A March 31, 2020 presidential decree declared the COVID-19 pandemic to be a “public health emergency.” For additional details, see ICNL’s COVID-19 Civic Freedom Tracker entry for Indonesia.
Between April and June 2020, Amnesty International recorded 29 incidents in which students, academics, journalists, and activists were harassed and intimidated for criticizing the government or discussing politically sensitive issues such as human rights violations and abuses in Papua. The intimidation takes many forms, including credential theft of their WhatsApp accounts, spam calls from unidentified international numbers, digital harassment such as intrusions during online discussions, particularly on the issue of Papua, and even direct, offline threats of physical violence. At the same time, arbitrary use of the 2008 Electronic Information and Transaction Law, the 1965 Blasphemy Law and the treason (makar) charges under article 106 and 110 of the Criminal Code (KUHP) remains one of the biggest threats to the right to freedom of expression in Indonesia. The recent digital attacks, harassment and intimidation contribute to the growing climate of fear in the country.
Civil society as an academic discourse is considerably new in Indonesia, but the concept of having organized groups that strive for social and/or political purposes has been well-recognized since colonial times as a part of the independence movement. The struggle for independence started with the establishment of organizations, based on regions, religions, and labor unions. The importance of such organizations continued after the nation’s declaration of independence on August 17, 1945.
From 1966 to 1998, however, civil society organizations (CSOs) were restricted by the authoritarian Suharto government. Freedom of association and freedom of expression were constrained by the regulatory framework. Law No. 8 of 1985 regarding Societal Organizations (in Indonesian: Organisasi Kemasyarakatan, often shortened as “Ormas” and often loosely translated as “Mass Organizations”) was set up by the Suharto administration to control civil society, together with other laws in a package known as the “Political Law Package of 1985.” The concept of “societal organization” introduced by this law was designed to create one organizational status for all types of interests – activity, profession, function or religion – so that it would be easier for the regime to control them. Given its background, the Law on Societal Organizations has strong controlling aspects. Based on the law, the government may dissolve a societal organization that conducts any activities that disturb security and order; receives donations from foreign institutions without the Government’s consent; or provides assistance to foreign institutions that may “harm the nation.” Furthermore, extra-legal measures, such as kidnappings and torture, targeting those who actively challenged the government put CSOs at great risk.  Few CSOs were active during that period.
The situation changed significantly after Suharto stepped down in May 1998. The freedoms of association and expression are now better protected. As Indonesia underwent constitutional amendment in 1999-2002, a set of human rights provisions mirroring the Universal Declaration of Human Rights was inserted in the second amendment in August 2000. Further, on October 28, 2005, Indonesia ratified the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR), which provides clear protection of fundamental freedoms. Since 1998, many important reforms have been introduced and supported by civil society, including the constitutional amendment of 1999-2002 and the ratification of ICCPR. After 1998, CSOs have also entered another phase in their relationship with the state. Beyond the ‘traditional’ way of being in opposition to the state, some CSOs work together with certain state institutions, such as the Supreme Court and the police, in conducting institutional reform projects.
Apart from the legal basis regarding the freedom of association and the freedom of expression that provides space for CSO activities, the status of legal entities or organizational forms for CSOs are regulated in different laws. There are two types of organizational forms for CSOs, namely the Association (Perkumpulan), which is membership-based, and the Foundation (Yayasan), which is not membership-based.
In 2013, Law No. 17 of 2013 on Societal Organizations (Organisasi Kemasyarakatan), known as the “Ormas Law,” replaced Law No. 8 of 1985 on Societal Organizations. Law No. 17 was enacted on July 22, 2013 and is intended to reinforce the role of the Ministry of Home Affairs to control CSOs, as this role was weakening after 1998. The Ormas Law regulates “all organizations founded and formed by the society voluntarily on the basis of shared aspiration, will, needs, interest, activity and purposes in order to participate in the development with the intention to achieve the objective of the Unitary State of the Republic of Indonesia based on the Pancasila” (Article 1). Both Foundations and Associations fall under the category of “societal organizations with legal entity status,” while all other CSOs are categorized as societal organizations without legal entity status.” The Ormas Law then stipulates a set of obligations and prohibitions for societal organizations, such as prohibition from propagating an ideology that conflicts with state principles (Pancasila) and from conducting activities that disrupt public order and well-being. Violations of such provisions might lead to the dissolution of the CSO. Furthermore, this Law provides discriminatory and excessive bureaucratic controls over international CSOs.
Two petitions were made by CSOs to the Constitutional Court to review the law in the fall of 2013. Both cases were decided on December 23, 2014. The Court ruled that the law is not too excessive in nature in light of Article 28J of the Constitution. However, some provisions in the Law would harm the principle of freedom of association. They include provisions regarding:
- the goals of societal organizations;
- the types of organizations according to the number of members and locations of the organizations and the registration procedures for such organizations;
- the procedure to select personnel for organizational structures;
- the rights and obligations of the members of organizations;
- the government’s role to empower societal organizations; and
- the prohibition on the use of the Indonesian flag and symbol for organizations’ flags and symbols. (For more information on the Court’s ruling, please see “National Laws and Regulations Affecting Sector.”)
As some provisions were struck down, there are gaps in the law that the government still needs to address, such as which government institution will be responsible for registering societal organizations. The government has yet to address these gaps or issue any implementing regulations. Besides the Constitutional Court’s decision, another factor delaying the issuance of implementing regulations is the change of government in October 2014. The change in government led to some adjustments in the relevant ministries as well as the national development plan, which has had an impact on the government’s priorities.
In 2017, the government adopted the Perppu Ormas, a “Government Regulation in Lieu of Law” that amended the Ormas Law. The Perppu drastically simplifies the steps that the government must take to prohibit and dissolve CSOs. It eliminates the role of the court as a whole, both in approving or overseeing the dissolution process.
Recently, Indonesia’s ranking on various human rights and rule of law indices has fallen. This is due to a lack of community participation in providing criticism and input to the administration of government, the 2013 Ormas Law and the 2017 Perppu Ormas, harassment and intimidation of minority groups, and the continuing criminalization of activists.
 Amnesty International, “Indonesia: Power and Impunity: Human Rights under the New Order“, 1 September 1994, ASA 21/017/1994.
|Organizational Forms||Associations||Foundations||Societal Organizations (without legal entity status)|
|Registration Body||Ministry of Law and Human Rights||Ministry of Law and Human Rights||It is not clear which government body is responsible for registering societal organizations. Article 8 of Law No. 17 of 2013 on Societal Organizations, which specified the registration authorities based on the geographical level of an organization, was struck down by the Constitutional Court in December 2014. The government has not provided a Government Regulation on this matter.|
|Approximate Number||48,886 organizations registered at the Ministry of Law and Human Rights. However, these numbers do not reflect the type of the organization.||48,886 organizations registered at the Ministry of Law and Human Rights. However, these numbers do not reflect the type of the organization.||65,577 organizations registered at the Ministry of Home Affairs.|
|Barriers to Entry||Complex procedures for foreign organizations seeking to operate in Indonesia.||Barriers to establishment of foreign foundations, including required “safe” partnership with local foundation.||Barriers to establishment of foreign foundations, including an additional requirement to refrain from activities which “disrupt the stability and the unity” of Indonesia or “disrupt diplomatic ties.”|
Also, excessive bureaucratic controls for foreign foundations, including requirements on residency and minimum assets allocated for the establishment of the organization (USD1 million for a foreign legal entity and USD100,000 for a foreign individual).
|Barriers to Activities||Insufficient legal and judicial protection for CSO human rights activists.|
Establishment of GONGOs.
|Insufficient legal and judicial protection for CSO human rights activists.|
Establishment of GONGOs.
|Insufficient legal and judicial protection for CSO human rights activists.|
Establishment of GONGOs.
|Barriers to Speech and/or Advocacy||No legal barriers specifically against CSOs. Libel charges, however, have been brought against CSO activists.||No legal barriers specifically against CSOs. Libel charges, however, have been brought against CSO activists.||No legal barriers specifically against CSOs. Libel charges, however, have been brought against CSO activists.|
|Barriers to International Contact||No legal barriers||Foreign foundations must have “diplomatic relations” with” Indonesia.||None.|
|Barriers to Resources||Associations not permitted to engage in economic activities.||Foundations permitted to engage in economic activities only through corporate subsidiary.||Societal organizations permitted to engage in economic activities only through corporate subsidiary..|
|Barriers to Assembly||Advance notification requirement, assemblies prohibited at government sites and transport stations, and excessive criminal penalties.||Advance notification requirement, assemblies prohibited at government sites and transport stations, and excessive criminal penalties.||Advance notification requirement, assemblies prohibited at government sites and transport stations, and excessive criminal penalties.|
|Population||255,993,674 (July 2015 est.)|
|Type of Government||Republic|
|Life Expectancy at Birth||Male: 69.85 years;|
Female: 75.17 years (2015 est.)
|Literacy Rate||Male: 96.3%|
Female: 91.5% (2015 est.)
|Religious Groups||Muslim 87.2%, Christian 7%, Roman Catholic 2.9%, Hindu 1.7%, other 0.9% (includes Buddhist and Confucian), unspecified 0.4% (2010 est.)|
|Ethnic Groups||Javanese 40.1%, Sundanese 15.5%, Malay 3.7%, Batak 3.6%, Madurese 3%, Betawi 2.9%, Minangkabau 2.7%, Buginese 2.7%, Bantenese 2%, Banjarese 1.7%, Balinese 1.7%, Acehnese 1.4%, Dayak 1.4%, Sasak 1.3%, Chinese 1.2%, other 15% (2010 est.)|
|GDP per capita||$10,400 (2014 est.)|
Source: The World Factbook. Washington, DC: Central Intelligence Agency, 2015.
|Ranking Body||Rank||Ranking Scale|
(best – worst possible)
|UN Human Development Index||113 (2016)||1 – 182|
|World Bank Rule of Law Index||13(2016)||100 – 0|
|World Bank Voice & Accountability Index||18 (2016)||100 – 0|
|Transparency International||Rank: 85|
|1 – 198|
1 – 100
|Freedom House: Freedom in the World||Status: Partly Free|
Political Rights: 30
Civil Liberties: 31 (2020)
|Free/Partly Free/Not Free|
1 – 40
1 – 60
|Foreign Policy: Fragile States Index||94 (2017)||177 – 1|
International and Regional Human Rights Agreements
|Key International Agreements||Ratification*||Year|
|International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR)||Yes||2006|
|Optional Protocol to ICCPR (ICCPR-OP1)||No||—|
|International Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights (ICESCR)||Yes||2006|
|Optional Protocol to ICESCR (OP-ICESCR)||No||—|
|International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination (ICERD)||Yes||1999|
|Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW)||Yes||1984|
|Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women||No||2000|
|Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC)||Yes||1990|
|International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of their Families (ICRMW)||No||—|
|Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD)||Yes||—|
* Category includes ratification, accession, or succession to the treaty
The prevailing Constitution of Indonesia is the 1945 Constitution, which was amended in 1999-2002. The second amendment to the 1945 Constitution guarantees the freedom of association (Article 28) and freedom of expression (Article 28E section (3)). These provisions read as follows:
Article 28. The liberties of association and assembly, the freedom of thought expressed verbally or in writing and similar rights, are to be determined by law.
- Each person is free to worship and to practice the religion of his choice, to choose education and schooling, his occupation, his nationality, his residency in the territory of the country that he shall be able to leave and to which he shall have the right to return.
- Each person has the right to be free in his convictions, to assert his thoughts and tenets, in accordance with his conscience.
- Each person has the right to freely associate, assemble, and express his opinions.
National Laws and Regulations Affecting Sector
Relevant national-level laws and regulations affecting civil society include:
- Indonesian Civil Code (Article 1653), August 18, 1945 (originally Dutch civil code; continued to apply under Clause II of the Transitional Provision of the 1945 Constitution). 
- Law No. 12 of 2005 regarding the Ratification of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR), October 28, 2005.
- Law No. 17/2013 on Societal Organisations (Undang-Undang Republik Indonesia Nomor 17 Tahun 2013 tentang Organisasi Kemasyarakatan)
- Government Regulation in Lieu of Law (Peraturan Pemerintah Pengganti Undang-Undang or Perppu) No. 2/2017 amending the Law on Mass Organizations (Undang-Undang Organisasi Kemasyarakatan)
- Law No. 16 of 2001 on Foundations (Yayasan), August 6, 2001.
- Law No. 28 of 2004 regarding the Amendment to Law No. 16 of 2001 on Foundations, October 6, 2004.
- Law No. 8 on Societal Organizations (Organisasi Kemasyarakatan), June 17, 1985.
- Staatsblad (State Gazette) 1870-64 on Associations with Legal Person Status, March 28, 1870.
- Government Regulation No. 63 on the Implementation of Law on Foundations, September 23, 2008.
- Government Regulation No. 18 on the Implementation of Law No. 8 of 1985 regarding Societal Organizations, April 4, 1986.
- Instruction from the Minister of Home Affairs No. 8 on Non-Governmental Organization Supervision, March 19, 1990.
- Law on Public Information, 2008
- Minister of Home Affairs Regulation No. 38 of 2008 on the Obtainment and Granting Societal Organization Donations From and To Foreign Entities, August 15, 2008.
- Minister of Home Affairs Regulation No. 15 on Guidelines on Cooperation between the Ministry of Home Affairs and Foreign Non-Governmental Organizations, March 4, 2009.
- Government Regulation No. 93 on Donations for National Post-Disaster Rehabilitation, Research and Development, Educational Facilities, Sports, and Social Infrastructure Construction Costs which are Deductible from Gross Income, December 2010.
- Intelligence Law, 2011
- Minister of Home Affairs Regulation No. 33 of 2012 on Guidelines for Societal Organizations Registration
- Law No. 17 of 2013 regarding Societal Organizations, July 22, 2013
- Regulation No. 19 on Controlling Internet Websites Containing Negative Content (Regulation 19), 2014.
- Government Regulation No. 2 of 2013 on the Amendment of Government Regulation No. 63 of 2008 on the Implementation of Law on Foundations, January 2, 2013.
- Minister of Law and Human Rights Regulation No. M.HH-02.AH.01.01 of 2011 regarding the Registry of Foundations, September 21, 2011.
- Law No. 11 of 2008 regarding Electronic Information and Transactions.
- Minister of Law and Human Rights Regulation No. 5 of 2014 on Validation of Foundations, March 26, 2014.
1. Draft amendments to the Criminal Code are expected to be adopted in 2020. A coalition of NGOs has raised concerns about some of the draft amendments, as they would violate free speech and freedom of association and discriminate against non-Muslims, non-Sunni Muslims, and local religious minorities, as well as women and LGBT people. For instance, Articles 304 to 309 expand the current Blasphemy Law and maintain the maximum five-year prison term. They would punish deviations from the central tenets of Indonesia’s six officially recognized religions – Islam, Protestantism, Catholicism, Hinduism, Buddhism, and Confucianism. There are also problematic proposed provisions that criminalize insulting the president, vice-president, public authorities, or state institutions, as well as provisions on fake news and spreading or sharing news that may be uncertain, overblown, or incomplete that may cause public unrest.
2. In March 2020, the Indonesian government submitted the Omnibus Bill on job creation to the House of Representatives, aiming for a conclusion in deliberation within 100 days. President Joko “Jokowi” Widodo initiated the Bill to facilitate business in Indonesia and to attract investment, thereby boosting job opportunities and economic growth in the country. However, labor groups are protesting the bill over potential reductions in their rights, remuneration, and job security. Others have also criticized the stronger role of the central government, which could potentially pose risks to the checks and balances mechanism of Indonesia’s democracy. Environmentalists further have warned that less stringent Environment Impact Analysis and building permit requirements would result in unsustainable growth. Businesses, however, have welcomed the bill due to the focus on streamlining business licenses and making Indonesia more open to foreign investment. The Bill would amend 73 laws and consists of 15 chapters and 174 articles. For more information, please see the News Items section below in this report.
3. In March 2015 Indonesia’s National Counterterrorism Agency (BNPT) urged the government to revise laws governing freedom of assembly and speech in a bid to undercut supporters of the extremist group Islamic State (IS). The Inspector General, Arief Dharmawan, cited the 1998 Law on Free Speech and 2013 Law on Mass Organization as laws that should be revised. Specifically, he said, “We have stated that the mass organizations law must be revised and expanded because it only regulates the registered mass organizations… What about those unregistered groups, how do we regulate how they should be disbanded? We need a clear legal basis… Can you imagine if pro-IS people made a speech at a public event like the Car Free Day and then declared that the government were infidels and killing them should be justified?”
4. In February 2018, Home Minister Tjahjo Kumolo voided a regulation aimed at screening research projects that were deemed to have “negative impacts” on the country in an about-face that came only hours after he had defended the regulation. Issued on January 17, 2018, Home Ministry Regulation No. 3/2018 on the research information letter (SKP) allowed authorities to assess the “potential negative impacts” of a particular research project, a mechanism that resembled the Environmental Impact Analysis (Amdal) requirement for businesses that could harm the environment. The regulation obliged researchers – individuals or groups – to report their research results to the Home Ministry, replacing a 2014 regulation that only obliged researchers to report to local administration officials, which would then issue a research recommendation. Academics were not involved in drafting the regulation, nor had the Home Ministry disseminated the controversial regulation among academia. Despite that the regulation is reportedly voided, there was still some speculation among civil society about its status in March 2018 as well as concern about the way the regulation would chill research projects if it is indeed still pending.
There are two types of legal entities for CSOs, namely the association and foundation.
Foundations are regulated by Law No. 16 of 2001, as amended by Law No. 28 of 2004 (“Law on Foundation”). A foundation is defined as a non-membership legal entity, established based on the separation of assets, and intended as a vehicle for attaining certain purposes in the social, religious, or humanitarian fields.
Associations are governed by the Dutch Colonial Government inherited law that is still valid, namely Staatsblad 1870-64 (Dutch Colonial State Gazette) on Associations with Legal Person Status. There are two types of associations in Indonesia: (1) incorporated associations, which possess legal personality; and (2) ordinary associations, which do not. An important characteristic of an association that is distinct from a foundation is membership. An association is a member-based organization, whereas a foundation does not have members but is required by the Law on Foundations to have three organs: the Governing Board (Badan Pembina), Supervisory Board (Badan Pengawas), and Executive Board (Badan Pengurus).
Law No. 17 of 2013 on Societal Organizations provides that there are two types of CSOs, namely (1) the ones with legal entity, which consist of Foundations and Associations; and (2) societal organizations without legal entity status, which include any organizations set up by civil society. The registration status as a Societal Organization is obtained automatically by a Foundation or an Association when the legal entity status is granted by the Ministry of Law and Human Rights, so that they are not required to undertake additional registration at the Ministry of Home Affairs. However, because of the status of Societal Organizations, Foundations and Associations now have an additional layer of operational guidelines and are subject to the close supervision of the Ministry of Home Affairs.
Public Benefit Status
Both foundations and associations may be public-benefit organizations. Public benefit status, however, does not entail any tax or other benefits.
The Law on Foundations provides that “social” foundations might operate to benefit only their stakeholders, which would be inconsistent with public benefit status. The broad term of “social” in this definition might cause a problem in practice, because it is applicable to any not-for-profit activity. Consequently, there is no overall requirement that a foundation must provide public benefit, as opposed to serving only its stakeholders. It depends on the foundation’s statutory purposes.
Barriers to Entry
Societal Organizations stipulates a category of “societal organizations without legal entity status.” Although this might seem to provide more space for CSOs, this category is intended for the government to be able to control any type of CSO.
Law on Foundations and Staatsblad 1870-64 require registration in order for foundations and associations to obtain legal entity status. Registration here requires the deed of establishment to be in the form of a notarial deed and to be registered at the Ministry of Law and Human Rights. If the registration is accepted by the Ministry, the deed of establishment will be published in the Supplemental to the State Gazette (Tambahan Berita Negara).
Any natural person (not including a minor) or a legal entity can found a foundation or association. The Law on Foundations provides that one person or more can found a foundation. There is no specific rule for associations, but Law No. 17 of 2013 regulates the societal organizations (which include associations) must be set up by minimum 3 persons, except for foundations. There are no minimum assets required to found a foundation or an association.
To register a foundation or an association, the notary must submit a request to the Director of General Administration of the Ministry of Law and Human Rights along with two copies of the Deed of Establishment with stamp duty, the foundation’s tax payer’s number (Nomor Pokok Wajib Pajak or NPWP) and the foundation’s certificate of domicile.
According to the Law on Foundations, the Ministry must respond within 30 days after the request for registration of a foundation is received. In case a confirmation from a relevant ministry/ institution is needed, the Ministry must respond within 14 days after the confirmation is received or 30 days after the request for a confirmation is submitted. The Ministry may deny a registration request for a foundation in writing on the ground that the request is not according to relevant laws and regulations. An appeal of such denial is not regulated by the Law. By contrast, the registration of associations is not regulated in detail.
In addition to the general procedure above, the Ministry also issued a Minister of Law and Human Rights Regulation No. 5 of 2014 regarding Validation of Foundations to further elaborate the procedures and requirements for securing approvals for names of foundations and their validation by the Minister. According to this regulation, all applications for the establishment of foundations will be processed electronically via the Legal Entities Administration System (Sistem Administrasi Badan Hukum or “SABH”) under the Directorate General of Law Administration. This technical regulation, however, is intended for notaries authorized to submit applications for the validation of foundations to the Minister through SABH, and is not applicable when members of the general public wish to establish a foundation.
As for CSOs without legal entity status, Law No. 17 of 2013 stipulates that such CSOs can be established by a minimum of three persons. A Registration Certificate (Surat Keterangan Terdaftar) shall be provided by the government. However, there is no clear provision regarding which authority shall provide the registration certificate because Article 8, regarding the designated registration authority based on geographical level of organization, was struck down by the Constitutional Court (Case No. 82/2013, decided in December 2014). The government has not provided a Government Regulation on this matter.
Under Perppu Number 2/2017 amending the Ormas Law, once three Ministers decide that a CSO, NGO, association, or organization is a “threat to the government” or that it is “anti-Pancasila,” the organization is immediately dissolved. Only after it is dissolved can the organization challenge that decision in court. In contrast, the Ormas Law previously provided groups the ability to challenge a dissolution order in court before being dissolved.
The Law on Foundations permits foreign citizens together with Indonesians or otherwise to establish a foundation under Indonesian law, and foreign foundations, i.e. foundations established under foreign laws, to operate in Indonesian territory, provided that the operation is in partnership with an Indonesian foundation and only in the areas of social, religion and humanity.
The Law on Foundations and relevant regulations outline a set of rules regarding foundations established by foreign individuals or entities. The Law mandates a minimum contribution to the foundation’s assets of 100 million IDR (USD 10,000). For registration, the minimum contribution must be documented, the foreign individual/entity must provide identification, and there must be a statement that the foundation will not be detrimental to the Indonesian society, nation and country. Activities must be undertaken in partnership with foundations established by Indonesian citizens/entities that have the same goal and purpose as the foreign foundation. Further, such partnership must be “safe” from a political, legal, technical and security perspective, terms which the Law does not define.
Foundations established by foreign individuals or entities must have a minimum of one Indonesian member on the executive board; that member must serve as the foundation’s chair, secretary or treasurer. In addition, all members of the executive board must be residents of Indonesia. Members of the executive board, governing board and supervisory board who are not Indonesian citizens must have work and temporary residence permits (KITAS or Kartu Izin Tinggal Sementara).
Law No. 17 of 2013 stipulates that foreign CSOs can only be set up as foundations, not associations or societal organizations without legal entity status. The Law has a special category of “societal organizations established by foreign citizens” (Chapter 13 of Law No. 17 of 2013; in this report, this category is referred to as ‘foreign CSOs’). There are three types of foreign CSOs, namely: (1) Foreign Foundations (foundations established in foreign countries), (2) Indonesian Foundations founded by foreign individuals, and (3) Indonesian Foundations founded by foreign legal entities (Article 43).
Foreign foundations are obliged to obtain Government permits, namely a principle permit and operational permit. An operational permit can only be obtained when the principle permit is granted. (Article 44) The principle permit is issued by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs based on considerations of the Permit Issuance Team, which shall be established by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. To obtain a principle permit, the foreign foundation must fulfill minimum requirements: that it was established in a country that has diplomatic relations with Indonesia and that its governing principle, purposes and activities are not-for-profit. The permit is issued by the Ministry of Home Affairs or the local government according to the level of work of the foreign foundation only after the foreign foundation signs a written agreement with the Indonesian government regarding its scope of activities. The duration of the principle permit is three years and can be extended, while the duration of the operational permit cannot be more than the duration of the principle permit.
In addition to the regulations set forth in the Law on Foundations elaborated above, Law No. 17 of 2013 provides that Indonesian Foundations founded by foreign individuals and foreign legal entities may only be granted legal entity status by the Ministry of Law and Regulations after the Ministry obtained consideration from the Permit Issuance Team. Furthermore, Law No. 17 of 2013 states that a foreign individual founding an Indonesian foundation must have resided in Indonesia for five consecutive years and hold permanent residency (Izin Tinggal Tetap). The minimum amount of assets of the Indonesian foundation founded by foreign individuals is IDR 1 billion (USD 100,000). There are also other regulations for Indonesian foundations founded by foreign legal entities. The foreign legal entity must have operated in Indonesia for five consecutive years and the minimum amount of assets of the foundation is IDR 10 billion (USD 1 million) (Article 47). In their operations, Indonesian foundations founded by foreign individuals or foreign legal entities are obliged to have a partnership with the government and Indonesian CSOs. (Article 48).
Barriers to Operational Activity
The government does not have the right to interfere with the internal self-governance of a CSO. The Law on Foundations, however, stipulates that the organizational structure of a foundation must consist of three organs: the Governing Board (Badan Pembina), Supervisory Board (Badan Pengawas), and Executive Board (Badan Pengurus). Law No. 17 of 2013 on Societal Organizations does not provide detailed requirements on the organizational structure. It only regulates that the executive of societal organizations shall be selected based on consensus and deliberation and shall consist of minimum one chairperson, one secretary, and one treasurer. (article 29). The Law does not provide further on the different levels of organization.
The Law on Foundations requires every foundation to publish the abridged version of its annual report on an announcement board in its office. Furthermore, foundations that have received donations from the state, overseas parties, or third parties totaling 500 million Indonesian rupiah (IDR) or more, or that possess assets other than endowed assets of over 20 billion IDR, must be audited by a public accountant and have their annual report summaries published in an Indonesian-language daily newspaper. The Societal Organizations Law requires societal organizations collecting public funds to maintain financial reports according to standards of accountancy and publish them regularly (Article 38). With regard to geographical location to operate, Societal Organizations Law provides that CSOs may have organizational structure abroad and may operate in all parts of Indonesia according to relevant laws and regulations (Articles 26 and 27).
Under the Article 61 of the 2017 Perppu amending the Ormas Law, the Minister of Law and Human Rights only needs to issue one written warning to CSOs that are suspected of violating the rules. After seven working days, the Minister can immediately freeze the CSO’s activities. The new regulation also abolished the clarification of the Ormas Law for Article 61(2), which stated that internal activities are not included in activities that are frozen. In contrast, under the new regulation, internal meetings are illegal if the CSO’s activities have been frozen. If the CSO does not obey the order to dissolve its activities, the minister can revoke the legal status of the CSO. The new regulation does not include a provision for how the CSO can challenge this ruling or defend itself.
It is possible that a decree issued by the minister to prohibit or dissolve an organization can be challenged in the State Administrative Court (PTUN). However, the lawsuit can only cover whether the minister has followed the administrative requirements. It is still unclear whether the court will consider the government’s reason to label an organization as “anti-Pancasila”.
The new regulation also creates criminal penalties for members of CSOs. For example, Article 82A states that members who violate prohibitions directed at CSOs can also be convicted. Under this article, members or administrators of CSOs who commit “acts of hostility” or blasphemy can face lengthy prison sentences. Moreover, it is not clear from Article 82A of the Perppu whether an organization must be formally sanctioned under Articles 60, 61, 62, or 80A before its members are subject to criminal charges. In applying criminal penalties under Article 82A, there is also no clarity about who has the authority to determine whether an organization violates Article 59.
The government has also been accused by CSOs of not providing adequate protection to CSO representatives in the face of threats and violence. A report by a Jakarta-based human rights CSO Imparsial showed that between 2005 and 2009 the condition of human rights defenders deteriorated. There were 46 torture cases reported; 29 cases of defenders being arrested with no clear reason; and 25 cases of intimidation, threats and terror against university students, farmers, journalists and CSOs activists.  In response, Imparsial and a coalition of CSOs for the protection of human rights defenders have proposed a Bill on the Protection of Human Rights Defenders.
There are CSOs that are linked to local governments or ministries. They are usually called “red-license-plate CSOs” as government-owned cars in Indonesia have red license plates. They are allegedly created to facilitate corrupt practices and control over government-funded projects as well as to disseminate an opinion countering CSOs that criticize the government actions or policies.
 Camelia Pasandaran, “More Protection Needed For Human Rights Defenders: Komnas HAM,” Jakarta Globe, August 17, 2009. See Imparsial’s report in Indonesian language: Imparsial, “Laporan Kondisi Pembela Hak Asasi Manusia 2005-2009” [Report on the Condition of Human Rights Defender 2005-2009], August 2009.
Barriers to Speech / Advocacy
In general, Indonesian law does not hamper the ability of CSOs to criticize the Government or to advocate for politically unpopular causes. However, there is concern that the 2011 Intelligence Law contains several articles open to multiple interpretations, which CSOs claim violate and override the Law on Public Freedom of Information of 2008. For example, the Intelligence Law defines “intelligence secrets” as “information that could jeopardize national security,” but provides no further explanation about the definition of “national security.” This is problematic for journalists and CSO activists because the provision could be interpreted in a way which would criminalize the spreading of public interest information. Interestingly, the Constitutional Court, in November 2012, rejected a motion from a coalition of civil society groups to amend the 2011 Intelligence Law, saying that the law neither violated the Constitution nor threatened freedom of expression.
There is generally no limit on the ability of CSOs to engage in political or legislative activities. However, the Government can use the penal code against CSOs as well as media outlets that strongly criticize the Government. In 2009, three activists were suspected of libel due to statements they made in the media regarding corruption and human rights cases. 
There is generally no limit on the ability of CSOs to engage in political or legislative activities. However, the government can use the penal code against CSOs as well as media outlets that strongly criticize the government. In 2009, three activists were suspected of libel due to statements they made in the media regarding corruption and human rights cases. 
There is also a growing concern about the use of the Law No. 11 of 2008 regarding Electronic Information and Transactions (EIT) as the basis for defamation. The Law actually provides a legal basis for internet-based commerce in Indonesia and codifies a number of internet-based offenses. However, it also contains a provision that criminalizes internet-based insults and defamation, with noticeably stronger penalties than those regulated in the Criminal Code. The Law provides a maximum punishment of 6 years of imprisonment and a fine of up to Rp.1 billion (approximately USD 100,000). Between 2008, when the Law was passed, and October 14, 2014, more than 70 people had been charged under the EIT, with 40 of those cases brought in 2014. Although to date there has not been any case of defamation filed against activists using the EIT, the law is seen generally as a threat to freedom of expression.
 They are Usman Hamid of Kontras (The Commission for the Disappeared and the Victims of Violence) and Illian Deta Artasari and Emerson Yuntho of Indonesia Corruption Watch (ICW). See “Libel Suspects to Disregard Summons,” Jakarta Post, October 14, 2009.
Barriers to International Contact
Foreign foundations face a requirement to refrain from activities which “disrupt the stability and the unity“ of Indonesia or “disrupt diplomatic ties.” Excessive bureaucratic controls also require them to have residency and minimum assets for their establishment (USD1 million for a foreign legal entity and USD100,000 for a foreign individual).
Barriers to Resources
The Law on Foundations requires foundations that have received donations from the state, overseas parties, or third parties totaling 500 million Indonesian rupiah (IDR) or more to be audited by a public accountant and to have their annual report summaries published in an Indonesian-language daily newspaper. Foundations are allowed to engage in commercial activities to support the attainment of their objectives through setting up commercial enterprises and/or participating as shareholders in commercial enterprises. Associations, on the other hand, are not allowed to do so. If a foundation sets up its own commercial enterprise, the activities of the enterprise must relate to the foundation’s statutory purposes. These activities are defined broadly, including the fields of human rights, art, sport, consumer protection, education, environment, health, and the pursuit of knowledge. Shareholding by a foundation is allowed, provided that it does not exceed 25 percent of the total value of the foundation’s assets. In order to maintain good corporate governance, no member of the governing, supervisory, or executive board of a foundation can simultaneously serve as a manager, supervisor, member of the Board of Directors, or member of the Board of Commissioners of any commercial enterprise that a foundation establishes or in which it invests.
In October 2011, the House of Representatives passed the zakat (Islamic mandatory alms) management bill into law (Undang-undang tentang Pengelolaan Zakat). According to the new law, individuals are still allowed to establish zakat collection agencies under the supervision of the government-owned National Alms Agency (Baznas), provided that they meet all administrative requirements, including having a recommendation from Baznas and technical ability to run their alms collection and distribution programs. During the House discussion before the bill was passed, a number of legislators questioned some provisions that provide that alms collection and distribution can only be carried out by a societal organization with legal entity status. The legislators said that the new law will force community-based alms management groups to stop their alms collection and distribution activities since they have no resources or capacity to establish a societal organization with legal entity status.
Barriers to Assembly
Law No. 9 of 1998 on Freedom to Express an Opinion in Public governs various kinds of assemblies, including demonstrations, rallies, public meetings and open forums.
According to Law No. 9 of 1998, the organizer of an assembly shall submit information regarding the assembly in writing to the police at least 24 hours before the event, unless the assembly relates to academic activities on campus or to religious activities. (Article 10)
The advance notification shall contain the following information:
- purpose of the assembly,
- time and duration of the assembly,
- form of the assembly,
- name of the person in charge, and
- name and address of the organization/group/individuals, any equipment that will be used, and number of participants. (Article 11)
The police may dismiss the assembly if they find equipment used in the assembly that is harmful for public safety or if the organizer fails to fulfill the information requirements in Article 10 and 11.
The law does not allow spontaneous demonstrations, unless it is in the form of an academic forum and held on a campus.
Time, Place and Manner Restrictions.
Article 9 of Law No. 9 of 1998 lists places and times that are not allowed for assemblies, including: the presidential palace, religious places, military installations, hospitals, seaports and airports, train stations, land transport terminals, and vital national objects. Assemblies are not allowed on national holidays.
On October 28, 2015, the Governor of Jakarta issued Gubernatorial Regulation No. 228/2015 on the control of free speech in public spaces. The regulation provides that public protests can only be conducted in three designated areas in Jakarta. All three are located in Central Jakarta and reportedly in venues that are rarely used as protest sites. Public protests also can only take place between 6 a.m. and 6 p.m. and the noise level of the sound system should not exceed 60 decibels. Sixty decibals is about as loud as a conversation in a restaurant.Convoys would also be prohibited in demonstrations. CSOs widely criticized the measure. The Governor subsequently stated that he made a mistake in the regulation, specifically that the regulation should not limit demonstration to only those three locations, and he would revise it.
In mid-November 2015, the Governor issued the more lenient Gubernatorial Regulation No. 232/2015 to replace the previous regulation. While the previous regulation allowed only three locations in Jakarta for demonstrations, the new regulation provides that the three named locations are provided by the city administration for demonstrations. Protesters can demonstrate in other public spaces, so long as they do not damage public facilities, litter, or violate human rights. Convoys are no longer prohibited during demonstrations. However, the regulation still requires that public protests take place only between 6 a.m. and 6 p.m. and the noise level of the sound system does not exceed 60 decibels.
In addition, days before the start of the Peoples’ Global Conference (PGC), which is a civil society-led movement that opposes the International Monetary Fund-World Bank (IMF-WB), the Indonesian government ordered a ban on all forms of public assembly and gatherings in Bali. The Bali Intelligence Police, for example, denied a permit to the PGC to assemble, and the administrators of Radio Republik Indonesia Auditorium, which was going to host a PGC event, disallowed the PGC’s use of its venue at the last minute, claiming it needed to undergo “urgent renovations.” The IMF-WB Annual Meetings in Bali from October 11-14, 2018 were considered to be one of the year’s most significant world economic events.
Responsibilities of Organizers
For every 100 participants in a demonstration or rally, organizers must designate at least five persons in charge. (Article 12(2))
Law No. 1/PNPS/1965 on The Prevention of Misuse and/or Defamation of Religions, which regulates religious defamation or blasphemy, imposes criminal penalties of up to five years’ imprisonment on individuals or groups that “deviate” from the basic teachings of the official religions. This law may be used against organizers and participants of assemblies promoting religious freedom.
In addition, the Indonesian Criminal Code (inherited from the colonial period) contains provisions on criminal defamation and libel (Article 310, Article 311, Article 316, and Article 207), which may be applied to organizers and participants of assemblies. The use any separatist movement’s symbols, such as a flag, is treason according to articles 104-107 of the Criminal Code; these articles have been used against assemblies in Papua against the West Papua Separatist Movement.
An assembly involving a separatist movement or land dispute may be subject to harsher regulatory treatment. For example, many protests in West Papua (where demonstrators are believed to represent separatist groups) have been broken up with the use of weapons. In addition, on August 2, 2017, the government disbanded the Muslim hard-line group Hizbut Tahrir Indonesia (HTI) for conducting activities that contradict state ideology of Pancasila and the principle of a unitary state of the Republic of Indonesia. The decision was taken following the issuance of a regulation in lieu of the Law on Mass Organizations, which has sparked concerns over potential violations of the right to assemble because it grants the government the power to disband mass groups without due process.
Reports of repression by Indonesian security forces against protesters and activists resurfaced in Papua, where civil unrest over discrimination, racism, and self-determination efforts began taking place anew in mid-August 2019. An additional 6,000 police and military personnel were flown to Papua to reinforce an already heavy military presence in the region, while the government cut off internet access in the region’s two provinces on August 22, 2019 after restricting access to Papua for foreign journalists and rights monitors. The government maintained that the internet blackout was necessary due to the “the spread of hoax information, lies, expressions of hatred, [and] provocations related to Papuan issues.”
At least 10 Papuans died during that period of unrest, including during a protest on August 28, 2019 in which uniformed police shot live ammunition into a crowd of Papuan protesters. Multiple activists were also arrested for flying or traveling with the Papuan Morning Star flag. Indonesian police further charged Veronica Koman, a prominent Indonesian human rights lawyer, with “spreading fake news and provoking unrest” regarding the protests under the country’s controversial electronic information and transactions law.
On June 3, 2020, a panel of judges at the Jakarta State Administrative Court (PTUN) sided with civil society groups in their lawsuit against the government’s decision to impose an internet blackout during weeks of protests in Papua and West Papua last year, declaring that such move violated the law. The petitioners, the Alliance of Independent Journalists (AJI), the Southeast Asia Freedom of Expression Network (SAFEnet) and the Indonesian Legal Aid Foundation (YLBHI), among other groups, filed a lawsuit against the President and the Communications and Information Ministry in January. They said the blackout, which officials argued was put in place to prevent fake news from spreading, was flawed in authority, substance, and procedure.
|UN Universal Periodic Review Reports||Universal Periodic Review: Indonesia (2017)|
|Reports of UN Special Rapporteurs||Indonesia|
|USIG (United States International Grantmaking) Country Notes||USIG: Indonesia|
|U.S. State Department||2018 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Indonesia|
|Fragile States Index Reports||Foreign Policy Fragile States Index|
|IMF Country Reports||Indonesia and the IMF|
|Human RIghts Watch||Indonesia|
|International Center for Not-for-Profit Law Online Library||Indonesia|
While we aim to maintain information that is as current as possible, we realize that situations can rapidly change. If you are aware of any additional information or inaccuracies on this page, please keep us informed; write to ICNL at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Guide to omnibus bill on job creation (February 2020)
The government has submitted the controversial omnibus bill on job creation to the House of Representatives, aiming for a conclusion in deliberation within 100 days. It would amend 73 laws and consists of 15 chapters and 174 articles, but labor groups are protesting the bill over potential reductions in their rights, remuneration and job security. The Jakarta Post has provided a guide to the bill.
Indonesian students vow to return to streets (February 2020)
The head of the University of Indonesia’s (UI) student executive body (BEM), Fajar Adi Nugroho, says the university’s students are planning to stage a rally against a proposed bill on job creation. The students took to the streets in late September and early October 2019 to protest against controversial revisions of the Criminal Code and the Corruption Eradication Commission Law, among other pieces of legislation.
Journalist threatened after exposing pro-Indonesian bots on Twitter (September 2019)
A journalist has been sent threatening messages after exposing a network of internet robots spreading pro-Indonesian propaganda on social media during the unrest in the Papuan provinces. Journalist and open source investigator Benjamin Strick identified the bot network operating on Twitter after examining several days worth of tweets with hashtags such as #WestPapua and #FreeWestPapua.
Investigate Deaths of Papuan Protesters (September 2019)
Indonesian authorities should impartially investigate the deaths of at least 10 Papuans during recent unrest in the easternmost provinces of Papua and West Papua, Human Rights Watch said today. Restrictions on access to Papua for foreign journalists and rights monitors and a partial internet shutdown have hindered reporting on the situation.
Indonesia police name suspect in West Papua unrest (September 2019)
Indonesian police have named a human rights lawyer and activist a suspect for alleged incitement and spreading fake news online increasing violent protests in the country’s restive West Papua region. Luki Hermawan, regional police chief in Indonesia’s East Java province, said on Wednesday that Veronica Koman was also wanted for violating the country’s cybercrime law.
Govt revokes controversial research policy, set to gather ‘input’ (February 2018)
Home Minister Tjahjo Kumolo voided late a much-maligned regulation aimed at screening research projects that carried “negative impacts” on the country in an about-face that came only hours after he had defended the policy. Issued on Janury 17, 2018, Home Ministry Regulation No. 3/2018 on the research information letter (SKP) allowed authorities to assess the “potential negative impacts” of a particular research project, a mechanism that resembled the Environmental Impact Analysis (Amdal) requirement for businesses that could harm the environment. The regulation obliged researchers – individuals or groups – to report their research results to the Home Ministry, replacing a 2014 regulation that only obliged researchers to report to local administration officials, which would then issue a research recommendation.
Civil Society Join Forces Against Amended MD3 Law (February 2018)
Civil societies are joining forces against a recent amendment to the 2014 Legislative Law, known locally as the MD3 Law, passed this week by the House of Representatives, which many fear may jeopardize free speech and democracy in Southeast Asia’s largest economy. “Through the MD3 Law, parliament has amassed more power as a legislative body … even surpassing the power of law enforcement authorities,” Setara Institute chairperson Hendardi said in a statement.
Parliament passes controversial law targeting its critics (February 2018)
Members of Indonesia’s House of Representatives have come under fire for passing a law giving themselves powers to obstruct corruption investigations and even press charges against their critics.
Indonesia’s Rising Fundamentalism Gets Uglier in Election Year (January 2018)
On December 12, hundreds of Islamists protested outside Facebook’s headquarters in Jakarta, accusing the social media giant of discrimination for blocking pages operated by hardline groups that allegedly inflame religious tensions. The Law and Human Rights Ministry officially revoked Hizbut Tahrir Indonesia’s (HTI) status as a legal entity following the issuance of a regulation instead of the law on mass organizations (Perppu). It was the first group to be disbanded under the controversial regulation, which grants the government the power to disband any groups it deems to be anti-Pancasila. The Perppu has sparked concerns over potential violations of the right to assemble as it grants the government the power to disband mass groups without due process.
Indonesia disbands Islamic group Hizbut Tahrir (August 2017)
The government has disbanded Muslim hard-line group Hizbut Tahrir Indonesia (HTI) for conducting activities that contradict state ideology of Pancasila and the principle of a unitary state of the Republic of Indonesia. The Law and Human Rights Ministry officially revoked HTI’s status as a legal entity on August 2. The move was taken following the issuance of a regulation in lieu of the Law (Perppu) on Mass Organizations. The Perppu has sparked concerns over potential violations of the right to assemble as it grants the government the power to disband mass groups without due process
Can Hizbut Tahrir really be dissolved? (June 2017)
Coordinating Minister for Politics, Legal and Security Affairs Wiranto set off a storm of both praise and condemnation when he announced on 8 May that the government would dissolve Hizbut Tahrir Indonesia (HTI), a societal organisation (or ormas) that aims to establish a pan-Islamic caliphate. If HTI is to be banned, the government must be able to prove that HTI has violated provisions in the Ormas Law. If the government does submit an application to ban HTI, hopefully this will prompt thorough and careful debate. The courts must also work independently and impartially. The role of the courts is not to judge the extent to which HTI complies with Pancasila. Their role is simply to decide whether HTI has engaged in activities that mean it should be banned.
Jokowi administration moves to ban Islamic group (May 2017)
Following a string of sectarian rallies in the country’s capital and other provinces, the government decided on Monday to ban the hard-line Hizbut Tahrir Indonesia (HTI) group on the grounds that its activities contradicted the Pancasila state ideology and had become a threat to the country’s unity. The ban recommendation, if passed by a court, would be the second time the government banned the activities of religious minorities in the country.
Terror Groups Targeted in New Anti-Terror Law (October 2016)
National Counterterrorism Agency chief Comr. Gen. Suhardi Alius said a new anti-terrorism law will lend authorities the power to launch preventive actions against terror groups, including prosecuting hate speech and banning international terror organizations.Suhardi said the agency, or BNPT, will implement the so-called “proactive law enforcement” to tackle terrorism, preventing radical groups from turning into full-blown terror groups. “The authorities will have the power to bring to court individuals or groups committing hate speech or provocation, conducting military training or joining other groups that have pledged allegiance to international terrorist organizations,” Suhardi said at a press briefing for the “Two Years of Jokowi-Kalla Administration” event in Jakarta. The idea has been opposed by human rights activists, who argue it may cause a shift in the country’s approach to terrorism, from a criminal justice model to what they have called “a war model.”
Proposed amendments to Indonesia’s Electronic Information and Transactions (ITE) Law aim to protect children by criminalizing “cyberbullying,” but some activists and free-speech advocates warn that the new legislation could also be used to stifle legitimate dissent. According to Supriyadi Widodo Eddyono of the Institute for Criminal Justice Reform (ICJR), these reforms could undermine Indonesia’s freedom of expression because there’s no clear definition of what constitutes bullying in the country’s legal system. Eddyono fears that the authorities could use the inserted provision to squash and even prevent public criticism.
Ahok backs down, revises regulation on public protests (November 2015)
Basuki to Revise Gubernatorial Regulation on Demonstration (November 2015)
LBH Demands Revocation of Regulation Restricting Free Speech (November 2015)
Ahok limits freedom of expression (October 2015)
New internet content censorship regulations in Indonesia (November 2014)
Indonesia’s “Social Media” Elections (April 2014)
Indonesian NGO law a setback for freedom of association (August 2013)
A political approach to the social sector(July 2013)
Corporations named among human rights offenders (December 2012)
Bill on Societal Organizations prioritized (November 2012)
Petition to amend the Law on Intelligence rejected (November 201)
Mass organization bill ‘Risks return to new order’(November 2012)
Pancisla Youth organization in protest (October 2012)
Constitutional court rejects appeal of Intelligence Law (October 2012)
Interview of human rights defender Febi Yonesta (September 2012)
Bill on Societal Organizations set to become law (September 2012)
Politicians determined to clamp down on foreign NGOs (September 2012)
Greenpeace Indonesia faces mounting pressure (July 2012)
Mass organizations must not be controlled (March 2012)
President Yudhoyono tells foreign NGOs not to interfere (December 2011)
Study: Indonesian NGOs must set transparency example (November 2011)
Greenpeace cries foul as eviction papers are served (November 2011)
Officials fail to stop Greenpeace rep (October 2011)
Greenpeace director denied entry to Indonesia (October 2011)
Government to get tough on ‘untransparent’ foreign-funded NGOs (September 2011)
Aliansi Mahasiswa Desak Pemerintah Evaluasi Greenpeace (August 2011)
Christian group wants Greenpeace investigated: Report (August 2011)
Greenpeace on defensive again over lottery funds (August 2011)
Greenpeace to be expelled from Jakarta (July 2011)
Indonesia’s democratic reversal? (May 2011)
NGOs demand Indonesian lawmakers stay home (May 2011)
NGOs demand appraisal on foreign aid (April 2011)
NGO: RI should use Asean chair term to promote rights (January 2011)
As a response to the enactment of the Societal Organizations Law, CSOs in the Coalition for Freedom of Association (Koalisi Kebebasan Berserikat), which have been active in organizing rallies and lobbying against the Law, organized an event called “The Fasting of Democracy: The State Restriction on the Freedom of Organization” in Jakarta on July 31, 2013. It was a popular event in which the general public was invited to come and discuss the newly enacted Law from the perspective of the CSOs and to express their support on the CSO initiative to push the government to revoke the Law.
The foregoing information was collected by the ICNL Civic Freedom Monitor partner in Indonesia, Bivitri Susanti of the Indonesian Centre for Law & Policy Studies orPusat Studi Hukum & Kebijakan Indonesia (PSHK).