n d c u lt u re o rg a n is a tio n s
1 6. A m use m en t a n d s o cia l o rg an is a tio n s a n d s p orts c lu bs
1 7. F ou ndatio n s a n d f u n dra is in g o rg a n is a tio n s

CIV IC U S: C iv il S ocie ty I n dex R ep ort f o r T ogo
2 2

1
8. S u pp ort n etw ork /f e d era tio n /o rg an is a tio n
1 9. S ocia l m ovem en ts ( e .g ., p eo ple w ith out l a n d, m ovem en t f o r p eace)
T w o m ap s hav e been dra w n in co ll a b ora ti o n w ith m em bers of th e SA G th ro u gh a
p arti c ip ativ e p ro cess . T he fir s t is th e m ap o f th e s o cie ty c o nsid ere d g lo b ally a n d th e s e co nd
r e p re se n tin g c iv il s o cie ty e x clu siv ely . T he i n fo rm atio n o n t h e b asis o f w hic h t h e f ir s t m ap w as
d ra w n w as d is a g gre g ate d u p t o t h e b ase l e v el.
B esid es th e th re e g ro u ps o f k ey tr a d itio n al a ctiv is ts , th e S A G a ls o id en tif ie d d ev elo pm en t
p artn ers t h at c o nstitu te a f o urth f o rc e a s a n i m porta n t p artic ip an t i n t h e c o u ntr y ’s d ev elo p m en t
p ro cess . T ogole se so cie ty is co m pose d o f fo u r m ain se cto rs , ra n ked h ere re la tiv e to th e
e v olu tio n o f th e acto rs : th e S ta te , th e P riv ate S ecto r, C iv il S ocie ty an d th e d ev elo p m en t
p artn ers .
I n T ogo, th e a rm y a n d th e s e cu rity f o rc es c o nsti tu te th e d o m in an t s o cia l f o rc e a s th ey c o ntr o l
t h e r e g im e i n p la c e.
T he a d ag e w hic h s a y s th at in o rd er to b e p ro te cte d a g ain st li f e u n ce rta in tie s th ere s h ould b e a
h ig hly r a n ked s o ld ie r, a p asto r o r a m ed ic a l d o cto r w ith in o ne’s f a m ily , il lu str a te s e x actly th e
i m porta n ce g iv en t o t h ese p ro fe ssio n s i n t h e c o un tr y .
T he c u ltu re a n d s o cia l c h oic es o f T ogole se r e fle ct a n im ag e o f p eo ple s e arc h in g c o n sta n tly to
p ro te ct th em se lv es. In th e s a m e li n e, m em bers o f th e S A G id en tif ie d a to ta l o f tw en ty o ne
d if fe re n t fo rc e s co nsid ere d im porta n t. A fte r th e arm y an d th e se cu rit y fo rc es co m e,
r e sp ectiv ely , re lig io us o rg an is a tio ns, em plo y ers ’ o rg an is a tio ns w hic h re p re se n t th e p riv ate
s e c to r, li b era l p ro fe ss io ns s u ch a s th e ju d ic ia ry c o rp s, m ed ic a l d octo rs ’ c o rp s, tr a d e u n io ns,
p oli tic al parti e s an d d ev elo p m en t org an is a tio n s. A to ta l of tw en ty on e fo rc es h av e b een
i d en tif ie d .
T he m ap o f t h e s o cie ty c o nsid ere d g lo bally ( F ig ure I I.2 ) r e fle cts t h e f o llo w in g:
· The T ogo le se S ta te , in its s o vere ig n r o le , r e lie s o n s o cia l f o rc es s u ch a s th e a rm y
a n d th e se cu rit y fo rc es, th e Sta te party an d its ra m if ic atio ns, a nu m ber of
s u p porti n g p o li tic al p artie s, th e ju d ic ia ry c o rp s, a n d th e tr a d itio nal c h ie fta in cy to
r u n th e c o u ntr y . It m ain ta in s ti g h t re la tio ns w it h s o m e p riv ate s e cto r e n te rp ris e s
l e d b y t h e E m plo y ers A sso cia tio n.
· It s e e m s lik e th e p riv ate s e cto r c o m es s e co nd to th e S ta te . A cco rd in g to m em bers
o f t h e S A G , t h e i m porta n ce o f t h e p riv ate s e cto r h in ges o n t h e f a c t th at i t s u p ports
t h e Sta te fin an cia lly th ro ugh ta x pay m en ts an d pro vid es jo bs to th e youth ,
a lth ough t h e p ro fe ss io n al m ark et i n t h e F re e Z one r e m ain s u nsta b le . I t s h ould a ls o
b e m en tio n ed t h at t h e S ta te r e cru its v ery r a re ly .

· Even t h oug h t h ey a re n ot a ll lo ca l s tr u ctu re s, d ev elo p m en t p artn ers a re c o nsid ere d
t o b e th e th ir d so cia l fo rc e o f th e c o untr y . T hey c o nstitu te a p re ssu re g ro u p a s
f in an cia l don ors an d eco no m ic an d so cio -p oliti c al decis io n en tit ie s.

CIV IC U S: C iv il S ocie ty I n dex R ep ort f o r T ogo
23

S T A TE

Polit ic al
p artie s
S ecu rity
f o rc e s Ju dic ia l
b od y
A rm ed
f o rc es

P R IV A TE
S E C TO R
Body o f
E m plo y ers

A rtis ts
L aw yers
M ed ic al
D octo rs
O TH ER
S
Politi c al
p arti e s

J u dic ia ry
b ody
I n te rn ati o n al
O rg an iz ati o ns
F un ds
L oan ers

C IV IL
S O CIE T Y
C om m uni
t y
O rg .

T ra d e
U nio n O rg
.

P easa n ts
O rg .

Y outh
A ss.

W om en ’s
A ss.

S port
A ss.

R elig io us
O rg an is a tio
n s

N G Os

T ra d itio n al

C hie fta in c
y

J o urn alis ts

S ec ts

M ed ic al
D octo rs

F ig u re I I.2 : M APPIN G T H E T O GOLESE S O CIE TY

CIV IC U S: C iv il S ocie ty I n dex R ep ort f o r T ogo
24

F ig u re I I.3 :
M APP IN G
TH E T O GOLESE C IV IL S O CIE TY

V ER Y
I N FL U EN TI
A L
A sso c. f o r t h e
D efe n ce o f
H um an
R ig h ts

R elig io u s
o rg an is a tio n
s

N GO
( 7 )

Sects

J o urn alis ts
( 5 )

I N FL U EN T
I A L

C om munity
b ase
a ss o cia tio ns

P ro fe ssio nal
o rg an is a tio ns

Y outh
a sso cia tio ns
( 5 )

W om en ’s
a sso cia tio ns

T ra d e U nio n
o rg an is a tio n s

T ra d iti o n al
c h ie fs
A sso c. o f
p ers o n s
l iv in g w ith
H IV /S T I

L ESS
I N FL U EN T
I A L

S po rt
A ss o cia tio n
s
A ss o cia tio n
s o f
h an dic ap p e
d p ers o n s
T ra d itio n al
d an ce a n d
m usic
A ss o cia ti o n
s

P easa n ts ’
o rg an is a tio
n s
N B: N um bers i n p are n th esis i n dic ate t h e n u m ber o f t i m es

CIV IC U S: C iv il S ocie ty I n dex R ep ort f o r T ogo
2 5

B ase d on Fig ure II.3 , CSO s are re p re se n te d by vario us N G Os an d asso cia tio ns fo r
d ev elo p m en t, w om en ’s asso cia tio n s, youth ass o cia tio ns, dis a b le d peo p le ’s asso cia ti o n s,
o rg an is a tio n s f o r t h e D efe n ce o f H um an R ig h ts l e d b y t h e T ogole se L eag ue f o r t h e D efe n ce o f
H um an R ig hts (L TD HT), re lig io us o rg an is a tio ns, T ra d e U nio n o rg an is a tio ns a n d th e p riv ate
m ed ia .
R elig io us o rg an is a tio ns h av e alw ay s p la y ed a le ad in g ro le in th e tr a in in g, ed u cati o n an d
p re p ara tio n o f c iti z en s f o r e th ic al a n d s p ir itu al li f e . T hey a re t h e o n es th at c re a te d s c h ools a n d
u nderto ok c o m munity d ev elo p m en t a ctio ns f o r t h e e v olu ti o n o f t h e c o untr y .
I n T og o, T ra d e U nio n o rg an is a tio ns a re p artic u la r i n c o nsid erin g t h em se lv es a s s o cia l f o rc es
a n d n o t p art o f c iv il s o cie ty . A lth ou gh s o m e o f t h em a re c o nsid ere d t o b e s a te ll ite s o f t h e S ta te
w ork in g a g ain st t h e o th ers , t h eir r o le i n d efe n din g w ork ers ’ i n te re sts i s n oti c ea b le . T his i s a ls o
t r u e f o r t h e o th er a c to rs i n c iv il s o cie ty .
I n dep en d en t jo urn alis m e m erg ed w ith th e d em ocra ti c u psu rg e a n d q u ic k ly g ain ed m om en tu m
t o b ec o m e a k ey fo rc e in th e co u ntr y . It p ro vid es citi z en s w it h an alte rn ativ e so u rc e o f
i n fo rm atio n a n d th u s th e p ro sp ec t o f c o m parin g a n d a n aly sin g in fo rm atio n in o rd er to r e ta in
w hat i s e sse n tia l. O ne c an t h en f o rm o ne’s o w n o pin io n a n d p osit io n o nese lf .

S ects to o c a rry a n on n eg li g ib le w eig ht in th e s o cie ty . B ec au se th ey e x ce l in g ood a n d w ro ng
d oin g s, t h e p opula tio n c o nsid er t h em a s n ecess a ry e v ils .
B ec au se th ey sh are th e sa m e obje ctiv es, th ese div ers e org an is a ti o ns en te rta in clo se
r e la tio nsh ip s w ith e ach o th er b ut a re fa cin g e n orm ous d if f ic u lti e s in g en era tin g a w ork in g
s y nerg y f o r c o m mon a ctio ns i n f a v o ur o f t h e “ n o v oic e” a n d t h e T ogole se g en era l i n te re st.
R ela tio ns a m ong id en tif ie d k ey a cto rs o f th e T ogole se s o cie ty a n d w ith in c iv il s o cie ty a re n ot
a lw ay s g ood. T hey a re ta in te d w ith a h eg em on y c h ara c te ris e d b y th e d ic ta te o f th e s tr o n g est.
E ach a c to r fig h ts fo r th e la rg est s h are o f th e fu n din g w it h ou t a n y c o nsid era tio n fo r th e re al
n eed s o f th e p opula tio n a n d its d eep est a sp ir a tio ns. T hus it b eco m es im porta n t to k now w ho
r e a lly r e p re se n ts t h e i n te re sts o f t h e p opula tio n.

CIV IC U S: C iv il S ocie ty I n dex R ep ort f o r T ogo
2 6
I II ANALY SIS O F C IV IL S O CIE TY
This se ctio n a n aly se s th e in fo rm atio n a n d d ata c o lle c te d d u rin g th e im ple m en ta tio n o f th e
p ro je ct. T he a n aly sis fo cu se s o n in div id u al in d ic ato rs , d im en sio ns a n d s u bdim en sio ns. E ach
i n dic ato r a p pra is e s w hat is c o nsid ere d “ a s p ec if ic a n d im porta n t a sp ec t o f th e s ta te o f c iv il
s o cie ty ”. G iv en t h e e x te n t o f th e is s u es a d d re sse d in t h e p ro je ct, w e w ere f o rc e d t o d eep en t h e
a n aly sis o f s o m e i n d ic ato rs a n d n ot o th ers .

F ollo w in g th e C SI dim en sio ns (S tr u ctu re , E nv ir o n m en t, V alu es an d Im pact) , P art III is
o rg an is e d in f o ur s e ctio n s. E ach s e c tio n is illu str a te d w ith a f ig ure b ase d o n th e S co re o f e a ch
s u bdim en sio n. T he S co re s v ary fro m 0 to 3 . F ir s t, a g en era l c o m men t o n e a ch d im en sio n’s
f ig ure is pre se n te d , fo llo w ed by co m men ts on ta b le s co nta in in g su bdim en sio ns an d
c o rre sp ondin g m easu re s.

1 . ST R UCTU RE
The n otio n o f a c iv il s o cie ty ’s s tr u ctu re ( s iz e, c o m positio n , f o rm a n d o utl in e) w as e x te n siv ely
e x pla in ed in th e li te ra tu re (S ala m on 1 999, W elz el 1 999, B ra tto n 1 994 : 2 ). T his d im en sio n
i n clu d es a cto rs w ith in th e d y nam ic s p ac e o f c iv il s o cie ty , th e m ain c h ara cte ris ti c s a n d th eir
i n te r-re la tio ns.
T his s e ctio n g iv es a g en era l g lim pse o f th e s tr u ctu re o f T og ole se C iv il S ocie ty a n d a n aly se s
i ts m ain c o m ponen ts . T he 6 id en tif ie d c o m ponen ts a re e v alu ate d o n th e b asis o f th eir siz e,
s tr e n gth a n d d y nam is m w it h r e sp ec t t o h u m an , o rg an is a tio n al a n d e co no m ic a sp ec ts .
T he S co re 1 .0 o b ta in ed b y th e d im en sio n ‘ s tr u ctu re ’ o n a sc ale o f 0 to 3 , in dic ate s a w eak
o rg an is a tio n al l e v el.
T he fig ure b elo w p re se n ts th e S co re s a ss ig ned to th e six su bdim en sio ns o f th e ‘s tr u ctu re ’
d im en sio n. T hese s u bdim en sio n s a re r e la te d to th e d eg re e o r in te n sity o f c iti z en p arti c ip atio n,
t h e d ep th o f c iti z en p artic ip ati o n, a n d t h e d iv ers ity o f c iv il s o cie ty , i t s l e v el o f o rg an is a tio n, i ts
i n te r-re la tio ns a n d r e so u rc es.

CIV IC U S: C iv il S ocie ty I n dex R ep ort f o r T ogo
2 7
FIG UR E I II .1 .1 : S u bd im en sio n s c o res i n “ S tr u ctu re ” d im en sio n
1.2 2
1
.3
1
0
.5
0
0
1 2
Bre ad th o f c iti z e n p artic ip atio n
D
ep th o f c iti z e n p artic ip atio n
D
iv ers ity o f c iv il s o cie ty
p artic ip an ts
L
ev el o f o rg an is a tio n
I
n te r-r e la tio ns
R
eso urc e s
Str u ctu re D im en sio n
S co re

1 .1 T he b re a d th o f c it iz en p artic ip atio n
This in dic ato r m easu re s th e le v el o f v ario us f o rm s o f T ogole se c iv il s o cie ty . F or th e p urp ose
o f t h e a n aly sis , a t o ta l n u m ber o f f iv e ( 5 ) s u b-in dic ato rs l is te d i n T ab le I II.1 .1 w ere i d en ti f ie d .
T
A BLE II I.1 .1 : I n d ic a to rs a sse ss in g t h e b re a d th o f c it iz e n p artic ip atio n
Ref. # I n dic ato rs S co re
1 .1 .1 N o n-p artis a n p o lit ic a l a ctio n 1
1.1 .2 C harita b le g iv in g 1
1.1 .3 C SO m em bers h ip 1
1.1 .4 V olu nte e r w ork 1
1.1 .5 C om munity a c tio n 2

1 .1 .1 . N on-p artis a n p oliti c a l a ctio n. T his i n dic ato r a sse ss e s t h e p erc en ta g e o f t h e
p opula tio n t a k in g p art i n n on p artis a n p oliti c al a ctio ns s u ch a s w rit in g t o a j o urn al, j o in in g a
m arc h o r s ig nin g a p etiti o n i n o rd er t o m an if e st a d is a g re e m en t w ith a n e v en t, a p o li ti c al o r
a d m in is tr a ti v e d ecis io n c o nsid ere d u nacc ep ta b le b y t h e s o cie ty i n g en era l.
T he T ogole se c iv ili a n s r a re ly c o nd uct t h ese t y pes o f a ctio ns, a lth oug h s o m e v ery t i m id a ctio ns
h av e b een o bse rv ed ( a lth ough t h ey h ad n o i m pact o n g ov ern m en t’ s d ecis io ns).

I n th e d aily n ew sp ap er T ogo P re sse (o n 1 1/0 8 /2 005, p ag e 5 ), F elix S E K OU re p orte d th at
w om en c o rn tr a d ers p ro te ste d to th e “ F ood S ec u rity O bse rv ato ry in T ogo” (O SA T) a n d th e
M in is tr y o f T ra d e a g ain st s o ld ie rs ’ in su rg en cie s in th e m ark ets to s e iz e s to ck s o f c o rn in o rd er
t o i m pose a s e llin g p ric e.
I n th e sa m e p ap er (o n 2 5/0 7/2 005, p ag e 9 ), A le x an dre G OLI re p orte d th at a d ele g ati o n o f
U GSL a n d w om en d ea lin g in th e tr a d e o f c lo th w ere in vo lv ed in a d em onstr a tio n to re q u est
t h e i m pro v em en t o f T og o c iv il s e rv an ts ’ s ta n dard o f l i v in g.

CIV IC U S: C iv il S ocie ty I n dex R ep ort f o r T ogo
2 8
G aso lin e p ric es d ouble d b etw een 2 004 a n d 2 005 w ith out a n y d em onstr a tio n s o r p ro te sts b y
t h e p opula tio n e x cep t s o m e ta lk in g h ere a n d th ere . N ev erth ele ss, a c o uple o f ta x i- m oto r id ers
( h undre d s), k now n lo cally a s “ ze m id ja n s” , d em onstr a te d a g ain st th e in cre ase in th e g aso lin e
p ric e.
I t is a ls o w orth re p o rti n g th e re co m men datio n s o f th e N atio nal S ocia l F oru m (M arc h 1 3 -1 7 ,
2 006) r e q uestin g a r e d u ctio n i n g aso lin e p ric es, a r e ad ju stm en t o f t h e s a la ry i n dex , a n i n cre ase
i n w ork in g h ours a n d fix in g th e re tir e m en t a g e a t 6 0. B ecau se o f th e w eak o rg an is a tio nal
s tr u ctu re o f T ogole se c iv il s o cie ty , a ll t h ese a ctio ns w ere l im ite d t o L om e, t h e c ap ita l c ity .
A fte r o ver 4 0 y ears s p en t u nd er th e s a m e re g im e a n d a o n e p arty s y ste m , T ogo le se c it iz en s
h av e n o t a c q uir e d th e h ab it o f u nderta k in g n on p artis a n p o li ti c al a ctio ns; e v en if th ere h as
b een a s u cce ssio n o f t i m id n on p artis a n a c tio ns s in ce t h e d ea th o f P re sid en t E yad ém a.
T he in d ic a to r c o nsid ere d h ere w as a ttr ib u te d th e S co re 1 w hic h , o n th e b asis o f th e s c o rin g
m atr ix , illu str a te s th e fa ct th at o n ly a m in o rity o f th e m em bers o f c iv il s o cie ty (T ab le III.1 )
p arti c ip ate o r j o in n on p arti s a n p o li tic al a ctio ns.

1 .1 .2 . C harita ble G iv in g. T o t h is d ay i t i s d if fic u lt t o o bta in s ta ti s ti c s o n p eo ple w ho a re
r e g ula rly i n volv ed i n c h arity w ork . T he m ain r e aso n i s t h e n on-e x is te n ce o f a l is t o r d ata b ase
o f c h arity g iv ers . T he d if fic u lty o f g ain in g a cc ess t o r e lig io us o rg an is a tio n s’ a c co untin g b o oks
m ad e i t e v en h ard er t o e v alu ate t h e i n co m e o f t h o se w ho e n g ag e i n c h arita b le a ctio ns i n T ogo.
M ost g if ts a re u su ally o ffe re d i n c h ap els a n d m osq ues a n d t h eir g iv ers r e m ain u nkno w n. A s
o ne T ogo le se M uslim L ead er p uts i t, “ W hen t h e r ig ht h and g iv es, t h e l e ft h and s h ould n’t
k n ow ”.
I t is a c o m m on b eh av io u r o f th ese s tr u ctu re s n ot t o d iv ulg e in fo rm atio n o n th e v alu e ( a m oun t,
s iz e, e tc .) o f th e g if ts o r th e n am es o f th e d ono rs . T houg h th e C harity O rg an is a tio n fo r a n
I n te g ra l D ev elo p m en t ( C O ID ) p osse ss e s s o m e d ata , it d o es n o t d iv u lg e th e d ata . A cco rd in g t o
T ogo P re sse of M ay 20
th 20 02, th e re li g io us popula tio n acco un ts fo r 60% of th e to ta l
p opula tio n. I t e m erg ed f ro m d is c u ss io ns o n th e g ra d in g o f in d ic ato rs th at 2 5% o f th e r e lig io u s
p opula tio n o ffe rs c h arity r e g ula rly . T hus, th ere is a n u rg en t n eed to s tu dy th e p hen o m en o n in
t h e n ear f u tu re i n o rd er t o c o lle c t a cc u ra te d ata .
D esp it e th is , it w as c o nsid ere d b y m ost o f t h e s ta k eh old ers c o nsu lt e d , in clu din g th e S A G, t h at
j u st a m in ority o f c iv il s o cie ty m em bers (ta b le III.1 .1 ) d onate s in th e fra m ew ork o f c h arity
c a m paig n s o n a r e g u la r b asis .

1 .1 .3 . C SO M em bersh ip . A cco rd in g to a s u rv ey o n th e in fo rm al s e cto r c o ndu cte d b y th e
O ffic e o f S ta tis tic s a n d N atio n al A cco untin g ( D G SC N ), o ver 3 9% o f th e p opula tio n b elo ng ed
t o a C SO in 2 002. T he s a m e t e n d en cy w as f ir s t s p otte d tw o y ears e a rlie r in a s tu dy o n F am ily
M ig ra tio n a n d U rb an is a ti o n in T og o c o nducte d b y th e D em ogra p hic R ese arc h U nit (U RD ).
A cco rd in g to th at s tu dy , 4 2% o f th e p opula tio n b elo ng ed to a C SO . G iv en th e e x plo sio n o f
a sso cia tio ns a n d N GO s, a n i m porta n t p ro portio n o f t h e p opula tio n b ecam e m em bers o f a t l e ast
o ne C SO . T hese a re , fo r e x am ple , P are n ts A sso cia tio n s, V il la g e D ev elo p m en t C om mit te es
a n d o th er g ra ss ro ots o rg an is a tio ns. F urth er re se arc h n eed s to b e co nd ucte d to ass e ss th is
i n dic ato r m ore i n d ep th .

CIV IC U S: C iv il S ocie ty I n dex R ep ort f o r T ogo
2 9
F ig u re I I I.1 .2 : M em ber sh ip i n d if f e r en t t y p es o f C SO

1 .1 .4 V olu nte e r w ork . V olu nte eris m , w hic h i s g en era lly d efin ed a s t h e a ct o f a ssis tin g a
n eig hbour o r a m em ber o f t h e c o m munity w ith out r e m un era tio n, i s n ot m uch p ra ctic ed i n
T ogo . B are ly 3 0% o f t h e p opu la tio n p ra cti c es i t ( 2 8.6 % , E FA M TO ; 2 000 ). I t i s r a th er m utu al-
h elp ( s e lf -h elp ) t h at i s m ostl y p ra ctic ed . F or e x am ple , h elp in g a n eig h bo ur t o b uild o r r e sto re
h is /h er h ou se i s c o nsid ere d a s m utu al h elp s in ce t h e o n e h elp in g m ay a ls o b e h elp ed i n t h e
f u tu re . O f n ote i s t h at t h is p ra ctic e i s m ore c o m mon i n r u ra l a re as t h an i n u rb an a re as.
W e n eed to s ig nal th at a f o rm alis a ti o n o f th e p ra ctic e o f v o lu nte eris m is u nderw ay th an k s to
t h e P R O VO NA T pro je ct. A cco rd in g to th e U NDP R ep re se n ta ti o n in T ogo, an in -d ep th
a n aly sis o f t h e T ogole se c o nte x t h as r e v eale d t w o o bstr u cti n g f a cto rs t o t h e i m ple m en ta tio n o f
a n atio n al v olu nte er p ro g ra m m e. T hese a re th e la ck o f a h arm on is e d c o ncep t o f a n atio n al
v olu n te er a n d th e re la te d g en era l n o rm s (R ep ort o n th e P ro m otio n o f N atio nal V olu n te eris m
i n T ogo; P R O VONA T)
O nly a m in o rity o f t h e p opula tio n e n gag es i n c o m munity c o lle cti v e a ctiv itie s a s v olu nte ers .

1 .1 .5 C oll e c tiv e c o m munity a ctio ns. I n T ogo, c o lle ctiv e c o m munity a c tio ns a re a
t r a d itio n i n v il la g es a n d g ra ssro ots c o m munit ie s. T his t r a d itio n s till l i v es o n t o d ay a s
c o m munitie s c o lle c tiv ely t a k e a d ay o ff f ro m f a rm w ork w hic h t h ey u se f o r t h e c le an in g o f
c e m ete rie s a n d o th er p ub lic p la ces.
F arm ers o rg an is e th em se lv es to c u ltiv ate c o m munit y fa rm s c o lle c tiv ely a n d th ey u ti lis e th e
i n co m e g en era te d t o f in an ce t h e d ev elo p m en t a ctiv it ie s o f t h e a re a.
A cco rd in g t o T ogo P re sse ( 0 7/1 1 /2 0 05), c lo se t o 3 3% o f t h e p opula tio n t a k es p art i n c o ll e ctiv e
a ctio ns. T he p erc en ta g e o f m em bers o f c iv il s o cie ty t h at p ra cti c e i t i s h ig her. S ev era l e x am ple s
c o nfir m th is fa ct. Y ou th a ss o cia tio n s lik e “ B on ne S em en ce ” b rin g to geth er th eir m em bers
f ro m t i m e t o t i m e t o c le a n u p c erta in n eig hbourh o ods o f L om e.
W hen o rg an is e d s im ulta n eo usly i n a ll t h e n eig hb ourh ood s o f t h e c ity , t h ese c o ll e ctiv e c le an in g
o pera tio ns are calle d “O pera tio n C le an L om e C ity ” an d , w hen gen era lis e d to th e w hole
23.8
5 .2
1 .2 1 .7
0
5
1 0
15
20
25
Self- hel p
A ssoc iati ons
A ssoc iati ons for
p romo ting sma ll p rofe ssio ns I
nte rnat iona l
Asso ciat ions O
ther

A sso cia tio n
Perc en ta g e ( % ) o f m em bers

CIV IC U S: C iv il S ocie ty I n dex R ep ort f o r T ogo
3 0
co un tr y , th ey b eco m e “ O pera tio n C le an T og o”. D urin g th ese o pera tio n s, c o m munit ie s c le an
s tr e ets , s e w ers a n d o th er p ubli c p la ces. T hese o pera tio ns a re g en era lly d one o n ce a m onth o r
b efo re b ig e v en ts o r c e le b ra tio ns.
F ollo w in g th e c la ss if ic ati o n d esc rib ed in th e in dex m atr ix , th e in d ic ato r r e c eiv ed th e S co re 2
w hic h ill u str a te s th e fa ct th at a sig nif ic an t pro portio n of th e popula ti o n (T ab le III .1 .1 )
p arti c ip ate s i n c o ll e cti v e c o m munity a ctio ns t o s o lv e c o m munity p ro ble m s.

1 .2 D ep th o f C it iz en P artic ip atio n i n c iv il s o cie ty
T his su bdim en sio n u nders c o re s th e d ep th o f th e v ario us fo rm s o f cit iz en p artic ip atio n in
T ogo ’s c iv il s o cie ty . I t a ls o a ss e ss e s t h e f re q u en cy a n d e x te n t o f T ogole se c o m mitm en t t o c iv il
s o cie ty a ctiv itie s.
T
A BLE I II.1 .2 : I n d ic a to rs a ss e ssin g d ep th o f c it iz en p artic ip atio n
R ef. # In dic a to rs S co re
1 .2 .1 C harit a b le G iv in g –
1.2 .2 V olu n te e rin g –
1.2 .3 C SO m em bers h ip 2

1 .2 .1 C harita ble g iv in g . T his i n dic ato r h ig hli g hts t h e p erc en ta g e o f p eo ple w ho p ra cti c e
c h arity f r e q uen tly o r o nce a y ear o n a v era g e. T he e x is tin g d ata w as i n su ffic ie n t t o s c o re t h is
i n dic ato r.

1 .2 .2 V olu n te erin g. T his in dic ato r e v alu ate s th e a v era g e n u m ber o f h ou rs v olu nte ers s p en d
o n v olu nte er w ork p er m onth . T he e x is tin g d ata w as i n su ffic ie n t t o s c o re t h is i n dic ato r.

1 .2 .3 M ult ip le C SO m em bers h ip . T he r e su lts o f a s u rv ey o f t h e i n fo rm al s e cto r i n L om e
a n d i ts e n v ir o n m en ts , c o nducte d b y t h e G en era l D iv is io n o f N atio n al A cco untin g a n d
S ta tis tic s, r e v eale d t h at o ver 3 9% o f t h e p opu la tio n l i v in g i n L om e b elo ng t o a c iv il s o cie ty
o rg an is a tio n . O f t h ese , 2 6.3 % b elo n g t o m ore t h an o ne C SO .
T he S co re 2 a ttr ib u te d t o t h e in d ic a to r r e v eals th at f e w m em bers o f c iv il s o cie ty o rg an is a ti o ns
a re m em bers o f m ore t h an o n e C SO .

1 .3 . D iv ersit y o f C iv il S erv ic e p artic ip atio n
T his se c tio n d eals w ith th e re p re se n ta tio n o f th e c iv il so cie ty a re n a a n d a ls o a n aly se s th e
r e p re se n ta tio n o f c e rta in s o cia l g ro u ps i n t h e a cti o ns o f c iv il s o cie ty .
T
A BLE I II.1 .3 : I n d ic a to rs a ss e ssin g t h e d iv ersit y o f c iv il s o cie ty p artic ip atio n
R ef. # In dic a to rs S co re
1 .3 .1 R ep re se n ta tio n o f s o cia l g ro u ps a m on g C SO m em bers 2
1 .3 .2 R ep re se n ta tio n o f s o cia l g ro u ps a m on g C SO l e a d ers h ip 1
1.3 .3 D is tr ib utio n o f C SO s a ro un d t h e c o untr y 1

1 .3 .1 R ep re se n ta tio n o f s o cia l g ro ups a m ong C SO m em bers . T he im porta n t s o cia l
g ro ups (w om en , y ou th , h an d ic ap p ed ) a re u nd erre p re se n te d in C SO s. In T ogo, d ev elo p m en t
p artn ers a re tu rn in g th eir a tte n tio n to w ard s s e v era l a sso cia ti o ns o f h an d ic ap ped p ers o ns a n d

CIV IC U S: C iv il S ocie ty I n dex R ep ort f o r T ogo
3 1
w om en ’s gro ups (G ro up of O bse rv atio n on W om en an d D em ocra cy , G FD 2). Y et, as
c o m pare d t o a ll C SO s, t h ese s o cia l g ro ups a re a m in o rit y .
H ow ev er, th ese s o cia l g ro ups w ere fo rm ed s p ecif ic all y o n th e b asis o f a ffin iti e s in o rd er to
d efe n d th eir o w n in te re sts . C onse q u en tly , w e c a n d is tin guis h g ro ups o f h an dic ap p ed p ers o ns,
w om en a n d y oung p eo ple , e tc ., w hic h w ere c re ate d b y t h eir m em bers .
T he p rin cip le o f co -o ptin g so m e C SO s to ta lk a n d d ecid e o n b eh alf o f th e w hole so cie ty
w ith o ut th e c o nse n t o f o th ers w eak en s th e ro le o f c erta in s ig nif ic an t v o ic e le ss s o cia l g ro ups.
F or ex am ple , th e re g im e in pla ce co -o pte d tw o w om en ’s org an is a tio ns, th e G ro u p of
O bse rv atio n o n W om en a n d D em ocra cy ( G FD 2), a n d th e A fric an N etw ork o f F orm er F em ale
M in is te rs a n d P arlia m en ta ria n s (R EFA M P), to p arti c ip ate in th e o rg an is a tio n o f p re sid en tia l
e le ctio ns a n d t h e n atio n al d ia lo gu e. T hese C SO s a re o fte n c h ose n b ase d o n t h eir r e la tio n s w it h
t h e l e ad ers h ip o f t h e c o u ntr y a n d d ev elo p m en t p artn ers .
T he S co re a ttr ib u te d to th is in dic a to r p oin ts o ut th e f a c t th at s e v era l s ig n if ic an t s o cia l g ro ups
a re u nd er r e p re se n te d w ith in t h e c o u ntr y ’s C SO s.

1 .3 .2 L ea dersh ip in C SO s. T his in dic ato r m easu re s th e ex te n t of re p re se n ta ti o n of
s ig nif ic an t s o cia l g ro ups w ith in t h e l e ad ers h ip o f C SO s.
W ith in m ix ed C SO s, im porta n t s o cia l g ro ups a re n o t o fte n r e p re se n te d in th e le ad ers h ip . T he
a b se n ce o f w om en h old in g m an ag eria l p ositio ns m ay b e a r e su lt o f th e in flu en ce o f c u sto m s,
c o m mon p ra cti c es a n d f a m ily e d ucati o n o n t h e d ev elo p m en t o f w om en a n d y ou ng g ir ls .
A ctu ally , in m ore th an s ix C SO s o u t o f te n (6 6% ), o nly 2 5 % o f fe m ale m em bers a re b ein g
r e p re se n te d o n t h e b oard s o f d ir e c to rs ( A SM EN E, 2 005). E ven a t t h at l e v el, t h ey u su ally s e rv e
a s tr e asu re rs o r a d vis e rs . I t is a ls o r a re f o r th e y ou th to s e rv e in le ad ers h ip p ositi o ns in C SO s
m ain ly c o m pose d o f a d ult s . F in ally , it is d if fic u lt f o r a c iti z en to s e rv e a s a le ad er in a n e th n ic
g ro up d if fe re n t f ro m h is /h er o w n.

M ore o ver, C SO s a re e li tis t ( c o m pose d o f th e e lite a n d in te lle ctu als ) o rg an is a tio ns b ase d in th e
c ap ita l city an d m ain ta in in g re g u la r w ork in g re la tio ns w ith th e Sta te A dm in is tr a tio n’s
t e ch n ic a l s e rv ic es a n d d ev elo p m en t p artn ers . T hey te n d to s p eak f o r th e w ho le o f c iv il s o cie ty
w ith o ut t h e c o n se n t o f t h eir c o un te rp arts . T hus, s o cia l g ro u ps s u ch a s r u ra l a c to rs , p o or p eo ple
a n d m in oriti e s w ith n o a cce ss to th ese e lit is t g ro u ps a re n ot r e p re se n te d a n d d o n ot p arti c ip ate
i n t h e l e ad ers h ip o f t h ese C SO s.

1 .3 .3 D is tr ib utio n o f C SO a ro und t h e c o untr y . T his i n dic a to r in fo rm s th e r e ad er o f t h e
r e g io n al r e p re se n ta tio n o f C SO s w ith in t h e T ogo le se b ord ers .
A cco rd in g to a s tu dy d o ne b y th e W orld B an k o n th e E valu atio n o f C iv il S ocie ty in T ogo ,
6 3% o f N GO s are b ase d in th e M arit i m e re g io n , in clu d in g L om e, w here 5 3% h av e th eir
h ead quarte rs . T he U N DP re p ort o n N GO s D ura b le H um an D ev elo p m en t p ublis h ed in 2 00 4
d efin ed t h e r e g io n al d is tr ib utio n o f N GO s a s f o ll o w s:
– M ariti m e R eg io n 50%
– P la te au x R eg io n 15%
– C en tr a l R eg io n 12,5 %
– K ara R eg io n 12,5 %
– S av an nah R eg io n 10%

CIV IC U S: C iv il S ocie ty I n dex R ep ort f o r T ogo
3 2
E ach r e g io n ’s p opula tio n c o un t i s a s f o ll o w s:
– M ariti m e R eg io n 2.9 00.0 00
– P la te au x R eg io n 870.0 00
– C en tr a l R eg io n 725.0 00
– K ara R eg io n 696.0 00
– S av an nah R eg io n 609.0 00
T ra d e U nio n o rg an is a tio ns a re m ostl y p re se n t i n L om e a n d s e co nd ary c it ie s b ut n o t i n r u ra l
a re as.
T ab le I II.1 .3 r e v eals t h at C SO s a re a d eq u ate ly r e p re se n te d i n a ll a re as o f t h e c o untr y , i .e . r u ra l
a n d urb an are as, but th ey are ra th er co n cen tr a te d in urb an are as. T hus, C SO s are very
i n eq u it a b ly d is tr ib u te d w ith in T og o c o n cen tr a te d m ostly i n c o asta l a n d u rb an a re as.

1 .4 T he o rg an is a tio n al l e v el
T his s u bdim en sio n e v alu ate s t h e d en sit y o f t h e r e la tio nsh ip b etw een C SO s a n d t h eir u m bre lla
b odie s i n T ogo a n d a b ro ad . T ab le I II.1 .5 s h ow s t h e l e v els o f t h e i n dic ato rs .
T ab le I II .1 .4 : I n dic a to rs a sse ss in g t h e l e v el o f o rg an is a tio n s
R ef. # In dic a to rs S co re
1 .4 .1 E xis te n ce o f u m bre lla b o die s 1
1 .4 .2 E ffe c tiv en ess o f u m bre ll a b od ie s 2
1 .4 .3 S elf -re g ula tio n w ith in c iv il s o cie ty * 1
1.4 .4 S upport i n fra str u ctu re 1
1 .4 .5 I n te rn atio n al l in k ag es 0

1 .4 .1 E xis te n ce o f u m bre ll a b o die s. A lm ost h alf ( 4 6% ) o f th e N G Os o pera ti n g in T og o
b elo ng to a fe d era tio n, a n etw ork o r a n u m bre lla b ody . F or e x am ple , o u t o f th e 4 15 N G Os
o pera tin g le g ally in T ogo , 1 04 a re a ffil i a te d to F O NG TO , 8 5 to U ONGTO , a n d th e o th er 2 26
h av e n o a ffilia tio n. ( E le c tr o nic D ir e cto ry o f N GO s).

1 .4 .2 E ff e ctiv en ess o f C SO u m bre ll a b odie s. T his in d ic a to r lo oks a t th e r e p re se n ta tio n
a n d th e d eg re e o f d y nam is m a n d o p era tin g e ffic ie n cy o f C SO s in th e f ra m ew ork o f th eir o w n
o bje ctiv es.
A cco rd in g to th e r e p ort o n N GO s c o nsu lta tiv e r o und p re p are d b y th e F re n ch A sso cia tio n f o r
P ro gre ss V olu nte ers (A FV P, 2 002), six so cia l a cto rs o u t o f te n b eli e v e th at F O NGTO is
e ffe c tiv e in re a ch in g its g o als . H ow ev er, th e m ajo rity o f C SO s th in k th at u m bre ll a b o die s
s h ould b e c lo se r t o t h eir m em bers a n d a ssis t t h em i n t h eir f u ndra is in g e ffo rts .

T here a re p ro fe ssio nal o rg an is a tio n s a m ong st C SO s s u ch a s th e fo llo w in g u m bre lla b o d ie s:
R A FIA , 3A SC , SA R-A FR IQ U E, SC O RE-C , CA M PA GNE des HOM M ES, RA D I,
C O M PA GNO N E U RO , A DETO P, S O TO PR O DER , A PG A e tc . A ll th ese a sso cia tio ns h av e
m aste re d t h e m an u al o f p ro ced ure s a n d i n te rn al r e g ula tio ns a n d a re e ffe ctiv e o n t h e f ie ld .

1 .4 .3 S elf- r e g ula tio n w ith in C iv il S ocie ty . T his in dic ato r e sti m ate s th e e x te n t o f C SO s’
s e lf r e g u la tio n. A lm ost h alf ( 4 9% ) o f th ese o rg an is a tio ns m eet th e s e lf r e g ula tio n c o nditio ns
( 4 9.1 % ; E le ctr o n ic d ir e cto ry o f N G Os o pera ti n g in T ogo ). B esid es th e sta tu s a n d in te rn al

CIV IC U S: C iv il S ocie ty I n dex R ep ort f o r T ogo
3 3
re g ula tio n s re q uir e d fo r o ffic ia l c le ara n ce o f N G Os b y th e S ta te , C SO s h av e s o m e in te rn al
r e g ula tio n m ech an is m s. T hey usu ally ta k e th e sh ap e of in te rn al ad m in is tr a tiv e m an u als ,
a cco un tin g p ro ced ure s a n d a n in te rn al c o d e o f c o ndu ct. H ow ev er, th e in te rn al p ro ced ure s a n d
i n te rn al re g ula tio ns are n ot alw ay s ap pli e d an d re sp ecte d . A cc o rd in g to a m ajo rity (8 4% ,
E le ctr o nic D ir e c to ry o f N G Os o pera ti n g in T ogo) o f p eo p le in te rv ie w ed w ith in C SO s, th e
r e sp ect f o r t h ese t e x ts i s a p ro ble m a n d t h eir r a te o f a p plic atio n i s v ery l o w .
M ost acto rs an d dev elo p m en t partn ers lik e th e U ND P, th e W orld B an k, F O NG TO , an d
U ON GTO ack now le d g e th e u rg en cy fo r an eth ic al an d d eo nto lo gic al co d e fo r th e act o f
a sso cia tin g i n to a n o rg an is e d g ro up i n o rd er t o s tr e n gth en t h eir c re d ib ilit y .

1 .4 .4 S uppo rt in fr a str u ctu re . T his in d ic a to r a n aly se s th e s u pport in fra str u ctu re a v aila b le
t o C SO s i n T ogo a n d t h eir e ffe ctiv en ess.
T he su pport in fra str u ctu re s a v aila b le to c iv il so cie ty in T ogo a re in su ffic ie n t, th ou gh s o m e
l ik e th e C A FO P ( U CJG c en tr e ) o f B ag b é, F O PA D ESC a n d O IC o f N ots é a re o p era tio n al a n d
e ffe c tiv e. T heir activ iti e s en co m pass th e tr a in in g o f y ou th in ag ro -p asto ra l ac tiv iti e s, th e
p ro fe ssio nal re in te g ra tio n o f th e y ou th , tr a in in g fo r m em bers o f T ra d e U nio n o rg an is a ti o ns
a n d t h e h osti n g o f y ou ng p eo ple .
T his in d ic ato r re v ea ls th e e x is te n ce o f v ery fe w su pport in fra str u ctu re s fo r c iv il so cie ty in
T ogo .

1 .4 .5 I n te rn ati o n al lin ka g es. T his in dic ato r in fo rm s o n th e r e la tio nsh ip b etw een C SO s in
T ogo an d oth ers w ith in th e in te rn atio n al are n a. A very li m it e d nu m ber of C SO s hav e
i n te rn ati o n al a lli a n ces ( E le ctr o nic D ir e cto ry ).
I t is w orth n oti c in g th at T ra d e U nio ns, r e lig io us o rg an is a tio ns a n d th e m ed ia h av e d ev elo p ed
p artn ers h ip re la tio ns o u ts id e th e c o untr y . F or e x am ple , th e W EST A FR IC A N N ET W ORK
F O R E D U CA TIO N & P E A CE fo r c o nflic t p re v en tio n a n d W AO-A FR IQ UE a n d P la n T og o
a g ain st ch ild ab u se are m em bers of netw ork s all o ver th e w orld . T he fir s t so cia l fo ru m
o rg an iz ed by Tra d e U nio ns, held in D ece m ber 2005, w as fu nded by Tra d e U nio n
o rg an is a tio n s a ffilia te d t o C ath olic c h urc h es i n B elg iu m , F ra n ce, e tc .
T he s c o re a ttr ib ute d t o t h is in dic ato r i llu str a te s t h e f a ct th at o nly a s m all n u m ber o f C SO s h av e
i n te rn ati o n al a ll ia n ces, a s it u atio n th at d oes n ot f a cilit a te th e e m erg en ce a n d p ro m otio n o f c iv il
s o cie ty o rg an is a tio n s i n t h e c o untr y .

1 .5 I n te r rela tio n s w it h in c iv il s o cie ty
T his s e ctio n u nders c o re s th e c o m munic a tio n le v el b etw een C SO m em bers a n d a n aly se s th e
f lo w o f i n fo rm atio n a m ong t h em . T he t w o i n d ic ato rs u se d f o r t h at p urp ose a re p re se n te d i n t h e
f o ll o w in g t a b le .

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3 4
TA BLE II I.1 .5 : I n d ic a to rs a sse ss in g t h e r e la tio n sh ip w it h in c iv il s o cie ty
R ef. # In dic a to rs S co re
1 .5 .1 C om munic ati o n b etw een C SO s 0
1 .5 .2 C oo pera tio n/b u ild in g a ll ia n ce s 1

1 .5 .1 C om munic a tio n betw een C SO s. T ab le III.1 .6 re v eals a te n d en cy to w ard s
i n fo rm atio n re te n tio n w ith in civ il so cie ty in T ogo an d th e la ck of ex perie n ce sh arin g.
O rg an is in g r e tr e ats to e n ab le d is c u ss io ns o n th e c h alle n g es in th e f ie ld o f d ev elo p m en t o ffe rs
v alu ab le ex ch an ge o pp ortu nit ie s to ac to rs o f c iv il so cie ty an d th eir d ev elo pm en t p artn ers .
U nfo rtu nate ly , d ue t o t h e l a ck o f f in an cia l m ea n s, t h ese g ath erin g s a re n ot o rg an is e d r e g ula rly .
A cco rd in g to a s tu d y c o nducte d b y th e W orld B an k: H is to ric a l, le g a l, c u ltu ra l a nd e co n om ic
c o nte xt o f th e civ il so cie ty in T ogo, Ju n e 2 00 4, th e le v el o f co lla b ora tio n b etw een lo cal,
n atio n al a n d in te rn atio n al N GO s is v ery w eak . T he s a m e p atte rn is o bse rv ed w ith in th e a cto rs
o f T og ole se c iv il s o cie ty .

1 .5 .2 C oopera tio n/b u ild in g a ll ia nce. T he W orld B an k s tu dy m en tio n ed a b o ve re v ea ls
t h at C SO s d o n o t c o opera te m uch in o rd er to c o nstr u ct u ltim ate a lli a n ces. T he r e p ort f ro m th e
N GO s C onsu lt a tio n T our, pub li s h ed by FO NG TO in 2002, re v ea ls th at 52% of th ose
i n te rv ie w ed (in 13 5 N GOs an d A sso cia tio ns) on th is is su e ag re ed on th e ex is te n ce of
c o op era tio n a m ongst N GO s. A noth er W orld B an k s tu dy th at e v alu ate d T ogole se c iv il s o cie ty
i n 2 004 r e v eale d th at o n ly 2 3 % o f t h o se in te rv ie w ed w ere a ffir m ativ e c o ncern in g th e f a c t th at
C SO s c o opera te .
W hils t t h e W orld B an k s tu dy c o vere d t h e w hole o f c iv il s o cie ty , F on t’ s r e p ort f o cu se d o n ly o n
i ts m em bers a n d s o m e n o n-m em ber N GO s.
I n c o nclu sio n, f e w a cto rs a n d o rg an is a tio ns o f c iv il s o cie ty c o ll a b ora te to d eal w ith is su es o f
c o m mon in te re st. M ost a lli a n ces h av e to p ut u p w ith c o nfli c ts o f p ers o ns a n d/o r c o nfli c ts o f
p ers o nal in te re sts w hil e tr y in g to re ach s e t g oals . N o s tr a te g ic a ll ia n ce fo r a c o m mon a ctio n
h as b een s e t u p i n t h e l a st t w elv e m onth s.

N ev erth ele ss, th ere a re o th er fo rm s o f c o ll a b o ra tio n a m ong n atio nal N G Os w it h in th em ati c
n etw ork s. T his is th e c ase o f R ELU TET, a n etw ork o f N GOs a g ain st c h ild a b use , T O CA SSA
f o r th e p ro te ctio n o f th e e n vir o n m en t a n d a g ain st A ID S a n d,“ E sp oir V ie T ogo”, a n etw ork o f
p eo p le l iv in g w ith A ID S.
O th er ty pes o f r e la tio nsh ip a ls o e x is t b etw een in te rn atio nal N GO s a n d n atio nal N GOs f o r th e
i m ple m en ta tio n o f s e c to r-b ase d p ro je cts . W e c a n m en tio n p artn ers h ip s b etw ee n a ss o cia ti o ns
a n d N GO s su ch a s P la n T ogo fo r th e d efe n ce a n d p ro te ctio n o f c h ild re n ’s rig hts a n d w it h
C A RE Tog o ag ain st ch ild ab u se . The sa m e ty pe of allia n ce ex is ts betw een re lig io us
o rg an is a tio n s a n d th eir r e g io n al/ in te rn atio n al c o u nte rp arts . I n th e p ro cess o f f in din g a s o lu tio n
t o t h e T ogole se c ris is , s o m e r e lig io us o rg an is a tio ns c o lle ctiv ely s e n t a l e tte r t o p olitic al l e ad ers
a n d c o ndu cte d p ra y er s e ss io ns a n d p eac e d em on str a tio ns i n t h e c o untr y .

1 .6 R eso u rces o f c iv il s o cie ty
T his su bdim en sio n esti m ate s th e fin an cia l, h u m an , te ch nic al an d in fra str u ctu ra l re so u rc es
a v aila b le t o c iv il s o cie ty a s r e p orte d i n t h e f o llo w in g t a b le .

CIV IC U S: C iv il S ocie ty I n dex R ep ort f o r T ogo
3 5
TA BLE II I.1 .6 : I n d ic a to rs a sse ss in g t h e r eso u rc es o f c iv il s o cie ty
R ef. # In dic a to rs S co re
1 .6 .1 L ev el o f f in an cia l r e so u rc e s 0
1 .6 .2 L ev el o f h u m an r e so urc es 0
1 .6 .3 L ev el o f t e ch n ic al a n d i n fra str u ctu re r e so urc es 0

1 .6 .1 L evel o f fi n ancia l re so urc es. T he S co re 0 attr ib ute d to th e le v el o f fin an cia l
r e so urc es in dic a te s th at th ey a re n ot a lw ay s a v ail a b le w ith in C SO s. In fa ct, a W orld B an k
e v alu atio n s tu dy o f c iv il s o cie ty i n T ogo ( A M OUZO U E ssè , 2 004 ) e sti m ate d t h at, o n a v era g e,
8 6.3 % o f C SO s f a c e s e rio us f in an cia l d if fic u lt ie s. O th ers ( 1 3 .7 % ), s u ch a s P la n T og o, A id e e t
A cti o n, B orn F onden , S O S V il la g e d ’E nfa n ts , e tc ., a re r e p re se n ta tio ns o f in te rn atio n al N G Os
a n d h av e a n a p pro pria te f in an cia l b asis f o r t h ese a ctio ns.
T his fin an cia l d efic ie n cy c an re su lt fro m th re e fa c to rs : th e la ck o f e ffe ctiv e S ta te s u ppo rt to
t h e a c tiv iti e s o f m ost C SO s, th eir d ep en den ce o n in te rn atio nal f u ndin g a n d th e in te rru pti o n o f
c o op era tio n b etw ee n T ogo a n d o th er d ev elo pm en t p artn ers .

1 .6 .2 L eve l o f h um an r e so u rc es. A s w ith f in an cia l r e so urc e s, q u alif ie d h u m an r e so u rc es
a re a ls o s c arc e w ith in c iv il s o cie ty . A cco rd in g t o t h e s a m e W orld B an k s tu dy , a l itt le o v er f o ur
C SO s o ut o f te n (4 5.9 % ) h av e in ad eq u ate h u m an re so urc es re la tiv e to th eir o bje ctiv es. T he
m ajo rity o f A sso cia ti o n a n d N GO le ad ers c re ate d th eir str u ctu re s w ith o ut re al p ro fe ss io n al
e x p erie n ce in th eir s p ec if ic a re as o f o pera tio n. A s a r e su lt , C SO s la ck th e m ean s o f r e cru it in g
q ualif ie d p ers o nnel. W ors e , th e em plo y ees are se ld o m o ffe re d tr a in in g an d re d ep lo y m en t
o pportu nit ie s.
T his s itu atio n il lu str a te s th eir la ck o f fin an cia l re so urc es in o rd er to e m plo y h ig hly q ualif ie d
i n div id uals , a s le v els o f re m un era ti o n o fte n d ep en d o n le v els o f q ualif ic atio n . O n th e o th er
h an d , fo re ig n N GO s e m plo y v ery q u alif ie d a n d p ro fic ie n t in div id u als w ho a re tr a in ed a n d
r e d ep lo y ed a cc o rd in g t o t h eir n eed s.

1 .6 .3 L eve l o f te ch nic a l a nd in fr a str u ctu ra l re so urc es. T he le v el o f te ch n ic al a n d
i n fra str u ctu ra l re so u rc es is v ery lo w d u e to th e w eak fin an cia l p osit io n o f C SO s. In re ality ,
t h ey s u ff e r f r o m a s e rio u s l a ck o f t e ch nolo gic al a n d i n fra str u ctu ra l r e so urc es.

CIV IC U S: C iv il S ocie ty I n dex R ep ort f o r T ogo
3 6
FIG UR E I II .1 .3 : A vail a b i lit y o f c o m munic a tio n r eso u rc es i n T ogo

C on clu sio n
T he an aly sis o f th e “str u ctu re ” d im en sio n ex pose d tw o m ain tr a its : th e d iv ers ity o f civ il
s o cie ty a n d t h e m ag n itu d e o f i ts c it iz en p artic ip atio n.
A t p re se n t, T og o is sp atia lly d iv id ed in to fiv e re g io ns, eac h h av in g a sp ec if ic eco no m ic ,
c u ltu ra l a n d c li m atic e n v ir o n m en t. T his d iv ers ity e x pla in s th e d if fe re n ces in a tti tu de o bse rv ed
w ith in t h e s o cie ty a n d a ls o t h e w illin gness t o p artic ip ate i n n o n p artis a n p oliti c al a ctio ns.

O ne s h ould h o w ev er p oin t o ut th at C SO s a re n ot v ery m oti v ate d to w ork to geth er to in itia te
c o m mon a c tio ns f o r th e g en era l in te re st. T his lo w m otiv ati o n to c o lla b o ra te is a ttr ib uta b le to
t h e la ck o f m utu al tr u st a m ong a cto rs , g en era te d b y th e s p re ad o f p olit ic al riv alr ie s o ver th e
d if fe re n t s e c to rs . C om m unic a tio n is d if fic u lt w hen tr u st d oes n ot e x is t. T hus, it is h ard er fo r
C SO s to dis c u ss, sh are ex perie n ce s an d ra is e fu nds in te rn ally to im pro ve th eir w ork in g
c o nd itio ns an d pro fe ss io nal sk il ls . T hey ra th er act as co m petito rs in se ek in g fin an cia l
r e so urc es.
T he sc o re 1.0 attr ib ute d to th e “str u ctu re ” dim en sio n portr a y s a w eak co m mit m en t of
T ogo le se c it iz en s to a c ti v it ie s o f c iv il s o cie ty . T his m ay r e su lt f ro m th e la ck o f u nders ta n d in g
o f t h e n otio n a n d r o le o f c iv il s o cie ty o r t h e l a ck o f f in an cia l a n d h u m an r e so urc es t o i n flu en ce
t h e s o cie ty .

1 0 5 0.2
5 0
10
0.0 5
0.0 9 0.5
0
1 0
20
30
40
50
60
U se o f in te rn et U se o f e m ail O w n c o m pute r O w n w eb sit e
U se rs
Num ber o f u sers p er 1 0 0 00 in h ab it a n ts
2 000 20 03

CIV IC U S: C iv il S ocie ty I n dex R ep ort f o r T ogo
3 7
2 . E N VIR O NM EN T
The c o ncep t b en eath t h is d im en sio n l o oks a t t h e e x is tin g l e g al e n vir o n m en t ( S ala m on/T oep le r
2 000) a n d id en tif ie s a v arie ty o f o th er fa cto rs in flu en cin g c iv il so cie ty . It a ls o a d dre sse s a
w id e ra n g e of dif fe re n t th eo re tic al ap pro ach es on co ntr ib utin g fa cto rs to th e (p oli t ic a l,
i n stitu tio n al, s o cia l, c u ltu ra l a n d e co n o m ic ) s tr e n gth o f c iv il s o cie ty .
A lth o ugh th e e n v ir o n m en t is n ot p art o f c iv il so cie ty , th e o ne su rro undin g C SO s is a k ey
f a c to r in th e ev alu atio n o f it s sta te . It co vers all th e p ossib le w ay s o f str e n gth en in g civ il
s o cie ty . T his dim en sio n is su bdiv id ed in to 7 su bdim en sio ns w it h a to ta l nu m ber of 23
i n dic ato rs w hic h illu str a te to w hat ex te n t th e ex te rn al en vir o n m en t is fa v oura b le to civ il
s o cie ty i n T ogo.
T he dim en sio n desc rib es an d an aly se s th e po li ti c al, so cia l, eco no m ic , cu ltu ra l an d le g al
e n vir o n m en ts in whic h Togole se civ il so cie ty su bsis ts . The sc o re re ce iv ed by th e
“ en vir o n m en t” d im en sio n is 0 .7 . F ig u re III.2 .1 p re se n ts th e s e v en s u bdim en sio ns m easu rin g
t h e e n v ir o nm en ta l c o n te x t o f c iv il s o cie ty i n T og o .
T he fig u re p oin ts o u t th e u nfa v oura b le s o cio -e co no m ic a n d p olitic al c o nte x ts a n d th e w eak
r e la tio ns b etw een th e p riv ate s e cto r-c iv il s o cie ty a n d th e S ta te -c iv il s o cie ty w hic h a re c o f th e
e n vir o n m en t i n w hic h c iv il s o cie ty l iv es.

F
IG URE I II .2 .1 : S ubd im en sio n s c o res i n E nvir o n m en t d im en sio n
0 .7 1
0 1
1
0
.7
0
.7
0 12 3
Poli ti c al c o n te x t
B
asic f re e d o m s
S
ocio -e c o nom ic c o n te x t
S
ocio -c u ltu ra l c o n te x t
L
eg al e n vir o nm en t
S
ta te -C S r e la tio ns
P
riv ate s e c to r-C S r e la tio ns
Envir o n m en t D im en sio n
S co re

2 .1 P olit ic a l c o n te x t
T his s u b dim en sio n e x am in es th e e x is tin g p oli tic al s itu atio n in T ogo a n d its im pact o n c iv il
s o cie ty . T he f o llo w in g t a b le p re se n ts t h e i n d ic ato rs o f t h e p olit ic al c o n te x t.
T
A BLE II I.2 .1 : I n d ic a to rs a sse ss in g t h e p oli t ic a l c o n te x t
R ef. # In dic a to rs S co re
2 .1 .1 P oliti c al r ig hts 1
2 .1 .2 P oliti c al c o m petiti o n 1

CIV IC U S: C iv il S ocie ty I n dex R ep ort f o r T ogo
3 8
2.1 .3 P ra ctic e o f t h e r u le o f l a w 1
2.1 .4 C orru ptio n 1
2.1 .5 E ff e ctiv en ess o f t h e S ta te 0
2 .1 .6 D ec en tr a li s a tio n 0

2 .1 .1 P olit ic a l r ig hts . T he S co re ( 1 ) a ttr ib ute d t o t h is i n d ic ato r s u gg est t h at T ogo le se c iv il
s o cie ty d oes n o t e x erc is e i t s r ig h ts f re e ly . T here a re r e str ic tio n s t o c it iz en s’ p oli tic al r ig hts a n d
t h eir p arti c ip atio n i n t h e p oli tic al p ro cess.
S in ce th e b eg in n in g o f th e d em ocra ti c p ro ce ss in 1 990, p oli tic al p arti e s w ith le g al e x is te n ce
h av e n ot re ally e n jo y ed th e fre ed o m to c o ndu ct th eir a ctiv it ie s a n d c itiz en s d o n ot a d h ere
f re e ly t o t h e d if fe re n t p o lit ic al f a c tio n s. F or e x am ple , a n e x is ti n g m in is te ria l r e g u la tio n f o rb id s
p oli ti c al d em onstr a tio n s d urin g w ee k day s.
I n f a c t, a cc o rd in g t o a U N r e p ort o n v io le n ce c o m mitte d b efo re a n d a fte r t h e 2 005 p re sid en ti a l
e le ctio ns, p o li ti c al r ig hts a re g en era lly v io la te d in T ogo. F urth erm ore , o n its 0 -7 s c o rin g s c ale
( 0 c o rre sp on din g to a f a v oura b le s it u atio n a n d 7 to a m ost u nfa v oura b le s it u atio n ), F re e d o m
H ouse , http :/ /w ww .f r e ed o m house .o rg
, attr ib u te d th e sc o re of 6 w ith re sp ec t to cit i z e n s’
p oli ti c al r ig hts i n T ogo w hic h c ate g oris e s i t a s n ot f re e.

2 .1 .2 P olitic a l c o m petitio n. B esid es th e R PT , th e p o lit ic al p arty w hic h h as b ee n in p o w er
f o r a lm ost 4 0 y ea rs , th e c o un tr y h as a b out s ix ty o th er p oliti c al a ss o cia tio ns o r p artie s. T he
m ost i m porta n t o nes a re : U FC , C A R, C D PA , C PP a n d P D R. T hese p artie s a re e ss e n ti a lly b uilt
o n t h e p ers o nality , w illi n gness a n d c o m man d o f t h eir f o unders .

O ne s h ould n ote th at o n ly r e p re se n ta ti v es o f th e R PT m ak e u p th e T og ole se P arlia m en t. T hus
i m porta n t l a w s a re v ote d o n i n t h e a b se n ce o f o th er p oli tic al a cto rs o f t h e n atio n.
T he S co re 1 a ttr ib u te d to th is in d ic ato r p ortr a y s a lo w le v el o f c o nfid en ce in th e le g is la ti o n in
T ogo .

2 .1 .3 R ule o f la w . T his in dic ato r h ig hli g h ts th e le v el o f c o nfid en ce c iti z en s p la ce in th e
p ra c ti c e o f th e ru le o f la w in T og o. S co re 1 atta ch ed to th is in d ic a to r (T ab le III.2 .1 ) is
s y nony m ous o f a l a ck o f c o nfid en ce i n t h e a p p li c ati o n o f t h e l a w i n T ogo.
I n T ogo, th e se p ara tio n b etw een th e ex ecu tiv e, le g is la tiv e an d ju d ic ia l p ow ers is b lu rre d .
T ex ts d o ex is t b ut th eir ap pli c a tio n is n ot alw ay s effe ctiv e an d cit iz en s d o n ot tr u st th e
j u ris d ic tio n.
A cco rd in g to K au fm an n, K ra ay a n d M astr u zz i 2 005 (G overn an ce M att e rs IV : G overn an ce
i n dic ato rs f o r 1 996-2 004), th ere is e v id en ce o f a r e g re ssio n in th e p ra ctic e o f th e r u le o f la w .
T ogo w as g iv en a s c o re o f – 0 .8 3 o n a – 2 .5 to 2 .5 s c ale in te rm s o f th e p ra ctic e o f th e r u le o f
l a w . T his d ata re v ea ls th at in 1 99 8 o n ly 1 9.5 % o f th e c o untr ie s s tu d ie d fa re d le ss w ell th an
T ogo f o r th e p ra ctic e o f th e r u le o f la w w hils t th ey w ere o nly 1 5.9 % in 2 004, w hic h in d ic ate s
a r e g re ss io n.

2 .1 .4 C orru ptio n . S om e s o rt o f c o rru ptio n e x is ts s u bsta n tia lly i n th e c o untr y a s r e v eale d b y
t h e d ocu m en t ” In dep en den t L eag u e fo r T ra n sp are n cy (I L T)” . T he lo w s ta n d ard o f liv in g in
T ogo le se s o cie ty is a p o te n ti a l c au se o f th e e x is tin g c o rru ptio n a s e ach p ers o n h as d ev elo p ed
s u rv iv al s tr a te g ie s t h at o fte n l e ad t o “ u nd er t h e t a b le ” a c tiv itie s.

CIV IC U S: C iv il S ocie ty I n dex R ep ort f o r T ogo
3 9
A cco rd in g to K au fm an n , K ra ay a n d M astr u zz i, 2 005 (G overn an ce M atte rs IV : G overn an ce
i n dic ato rs f o r 1 996-2 004), a s c o re o f – 0 .9 2 o n a – 2 .5 t o 2 .5 s c ale w as a ttr ib ute d t o T ogo f o r t h e
c o ntr o l o f c o rru ptio n d urin g t h e 1 998-2 004 p erio d.

2 .1 .5 S ta te e ff e c ti v en ess . T he S co re 0 a ttr ib u te d to th e p re se n t in d ic ato r is th e e v id en ce o f
a n i n co m pete n t S ta te , d esp it e t h e e ffe ctiv en ess o f t h e a d m in is tr a tio n a t s o m e l e v els . D ue t o t h e
l a ck o f re so urc es, th e S ta te is n ot a b le to p erfo rm its m acro eco no m ic fu nctio n s w hic h a re to
i m pro ve th e liv in g c o nd itio ns o f th e p opula tio n. I t h as d is e n gag ed its e lf f ro m a ll v ita l s e cto rs
o f th e eco n o m y, le ad in g to th e p riv atis a tio n o f se n sitiv e se c to rs su ch as th ose o f w ate r,
e le ctr ic it y a n d c o m munic atio n. F urth erm ore , th e S ta te is h old in g o n to it s r o le a s g uara n to r o f
t h e R ep ub lic ’s i n stitu tio n s a n d m ain ta in s a n a b so lu te c o n tr o l o ver t h ese i n sti tu tio ns.
T he s o cio -e co n o m ic c ris is th e c o un tr y h as b een e x p erie n cin g f o r a lm ost tw o d eca d es n ow h as
d is to rte d th e b eh av io ur o f civ il se rv an ts . R etir in g civ il se rv an ts le av e w it h out tr a n sfe rrin g
t h eir c o m pete n cie s a s th ey a re u su ally n ot r e p la c ed . I n a d d itio n , th ere is a m yth s u rro u ndin g
t h e le ad er w hic h has le d to a la ck of co m munic atio n betw een te ch nic ia n s an d th eir
h ie ra rc h ic al su p erio rs w ho te n d to fo cu s m ore o n th eir p olitic al a m bit io ns ra th er th an th eir
p ro fe ssio nal o blig atio ns.
K au fm an n, K ra a y a n d M astr u zzi, 2 005 (G overn an ce M atte rs IV : G overn an ce in d ic ato rs fo r
1 996-2 004) a w ard ed a s c o re o f 1 .3 1 fo r th e e ffe ctiv en ess o f th e S ta te o n a -2 .5 to 2 .5 s c a le
d urin g t h e 1 998 -2 004 p erio d.

2 .1 .6 D ec en tr a lis a tio n. A la w o n d ec en tr a lis a tio n w as ra tif ie d b ut th e te x ts a re s til l n o t
u se d in th e e la b ora tio n o f a n e ffe cti v e d ec en tr a lis a tio n p o lic y in T ogo. I n a d dit io n, th is la w is
b ein g re v is e d a t p re se n t. A cco rd in g to th e S A G, d e fa cto v ery litt le h as o ccu rre d b y w ay o f
d ecen tr a lis a tio n .

2 .2 B asic r ig h ts a n d f r e ed om
This su bdim en sio n m easu re s th e ex te n t to w hic h civ il lib ertie s, i.e . fre ed o m of sp ee ch ,
f re e d o m o f a ss o cia tio n a n d r a lly a re g uara n te ed b y t h e l a w a n d t h e p ra c ti c e o f t h e l a w .
T
A BLE II I.2 .2 : I n d ic a to rs a sse ss in g b asic r ig h ts a n d f r ee d om
Ref. # In dic a to rs S co re
2 .2 .1 C iv il r ig hts a n d l ib erti e s 1
2 .2 .2 R ig hts t o i n fo rm ati o n 1
2.2 .3 F re ed om o f t h e p re ss 1

2 .2 .1 C iv il r ig hts a nd l i b erti e s. T he p re se n t i n d ic ato r d em onstr a te s t h e e x te n t t o w hic h c iv il
l ib ertie s a re b ein g g u ara n te ed b y t h e l a w a n d t h e p ra c tic e o f t h e l a w . T he l e v el o f f re e d o m i n
T ogo r a te d a t 5 ( a cco rd in g t o F re ed o m H ouse a sse ss m en t) i s a c le ar d en u ncia tio n o f a c o u ntr y
w here c iv il l ib ertie s a re v io la te d .
A v ast m od ern is a tio n p ro gra m me o f t h e T ogole se j u stic e s y ste m i s b ein g i m ple m en te d , w ith t h e
s u pport o f d ev elo p m en t p artn ers , i n o rd er t o r e v ers e t h is s itu atio n.

CIV IC U S: C iv il S ocie ty I n dex R ep ort f o r T ogo
4 0
2 .2 .2 R ig hts t o i n fo rm atio n. T his i n d ic ato r r e v ea ls f re q u en t v io la tio n s o f t h e f re e d o m o f t h e
p re ss i n T og o d esp ite t h e f a c t t h at A rtic le 1 o f t h e P re ss C ode s tip u la te s t h e f o llo w in g: ” W rit t e n
p re ss a n d a u dio vis u al c o m munic atio n a re f re e ” . I n a d dit io n, t h e t h ir d A rtic le s tip u la te s t h at: “ T he
T ogo le se S ta te g u ara n te es t o e ac h p ers o n r e sid in g o n t h e n atio n al t e rrito ry t h e r ig ht t o b e
i n fo rm ed , t o i n fo rm , a n d h av e a c cess t o t h e m ea n s o f c o m munic ati o n w it h in t h e l i m its o f t h e
c o m munic atio n l a w s” . D esp ite t h e e la b ora tio n o f t h ese p ro vis io ns, t h e H AAC p ro hib it e d t h e
b ro ad cast o f p ro gra m mes r e la te d t o p oli ti c al m atte rs o n r e lig io us r a d io s ta tio ns. A ls o , s o m e
p riv ate r a d io a n d t e le v is io n s ta tio ns w ere t e m pora ril y s h ut d ow n d urin g t h e A pril 2 005
p re sid en tia l e le ctio ns. T ele p h on e a n d i n te rn et n etw ork s w ere a ls o s h ut d o w n. A nd i n p ra cti c e,
p ubli c a cc ess t o S ta te d o cu m en ta tio n i s u su ally v ery d if f ic u lt.

2 .2 .3 F re ed o m o f t h e p re ss. D esp it e t h e f a c t t h at t h e c o nsti tu tio n a n d t h e P re ss C ode
a ck now le d g e t h e f re ed o m o f t h e p re ss i n T og o, i t i s n o t f u lly r e sp ecte d . I n t h e ‘ 9 0’s , p riv ate p re ss
e d itin g a n d p rin ti n g i n fra str u ctu re s w ere o fte n a tt a ck ed a n d l o ote d .
A cco rd in g t o t h e F re ed o m H ouse , ( h ttp ://w ww.f re ed o m house .o rg
) I n dex , f re ed o m o f t h e p re ss
i n T ogo is 7 3 o n a s c a le o f 0 to 10 0. T oday h ow ev er, th e s itu atio n is im pro vin g. T here is le ss
i n te rv en ti o n in p re ss o rg an s a n d le ss h ara ss m en t a n d a rb itr a ry a rre sts o f jo urn alis ts . P olitic al
l e ad ers e x pre ss th em se lv es m ore o pen ly in th e m ed ia w ith out fe ar. T he p opula ti o n is n ow
g iv en t h e o pportu nit y t o v oic e i ts o pin io n s o n th e p oli tic al, s o cia l a n d e co no m ic m att e rs o f t h e
c o un tr y . T hu s, p ro gra m mes o n p riv ate ra d io a n d te le v is io n sta tio ns p ro vid e a p la tf o rm fo r
p eo p le t o e x pre ss t h em se lv es.

2 .3 S ocio -e co n om ic c o n te x t
T his s u bdim en sio n a n aly se s th e s o cio -e co no m ic s it u atio n in T ogo a n d o bse rv es its im pact o n
c iv il s o cie ty . T he d if fe re n t i n d ic a to rs r e la te d t o t h e c o ncep t p re se n te d i n T ab le I II.2 .3 s h are t h e
s a m e l e v el o f r e p re se n ta tio n.
T
A BLE II I.2 .3 : In dic a to r a sse ssin g t h e s o cio -e c o n om ic c o n te x t
R ef. # In dic ato rs S co re
2 .3 .1 S ocio -e co nom ic c o nte x t 0
F or th e c o n cep t o f ” so cio -e co no m ic e n vir o n m en t” to b e e ffe ctiv e in th e c ase o f T ogo, e ig h t
i n dic ato rs th at c a n p ote n ti a lly in flu en ce c iv il s o cie ty w ere s e le cte d . T hese a re : 1 ) P overty ; 2 )
A rm ed c o n flic ts ; 3 ) E th n ic o r r e lig io us c o nflic ts ; 4 ) S ev ere s o cia l o r e co n o m ic c ris is ; 5 ) S ocia l
i n eq u ality ; 6 ) S ocio -e co n o m ic j u sti c e; 7 ) A dult i ll it e ra cy ; a n d 8 ) T ech no lo gic al f a cilit ie s.
1 ) Poverty
T he co untr y ’s so cio -e co no m ic co n dit io ns lim it th e effe ctiv e fu nctio n in g of civ il so cie ty
s ig nif ic an tly . A s a c o nse q u en ce, th e U ND P 2 00 0 R ep ort ra n ked T ogo 1 28th b ase d o n th e
H um an D ev elo p m en t In dex . T he c o untr y ’s ID H o f 0 .4 89 ill u str a te s w id esp re ad p overty . In
T ogo th e p er c ap ita in co m e w as U S$31 0 in 2 00 3 w it h 7 2.6 % o f th e p o pula tio n c o n sid ere d a s
p oor ( w ith a d aily i n co m e o f l e ss t h an 2 46 C FA f r a n cs) a m ongst w hic h 5 7.4 % w ere e x tr e m ely
p oor ( w ith a d aily i n co m e o f l e ss t h an 1 19 C FA f r a n cs).
P overty is in cre asin g w ith th e m ajo rity (7 9% ) o f p oor p eo ple liv in g in ru ra l a re as. P ov erty
i n cid en ce is e stim ate d a t 5 0% in L om e ( th e c ap ita l c ity ), 7 6% in o th er b ig c it ie s a n d 7 5 % in
s e co nd ary u rb an c en tr e s.

CIV IC U S: C iv il S ocie ty I n dex R ep ort f o r T ogo
4 1
P overty is m ore p re v ale n t in th e S av an n ah (8 5.9 % ) an d th e C en tr a l (8 2% ) re g io ns. T he
M ariti m e a n d K ara r e g io ns a re r ic h er th an th e S av an n ah a n d C en tr a l r e g io ns w here as o v er a
q uarte r o f w ell- o ff p eo ple r e sid e i n t h e P la te au x r e g io n.
2 ) Arm ed c o n fl ic ts
T ogo h as e x perie n ced se rio us so cio -e c o no m ic c ris e s fo r th e p ast 5 y ears b ut h as n ot b ee n
c o nfr o nte d w it h a rm ed c o nflic ts ( h tt p :/ /w w w.c id cm .u m d.e d u /in sc r/p c0 3p rin t.p df).
3 ) Eth nic c o nflic ts
E th nic co nfli c ts are ep hem era l an d ofte n re la te d to la n d an d in te r-h u m an pro ble m s an d
e le ctio ns.
4 ) Socio -e co no m ic c ris is
T he s o cio -e co no m ic c o ndit io ns s ig nif ic an tly r e d uce th e e ffe ctiv e o pera tio n o f c iv il s o cie ty in
T ogo . T he c o untr y h as b een e x pose d t o s o cio -e co no m ic j o lts s in ce t h e e arly ‘ 9 0s.
A cco rd in g to th e d ocu m en t e n titl e d “ C on cep t o f d ura b le h u m an d ev elo p m en t, U ND P; 1 9 95”,
T ogo ’s e x te rn al d eb t a m ounte d t o 6 5 0 b il li o n C FA f ra n cs, t h e e q uiv ale n t o f 1 25% o f i t s G DP.
I n 2 004, th e g en era l re p ort o f th e S em in ar o n th e sti m ula tio n o f th e N atio n al E co n o m y
e sti m ate d t h e c o untr y ’s d o m esti c d eb t t o b e a p pro xim ate ly 2 74 b illio n C FA f ra n cs.
5 ) S evere e c o n om ic o r s o cia l c ris is
S in ce 1 990, T ogo h as b een e x p erie n cin g s e v ere s o cio -e co no m ic c ris e s m otiv ate d b y p eo ple ’s
d riv e. A no th er c ris is w hic h th e c o untr y h as to d eal w it h is th e s p re ad in g o f A ID S. A s tu dy b y
t h e W orld B an k e n ti tle d : “ T ogo, s o rtie d e la c ris e , s o rti e d e la p au vre té ” e sti m ate d th e A ID S
p re v ale n ce r a te w ith in t h e T ogole se p opula tio n a t 5 % .
6 ) Socia l i m bala nce/S o cio -e co nom ic d is p aritie s
T he m ag az in e ” F em mes e t D év elo p pem en t” re p orte d th at o ver 1 6% o f th e u rb an p op ula tio n
a n d 4 5.5 % o f t h e r u ra l p opula tio n l iv e i n e x tr e m e p overty .
T he G IN I In dex fo r T ogo a t 0 .7 2 (E B C , 1 989) su ggests a n u n ev en d is tr ib utio n o f in co m e
a m ongst th e p opula tio n . T hus, o nly 1 0 % o f th e p opula tio n s h are d 6 3 % o f th e to ta l r e v en u e in
1 989. C onsid erin g th e f a ct t h at t h e c ris is h as p ers e v ere d s in ce th e ‘ 9 0s, t h ese s o cia l d is p arit ie s
h av e m ost l ik ely w ors e n ed .
7 ) A dult i l lit e ra cy
T he s c o re ( 1 ) a tt r ib u te d t o t h is i n dic a to r s u ggests a p ro n ounced a d ult il lit e ra cy r a te i n T og o. A
W orld B an k s tu dy e sti m ate d th at ju st le ss th an h alf ( 4 9.9 5% ) o f th e p opu la tio n, i.e . 3 4.4 % o f
a d ult m ale s a n d 6 5.5 % o f a d ult f e m ale s, i s i lli te ra te .
8 ) Tech nolo g ic a l f a cilit ie s
T his in d ic a to r su g gests a la ck of In fo rm atio n Tech n olo g y (IT ) an d co m munic a ti o n
i n fra str u ctu re in T ogo. T he In te rn atio n al T ele co m munic ati o ns U nio n (IT U ) re p orts o n its
w eb sit e
h ttp ://w w w.i tu .i n t/ itu -d /i c t/s ta tis tic s/a t a t g la n ce /I n te rn et0 3.p d f th at T ogo h oste d an
a v era g e o f 8 2 in te rn et s it e s, th e e q uiv ale n t o f 0 .1 6 h ostin g s p er 1 0 0 00 in hab ita n ts in 2 003 .
A ls o , th ere w ere 2 10 0 00 in te rn et u se rs , th e e q uiv ale n t o f 4 20 u se rs p er 1 0 0 00 in hab ita n ts .
C A FÉ IN FO RM ATIQ U E, o ne of th e b ig g est IT str u ctu re s in th e co untr y , estim ate s th e

CIV IC U S: C iv il S ocie ty I n dex R ep ort f o r T ogo
4 2
nu m ber o f i n te rn et s ite s i t h osts a t 3 6 6.

2 .4 S ocio -c u lt u ra l c o n te x t
T his d im en sio n m easu re s th e e x te n t o f th e in flu en ce o f s o cio -c u ltu ra l a tt itu des a n d n orm s o n
c iv il s o cie ty i n T ogo. T ab le I II.2 .4 p re se n ts t h e s c o re s a tt r ib u te d t o t h e i n d ic a to rs .
T
A BLE II I.2 .4 : I n d ic a to rs a sse ss in g t h e s o cio -c u lt u ra l c o n te x t
R ef. # In dic a to rs S co re
2 .4 .1 T ru st 1
2 .4 .2 T ole ra n ce 1
2 .4 .3 P ublic s p ir ite d ness 1

2 .4 .1 T ru st. T his in d ic ato r fo cu se s o n th e p erc en ta g e o f p ers o n s tr u stin g e ach o th er w ith in
c iv il s o cie ty . A cco rd in g to a m em ber o f o ne p olit ic al p arty , th e s o cio -e co no m ic a n d p o li tic al
c ris e s e x p erie n ced b y th e T ogole se o ver th e la st tw o d ec ad es h av e re d uced th eir le v el o f
c o nfid en ce in each o th er. T here is a g en era lis e d la ck o f tr u st am ong st m em bers o f civ il
s o cie ty . O nly s m all f ra c tio ns o f th e p opula tio n s h are m utu al c o nfid en ce, m ak in g th e n atio n al
r e c o n cilia tio n p ro ce ss a d if fic u lt o n e.

2 .4 .2 T ole ra nce . T he to le ra n ce in dic ato r a ss e sse s m em bers o f th e s o cie ty ’s to le ra n ce le v el
1 ) to w ard s p ers o ns o f d if fe re n t ra c e, e th n ic o rig in s a n d re lig io us b ack gro u nds; 2 ) to w ard s
i m mig ra n ts ; a n d 3 ) t o w ard s p eo ple l iv in g w ith H IV /A ID S.

G en era lly , T ogole se s o cie ty p ortr a y s a m odera te le v el o f to le ra n ce . I t is o nly d urin g e le cto ra l
p erio ds t h at p oliti c ia n s e x acerb ate t h e d if fe re n ces w ith in t h e p opula tio n t o g en era te c o nfli c t. A
t y pic al c ase is t h e o n e d esc rib ed in t h e “ U N R ep o rt o n V io le n ce in T ogo B efo re a n d A fte r th e
2 005 P re sid en tia l E le ctio n.” A cco rd in g to th at re p ort, th e c o untr y h as b een e x p erie n cin g a
c o ntr o v ers ia l p olit ic al c lim ate ta in te d w it h v io le n ce s in ce th e b eg in nin g o f its e x is te n ce. T he
c o un tr y w as f ir s t a G erm an c o lo ny f ro m 1 989 to 1 919. S ubse q uen t to G erm an y ’s d efe at, th e
t e rrito ry w as d iv id ed in tw o a fte r th e F ir s t W orld W ar. O ne p art w as a ss ig ned to F ra n ce a n d
t h e o th er t o G re at B rit a in . T he p art a ssig ned t o t h e B ritis h w as l a te r i n te g ra te d i n to G han a.
T his h eav y c o lo n ia l le g acy in flu en ced th e e v olu ti o n o f T ogo le se s o cie ty a n d c re ate d d iv is io ns
b etw een p op ula ti o ns o f t h e s o uth ern a n d n orth ern p arts o f t h e c o untr y . U nd er U N s u p erv is io n ,
a re fe re n du m w as o rg an is e d to a llo w T ogo to m ove g ra d u ally fr o m it s s ta tu s a s a R ep u b li c
i n te g ra te d in to F ra n ce to its co m ple te in d ep en den ce. T he co untr y b eca m e in dep en den t in
1 960. T ogo’s fir s t P re sid en t, S ylv an iu s O ly m pio , w as a ss a ssin ate d in 1 963 d urin g a co u p
d ’e ta t w here so ld ie rs o f n orth ern o rig in b ut sp ecif ic all y K ab y e p la y ed a c riti c al ro le . T hey
p la ced M r. N ic o la s G ru nitz k y , th e th en vic e pre sid en t in pow er w ho w as su bse q uen tly
o verth ro w n i n 1 967 a n d s u cc eed ed b y G nass in g bé E yad em a, a s o ld ie r o f n orth ern o rig in , w ho ,
a cco rd in g to o bse rv ers , in itia te d th e f ir s t c o up d ©e ta t in 1 9 63. I n 1 969 h e f o unded th e R ally o f
T ogo le se P eo ple ( R PT ), t h e o n ly p olit i c al p arty a u th oris e d f r o m t h at p oin t u ntil 1 991. T hat e ra
w as fo llo w ed b y th e cu rre n t m ultip arty d em ocra cy in w hic h p olit ic a l p arti e s are p ro n e to
f ig htin g a g ain st e ach o th er d u e to e th nic d iv ers ity . T he c u rre n t c lim ate o f h atr e d a n d tr ib alis m
h as i m pacte d n eg ativ ely o n t h e p opu la tio n’s l e v el o f t o le ra n ce.

2 .4 .3 P ubli c s p ir ite d ness . T his in dic ato r is a n in -d ep th a n aly sis o f w heth er th e s o cie ty in
g en era l t e n d s t o d is re sp ect p u bli c r u le s s u ch a s r e fu sin g t o p ay t a x es.

CIV IC U S: C iv il S ocie ty I n dex R ep ort f o r T ogo
4 3
In T ogo o ne c an o bse rv e a c erta in d efia n ce to w ard s p ubli c o rd er, s u ch a s p ro perty o w ners
r e fu sin g to p ay la n d p ro perty ta x , m oto r c y clis ts r e fu sin g to w ear h elm ets , th e d estr u cti o n o f
t h e fa u na a n d fo re sts in re se rv ed a re as, th e b re ak in g o f p u blic e d if ic es a n d th e v io la ti o n o f
t r a ffic l ig ht s ig nals .

2 .5 L eg al e n vir o n m en t
T his su bdim en sio n asse sse s th e ex te n t to w hic h th e le g al en v ir o nm en t is fa v oura b le or
u nfa v oura b le t o c iv il s o cie ty . T he T ab le b elo w p re se n ts t h e i d en tif ie d i n d ic ato rs .
T
A BLE II I.2 .5 : I n d ic a to rs a sse ss in g t h e l e g al e n vir o n m en t
R ef. # In dic a to rs S co re
2 .5 .1 C SO r e g is tr a tio n 1
2.5 .2 A uth oris e d l o bb yin g a cti v iti e s 1
2 .5 .3 T ax l a w s f a v ou ra b le t o C SO s 1
2 .5 .4 T ax b en efit s f o r p hila n th ro py 1

2 .5 .1 C SO r e g is tr a ti o n. T he re g is tr a ti o n o f C SO s is n ot e asy in T og o (T ab le III .2 .5 ). A
s tu dy c o ndu cte d b y th e W orld B an k e n ti tle d “ E valu atio n o f th e C iv il S ocie ty in T ogo, 2 004”,
r e v eale d t h at:
– 3 2,4 % o f N GOs c o nsid er t h e a d m in is tr a tiv e p ro ced ure s a s b ein g t o o b ure a u cra tic ;
– 4 6.2 % c o nsid er i t d if fic u lt;
– 1 2.6 % c o nsid er i t a cc ep ta b le .
I n g en era l, t h e r e g is tr a tio n p ro ced u re i s v ery d is su asiv e a s m an y p eo ple a re d is c o ura g ed b y t h e
h ig h r e g is tr a ti o n f e es a n d o th er in te rm ed ia ry c o sts . T his p ro cess is m ain ly a ccess ib le in L om e
a n d r e q u ir e s a lo t o f p ap er w ork a s c o m pare d to a v ery s lo w a n d p artia l in vestig atio n s y ste m
o n t h e o rg an is a tio n’s e th ic s.
F urth erm ore , te ch nic al se rv ic es in c h arg e o f C SO re g is tr a ti o n la ck th e n ecess a ry m ean s to
p erfo rm t h eir w ork c o rre c tly , e sp ec ia ll y f o r f o ll o w -u ps i n t h e f ie ld .

2 .5 .2 A uth oris e d lo bb yin g a ctiv itie s. T he m ain o bje cti v e o f th is in dic ato r is to m easu re
t h e c ap acit y o f C SO s to b e a c tiv e in th e p olitic al f ie ld a n d to h av e a m on it o rin g r o le o ver th e
g overn m en t.
T he 1 901 la w a u th oris e s C SO s to e x erc is e a d vo cacy a ctiv iti e s, b u t te c h n ic ally th e m ajo rity o f
t h em a re n o t p re p are d to b e in vo lv ed in s u ch a ctio ns. G iv en th e s tr in g en cy e x hib ite d b y th e
r e g im e in p la ce , C SO s h esita te b efo re u nderta k in g s u ch a c tiv it ie s. F or e x am ple , a cco rd in g to
t h e B erte ls m an T ra n sfo rm atio n In dex , th e U niv ers ity C am pus o f L om e is u nder p erm an en t
s u rv eill a n ce. N o o pposit io n m ovem en t c an e n su e a n d b lo sso m w ith ou t th e re p re ss io n o f it s
l e ad ers , w ho a re c o nsid ere d d an gero u s e le m en ts b y t h e r u lin g r e g im e.
A m ajo rity o f C SO s la ck e x pertis e in th is f ie ld . T hus, th ey te n d to b e a b se n t o n th at a g en da.
H ow ev er, a f e w e x am ple s c an b e m en tio n ed s u ch a s th e lo b by in g c a m paig n o n th e p ro m otio n
o f e d ucatio n f o r g ir ls i n 2 003 o rg an is e d b y C SO s o n t h e p re m is e s o f t h e T ogole se P arlia m en t.

2 .5 .3 T ax la w s fa vo ura ble to C SO s. T his in dic ato r r e v eals w heth er th e f is c al s y ste m is
f a v ou ra b le t o C SO s. I t i s i n d eed f a v oura b le i n T ogo, b ut o nly t o a c erta in e x te n t. F or e x am ple ,
C SO s a re e x em pte d f ro m c u sto m s d uti e s o n v eh ic le s, e n gin e e q u ip m en t, c o m pu te r e q uip m en t,
m ed ic atio n, b ooks a n d o th er g oods th ey im port to fa c ilit a te th eir d ev elo pm en t a ctiv itie s. A n

CIV IC U S: C iv il S ocie ty I n dex R ep ort f o r T ogo
4 4
ag re e m en t [o n e sta b lis h m en t] b etw een th e R ep u blic o f T og o a n d N G Os w as s ig n ed b y th e
M in is te r o f F ore ig n A ffa ir s a n d C oopera ti o n. D ue to th e p ers is te n ce o f th e s o cio -e c o no m ic
c ris is in th e c o untr y , C usto m s h av e b een r e lu cta n t to a p ply th ese e x em ptio ns to th e im porte d
g oods a n d s e rv ic e s a s s p ecif ie d . H ow ev er, a m in orit y o f N G Os b en efit f ro m e x em ptio ns th at
c o nstit u te s u bsta n tia l s a v in gs u se d t o f in an ce p ro je cts .

2 .5 .4 T ax b en efits fo r p hila nth ro py. T he s c o re 1 a ttr ib ute d to th is in d ic ato r im pli e s th at
t h e ta x s y ste m im pose d o n C SO s is v ery h eav y in T ogo. D esp ite th e fa ct th at e x is ti n g te x ts
a llo w t h em t o u se t a x e x em pti o ns f o r p hil a n th ro p ic a ctio n, t h ey a re n o t a p pli e d i n p ra ctic e .
A cco rd in g t o t h e D ir e c to r o f C usto m s, t h e c u sto m s c o d e is s e t t o f a v our p hila n th ro p ic a c tio ns,
b ut th e o bje cts a n d s e rv ic es c o n cern ed m ust b e o f p ubli c u ti li ty . U nfo rtu nate ly , th e te x ts th at
s h ould i n fo rm o n t h e “ p ub li c u tili ty ” n atu re o f g oods a n d s e rv ic es d o n ot e x is t y et.

2 .6 S ta te -C iv il s o cie ty r ela tio n sh ip s
T he n atu re an d q u ali ty o f th e re la tio nsh ip b etw een th e S ta te an d c iv il so cie ty in T ogo is
p ortr a y ed b y t h is i n dic ato r. T he r e la te d i n d ic a to rs a re p re se n te d i n T ab le I II.2 .6 .
T
A BLE II I.2 .6 : I n d ic a to rs a sse ss in g t h e S ta te -C iv il s o cie ty r ela tio n sh ip
R ef. # In dic a to rs S co re
2 .6 .1 A uto no m y o f C SO s 1
2 .6 .2 D ia lo gu e w ith t h e s ta te 1
2 .6 .3 C oop era tio n/s u p po rt 0

2 .6 .1 A uto n om y o f C SO s. T he s c o re 1 a ttr ib ute d t o t h is i n dic ato r r e v eals t h e e x is te n ce o f a
c iv il so cie ty th at fu nctio ns in dep en den tly fr o m th e S ta te . H ow ev er, th e g ov ern m en t e x erts
s o m e ill e g al in flu en ce o n th e C SO s o cca sio nally . S om e o f th ese C SO s (N GOs, p riv ate p re ss
a n d re lig io us g ro ups) w ere fo unded b y a d m in is tr a tiv e a n d p oli tic al le ad ers a s v eh ic le s fo r
s p ecif ic m essa g es a n d i d eo lo g ie s. S om eti m es, C SO s c o -o pte d b y t h e S ta te a re u se d t o s p eak i n
t h e n am e o f o th er C SO s.
A s tu dy b y th e W orld B an k « H is to ric al, L eg al, C ultu ra l a n d E co no m ic C on te x ts o f th e C iv il
S ocie ty in T ogo, J u ne 2 004, p .1 4 » , r e p orte d th e c o ntr o l o f th e a cti v it ie s o f c erta in N GO s b y
t h e S ta te . F or e x am ple , th e S ta te k eep s a w atc h fu l e y e o n C SO m eeti n gs to e n su re th at th ey
a re n ot p olit ic ally o rie n te d . In re a lity , th e S ta te c o ntr o ls e ff e ctiv ely th e s o cia l fo rc es o f th e
c o un tr y .

2 .6 .2 D ia lo gue w ith th e S ta te . T his in dic ato r re v eals th e q u asi ab se n ce o f dia lo gu e
b etw een C SO s a n d th e S ta te . T he S ta te d is c u ss e s a d h o c is su es w ith o n ly a m in ority o f C SO s.
T hese C SO s a re m ostly f e d era tio ns a n d n etw ork s o f N G Os a n d a ss o cia tio n s t h at p artic ip ate i n
t h e e la b ora ti o n o f s e c to r-b ase d p o lic ie s s u ch a s y outh , w om en , e tc . O th er N G Os a re s e le cte d
o n t h em ati c is su es: e n vir o n m en t, h ealt h , A ID S a n d ( re cen tl y ) t h e c ir c u la ti o n o f l i g ht w eap ons,
e tc .
T he c u rre n t p oli ti c al e n v ir o n m en t i s n ot c o nduciv e t o r e al d ia lo gu e b etw een t h e S ta te a n d c iv il
s o cie ty . T he p re ssu re th at d is tr ic t c h ie fs e x ert o n C SO s d urin g th eir p artn ers h ip m eetin gs is a
c le ar in d ic atio n o f th is fa ct. N ev erth ele ss , in th e s e arc h fo r a s o lu tio n to th e c ris is , to p s ta te
o ffic ia ls h av e in v it e d so m e C SO s (re lig io us o rg an is a tio ns, N GOs, A sso cia tio ns an d tr a d e
u nio n s) t o p arti c ip ate i n t h e n atio n al r e co n cil ia ti o n p ro ce ss .

CIV IC U S: C iv il S ocie ty I n dex R ep ort f o r T ogo
4 5

2 .6 .3 C oop era tio n/s u pport. T he p re se n t in dic ato r in v estig ate s w heth er th e S ta te s o ffe rs
r e so urc es in th e fo rm o f g ra n ts , c o ntr a cts , e tc . to C SO s. A W orld B an k d ocu m en t “O utils
d ’é v alu atio n d e la S ocié té C iv ile : C as d es a sso cia tio ns” , re v eals th at a sso cia tio ns re c eiv e n o
f in an cia l s u pport f ro m t h e S ta te .

2 .7 P riv a te s e cto r– civ il s o cie ty r ela tio n sh ip
This su bdim en sio n e x pla in s an d ev alu ate s th e n atu re an d q uali ty o f re la tio n s b etw ee n th e
p riv ate s e cto r a n d c iv il s o cie ty i n T og o. I ts r e la te d i n dic ato rs a re p ortr a y ed i n T ab le I II.2 .7 .

T
A BLE II I.2 .7 : I n d ic a to rs a sse ss in g p riv ate s e c to r-c iv il s o cie ty r e la tio n sh ip
R ef. # In dic a to rs S co re
2 .7 .1 P riv ate s e c to r’s a tti tu d e t o w ard s c iv il s o cie ty 1
2.7 .2 C orp ora te s o cia l r e sp on sib il it y 0
2.7 .3 C orp ora te p hil a n th ro py 1

2.7 .1 P riv a te s e c to r’s a ttitu d e t o w ard s c iv il s o cie ty . T his i n dic ato r p ortr a y s th e n atu re
o f th e r e la ti o nsh ip b etw een th e p riv ate s e cto r a n d c iv il s o cie ty . I n th e c a se o f T ogo , it r e v eals
t h at th e priv ate se cto r has lit tl e in te re st in civ il so cie ty , th ou gh en tr e p re n eu rs an d tr a d e
u nio n is ts a re in here n tly r e la te d . S om e c o rp ora te m an ag ers u su ally tr y to c o -o pt le a d in g tr a d e
u nio n is ts in o rd er to w eak en th e c o hesio n o f s o m e p ro fe ss io n al b od ie s, e sp ecia ll y w it h in th e
f re e z o n e.

2 .7 .2 C orp ora te s o cia l r e sp onsib ility . T his in dic ato r e x pla in s h o w th e n otio n a n d th e
a ctio ns o f c o rp ora te s o cia l r e sp onsib ili ty a re d ev elo ped i n T og o.
T his c o n cep t i s d iv id ed i n to t h re e a sp ects :
– T he r e sp o nsib ili ty t o w ard s e m plo y ees;
– T he r e sp o nsib ili ty t o w ard s t h e e n vir o n m en t;
– T he r e sp o nsib ili ty t o w ard s t h e c o m munity i n w hic h t h e e n te rp ris e e x is ts a n d d ev elo ps.

F or th e p urp ose o f th is s tu dy , w e te ste d th e t h re e a sp ec ts o n I F G w hic h s e rv ed a s a n e x am ple .
I F G i s a v ery i m porta n t c o m pan y a s it s c o ntr ib u ti o n t o t h e n atio n al i n co m e i s v ery s ig nif ic an t.
O ut o f th e th re e a sp ects , o nly th e f ir s t o n e w as r e sp ecte d . O n th e o th er h an d, it w as r e v eale d
t h at th e m in e ex tr a ctio n activ iti e s co ntr ib u te d to th e d ete rio ra tio n o f th e en vir o n m en t o f
H ah oto e a n d its s u rro undin gs a n d e n d an gere d a g ric u ltu ra l p ro ductio n. In a d ditio n, th e w aste
p ro duced f r o m th e w ash in g o f m in era ls in to th e s e a is d estr o y in g th e a q u atic f lo ra in K pém é
a n d o th er v illa g es a lo n g t h e c o ast w ith a d ir e ct i n flu en ce o n t h e i n h ab ita n ts ’ h ea lth . G en era lly ,
t h e c o n cep t o f s o cia l r e sp onsib ili ty is ig nore d o r h ard ly ta k en in to a c co u nt b y c o m pan ie s a n d
a cto rs o f T ogole se C iv il S ocie ty .

2 .7 .3 C orp ora te p hil a nth ro py. V ery fe w C SO s re ce iv e fu nds fro m th e p riv ate s e cto r.
H ow ev er, s o m e c o m pan ie s h av e c arrie d o ut a ctio ns to s u pport c o m munit y in fr a str u ctu re s u ch
a s th e b u ild in g o f s c h ools , f o ra g es a n d w ell s a n d th e d onati o n o f s c h ool s u pplie s to th e m ost
d is a d van ta g ed o nes. A s a n e x am ple to il lu str a te th is fa ct, W est A fric a C em en t (W ACEM )
d onate d s c h ool s u ppli e s to th e s tu d en t p opula ti o n o f T ab li g bo, th e s it e o f its m an u fa c tu rin g
p la n t.
C on clu sio n

CIV IC U S: C iv il S ocie ty I n dex R ep ort f o r T ogo
4 6
T he a n aly sis o f th e “ E nvir o n m en t” h as re v eale d th at th is is a s ig nif ic an t d im en sio n in T ogo
w hic h i s h o w ev er s tr o n gly d ete rm in ed b y t h e p oliti c al c o n te x t a n d l e g al s e ttin g.
S in ce th e th ir d r e p ubli c , T ogo h as b een c o n ti n uo usly th e v ic ti m o f s o cio -p oliti c al id eo lo gie s.
T he p olit ic a l tr a n sit io n h as b een a d if fic u lt p ro cess f o r th e T ogole se a n d h as a ls o a ffe cte d th e
g ood f u nctio nin g o f t h e l e g al s y ste m i n t h e c o untr y .
U ntil n ow , n eith er th e S ta te n or th e p riv ate s e cto r c o nsid ers c iv il s o cie ty a s a re al p artn er in
d ev elo p m en t. C om pare d to o th er p opula tio ns in th e s u b r e g io n, th e T og ole se a re k now n to b e
m ore p acif ic an d to le ra n t. N ev erth ele ss , fru str a tio n an d te n sio n ex ac erb ate d b y p oliti c ia n s
( b ase d o n e th nic o r tr ib al d if fe re n ces) in o rd er to m ain ta in o r c h an ge th e e x is tin g s y ste m h av e
s p ark ed s p ora d ic v io le n t c la sh es.
T he S co re 0 .7 r e v ea ls th at c iv il s o cie ty o pera te s in a v ery d if fic u lt p oliti c al, s o cia l, e co no m ic ,
c u ltu ra l a n d l e g al e n v ir o n m en t t h at c o ntr ib ute s t o c u rb in g i ts d ev elo p m en t a n d p ro m otio n .

CIV IC U S: C iv il S ocie ty I n dex R ep ort f o r T ogo
4 7
3 . V ALU ES
This se ctio n an aly se s th e v alu es p ra ctic ed an d p ro m ote d b y T ogole se civ il so cie ty . T he
m easu rin g f a cto rs a re r e p re se n te d i n t h e f o llo w in g t a b le .

FI G URE I I I.3 .1 : S ub dim en sio n s c o res i n V alu es d im en sio n .
0 .5 1 1
.5
1
.5
1 2
2
0
1 23
Dem ocra cy
T
ra n sp are n cy
T
ole ra n ce
N
on -v io le n ce
G
en der e q uity
P
overty e ra d ic ati o n
E
nvir o n m en ta l s u sta in ab ili ty
Valu es D im en sio n
S co re

3 .1 D em ocra cy
T his s u bdim en sio n e x am in es th e d em ocra tic p ra cti c es w ith in th e c iv il p opula tio n. Its re la te d
i n dic ato rs a re c o nfin ed i n T ab le I II.3 .1 .

T
A BLE II I.3 .1 : I n d ic a to rs a sse ss in g d em ocra cy
R ef. # In dic a to rs S co re
3 .1 .1 C SO i n te rn al d em ocra tic p ra ctic es 0
3 .1 .2 P ro m otio n o f d em ocra cy 1

3 .1 .1 C SO s in te rn al d em ocra tic p ra ctic es. T his in d ic ato r e v alu ate s th e a p plic atio n o f
d em ocra tic p ra c tic es w ith in C SO s. A ctu ally , C SO re g ula tio ns se t fo rth th e fu n dam en ta l
p rin cip le s o f d em ocra cy to b e p ra cti c ed in te rn ally . H ow ev er, th e re ality is d if fe re n t a n d in
m ost c ase s th e le ad ers o f a ss o cia tio ns o nly w ork w it h c o lla b ora to rs w ill in g to a cce p t a n d
i m ple m en t t h eir d ec is io ns.

3 .1 .2 P ro m otio n o f D em ocra cy. T his in dic ato r pro vid es ev id en ce th at C SO s ra re ly
i n itia te p ro gra m mes o r c a m paig ns to p ro m ote d em ocra cy . It is o nly o n th e e v e o f e le c ti o ns
t h at s o m e C SO s o rg an is e , w ith th e fin an cia l s u p port o f d ev elo p m en t p artn ers a n d th e S ta te ,
r a d io p ro gra m mes a n d te le v is io n d eb ate s to in fo rm th e p opu la ti o n o n its r ig hts a n d d uti e s a n d
o n t h e v otin g p ro ced ure s. B ut, t h is c iv ic i n str u ctio n a n d t h e a w are n ess c a m paig n s l a c k s u pport
a n d v is ib ili ty .

3 .2 T ra n sp aren cy

CIV IC U S: C iv il S ocie ty I n dex R ep ort f o r T ogo
4 8
T his su bdim en sio n asse sse s th e eff o rts m ad e by acto rs of civ il so cie ty to pro m ote
t r a n sp are n cy . I ts r e la te d i n dic a to rs a re c o nfin ed i n T ab le I II.3 .2 .
T
A BLE I II.3 .2 : I n d ic a to rs a ss e ssin g t r a n sp are n cy
R ef. # In dic a to rs S co re
3 .2 .1 C orru ptio n w ith in c iv il s o cie ty 1
3.2 .2 C SO f in an cia l t r a n sp are n cy 1
3.2 .3 P ro m otio n o f t r a n sp are n cy 1

3 .2 .1 C orr u ptio n w ith in c iv il s o cie ty . T his in dic ato r m easu re s th e le v el o f c o rru p tio n
w ith in T ogo le se c iv il s o cie ty . C orru pti o n is s u bsta n tia l in T ogo a s th e p ra ctic e a n d b eh av io u r
o f so m e C SO s p av e th e w ay to co rru pti o n. A s an ex am ple , o ne can m en tio n th e la ck o f
o rg an is a tio n o f g en era l a sse m blie s a n d th e ir re g ula r p re se n ta tio n o f m an ag em en t a cco un ts to
t h e o th er m em bers a n d th e p u blic . W ith r e g ard to th e m ed ia , th e f a ct th at r e p orte rs a n d o th er
t e ch n ic ia n s c o lle c t t r a n sp orta tio n f e e s t o c o v er e v en ts d oes n o t a lw ay s g uara n te e t h e n eu tr a lity
o f t h eir a n aly sis o f s itu atio ns.

3 .2 .2 C SO s fin a ncia l tr a nsp a re n cy . O ver six N GO s o ut o f te n (6 5% ) p ublis h th eir
f in an cia l re p orts (E le ctr o nic D ir e c to ry o f N GOs in T ogo ). O ut o f 3 43 N GOs, 2 29 (6 7% )
p re se n t th eir fin an cia l re p orts to th eir m em bers w hile 2 68 (7 8% ) p re se n t th eir o pera ti o n al
b udgets . T he p re se n ta tio n o f f in an cia l a cco unts i s a m an dato ry r e q u ir e m en t b y d onors , a n d y et
o ne c an w onder a b ou t th e a u th en ti c it y o f fin an cia l tr a n sp are n cy w ith in C SO s. O n th at b asis
a n d c o nsid erin g t h e r e alit y o f t h in gs, t h e c o m mitt e e e x pre ss e d d oubts c o n cern in g t h e a c cu ra cy
o f C SO s f in an cia l r e p o rts . I n a ctu al f a c t, o n ly a m in ority o f N GO s p ublis h a ccu ra te f in an cia l
r e p orts .

3 .2 .3 P ro m otio n o f tr a nsp are n cy. S om e a c tiv it ie s a im ed a t p ro m oti n g tr a n sp are n cy h av e
b een o b se rv ed . T here a re a w are n ess c a m paig ns o rg an iz ed b y N GO s, A ss o cia tio ns a n d T ra d e
U nio ns o n th e d ra w back s o f c o rru ptio n a n d th e s tr a te g ic b eh av io urs to f ig ht it. T he im pac t o n
c iv il s o cie ty o f th ese a ctiv iti e s re m ain s w eak d u e to o th er s o cia l is su es c o nsid ere d o f m ore
i m porta n ce. A ls o , only 2 out of 343 re g is te re d N GOs ad vo cate fo r th e pro m otio n of
t r a n sp are n cy ( E le ctr o nic D ir e c to ry o f N G Os in T ogo). T hese a re th e “ L ea g ue o f I n dep en d en t
P eo ple f o r T ra n sp are n cy ” ( L IT ) a n d th e C en tr e o f O bse rv atio n a n d P ro m otio n o f th e S ta te o f
L aw ( C O PE D ).

3 .3 T ole ra n ce
T his s u bdim en sio n a sse sse s t h e p ra ctic es o f c iv il s o cie ty a c to rs a im ed a t p ro m otin g t o le ra n ce.
T
A BLE II I.3 .3 : I n d ic a to rs a sse ss in g t o le ra n ce
R ef. # In dic a to rs S co re
3 .3 .1 T ole ra n ce w ith in c iv il s o cie ty 1
3 .3 .2 P ro m otio n o f t o le ra n ce 2

3 .3 .1 T ole ra nce w ith in c iv il s o cie ty . D if f ic u ltie s e n co un te re d b y C SO s in b uild in g a n
e n vir o n m en t fo r co nsu lta tio ns an d co m mon ac tio n are p artly lin ked to th eir lo w le v el o f
t o le ra n ce fo r e ach o th er. P olit i c al riv alr ie s h av e b een c arrie d in to th e c iv il s o cie ty a re n a a n d

CIV IC U S: C iv il S ocie ty I n dex R ep ort f o r T ogo
4 9
hav e in sti g ate d s u sp ic io n a n d la ck o f tr u st a m ongst its m em bers . I n a d ditio n, w here as c erta in
p oli ti c al le ad ers u se s o m e C SO s to a c h ie v e th eir p oliti c al a m bitio ns, c iv il s o cie ty m em bers
h av e a t e n den cy o f s u sp ectin g e a ch o th er a s p o te n tia l s p ie s f o r t h e r e g im e o r t h e o ppositio n.

3 .3 .2 P ro m otio n o f to le ra nce. S ev era l C SO s a re c u rre n tly w ork in g a ctiv ely to p ro m ote
t o le ra n ce in T ogo . T hro ug h th e m ed ia an d pra y ers , se v era l asso cia tio ns an d re lig io us
o rg an is a tio n s h av e c all e d u pon th e p opu la tio n to e x erc is e m ore p atie n ce a n d to le ra n ce s in ce
A pril 2 005.
I n th e w ee k ly C ath o li c m ag azin e ” P ré se n ce C hré ti e n ne”, A rc h b is h op K O UTO h as c alle d o n
t h e i n hab ita n ts o f h is d io cese t o c e ase t h e v io le n ce a n d t o c o m e t o g eth er ( A bbé M ic h el M am a-
B etr é , 2 005). In th e s a m e m ag azin e, C hris ti a n a n d M usli m w om en u rg ed fo r a p eac efu l a n d
r e c o n cilia to ry s o cie ty .

3 .4 N on -v io le n ce
T his s u bd im en sio n p ortr a y s th e im porta n ce o f a ctio ns in itia te d b y a cto rs a n d o rg an is a tio ns o f
c iv il s o cie ty i n f a v our o f n on-v io le n ce i n T ogo. I ts r e la te d i n d ic ato rs a re l i s te d i n T ab le I I I.3 .4
T
A BLE II I.3 .4 : I n d ic a to rs a sse ss in g n on -v io le n ce
R ef. # In dic a to rs S co re
3 .4 .1 N on-v io le n ce w ith in t h e C S a re n a 2
3 .4 .2 P ro m otio n o f n o n-v io le n ce 1

3 .4 .1 N on-v io le n ce w it h in th e C S a re n a. N one o f th e C SO s u se s v io le n t m ean s to
d efe n d th eir in te re sts , a n d th e o utb re ak o f v io le n ce a fte r th e p re sid en ti a l e le ctio ns c an no t b e
a ttr ib ute d to th em . A cco rd in g to th e U N r e p ort ( m en ti o n ed a b ove), th e r e g im e a n d o p posit io n
p oli ti c al p arti e s p la y ed a la rg e ro le in th e o u tb re ak o f v io le n ce b efo re , d u rin g, a n d a fte r th e
2 005 p re sid en tia l ele ctio ns. T he re g im e carrie s a m ajo r re sp onsib il ity fo r th e v io le n t acts
c o m mitt e d b y th e a rm ed a n d s e cu rity fo rc e s, s h are d b y th e p oli ti c al p arti e s fo r in citin g th eir
m ilit a n ts t o p arta k e i n d em onstr a ti o ns.

3 .4 .2 P ro m otio n o f n on-v io le n ce. T his i n d ic ato r s e ek s to a sse ss th e i m porta n ce o f p ea ce-
p ro m oti n g a ctio ns b y c iv il s o cie ty . S om e o f t h ese a ctio ns h av e b een c arrie d o u t s in ce 1 990 b u t
t h ey h av e n o t b een s u ppo rte d a n d t h u s h av e l a c k ed e ffe ctiv en ess.
S ev era l a sso cia tio ns a n d C SO s h av e in iti a te d s o m e p ea ce-p ro m otin g e v en ts . A cco rd in g to th e
n ew sp ap er T ogo P re ss e , (0 1/1 2 /2 00 5 p .3 ), th e A sso cia ti o n o f W om en fo r P eace c alle d fo r a
p ra y er in fa v our o f p eac e. T he asso cia ti o n F em mes, D ro it, et D ev elo ppem en t en A fr iq u e
S ectio n D u T ogo (W om en , R ig h ts an d D ev elo p m en t in A fr ic a, T ogo R ep re se n ta tio n )
f o ll o w ed i n t h eir f o ots te p s.
O ne s h o uld a ls o m en tio n w ork sh ops o rg an iz ed b y W AN EP ( W est A fric a N etw ork f o r P ea c e
B uild in g) to r e fle ct o n th e p ro m otio n o f p ea ce a m ongst r e p re se n ta tiv es o f p oli t ic al p arti e s a n d
c iv il s o cie ty . A t h in k t a n k o n t h e c o n tr ib utio n o f c iv il s o cie ty t o t h e n atio n al d ia lo gu e h as b een
s e t u p.

3 .5 G en d er e q uit y

CIV IC U S: C iv il S ocie ty I n dex R ep ort f o r T ogo
5 0
T his su bdim en sio n a n aly se s th e d ete rm in atio n w ith w hic h a cto rs o f T ogole se c iv il so cie ty
p ro m ote th e g en d er an d e q uity ap p ro ac h . T he id en tif ie d in dic a to rs are p re se n te d in T ab le
I II.3 .5 .
T
A BLE II I.3 .5 : I n d ic a to rs a sse ss in g g en d er e q uit y
R ef. # In dic a to rs S co re
3 .5 .1 G en der e q uit y 1
3 .5 .2 G en der e q uit y p ra cti c e s –
3 .5 .3 P ro m otio n o f g en der e q u ity 1

3 .5 .1 G en der eq uity . T his in dic ato r gau ges th e le v el of re p re se n ta tio n of w om en in
l e ad ers h ip p ositio ns w it h in th e c iv il s o cie ty . T he S co re ( 1 ) in dic ate s a w eak r e p re se n ta ti o n o f
w om en in s u ch p ositio n s w ith in c iv il s o cie ty a lth ough p artn ers a n d s o m e C SO s a re m ak in g
e ffo rts i n t h at r e g ard .
T his lo w le v el o f re p re se n ta tio n o f w om en is d ue to th e w eak a n ch o rin g o f th e c o n cep t o f
g en d er e q uity w ith in c iv il s o cie ty .
S tr u ctu re s lik e W ild af/F eD DAF, tr a d e u n io ns, th e T ogole se L eag ue f o r W om en ’s R ig hts , th e
M in is tr y in c h arg e o f P opula tio n a n d S ocia l A ffa ir s , th e O rg an is a tio n fo r th e P ro m oti o n o f
W om en , U RD /U L, U RD /U L an d U NIC EF h av e b een ac tin g fo r th e p ro m oti o n o f g en der
e q uity w ith in T ogole se c iv il s o cie ty .

3 .5 .2 G en der e q uity p ra ctic e s. T he o b je cti v e o f th is in dic a to r is to e v alu ate th e s p an o f
g en d er e q u it y p ra ctic es b y C SO s. U nfo rtu nate ly , th is in dic a to r h as n o t b een d o cu m en te d d ue
t o a l a ck o f i n fo rm atio n.

3 .5 .3 P ro m otio n o f g en der e q uity . T he p re se n t in dic ato r se ek s to m ea su re th e a ctiv e
e ffo rts m ad e b y c iv il s o cie ty t o p ro m ote g en d er e q uity i n t h e s o cie ty .
S tr u ctu re s lik e W ild af/F eD DAF, tr a d e u n io ns, th e T ogole se L eag ue f o r W om en ’s R ig hts , th e
O rg an is a ti o n f o r th e P ro m otio n o f W om en , C CoF T a n d U N IC EF h av e b een w ork in g f o r th e
p ro m oti o n o f g en der e q u ity w ith in T ogo le se c iv il s o cie ty .
T here a re v ery f e w p erc e p tib le a c tiv itie s f ro m c iv il s o cie ty in th e p ro m oti o n o f g en d er e q u ity .
T heir v is ib ility i s m in im al a n d t h e c o ncep t s e e m s v ery r e m ote w ith in s o cie ty .

3 .6 P ov er ty r ed u ctio n
The s u bdim en sio n o n p overty r e d uctio n a n aly se s th e a ctio ns ta k en b y c iv il s o cie ty to p ro m ote
t h e e ra d ic atio n o f p overty . O nly o ne i n dic ato r w as i d en tif ie d i n t h is a re a ( T ab le I II.3 .6 .)
T
A BLE II I.3 .6 : I n d ic a to rs a sse ss in g p ov er ty r ed u ctio n
R ef. # In dic a to rs S co re
3 .6 .1 A ctio ns t o e ra d ic a te p o verty a n d p ro m ote s o cia l e q uit y 2

3 .6 .1 A ctio ns to era dic a te po verty and pro m ote so cia l eq uity . T his in dic a to r
m easu re s a c ti o ns ta k en b y c iv il s o cie ty a im ed a t e ra d ic atin g p overty . M ost N GO s, re lig io u s

CIV IC U S: C iv il S ocie ty I n dex R ep ort f o r T ogo
5 1
org an is a tio n s an d tr a d e u nio ns in it ia te activ it ie s to h elp im pro v e th e liv in g co n dit io ns o f
T ogo le se house h old s. Exam ple s in clu d e m ic ro fin an ce activ itie s, tr a in in g of w om en in
a g ric u ltu ra l te ch niq ues, tr a in in g o f th e y outh in en tr e p re n eu rs h ip an d th e co nstr u ctio n o f
i n fra str u ctu re ( d is p en sa rie s, f o ra g es, w ell s a n d r u ra l p ath w ay s.)
U nfo rtu nate ly , as th e so cio -e co no m ic an d po li tic al situ atio n en g en d ere d th e dep artu re o f
d ev elo p m en t p artn ers f ro m th e c o un tr y , th e im ple m en ta tio n o f th ese in it ia tiv es la ck s m ate ria l
a n d f in an cia l s u pport a n d v is ib il ity .

3 .7 Envir o n m en ta l s u sta in ab ilit y
T his su bdim en sio n a n aly se s th e e ff o rts o f c iv il so cie ty to p ro m ote th e su sta in ab il ity o f th e
e n vir o n m en t. T he o nly r e la te d i n d ic ato r i d en tif ie d i s p re se n te d i n t h e f o llo w in g t a b le .
T
A BLE II I.3 .7 : I n d ic a to r o f e n vir o n m en ta l p ro te ctio n
R ef. # In dic a to rs S co re
3 .7 .1 E nv ir o n m en ta l s u sta in ab ility 2

3 .7 .1 E nvir o n m en ta l pro te ctio n activ ity . T he ro le of th e pre se n t in dic ato r is to
d ete rm in e th e le v el of civ il so cie ty ’s m otiv atio n in its quest to activ ely pro te ct th e
e n vir o n m en t.
N GO s an d asso cia tio ns w ork in g in th e fie ld of ag ric u ltu re in itia te sc atte re d activ it ie s to
p ro te ct an d co nse rv e th e en v ir o n m en t. M ore sp ecif ic ally , N GO s li k e “A m is d e la T erre ” ,
A TPH a n d C O M ET N etw ork p erio dic all y o rg an is e a w are n ess w ork sh op s o n e n vir o n m en ta l
p ro te ctio n , th e d ra w back s o f b ush fir e s, th e ad van ta g e o f re fo re sta tio n an d th e m ean s to
p ro te ct t h e o zo n e.
C on clu sio n
T ole ra n ce , n on v io le n ce, h o nesty a n d c iv ic a ctio n a re c ru m blin g in fa v our o f th e p urs u it o f
p ers o nal in te re sts . T he p opula tio n is e x pose d to c o rru pti o n o n a d aily b asis b u t a ls o w itn ess e s
a la ck o f tr a n sp are n cy in th e m an ag em en t o f p ubli c a ffa ir s . V io le n ce is in cre asin g w ith in th e
p opula tio n a n d re a ch es its p eak d urin g th e e le c to ra l p erio d a lth ough s o m e C SO s h av e b een
a d vo ca tin g fo r a n ti- v io le n ce. T he p o pula ti o n, w hic h is th e m ain v ic tim o f th is v io le n ce, h as
e x pre sse d g re at s a tis fa ctio n f o ll o w in g t h e i m ple m en ta tio n o f a n ew p oli ti c al d ia lo gu e.
D em ocra cy , g en der eq u ity an d th e p ro te ctio n o f th e en v ir o nm en t are ele m en ts th at b ette r
e x pla in th e “ v alu es” d im en sio n in th e c ase o f T ogo. T ole ra n ce a n d n o n-v io le n ce a re n ot y et a
w ay o f lif e f o r T ogole se c iv il s o cie ty . T he s c o re a ttr ib u te d to th is d im en sio n r e fle c ts th e f a ct
t h at a la rg e m ajo rity o f th e v alu es c o nsid ere d a b o ve a re n ot a p pli e d m uch w ith in c iv il s o cie ty .
N oneth ele ss , e ffo rts a re m ad e t o p ro m ote t h em w ith in T og ole se s o cie ty i n g en era l.
T he m ajo rit y of C SO are en g ag ed in th e fie ld of poverty re d uctio n an d en vir o n m en ta l
p ro te ctio n b ut t h eir i n iti a tiv es l a ck s u pport a n d p ubli c v is ib il ity .

4 . IM PA CT
This s e ctio n d esc rib es a n d a n aly se s t h e e x te n t t o w hic h c iv il s o cie ty i s a ctiv e a n d s u ccessfu l i n

CIV IC U S: C iv il S ocie ty I n dex R ep ort f o r T ogo
5 2
fu lf ill in g s e v era l e sse n ti a l f u nctio n s w ith in T ogo le se s o cie ty . F ig ure I II.4 .1 p re se n ts t h e s c o re s
f o r t h e f iv e s u b dim en sio ns.
F
I G UR E I II .4 .1 : S u bd im en sio n s c o res i n I m pact d im en sio n

0 .3
0
0
.5 1
.8
1
.3
0 12 3
In flu en cin g p ub li c p oli c y
H
old in g s ta te & p riv ate
s e c to r a cc o u nta b le
R
esp ond in g t o s o cia l
i n te re sts
E
m pow erin g c itiz en s
M
eetin g s o cia l n eed s
Im pact D im en sio n
S co re

4 .1 . I n flu en cin g p ubli c p olic y
T his dim en sio n ex am in es an d m easu re s th e effe ctiv en ess of T ogole se civ il so cie ty in
i n flu en cin g p ublic p olic ie s a n d h u m an r ig hts p ra ctic es a t t h e n atio n al l e v el.
T ab le I II .4 .1 : I n dic a to rs a sse ss in g i n flu en ce o n p ub li c p oli c y
R ef. # In dic a to rs S co re
4 .1 .1 I n flu en cin g h um an r ig hts 1
4 .1 .2 I n flu en cin g s o cia l p o li c ie s 0
4 .1 .3 I n flu en cin g n ati o n al b udg et 0

4 .1 .1 In flu en cin g h um an rig hts . C SO ac ti v it ie s in th e fie ld o f h u m an rig h ts are v ery
l i m it e d w ith n o s ig n if ic an t im pact. O nly th e T ogole se L eag ue fo r H um an R ig h ts h as so m e
v is ib il ity in den oun cin g case s of hu m an rig h ts ab use in T ogo, w it h th e su pp ort of its
i n te rn ati o n al a lli a n ces t h at d is se m in ate i ts c alls .

4 .1 .2 In flu en cin g s o cia l p o li c ie s. C SO a ctiv it ie s in th e a re a o f h u m an rig h ts a re v ery
l i m it e d w ith n o s ig n if ic an t im pact. O nly th e T ogole se L eag ue fo r H um an R ig h ts h as so m e
v is ib il ity in den oun cin g case s of hu m an rig h ts ’ ab use in T ogo, w ith th e su pp ort of its
i n te rn ati o n al a lli a n ces t h at d is se m in ate i ts c alls .

4 .1 .3 I n fl u en cin g t h e b udg et e la bora tio n p ro ce ss. I n T ogo, n o C SO s p la y a r o le i n t h e
b udget e la b ora tio n p ro cess . A cco rd in g to th e E xecu tiv e D ir e cto r o f F O NG TO , c iv il s o cie ty
d oes n ot in te rv en e in th e b udget e la b ora tio n p ro cess. T he b u dget is e la b o ra te d b y t h e M in is te r
o f Fin an ce und er th e su p erv is io n of th e Prim e M in is te r an d ad o pte d by th e N atio nal
A ss e m bly . A fte rw ard s, th e p opu la ti o n is in fo rm ed o n th e a m ount o f th e b udg et th ro ugh th e
m ed ia .

CIV IC U S: C iv il S ocie ty I n dex R ep ort f o r T ogo
5 3
4 .2 H old in g t h e s ta te a n d p riv ate c o rp ora tio n s a cco u nta b le
T he p re se n t s e ctio n re v ie w s a n d a n aly se s th e c ap ac ity o f c iv il s o cie ty to h o ld th e s ta te a n d
c o rp o ra tio ns a cco un ta b le . T ab le I II.4 .2 p re se n ts t h e f o ll o w in g i n dic ato rs .
T
A BLE II I.4 .2 : I n d ic a to rs a sse ss in g h old in g s ta te a n d p riv ate c o rp ora tio n s a cco u nta b le
R ef. # I n dic a to rs S co re
4 .2 .1 H old in g s ta te a cco unta b le 0
4 .2 .2 H old in g p riv ate c o rp o ra ti o n s a cco unta b le 0

4 .2 .1 H old in g s ta te a cco unta ble . T here a re n o a ctiv it ie s c arrie d o ut b y c iv il s o cie ty to
m onito r a n d e v alu ate S ta te tr a n sp are n cy a n d o ff ic ia l re p ortin g, w hic h ju sti f ie s th e S co re 0 .
C SO s t h at w ork t o p ro m ote t r a n sp are n cy a re s ti ll a t t h e l e v el o f e d ucatin g c iti z en s t o a d op t t h e
h ab it o f r e p ortin g . A fte r t h at s ta g e, c it iz en s c an o rg an is e t h em se lv es i n o rd er t o r e q u est r e p orts
f ro m th e S ta te . A ls o , th e a ctu al d ev elo p m en t s ta g e o f C SO s a n d th e p ra cti c es o f th e p o li tic al
s y ste m in p la ce d o n ot e n ab le c iti z en s to c o n tr o l th e p erfo rm an ce o f th e S ta te o r fo rc e it to
r e p ort t o t h em .

4 .2 .2 H old in g priv a te co rp ora tio ns acco unta ble . A ll th e str u ctu re s co nta c te d to
c o lle ct in fo rm atio n o n th e is su e u nders c o re th e fa c t th at n o ne o f th e C SO s is a d vocatin g fo r
t r a n sp are n cy in p riv ate s e cto r a c tiv it ie s. T hus, th ere is a la ck o f m on ito rin g a n d e v alu atio n o f
p riv ate s e cto r a c tiv it ie s.

4 .3 R esp on din g t o s o cia l i n te rests
T his s u bdim en sio n m easu re s t o w hat e x te n t T ogo le se c iv il s o cie ty ta k es i n to a c co un t p eo ple ’s
r e a ctio ns t o s o cia l i s s u es. T he r e la te d i n dic ato rs a re c o nfin ed i n T ab le I II.4 .3 .
T
A BLE II I.4 .3 : I n d ic a to rs a sse ss in g r esp on se t o s o cia l i n te rests
R ef. # In dic a to rs S co re
4 .3 .1 R esp on siv en ess 0
4 .3 .2 T ru st i n C SO s 1

4 .3 .1 E ffe ctiv en ess o f c iv il s o cie ty r e a ctio ns. C SO s d o n ot r e a ct v ery a c tiv ely to s o cia l
i s su es. S in ce th e d ev alu atio n o f th e C FA fra n c in 1 994, n o C SO h as ad vo ca te d fo r th e
r e a d ju stm en t o f t h e m in im um s a la ry b y t h e S ta te a n d t h e p riv ate s e cto r. I t h as b een m ain ta in ed
a t 1 3000 C FA s in ce 1 9 73 a n d th e le v els o f s a la rie s re m ain th e s a m e fo r a g en ts in b oth th e
p ubli c a n d p riv ate s e cto rs w hil e p ric es o f b asic g o ods r is e c o n sta n tly .

4 .3 .2 T ru st in C SO s. T his in d ic a to r d eals w ith th e fra c tio n o f th e g en era l p ub li c th at h as
c o nfid en ce i n a cto rs o f c iv il s o cie ty .
T he S co re 1 a ttr ib u te d to th is in d ic ato r re v eals th at th e p ubli c h as v ery lo w c o n fid en ce in
a cto rs of civ il so cie ty . A cco rd in g to th e W orld B an k stu dy , “E valu atio n T oo ls of civ il
s o cie ty “, T ogole se N G Os g ain ed le g it i m acy d ue to 1 ) th e h u m an r e la te d is s u es th ey r a is e a n d
t r y to s o lv e a n d 2 ) th eir c o ntr ib u tio n to e v en ts o f g en era l in te re st o fte n n eg le cte d b y th e s ta te ;
p .1 4, J u ne 2 004.
R elig io us o rg an is a tio ns an d o th er ass o cia tio n s p ortr a y th e sa m e te n d en cy . H ow ev er, th is
c o nfid en ce i s f a d in g a w ay a s v ery f e w ( 8 2.7 % ) P A V h av e n ot o bta in ed f in an cin g y et.

CIV IC U S: C iv il S ocie ty I n dex R ep ort f o r T ogo
5 4

4 .4 . E m pow erin g c it iz en s
T his s e ctio n h ig hlig hts th e e ffo rts m ad e b y c iv il s o cie ty in b uild in g th e c ap ac ity o f c iti z en s.
R ela te d i n d ic ato rs a re l is te d i n T ab le I II.4 .4 .
T
A BLE II I.4 .4 : I n d ic a to rs a sse ss in g e m pow erin g c it iz en s
R ef. # In dic a to rs S co re
4 .4 .1 I n fo rm in g/e d uca tin g c it i z en s 1
4 .4 .2 B uild in g c a p acity f o r c o lle c ti v e a c tio n 2
4 .4 .3 E m pow erin g m arg in alis e d p eo ple 2
4 .4 .4 E m pow erin g w om en 2
4.4 .5 B uild in g s o cia l c ap ita l –
4 .4 .6 S uppo rtin g/c re a tin g l iv eli h ood s 2

4 .4 .1 In fo rm in g/e d uca tin g c itiz e n s. C SO activ itie s in th e fie ld o f ed u ca tio n are v ery
l i m it e d a n d h av e n o s ig nif ic an t im pact. O nly 1 5.4 7% o f N GO s in T og o o pera te in th at a re a
( E le ctr o n ic D ir e c to ry o f N GOs i n T ogo).
A ls o , b ase d o n th e a ctiv ity r e p orts o f s e v era l a sso cia ti o ns a n d N GOs: A cti o n p our la J e u n ess e
d ’A fr iq ue (A JA ): Rap port an nuel d’a ctiv ité s 2004, e-m ail : aja tg @ yah oo.f r
, – Rap port
d ’a c tiv it é d e l’ O N G P ro gra m me d ’A id e H um an it a ir e au x C as S ocia u x (P A H CS), e-m ail :
p ah cs@ yah oo.f r
, t h e e d ucatio n p ro gra m me f o r c it iz en s i s i n ad eq u ate .
S in ce th e v io le n ce p erp etr a te d d urin g th e 2 00 5 p re sid en tia l ele c tio n, th e m ajo rit y o f th e
p riv ate m ed ia a ir s e d ucatio n a n d a w are n ess p ro gra m mes ( ra d io s M aria , N an a F M , C an al F M
a n d N osta lg ie e tc .)

4 .4 .2 B uild in g c a p acity fo r c o lle ctiv e a ctio n. M ost C SO s a re a ctiv e in b u il d in g th e
c ap acit y of th e popu la tio n. H ow ev er, th e eco n o m ic dete rio ra tio n an d th e so cio -p o li t ic a l
s itu atio n do not fa cili ta te th e m ob ilis a tio n o f th e re so urc es need ed by th e pop ula tio n to
o rg an is e a n d s o lv e c o m mon p ro ble m s. B ecau se o f th e la c k o f re so urc es, F O N GTO h as n ot
o rg an is e d a n y tr a in in g se ssio ns fo r its m em bers sin ce 2 00 2. T he sa m e te n d en cy h as b een
o bse rv ed w ith a g ro -p asto ra l t r a in in g c en tr e s f o r t h e y outh a n d g ro upin gs o f f a rm ers .

4 .4 .3 E m pow erin g m arg in alis e d p eo ple . M arg in aliz ed p ers o ns are th o se li v in g w ith
H IV /A ID S, m en ta lly a n d p hy sic a ll y h an d ic ap ped p eo ple , th ose a d dic te d to d ru gs, e tc . T he
i n dic ato r re v eals li m it e d effe c tiv en ess an d im pact of T ogole se civ il so cie ty ’s ac tio n s to
r e in fo rc e th e in fra str u ctu re a ro un d m arg in alis e d p ers o ns. I n th at a re a , S O S C hild re n ’s V ill a g e
o f L om e a ctiv ely p ro m ote s th e e d ucatio n o f its c h ild re n . In 2 003, 1 00% o f it s s tu d en ts g o t
t h eir F ir s t E le m en ta ry D eg re e w hile 9 4.8 7% a tte n ded s e co n dary s c h ool. T he s a m e y ear, a b ig
f o ru m ra lli e d th e in dep en d en ts , stu den ts , a p pre n ti c es a n d p re -a d o le sc en ts o f th e K ara S O S
v il la g e. S ev era l p ro je cts fin an ced b y th e G lo bal F und are cu rr e n tly u nderw ay to su p port
p eo p le liv in g w ith H IV /A ID S. P la n T ogo a n d E N VO L h av e i m ple m en te d a p ro je c t to s u p port
m en ta lly i ll i n div id u als .

4 .4 .4 E m pow erin g w om en . I n T ogo, only 34.4 % of C SO s in itia te actio ns to build
w om en ’s c ap acity ( E le c tr o nic D ir e cto ry o f N GOs in T ogo). E xam ple s o f th ese a ctio n s a re th e
a lp h ab etis a tio n o f w om en , t r a in in g o f w om en p ara le g als a n d m ic ro c re d its t o w om en .

CIV IC U S: C iv il S ocie ty I n dex R ep ort f o r T ogo
5 5
4 .4 .5 B uild in g so cia l ca pita l. T o w hat ex te n t do es civ il so cie ty b uild so cia l cap it a l
a m ongst its m em bers ? W hat is th e le v el of co nfid en ce, to le ra n ce an d public vig ou r
( in te lli g en ce, c la ir v oy an ce) o f th e m em bers c o m pare d to n o n-m em bers o f c iv il s o cie ty ? D ue
t o a l a ck o f i n fo rm atio n, t h is i n dic ato r w as n ot d ocu m en te d .

4 .4 .6 Supporti n g/c re a tin g liv elih oods. S ev era l in co m e gen era tio n acti v it ie s or
o pportu nit ie s ex is t. These opportu nit ie s are m ost ofte n in th e are n a of m ic ro fin an ce
i n stitu tio n s su ch a s F U CEC , W ag es, ID H a n d S O CO DEV I, a ll k n ow n to b e su ccessfu l. In
g en era l, th ese org an is a tio ns pro vid e cre d it at fa v oura b le ra te s to wom en ,
c o op era tiv es/g ro upin gs o r o th er cit iz en s w il li n g to in iti a te an in co m e g en era tin g ac ti v ity .
H ow ev er, a n in -d ep th in vestig atio n r e v ea ls th at s o m e in div id u als a re h av in g p ro b le m s p ay in g
b ack th eir lo an s. P la n T ogo h as b een d ev elo p in g, in c o lla b ora tio n w it h F U CEC a n d o th er
C O OPE C s, a m ic ro f in an ce p ro gra m me i n i ts a re as o f i n te rv en tio n.

4 .5 . M eetin g s o cia l n eed s
T his s u bdim en sio n m easu re s c iv il s o cie ty ’s e ffo rts to m eet th e s o cia l n eed s o f th e p u blic . T he
i n dic ato rs a re p re se n te d i n T ab le I II.4 .5 .
T
A BLE II I.4 .5 : I n d ic a to rs a sse ss in g m eetin g s o cia l n eed s
R ef. # In dic a to rs S co re
4 .5 .1 L ob byin g f o r s ta te s e rv ic e p ro v is io n 1
4.5 .2 M eetin g s o cie ta l n eed s d ir e ctly 1
4.5 .3 M eetin g t h e n eed s o f m arg in alis e d g ro up s 2

4 .5 .1 L obb yin g fo r sta te se rv ic e p ro vis io n. S up port activ iti e s fo r th e pro vis io n of
s e rv ic es o r p ro m otio n o f s e lf h elp in it ia tiv es b y c o m munit ie s th em se lv es a re li m ite d . T hese
i n itia tiv es o ffe r c o m munit ie s a lt e rn ativ e m ean s to im pro ve th eir m ate ria l d ev elo p m en t, o th er
t h an th ro ug h th e S ta te . O nly in te rn atio n al N G Os lo bby f o r a ctio ns f ro m th e S ta te . P la n T ogo
a n d U NIC EF c o nducte d a c o m mon l o bby in g a c tio n f o r t h e a d optio n o f a l a w p ro hib iti n g c h ild
a b use a n d a n ew c h ild p ro te ctio n c o d e i n T ogo.

4 .5 .2 M eetin g s o cie ta l n eed s d ir e ctly . T hese t y pes o f a c tiv it ie s a re m ostly c a rrie d o u t b y
i n te rn ati o n al N GOs s u ch a s P la n T ogo, T erre d es H om mes, B orn efo nden , U NIC EF, A id e e t
A cti o n, C ro ix R oug e T ogola is e , e tc . P la n T og o in iti a te s se v era l a ctiv iti e s in th is fie ld th at
i n clu d e th e build in g of w ells , fo ra g es, fa m ily an d public la tr in es an d so cio -c o m munity
s tr u ctu re s (s c h ools , d is p en sa rie s) th at a re m an ag ed b y b en efic ia ry c o m m uniti e s th em se lv es.
U NIC EF in te rv en es in th e a re a o f c h ild p ro te cti o n w ith e d ucatio n a n d n utr it io n p ro gra m m es.
P la n T ogo f in an ce s th e s c h ool f e es o f s e v era l th o usa n ds o f c h ild re n e ach y ear a n d i s c u rr e n tly
t e stin g a s o cia l s e cu rity s y ste m f o r t h e p opula ti o n i n i ts o pera tio nal r e g io n s.

4 .5 .3 M eetin g th e n ee d s o f m arg in alis e d g ro ups. I n g en era l, N GO s h av e b ee n m ore
e ffe c tiv e th an th e S ta te in m eetin g th e n eed s o f m arg in ali s e d g ro ups. A n u m ber o f N G Os
a ssis t m arg in alis e d p ers o ns a n d v uln era b le p op ula ti o ns. F or e x am ple , s o m e N GO s o ffe r g if ts
t o h an d ic ap ped p ers o ns ( tr ic y cle s), A ID S o rp han s a n d m en ta lly h an dic ap p ed p ers o ns.
S in ce th e s u sp en sio n o f c o op era tio n b etw een T ogo a n d th e E U , th e S ta te h as b een in effe ctiv e
i n m ee tin g th e n ee d s o f th e p op ula tio n in g en era l, an d p artic u la rly th ose o f m arg in alis e d

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gro ups. T he e x is ti n g N G Os t r y t o r e sp ond t o t h ese u rg en cie s b ut a re l im ite d i n n u m ber a n d b y
t h e q u ality o f t h e m ean s a t t h eir d is p osa l.
C on clu sio n
T he str e n g th en in g o f cit iz en s’ cap acity an d th e se cu rin g o f so cia l in te re st are sig nif ic an t
d ete rm in an ts of th e “im pact” dim en sio n. In T ogo, civ il so cie ty hard ly in flu en ces pu blic
p oli c ie s d u e t o t h e l a ck o f a c o nstr u ctiv e d em ocra cy .
T he S co re 0 .8 a ttr ib u te d to th is d im en sio n p ro v es th at c iv il s o cie ty h as v ery lit tl e im pac t o n
i s su es su ch as p oliti c s, h old in g th e sta te an d th e p riv ate se c to r acc o unta b le , em pow erin g
c itiz en s a n d m eetin g t h e n eed s o f t h e p opula tio n.
T he i m pac t o f C SO s’ a ctio ns o n t h e d ev elo p m en t o f t h e c o u ntr y h as b een l im ite d s o f a r. T heir
e ffo rts to in flu en ce s o cia l p olic ie s in f a v our o f m arg in ali s e d g ro ups h av e h ad li m ite d im pact.
T hey h av e n ot i n itia te d a ctiv it ie s t h at w ould m ak e t h e s ta te a n d t h e p riv ate s e cto r a cco un ta b le .
B ein g clo se r to gra ss ro o ts popula tio ns, C SO s hav e acq uir e d a deep know le d g e of th eir
p ro ble m s a n d th us u se th eir lim ite d m ean s to s tr e n gth en c o m munit y c ap aciti e s a n d e n ab le th e
p opula tio n t o u nderta k e c o lle c tiv e a cti o n i n o rd er t o r e so lv e t h eir p ro ble m s.
T o fa cilit a te th e ev olu tio n o f T ogo le se civ il so cie ty , C SO s m ust im pro ve th eir str u ctu ra l
a sp ec ts by co m munic a tin g an d sh arin g in fo rm atio n, co opera tin g am ong th em se lv es an d
e sta b lis h in g se lf -re g ula tio n m ec h an is m s. They sh o uld work to im pro v e th eir cu rre n t
e n vir o n m en t a n d e ffe c ti v ely ta k e u p th eir “ w atc h d og” r o le v is -à -v is th e s ta te a n d th e p riv ate
s e cto r. In ad dit io n, th ey sh ould b uild th eir so cia l cap ita l an d g ain th e so cia l tr u st o f th e
p opula tio n i n g en era l.

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I V . C O NCLU SIO N
T he im ple m en ta tio n o f th e C SI-S A T h elp ed id en ti f y s e v era l f e a tu re s o f c iv il s o cie ty in T ogo
a n d g en era te a m ap th at p re se n ts its m ajo r f o rc e s. T he r e su lts o f th is r e se arc h h av e b een u se d
t o sc o re a nu m ber of in dic ato rs an d hav e re su lte d in th e ela b ora tio n of a D ia m ond fo r
T ogo le se c iv il s o cie ty .

1 . G EN ER A L ASP E C TS
In th e D ia m ond th e d im en sio n s c o re s ra n ge fro m 0 .7 to 1 .4 (o n a 0 to 3 s c ale ). A s s u ch , it
d ep ic ts a p oorly d ev elo p ed c iv il s o cie ty o pera tin g in a n in ad eq u ate e n v ir o n m en t. T he p ra cti c e
a n d p ro m otio n o f p ositiv e v alu es b y C SO s i s s till v ery l i m ite d a n d C SO s’ i m pac t o n s o cie ty i s
e x tr e m ely l i m ite d .
F ig u re I V .1 .1 : D ia m on d o f T ogole se c iv il s o cie ty

T he a n aly sis o f th e “ str u ctu re ” d im en sio n s h ow s th at c it iz en s a re n o t in volv ed m uch in th e
a ctiv iti e s o f c iv il s o cie ty . T he a n aly sis o f th e “ en vir o n m en t” d im en sio n r e v ea ls th at th e s ta te
u ti lis e s its p oli tic al a n d e co no m ic p ow er to in flu en ce a n o p era ti n g e n vir o n m en t th at is n ot
c o nd uciv e to th e d ev elo p m en t o f civ il so cie ty . T he p olit ic al, eco no m ic , so cia l, le g al an d
c u ltu ra l e n v ir o n m en t in w hic h T ogo le se c iv il s o cie ty o pera te s is a v ery d if fic u lt o n e, w hic h
1.0
0 .7
0 .8
1 .4 0
1
2
3
S tr u ctu re
E nvir o n m en t
Im pact
V alu es

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5 8
in hib its t h e p ro m oti o n o f C SO s i n t h e c o untr y .
T he C SI-S A T fin din gs re v ea l th at very fe w valu es are pro m ote d an d pra ctic ed by civ il
s o cie ty . A s a c o nse q u en ce, th ere is a n u rg en t n eed to p ro m ote m ore v alu es w ith in s o cie ty a t
l a rg e. C SO s e x ert a v ery s m all in flu en ce o n a sp ects o f s o cie ty s u ch a s p oli ti c s, o r h old in g th e
S ta te a cco un ta b le f o r s a tis fy in g t h e s o cia l n eed s o f t h e T ogo le se p opu la tio n. T he m ost s tr ik in g
a sp ec t i s t h at C SO s d o n o t s e e m c o m ple te ly c o m mit te d t o i m pro vin g t h is s itu atio n.

2 ST R EN G TH S AN D W EA K NESSE S O F TO GO LESE
CIV IL S O CIE T Y

2.1 Str en gth s
C SO s a re m ult ip le a n d d iv erse : T he d em ocra tic m ovem en t o f th e ‘ 9 0s le d to th e c re atio n o f
s e v era l a sso cia ti o ns i n a re a s o f a ctiv ity s u ch a s th e f ig h t a g ain st p ov erty ; t h e m an ag em en t a n d
p ro te ctio n o f th e e n v ir o n m en t; c o m munity h ea lth ; th e fig h t a g ain st H IV /A ID S, tu berc u lo sis ,
m ala ria , a n d o th er e n dem ic d is e ase s; t h e d efe n ce o f h u m an r ig h ts ; a n d s p orts .
C SO s’ c o m m it m en t: A lth ou gh th eir a c tio ns a re n ot th at v is ib le d u e to th eir w eak re so urc e
m obilis a tio n c ap ab ili ti e s, th e c o m mit m en t o f C SO s to s e rv e th e c au se o f th e m ost v u ln era b le
a n d p oor p eo ple i s o bvio u s a n d p erc ep tib le t h ro ug h t h eir o bje ctiv es.
B uild in g a d em ocr a tic c u lt u re : D esp ite s o m e d if fic u lti e s, th e s ta te , C SO s a n d th e g en era l
p opula tio n are en g ag ed in a le arn in g p ro cess to w ard s a d em ocra tic cu ltu re in T ogo. T his
p ro ce ss o ffe rs C SO s a s o lid o pportu nity t o f u lly p artic ip ate i n t h e d ev elo p m en t o f t h e c o un tr y .
E xis te n ce o f v ario u s in fo rm atio n s o u rc es: T here a re a ctu ally s e v era l r a d io s ta tio ns a ir in g in
t h e c ap ita l a n d s e co n dary c itie s a n d p riv ate p re ss e d itin g o rg an s a n d te le v is io n s ta tio ns th at
d is se m in ate vario us in fo rm atio n. Bein g ex po se d to vary in g an d ev en co ntr a d ic to ry
i n fo rm atio n, c iti z en s a re n ow a b le t o f o rm t h eir o w n o pin io n o n e v en ts .
I n crea se d co op era tio n b etw een sta te an d civ il so cie ty : T he hig h est au th oritie s of th e
e x ecu tiv e bra n ch ack now le d g e th e im porta n t co n tr ib utio n of N G Os to th e dev elo p m en t
p ro ce ss o f th e c o un tr y . A lth ough th is a ttitu d e is th e r e su lt o f d on ors ’ r e q uir e m en ts , th e s ta te ’s
a p p ara tu s h as b eco m e m ore s e n sit iv e to p ro positi o ns f ro m C SO s. A n otic eab le e x am ple is th e
a sso cia tio n o f C SO s f o r th e e la b ora tio n o f a P overty R ed uctio n S tr a te g y P ap er ( P R SP) in th e
f ra m ew ork o f th e M il le n niu m D ev elo p m en t G oals (M DG) fo r th e c o untr y . W hils t C SO s a re
o fte n m en tio n ed in p oli ti c al sp eech es, th e H ea d o f S ta te re q u este d th e tw o N GO u m bre ll a
o rg an is a tio n s to p ro pose a fra m ew ork fo r c o op era tio n b etw ee n th e S ta te a n d th e T ogo le se
A ss o cia tin g M ovem en t ( T A M ).
N etw ork in g w it h N G O s in te rn atio n all y : S ev era l lo ca l N GOs d ev elo p p artn ers h ip s w ith
i n te rn ati o n al N GO s in o rd er to fa cilit a te th eir o w n a c cess to th e w orld a re n a a n d s tr e n g th en
t h eir c ap acitie s a s a c to rs o f c iv il s o cie ty .
A dop tin g a g en der a p pro ach in d ev elo p m en t p ro gra m mes: A lth ough w om en a re p o orly
r e p re se n te d in th e le ad ers h ip o f C SO s, se n sib le e ffo rts a re b ein g m ad e b y a u th orit ie s a n d
d ev elo p m en t p artn ers to in te g ra te th e g en der a p pro ach in a ll d ev elo p m en t p ro gra m mes a n d
p oli c ie s. S uch a n o rie n ta tio n s h ou ld b e a d op te d b y C SO s in o rd er to im pro ve th e s itu atio n o f

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T ogo le se w om en a n d g ir ls .

2 .2 . W ea k nesse s
In su ff ic ie n t k now le d ge o f t h e n otio n o f c iv il s o cie ty : T he C SI-S A T r e v eals th at m ost a cto rs
w ith in c iv il s o cie ty i g nore t h eir s p ecif ic r o le s a n d r e sp onsib ili tie s.
P ro b le m s o f l e a d ersh ip : M ost C SO l e ad ers a n d m an ag ers s p eak f o r t h e w hole o f c iv il s o cie ty
w ith o ut a n y m an d ate o r le g iti m acy to d o s o . In th e w ors t c ase , th ey u se th e o rg an is a tio n to
b ette r p ositi o n th em se lv es in o rd er to im pro ve th eir s ta n d ard o f liv in g a n d s o cia l s ta tu s a n d
p ush f o rw ard t h eir p ers o nal a m bitio n s.
D up li c it y o f C SO s: L ead ers a n d m an ag ers o f m ost C SO s a re in flu en ced b y p oli t ic ia n s in to
d upli c atin g o rg an is a tio n s. T hey th en u se th eir in flu en ce o n c iv il so cie ty to le n d su p po rt to
t h eir p oli tic al g o als . U nab le to d ep art fro m th eir p olitic al lin k ag es, th ese C SO s a re u se d to
p ro m ote id eo lo gie s. T he ex p an sio n o f p olit ic al d iv erg en ces in to c iv il so cie ty p re v en ts th e
m eltin g o f e n erg ie s a n d in itia tiv es in to c o lle ctiv e a c ti o n th at w ould b e b en efic ia l to th e w hole
p opula tio n.
L ack of su pp ort fr o m th e pop u la tio n : B eca u se of th e la ck of citi z en sh ip ed ucatio n
p ro gra m mes a n d a h ig h le v el o f ill it e ra cy , th e m ajo rity o f th e p opu la tio n d oes n ot a p pre c ia te
t h e i m porta n ce o f C SO s a n d t h e r o le o f i ts a c to rs i n t h e d ev elo p m en t p ro cess.
I n su ff ic ie n t d em ocr a tic c u lt u re w it h in C SO s: T he m ajo rity o f C SO s d o n ot a b id e b y th e
i n te rn al d em ocra tic r u le s in te rm s o f d esig n atio n o f th e to p le ad ers h ip , th e r e g u la r r e n ew al o f
t h e l e ad in g t e am , a n d t h e l e g it im is a tio n o f t h eir a ctio n s i n t h e f ie ld .
P oor in stit u tio n al d ev elo p m en t: m ost C SO in te rv en tio ns h av e b een sp ars e a n d sc att e re d ,
r e fle cti n g a la ck o f v is io n. W hil s t th ey o fte n la ck s tr a te g ic p la n s, th ey b ase e v ery th in g o n th e
p ro je ct a p pro ach w ith n o i n tr in sic l o gic b eh in d i t.
W ea k C SO p rese n ce in r u ra l a re a s: T here a re f e w lo cal C SO s in r u ra l a re as. T he e x is tin g
o nes a re p o orly in stitu ti o nalis e d w ith li m it e d f in an cia l c ap ac ity a n d th us a re m ore v uln era b le
t o th e in te rfe re n ce o f lo cal p oli tic ia n s a n d s tr o n g m en . H av in g a la ck o f a ccess to in fo rm atio n
a n d b ein g u npre p are d fo r in te rv en tio ns, th ey h av e le ss v is ib il ity a n d th ere fo re in te ra ct le ss
w ith o th er a cto rs .
P oor f in an cia l c a p acit y o f C SO s: I t i s d if fic u lt f o r C SO s t o s e t u p t h eir o w n f u nd s a s f e e s a re
v ery lo w a n d ir re g ula rly p aid b y m em bers w ith u ncerta in liv in g c o nd it io ns. M an y C SO s d o
n ot h av e a n y f in an cia l a u to no m y a n d o pera te f r o m p ro je cts f in an ced b y in te rn atio n al d o nors .
S om e o f th em d o n o t e v en h av e th e n ece ss a ry f u n ds to c o nd uct e m erg en cy a ctiv it ie s o r m eet
t h e b asic n eed s o f th e v uln era b le p opula ti o n. In su ch c o nditio ns, th e d ev elo p m en t p ro cess
s to ps o nce a g iv en p ro je ct e n d s.
I n su ff ic ie n t s p ecif ic c a p acit ie s: T ogole se C SO s la ck th e s p ecif ic c ap ac iti e s to c arry o ut th eir
d uti e s a n d re sp onsib il iti e s s u ch a s c o nductin g re se arc h a n d s tu die s; a n aly sin g s it u atio n s a n d
p ro posin g a lte rn ativ e s o lu ti o ns; m ob ili s in g r e so urc es; c o n ceiv in g, in itia tin g, f o llo w in g u p a n d
e v alu atin g pro je cts /p ro g ra m mes; dev elo p in g se cto r base d poli c ie s; in te rp re tin g an d usin g
l e g al t e x ts ; p la n n in g , o rg an is in g a n d c o ndu ctin g n eg otia tio ns; a n d l o bby in g.

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L it tle resp ect fo r se lf -r eg u la tio n m ech an is m s: W ith no cu ltu re of tr a n sp are n cy an d
d em ocra tic valu es or rig our in th eir m an ag em en t, C SO s do not ofte n re sp ect th e se lf –
r e g ula tio n m ech an is m s th ey h av e e sta b lis h ed th em se lv es. A t th e m om en t, th ere is a n u rg en t
n eed to dev elo p an d ad opt an eth ic al co d e of co ndu ct fo r dev elo p m en t N G Os an d
A ss o cia tio ns.

3 . N EX T ST E PS
Publis h an d d is se m in ate resu lt s : In ord er to pro vid e acto rs , pra c ti ti o n ers , govern m en t
o ffic ia ls , r e se arc h ers a n d c iti z en s w ith a p ers p ectiv e o n t h e s tr u ctu re , e n v ir o n m en t, v alu es a n d
i m pact o f civ il so cie ty , in fo rm atio n an d an aly sis d eriv ed fr o m th e p ro je ct w ill b e m ad e
a cc essib le t o t h e p ub li c .
P la n reg io n al restit u tio n w ork sh op s: O nce th e re se arc h re su lts h av e b een am en d ed an d
v alid ate d , th e N IT w ill o rg an is e w ork sh ops a t th e re g io nal le v el, th us o ffe rin g o pportu n it ie s
f o r m ore d is c u ssio ns.
P op ula ris e t h e C SI r esu lt s w it h f ly ers t h at w ill in str u ct o n k ey c o n cep ts o n c iv il s o cie ty :
T his w il l in clu d e th e d efin it io n a n d r o le o f c iv il s o cie ty , it s a re a s o f in te rv en tio n, its p la ce in
t h e s o cie ty a n d i ts r e la tio nsh ip s w ith o th er a c to rs ( S ta te , p riv ate s e cto r, d ev elo p m en t p artn ers ),
t h e e ffo rts it m ak es to p ro m ote so cia l in te re sts in a sso cia ti o n w it h th em o r a lte rn ativ ely to
t h eir a ctio ns.
I d en tif y m ain in te rv en tio n se c to rs: In ord er to bett e r orie n ta te th eir cap acity build in g
a ctio ns, p rio rity s e cto rs o f in te rv en tio n, a ck now le d g ed b y a w id e m ajo rity o f a c to rs , w il l b e
i d en tif ie d .
S et u p a c o op era tio n a n d d ia lo gu e f r a m ew ork : T his f ra m ew ork s h ould f a cili ta te m eetin gs,
e x ch an g e o f o pin io ns a n d d is c u ssio n s o v er c ru cia l d ev elo p m en t is s u es to in clu de a w are n ess ,
c o lle ctiv e t h in kin g a n d c ap ac ity b uild in g o f c iv il s o cie ty a cto rs .
B uild n etw ork s: I t is im pera tiv e to b uil d n atio nal a n d in te rn ati o n al a ll ia n ces ( w ith c o un tr ie s
h av in g i m ple m en te d t h e C IV IC U S C SI) .
D ev elo p a n atio n al c o m mun ic a tio n a n d in fo rm atio n n etw ork : th ere is a n eed to b u ild a
c iv il s o cie ty n etw ork f o r a f a ir d is s e m in atio n o f in fo rm atio n f ro m th e c en tr e o f th e n etw ork to
i n te rm ed ia rie s a n d g ra ssro ots o rg an is a tio ns.
D ev elo p m en t a n d a d op tio n o f a n e th ic a l a n d d eo n to lo gic a l c o d e: T here is a ls o a n u rg en t
n eed t o a d op t a n e th ic al a n d d eo nto lo gic a l c o d e t o g ov ern t h e a ss o cia tiv e m ovem en t i n T ogo.
D ev elo p m en t o f se lf -r eg u la tio n m ech an is m a n d in str u m en ts : T hese C SO se lf -r e g ula tio n
m ech an is m s w ill i m pro v e t h e c re d ib ility o f th e a ss o cia tiv e m ovem en t ( fis c al a n d le g al g u id es,
a cco un tin g s y ste m s a d ap te d t o a ss o cia tio ns, c o d e o f c o nduct a n d p en alty s y ste m s, e tc .)

C on d uct p le a a ctio n s: P le a a ctio n s w ill s p eed t h e d ec en tr a lis a tio n p ro cess s ta rte d i n 1 98 8.
D ev elo p C SO r ese a rch , f o llo w u p, a n d e v alu atio n c a p acit ie s: T his e x p ertis e w ill s tr e n g th en
t h eir a b il ity t o h old t h e S ta te a n d t h e p riv ate s e cto r a cco unta b le a n d f ig ht a g ain st c o rru pti o n.

CIV IC U S: C iv il S ocie ty I n dex R ep ort f o r T ogo
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D ev elo p C SO in stit u tio n al, fin an cia l an d te ch nic a l ca p acit ie s: T hese cap aciti e s w il l
s tr e n g th en t h eir a u to no m y, e sp ecia lly t h at o f r u ra l C SO s.
D ev elo p a s tr a te g y to p ro m ote d em ocr a cy a t th e g ra ssr o ots le v el: It w ill a llo w C SO s to
b ette r a ssu m e t h eir r o le a t t h e g ra ss ro ots l e v el.

CIV IC U S: C iv il S ocie ty I n dex R ep ort f o r T ogo
6 2
R EFE R EN CES
A cte s d u s é m in air e d es 0 5, 0 6 , 0 7 D éce m bre 2 0 02 T hèm e: B onne g ouv ern an ce, M ouvem en ts
a sso cia tif e t s y ndic a l, C onte x te a ctu el e t p ers p ecti v es, L ig u e d es I n dép en d an ts p our l a
T ra n sp are n ce ( L IT )
A nheie r, H elm ut K ( 2 004): C iv il S o cie ty : M ea su re m en t, E va lu atio n, P oli c y, L ondo n :
E arth sc an .
A nnuair e E le ctr o niq u e d es O NG a u T og o
B an q ue M ondia le ; C onte x te h is to riq ue, j u rid iq u e, c u ltu re l e t é co no m iq ue d e l a s o cié té c iv ile
a u T ogo ; A M OUZO U E ssè , J u in 2 004
B an q ue M ondia le ; T ogo , s o rtie d e c ris e , s o rtie d e l a p au vre té
B an q ue M ondia le ; E valu atio n d e l a s o cié té c iv il e a u T ogo ( C SA T). U ne a n aly se à t r a v ers l a
v is io n d es r e sp onsa b le s d ’O N G , A oû t 2 00 4, A . K . A KPA KA
B an q ue M ondia le ; C SA T : C iv il S ocie ty A sse ssm en t T oo l. O uti ls d ’E valu ati o n d e l a s o cié té
c iv ile , R ap p ort d éfin itif .
B an q ue M ondia le ; C SA T: C iv il S ocie ty A sse ssm en t T oo l. O uti ls d ’E valu ati o n d e l a s o cié té
c iv ile : c as d es a ss o cia tio ns a u T ogo 2 004.
C ham bers , R obert ( 1 97 7): W hose R ea lit y C ounts ? P uttin g t h e F ir s t L ast, L ondon: I T
P ublic atio ns.
C onsti tu tio n d u T ogo d u 1 4 O cto bre 1 992 r é v is é e p ar l a l o i n °2 002-0 29 d u 3 1 D éc e m bre 2 0 02
C harte d es p artis p o li tiq u es l o i N ° 9 1-0 4,1 991
C ode d e l a p re ss e e t d e l a c o m munic atio n L oi N ° 9 8 – 0 04/P R d u 1 1 F év rie r 1 99 8 m odif ié e
p ar l a l o i N ° 2 000 -0 6 d u 2 3 F év rie r 2 000, m odif ié e p ar l a l o i N °2 002-0 26 d u 2 5 S ep te m bre
2 002, m odif ié e p ar l a l o i N ° 2 004-0 15 d u 2 7 A oût 2 004.
C IV IC U S. C IV IC U S C iv il S ocie ty I n dex T oolk it ( d is tr ib ute d a t t h e G lo bal W ork sh op f o r
N ati o n al C oord in atin g O rg an is a tio ns, F eb ru ary 1 4-2 0, J o han nesb urg , S outh A fric a).
C IV IC U S. I n te rn atio n al S eco nd ary D ata S ourc e s ( fo r I n dic a to r 2 .3 .1 .S ocio -e co no m ic
c o nte x t) .
D ocu m en t P ro je t P ro m otio n d e V olo nta ria t a u T ogo ( P R O V ON A T) 2 005
D ocu m en t I n té rim air e d e s tr a té g ie d e r é d u ctio n d e l a p au vre té ( D IS R P) d u T ogo a d o pté p ar l e
g ouvern em en t. N ovem bre 2 004
F eed om H ouse S urv ey . N atio ns i n T ra n sitio n. R ep orts , T ogo , w ww.f r e ed o m house .o rg

F O N GTO ; R ép erto ir e d es O NG 2 002 , 2 0 05

CIV IC U S: C iv il S ocie ty I n dex R ep ort f o r T ogo
6 3
F O N GTO ; R ap port d e t o urn ée d e c o nsu lta tio n d es O N G 2 002
G ouvern an ce l o cale p ou r l a r é d u ctio n d e l a p au v re té A im é T . G OGU E e t K ODJO C on su lta n ts
L om é, A vril 2 002
G overn an ce M atte rs I V : G overn an ce I n d ic ato rs f o r 1 99 6-2 004 K au fm an n D ., A . K ra ay , a n d
M . M astr u zz i 2 005
H ein ric h , V olk hart F in n /N aid oo, K um i ( 2 001): F ro m I m possib il ity t o R ea lity . A R efle ctio n
a n d P osit io n P ap er o n C IV IC U S I n dex o n C iv il S ocie ty P ro je ct 1 999-2 00 1, W ash in gto n, D C:
C IV IC U S.
H ein ric h , V .F . ( 2 004), A sse ss in g a nd S tr e n g th en in g C iv il S o cie ty W orld w id e. A P ro je ct
D esc rip tio n o f t h e C IV IC U S C iv il S o cie ty I n dex: A P arti c ip a to ry N eed s A sse ss m en t & A ctio n-
P la nnin g T ool f o r C iv il S ocie ty , J o h an n esb urg : C IV IC U S
J o urn al P ré se n ce C hré ti e n ne N ° 1 09 d u 2 3/0 3/0 5
J o urn al B on ne G ouv ern an ce ; J o urn al d e l a C om mis sio n N ati o nale d e L utte c o n tr e l a
C orru ptio n e t l e S ab ota g e E co no m iq ue a u T ogo ( C N LC SE ) N °s 0 0 2, 0 03 , 0 06, 0 07, 0 08, 0 12,
0 13 d e F év rie r à D éce m bre 2 004
J o urn al T O GO P R ESSE d e 2 0/0 5 /0 2, 0 7/0 1/0 5, 1 2/0 1/0 5, 2 5 /0 1/0 5, 1 0 /0 5/0 5, 0 4/0 5 /0 5,
1 8/0 5 /0 5, 2 0 /0 5 /2 00 5, 1 2 /0 1/0 5, 1 1 /0 7/0 5, 2 0/0 7 /0 5 , 2 2/0 7/0 5, 2 5/0 7/0 5, 2 9/0 7/0 5, 2 8 /0 7/0 5,
0 1/0 7 /0 5, 1 4 /0 7 /0 5 1 9 /0 7 /0 5, 0 2/0 8 /0 5, 0 4/0 8 /0 5, 0 8/0 8 /0 5, 0 9 /0 8 /0 5,1 1/0 8 /0 5, 1 2/0 8 /0 5,
1 8/0 8 /0 5
L a d éc en tr a lis a ti o n a u T ogo ; l o i N °9 8 – 0 06 p orta n t d éc en tr a lis a tio n
L a r e d y nam is a tio n d e l ’ E gli s e E van g éliq u e P re sb y té rie n ne d u T ogo; d e l ’ h érit a g e à l a r é fo rm e
d e n o s j o urs 2 00 3
N ati o ns U nie s ; R ap port s u r l e s v io le n ces s u rv en ues p en d an t e t a p rè s l e s é le ctio ns
p ré sid en tie ll e s a u T ogo 2 005
P N U D C oopéra tio n p ou r l e d év elo p pem en t T og o R ap port 2 000
R ap p ort d e c o nfé re n ce s u r l a s o cié té c iv ile a u T og o: D éfin itio n d u c o nce p t e t é ta t d es l i e u x .
N ’b uék e A dovi G OEH A KU E e t B . C O ULIB A LY ; P ro fe sse u rs U niv ers it é d e L om é 2 00 4
R ap p ort E nq uête s u r l e S ecte u r I n fo rm el ( E SIL ) D GSC N L om é 2 002
R ap p ort E tu de s u r l a F am ill e M ig ra tio n e t U rb an is a tio n a u T ogo U RD 2 00 0
P N U D – T og o, C oncep t d u D év elo p pem en t H um ain D ura b le 1 9 95
P N U D – T og o, R ap port s u r l e D év elo pp em en t H um ain D ura b le 2 000
P N U D – T og o, R ap port s u r l e D év elo pp em en t H um ain D ura b le s u r l e s O N G a u T ogo 2 00 4

CIV IC U S: C iv il S ocie ty I n dex R ep ort f o r T ogo
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R ap p orts d ’a ctiv ité s F O N GTO , 2 003 , 2 004, 2 005
R ap p orts d ’a ctiv ité s d e l ’ U ONGTO , 2 00 5
R ap p ort d ’a ctiv it é s d e A SM EN E 2 005
R ap p ort d ’a ctiv it é s d e l ’ O NG A ctio n p our l a J e u ness e d ’A friq ue ( A JA )
R ap p ort d ’a ctiv it é s d e l ’ O NG P ro gra m me d ’A id e a u x C as S ocia u x ( P H ACS)
R ap p ort n ati o nal d ’E valu atio n d e l a m is e e n o eu vre d e l a p la te f o rm e d ’a ctio n m ond ia le d e
B EIJ IN G ; B eij in g + 10 M in is tè re d es A ffa ir e s S ocia le s, d e l a P ro m otio n d e l a F em me e t d e l a
P ro te ctio n d e l ’ E nfa n ce a v ec l ’ a p pu i t e ch n iq ue e t f in an cie r d e l ’ U NFP A .