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Indigenous Peoples’ Rights Act

Rep ublic A ct N o. 8 371
Octo ber 2 9, 1 997 ( h ttp s:/ / w ww.o � cia lg aze tte .g ov.p h/1 997/1 0/2 9/re public -a ct-n o-8 371/)
R EP UBLIC O F T H E P H IL IP PIN ES
C ON GRES S O F T H E P H IL IP PIN ES
M ET RO M AN IL A
REP UBLIC A CT N O. 8 371
A N A CT T O R EC OGNIZ E, P ROTEC T A ND P RO M OTE TH E RIG HTS O F I N DIG EN OUS C U LT U RA L
CO M MUNIT IES /IN DIG EN OUS P EO PLES , C REA TIN G A N ATIO NAL C O M MIS SIO N O N I N DIG EN OUS
PEO PLES , ES TA BLIS H IN G I M PLEM ENTIN G M EC HANIS M S, A PPRO PRIA TIN G F U NDS T H ER EFOR,
A ND F O R O TH ER P U RPO SES
CH APTER I
G enera l P ro vis io ns
S EC TION 1 .             S hort T it le . — T his A ct s h all b e k n ow n a s “ T he In dig en ous P eo ple s’ R ig hts A ct o f
1997”.
S EC TION 2 .             D ecla ra tio n o f S ta te P olic ie s. — T he S ta te s h all r e co gn iz e a nd p ro m ote a ll t h e r ig hts
o f In dig en o us C ult u ra l C om munit ie s/In dig en ous P eo ple s (IC Cs/IP s) h ere u nder e n um era te d w it h in th e
fra m ew ork o f t h e C onstit u tio n:
a)               T he S ta te s h all re co gn iz e a nd p ro m ote th e rig hts o f IC Cs/IP s w it h in th e fra m ew ork o f
natio nal u nit y a nd d evelo pm en t;
b )               T he S ta te s h all p ro te ct th e rig hts o f IC Cs/IP s to th eir a ncestra l d om ain s to e n su re th eir
e co nom ic , so cia l a nd cu lt u ra l w ell b ein g a nd sh all re co gniz e th e a pp lic a bilit y o f cu sto m ary la w s
govern in g p ro perty r ig hts o r r e la tio ns in d ete rm in in g t h e o w ners h ip a nd e xte n t o f a ncestra l d om ain ;
G OVPH ( / )

c)              T he S ta te s h all r e co gniz e, r e sp ect a nd p ro te ct t h e r ig hts o f IC C s/IP s t o p re serv e a nd d evelo p
th eir c u lt u re s, tra dit io ns a nd in stit u tio ns. It s h all c o nsid er th ese rig hts in th e fo rm ula tio n o f n atio nal
la w s a nd p olic ie s;
d )              T he S ta te s h all g uara nte e t h at m em bers o f t h e IC Cs/IP s r e g ard le ss o f s ex, s h all e q ually e n jo y
th e f u ll m ea su re o f h um an r ig hts a nd f re ed om s w it h out d is tin ctio n o r d is crim in atio n;
e)              T he S ta te s h all ta ke m ea su re s, w it h th e p artic ip atio n o f th e IC Cs/IP s c o ncern ed , to p ro te ct
th eir r ig hts a nd g uara nte e r e sp ect f o r t h eir c u lt u ra l in te g rit y , a nd t o e n su re t h at m em bers o f t h e IC Cs/IP s
ben e� t o n a n e q ual f o otin g f ro m t h e r ig hts a nd o pportu nit ie s w hic h n atio nal la w s a nd r e g ula tio ns g ra nt
to o th er m em bers o f t h e p opula tio n; a nd
f)                T he S ta te r e co gniz es it s o blig atio ns t o r e sp ond t o t h e s tro ng e xp re ssio n o f t h e IC Cs/IP s f o r
cu lt u ra l in te g rit y b y a ssu rin g m axim um IC C/IP p artic ip atio n in t h e d ir e ctio n o f e d uca tio n, h ea lt h , a s w ell
a s o th er s erv ic es o f IC Cs/IP s, in o rd er t o r e n der s u ch s erv ic es m ore r e sp onsiv e t o t h e n eed s a nd d esir e s
o f t h ese c o m munit ie s.
T ow ard s th ese e n ds, th e S ta te s h all in stit u te a nd e sta blis h th e n ecessa ry m ech anis m s to e n fo rc e a nd
guara nte e th e re a liz a tio n o f th ese rig hts , ta kin g in to c o nsid era tio n th eir c u sto m s, tra dit io ns, v a lu es,
b elie fs , in te re sts a nd in stit u tio ns, a nd to a dopt a nd im ple m en t m ea su re s to p ro te ct th eir rig hts to th eir
a ncestra l d om ain s.
C H APTER I I
D e� nit io n o f T erm s
SEC TION 3 .            D e� nit io n o f T erm s. — F or p urp oses o f t h is A ct, t h e f o llo w in g t e rm s s h all m ea n:
a)              A ncestra l D om ain s — S ubje ct t o S ectio n 5 6 h ere o f, r e fe r t o a ll a re a s g en era lly b elo ngin g t o
IC Cs/IP s c o m pris in g la nds, in la nd w ate rs , c o asta l a re a s, a nd n atu ra l re so urc es th ere in , h eld u nder a
c la im o f o w ners h ip , o ccu pie d o r p ossessed b y IC Cs/IP s, b y th em selv es o r th ro ugh th eir a ncesto rs ,
co m munally o r in div id ually s in ce t im e im mem oria l, c o ntin uously t o t h e p re sen t e xcep t w hen in te rru pte d
b y w ar, fo rc e m aje u re o r d is p la cem en t b y fo rc e, d eceit , s te a lt h o r a s a c o nseq uen ce o f g overn m en t
pro je cts or any oth er vo lu nta ry dea lin gs en te re d in to by govern m en t and priv a te
in div id uals /c o rp ora tio ns, and w hic h are necessa ry to en su re th eir eco nom ic , so cia l and cu lt u ra l
w elf a re . It sh all in clu de a ncestra l la nds, fo re sts , p astu re , re sid en tia l, a gric u lt u ra l, a nd o th er la nds
in div id ually o w ned w heth er a lie n able a nd d is p osa ble o r o th erw is e, h untin g g ro unds, b uria l g ro unds,
w ors h ip a re a s, b odie s o f w ate r, m in era l a nd o th er n atu ra l r e so urc es, a nd la nds w hic h m ay n o lo nger b e
exclu siv ely o ccu pie d b y IC Cs/IP s b ut f ro m w hic h th ey tra dit io nally h ad a ccess to f o r th eir s u bsis te n ce
a nd t ra dit io nal a ctiv it ie s, p artic u la rly t h e h om e r a nges o f IC Cs/IP s w ho a re s till n om adic a nd/o r s h if tin g
cu lt iv a to rs ;

b)               A nces tra l L ands — S ubje ct to S ectio n 5 6 h ere o f, re fe rs to la nd o ccu pie d , p ossessed a nd
utiliz ed b y in div id uals , f a m ilie s a nd c la ns w ho a re m em bers o f t h e IC Cs/IP s s in ce t im e im mem oria l, b y
th em selv es o r th ro ugh th eir p re d ece sso rs -in -in te re st, u nder c la im s o f in div id ual o r tra dit io nal g ro up
ow ners h ip , c o ntin u ously , t o t h e p re sen t e xcep t w hen in te rru pte d b y w ar, f o rc e m aje u re o r d is p la cem en t
by fo rc e, d eceit , s te a lt h , o r a s a c o nseq uen ce o f g overn m en t p ro je cts a nd o th er v o lu nta ry d ea lin gs
en te re d in to by govern m en t and priv a te in div id uals /c o rp ora tio ns, in clu din g, but not lim it e d to ,
re sid en tia l lo ts , r ic e t e rra ces o r p addie s, p riv a te f o re sts , s w id den f a rm s a nd t re e lo ts ;
c)              C erti� ca te o f A ncestra l D om ain T it le — re fe rs to a tit le f o rm ally re co gniz in g th e rig hts o f
possessio n a nd o w ners h ip o f IC Cs/IP s o ver th eir a ncestra l d om ain s id en ti� ed a nd d elin ea te d in
a cco rd ance w it h t h is la w ;
d)               C erti� ca te o f A ncestra l L ands T it le — re fe rs to a tit le f o rm ally re co gniz in g th e rig hts o f
IC Cs/IP s o ver t h eir a ncestra l la nds;
e)              C om munal C la im s — r e fe r t o c la im s o n la nd, r e so urc es a nd r ig hts t h ere o n, b elo ngin g t o t h e
w hole c o m munit y w it h in a d e� ned t e rrit o ry ;
f)                C usto m ary L aw s — r e fe r t o a b ody o f w rit te n a nd/o r u nw rit te n r u le s, u sa ges, c u sto m s a nd
pra ctic es t ra dit io nally a nd c o ntin ually r e co gniz ed , a ccep te d a nd o bserv ed b y r e sp ectiv e IC Cs/IP s;
g )              F re e a nd P rio r In fo rm ed C onsen t — a s u sed in th is A ct s h all m ea n th e c o nsen su s o f a ll
m em bers o f th e IC Cs/IP s to b e d ete rm in ed in a cco rd ance w it h th eir re sp ectiv e c u sto m ary la w s a nd
pra ctic es, fre e fro m a ny e xte rn al m anip ula tio n, in te rf e re n ce a nd c o erc io n, a nd o bta in ed a fte r fu lly
d is clo sin g th e in te n t a nd s co pe o f th e a ctiv it y , in a la nguage a nd p ro cess u nders ta ndable to th e
co m munit y ;
h )                 In dig en ous C ult u ra l C om munit ie s/In dig en ous P eo ple s — re fe r to a g ro up o f p eo ple o r
hom ogen ous s o cie tie s id en ti� ed b y s elf -a scrip tio n a nd a scrip tio n b y o th ers , w ho h ave c o ntin uously
liv ed a s o rg aniz ed c o m munit y o n c o m munally b ounded a nd d e� ned te rrit o ry , a nd w ho h ave, u nder
cla im s o f o w ners h ip s in ce tim e im mem oria l, o ccu pie d , p ossessed a nd u tiliz ed s u ch te rrit o rie s, s h arin g
co m mon b onds o f la nguage, c u sto m s, tra dit io ns a nd o th er d is tin ctiv e c u lt u ra l tra it s , o r w ho h ave,
th ro ugh r e sis ta nce t o p olit ic a l, s o cia l a nd c u lt u ra l in ro ads o f c o lo niz a tio n, n on-in dig en ous r e lig io ns a nd
cu lt u re s, b eca m e h is to ric a lly d if fe re n tia te d fro m th e m ajo rit y o f F ilip in os. IC Cs/IP s sh all lik ew is e
in clu de p eo ple s w ho a re re g ard ed a s in dig en ous o n a cco unt o f th eir d escen t fro m th e p opula tio ns
w hic h in ha bit e d th e c o untry , a t th e tim e o f c o nquest o r c o lo niz a tio n, o r a t th e tim e o f in ro ads o f n on-
in dig en ous r e lig io ns a nd c u lt u re s, o r t h e e sta blis h m en t o f p re sen t s ta te b oundarie s, w ho r e ta in s o m e o r
all o f th eir o w n s o cia l, e co nom ic , c u lt u ra l a nd p olit ic a l in stit u tio ns, b ut w ho m ay h ave b een d is p la ced
fro m t h eir t ra dit io nal d om ain s o r w ho m ay h ave r e settle d o uts id e t h eir a ncestra l d om ain s;

i)                 In dig en ous P olit ic a l S tru ctu re s — re fe r to o rg aniz a tio nal a nd c u lt u ra l le a ders h ip s yste m s,
in stit u tio ns, re la tio nsh ip s, p atte rn s a nd p ro cesses f o r d ecis io n-m akin g a nd p artic ip atio n, id en ti� ed b y
IC Cs/IP s s u ch a s, b ut n ot lim it e d to , C ouncil o f E ld ers , C ouncil o f T im uays, B odong H old ers , o r a ny
oth er t rib unal o r b ody o f s im ila r n atu re ;
j)                In div id ual C la im s — r e fe r t o c la im s o n la nd a nd r ig hts t h ere o n w hic h h ave b een d evo lv ed t o
in div id uals , f a m ilie s a nd c la ns in clu din g, b ut n ot lim it e d t o , r e sid en tia l lo ts , r ic e t e rra ces o r p addie s a nd
tre e lo ts ;
k)               N atio nal C om mis sio n o n In dig en ous P eo ple s ( N CIP ) — r e fe rs t o t h e o � ce c re a te d u nder t h is
A ct, w hic h s h all b e u nder t h e O� ce o f t h e P re sid en t, a nd w hic h s h all b e t h e p rim ary g overn m en t a gen cy
re sp onsib le fo r th e fo rm ula tio n a nd im ple m en ta tio n o f p olic ie s, p la ns a nd p ro gra m s to re co gniz e,
p ro te ct a nd p ro m ote t h e r ig hts o f IC Cs/IP s;
l)                N ativ e T it le — re fe rs to p re -c o nquest rig hts to la nds a nd d o m ain s w hic h , a s f a r b ack a s
m em ory re a ch es, h ave b een h eld u n der a c la im o f p riv a te o w ners h ip b y IC Cs/IP s, h ave n ever b een
p ublic la nds a nd a re t h us in dis p uta bly p re su m ed t o h ave b een h eld t h at w ay s in ce b efo re t h e S panis h
C onquest;
m )            N ongove rn m en t Or ganiz a tio n — r e fe rs t o a p riv a te , n onpro �t v o lu nta ry o rg aniz a tio n t h at h as
been o rg aniz ed p rim arily fo r th e d eliv ery o f v a rio us s erv ic es to th e IC C s/IP s a nd h as a n e sta blis h ed
tra ck r e co rd f o r e ffe ctiv en ess a nd a ccep ta bilit y in t h e c o m munit y w here it s erv es;
n )              P eo ple ’s Or ganiz a tio n — r e fe rs t o a p riv a te , n onpro �t v o lu nta ry o rg aniz a tio n o f m em bers o f
an IC C/IP w hic h is a ccep te d a s r e p re sen ta tiv e o f s u ch IC Cs/IP s;
o )              S usta in able T ra dit io nal R eso urc e R ig hts — r e fe r t o t h e r ig hts o f IC Cs/IP s t o s u sta in ably u se,
m anage, p ro te ct a nd c o nserv e a ) la n d, a ir, w ate r, a nd m in era ls ; b ) p la nts , a nim als a nd o th er o rg anis m s;
c) c o lle ctin g, � sh in g a nd h untin g g ro unds; d ) s a cre d s it e s; a nd e ) o th er a re a s o f e co nom ic , c ere m onia l
and a esth etic v a lu e in a cco rd ance w it h t h eir in dig en ous k n ow le d ge, b elie fs , s yste m s a nd p ra ctic es; a nd
p)              T im e Im m em oria l — r e fe rs t o a p erio d o f t im e w hen a s f a r b ack a s m em ory c a n g o, c erta in
IC Cs/IP s a re k n ow n to h ave o ccu pie d , p ossessed in th e c o ncep t o f o w ner, a nd u tiliz ed a d e� ned
te rrit o ry devo lv ed to th em , by opera tio n of cu sto m ary la w or in herit e d fro m th eir ancesto rs , in
a cco rd ance w it h t h eir c u sto m s a nd t ra dit io ns.
C H APTER I II
R ig hts t o A nce str a l D om ain s

SEC TION 4 .             C oncep t o f A nce stra l L ands/D om ain s. — A ncestra l la nds/d om ain s s h all in clu de
su ch c o ncep ts o f te rrit o rie s w hic h c o ver n ot o nly th e p hysic a l e n vir o nm en t b ut th e to ta l e n vir o nm en t
in clu din g t h e s p ir it u al a nd c u lt u ra l b onds t o t h e a re a s w hic h t h e IC Cs/IP s p ossess, o ccu py a nd u se a nd
to w hic h t h ey h ave c la im s o f o w ners h ip .
S EC TION 5 .             In dig en ous C oncep t o f Ow ners h ip . — In dig en ous c o ncep t o f o w ners h ip s u sta in s t h e
vie w th at a ncestra l d om ain s a nd a ll re so urc es f o und th ere in s h all s erv e a s th e m ate ria l b ases o f th eir
c u lt u ra l in te g rit y . T he in dig en ous c o n cep t o f o w ners h ip g en era lly h old s t h at a ncestra l d om ain s a re t h e
IC C’s /IP ’s p riv a te b ut c o m munit y p ro perty w hic h b elo ngs to a ll g en era tio ns a nd th ere fo re c a nnot b e
so ld , d is p osed o r d estro yed . It lik ew is e c o vers s u sta in able t ra dit io nal r e so urc e r ig hts .
S EC TION 6 .             C om posit io n o f A ncestra l L ands/D om ain s. — A ncestra l la nds a nd d om ain s s h all
c o nsis t o f a ll a re a s g en era lly b elo ngin g to IC Cs/IP s a s re fe rre d u nder S ec. 3 , it e m s (a ) a nd (b ) o f th is
A ct.
S EC TION 7 .             R ig hts t o A ncestra l D om ain s. — T he r ig hts o f o w ners h ip a nd p ossessio n o f IC Cs/IP s
to t h eir a ncestra l d om ain s s h all b e r e co gniz ed a nd p ro te cte d . S uch r ig hts s h all in clu de:
a )              R ig ht o f Ow ners h ip . — T he r ig ht t o c la im o w ners h ip o ver la nds, b odie s o f w ate r t ra dit io nally
a nd a ctu ally o ccu pie d b y IC Cs/IP s, s a cre d p la ces, tra dit io nal h untin g a nd � sh in g g ro unds, a nd a ll
im pro vem en ts m ade b y t h em a t a ny t im e w it h in t h e d om ain s;
b )              R ig ht to D evelo p L ands a nd N atu ra l R eso urc es. — S ubje ct to S ectio n 5 6 h ere o f, rig ht to
d evelo p, c o ntro l a nd u se la nds a nd te rrit o rie s tra dit io nally o ccu pie d , o w ned , o r u sed ; to m anage a nd
co nserv e n atu ra l re so urc es w it h in th e te rrit o rie s a nd u phold th e re sp onsib ilit ie s f o r f u tu re g en era tio ns;
to b en e� t a nd s h a re th e p ro �ts f ro m a llo ca tio n a nd u tiliz a tio n o f th e n atu ra l re so urc es f o und th ere in ;
th e r ig ht t o n eg otia te t h e t e rm s a nd c o ndit io ns f o r t h e e xp lo ra tio n o f n atu ra l r e so urc es in t h e a re a s f o r
th e p urp ose o f e n su rin g e co lo gic a l, e n vir o nm en ta l p ro te ctio n a nd t h e c o nserv a tio n m ea su re s, p urs u ant
to n atio nal a nd c u sto m ary la w s; t h e r ig ht t o a n in fo rm ed a nd in te llig en t p a rtic ip atio n in t h e f o rm ula tio n
and im ple m en ta tio n o f a ny p ro je ct, g overn m en t o r p riv a te , t h at w ill a ffe ct o r im pact u pon t h e a ncestra l
dom ain s a nd to re ceiv e ju st a nd fa ir c o m pen sa tio n fo r a ny d am ages w hic h th ey m ay s u sta in a s a
re su lt o f t h e p ro je ct; a nd t h e r ig ht t o e ffe ctiv e m ea su re s b y t h e g overn m en t t o p re ven t a ny in te rf e re n ce
w it h , a lie n atio n a nd e n cro ach m en t u pon t h ese r ig hts ;
c)              R ig ht to S ta y in th e T errit o rie s. — T he rig ht to s ta y in th e te rrit o ry a nd n ot to b e re m oved
th ere fro m . N o IC Cs/IP s w ill b e r e lo ca te d w it h out t h eir f re e a nd p rio r in fo rm ed c o nsen t, n or t h ro ugh a ny
m ea ns o th er th an em in en t d om ain . W here re lo ca tio n is co nsid ere d n ecessa ry a s a n excep tio nal
m ea su re , s u ch r e lo ca tio n s h all t a ke p la ce o nly w it h t h e f re e a nd p rio r in fo rm ed c o nsen t o f t h e IC Cs/IP s
co ncern ed a nd w hen ever p ossib le , th ey sh all b e g uara nte ed th e rig ht to re tu rn to th eir a ncestra l
dom ain s, a s s o on a s th e g ro unds fo r re lo ca tio n c ea se to e xis t. W hen s u ch re tu rn is n ot p ossib le , a s

dete rm in ed b y a gre em en t o r t h ro ugh a ppro pria te p ro ced ure s, IC Cs/IP s s h all b e p ro vid ed in a ll p ossib le
c a ses w it h la nds o f q ualit y a nd le g al s ta tu s a t le a st e q ual to th at o f th e la nd p re vio usly o ccu pie d b y
th em , s u it a ble to p ro vid e f o r th eir p re sen t n eed s a nd f u tu re d evelo pm en t. P ers o ns th us re lo ca te d s h all
lik ew is e b e f u lly c o m pen sa te d f o r a ny r e su lt in g lo ss o r in ju ry ;
d )               R ig ht in C ase o f D is p la cem en t. — In c a se d is p la cem en t o ccu rs a s a re su lt o f n atu ra l
ca ta stro phes, th e S ta te s h all e n dea vo r to re settle th e d is p la ced IC Cs/IP s in s u it a ble a re a s w here th ey
ca n h ave t e m pora ry lif e s u pport s yste m s: P ro vid ed , T hat t h e d is p la ced IC Cs/IP s s h all h ave t h e r ig ht t o
re tu rn to th eir a bandoned la nds u ntil s u ch tim e th at th e n orm alc y a nd s a fe ty o f s u ch la nds s h all b e
dete rm in ed : P ro vid ed , fu rth er, T hat s h ould th eir a ncestra l d om ain c ea se to e xis t a nd n orm alc y a nd
sa fe ty o f th e p re vio us s ettle m en ts a re n ot p ossib le , d is p la ced IC Cs/IP s s h all e n jo y s ecu rit y o f te n ure
o ver la nds t o w hic h t h ey h ave b een r e settle d : P ro vid ed , f u rth erm ore , T hat b asic s erv ic es a nd liv elih ood
sh all b e p ro vid ed t o t h em t o e n su re t h at t h eir n eed s a re a deq uate ly a ddre ssed ;
e)               R ig ht to R eg ula te E ntry o f M ig ra nts . — R ig ht to re g ula te th e e n try o f m ig ra nt s ettle rs a nd
org aniz a tio ns in to t h e d om ain s;
f)               R ig ht t o S afe a nd C le a n A ir a nd W ate r. — F or t h is p urp ose, t h e IC Cs/IP s s h all h ave a ccess t o
in te g ra te d s yste m s f o r t h e m anagem en t o f t h eir in la nd w ate rs a nd a ir s p ace;
g )              R ig ht to C la im P arts o f R eserv a tio ns. — T he rig ht to c la im p arts o f th e a ncestra l d om ain s
w hic h h ave b een r e serv ed f o r v a rio us p urp oses, e xcep t t h ose r e serv ed a nd in te n ded f o r c o m mon p ublic
w elf a re a nd s erv ic e; a nd
h)               R ig ht to R eso lv e C on�ic t. — R ig ht to re so lv e la nd c o n�ic ts in a cco rd ance w it h c u sto m ary
la w s o f th e a re a w here th e la nd is lo ca te d , a nd o nly in d efa ult th ere o f sh all th e co m pla in ts b e
su bm it te d t o a m ic a ble s ettle m en t a nd t o t h e C ourts o f J ustic e w hen ever n ecessa ry .
S EC TION 8 .             R ig hts t o A ncestra l L ands. — T he r ig ht o f o w ners h ip a nd p ossessio n o f t h e IC Cs/IP s
to t h eir a ncestra l la nds s h all b e r e co gniz ed a nd p ro te cte d .
a)              R ig ht t o t ra nsfe r la nd/p ro perty . — S uch r ig ht s h all in clu de t h e r ig ht t o t ra nsfe r la nd o r p ro perty
rig hts to /a m ong m em bers o f th e s a m e IC Cs/IP s, s u bje ct to c u sto m ary la w s a nd tra dit io ns o f th e
co m munit y c o ncern ed .
b)              R ig ht t o R ed em ptio n. — In c a ses w here it is s h ow n t h at t h e t ra nsfe r o f la nd/p ro perty r ig hts b y
vir tu e o f a ny a gre em en t o r d evis e, t o a n on-m em ber o f t h e c o ncern ed IC Cs/IP s is t a in te d b y t h e v it ia te d
co nsen t o f th e IC Cs/IP s, o r is tra nsfe rre d f o r a n u nco nscio nable c o nsid era tio n o r p ric e, th e tra nsfe ro r
IC C/IP s h all h ave t h e r ig ht t o r e d eem t h e s a m e w it h in a p erio d n ot e xceed in g � fte en ( 1 5) y ea rs f ro m t h e
date o f t ra nsfe r.

SEC TION 9 .             R esp onsib ilit ie s o f IC Cs/IP s t o t h eir A ncestra l D om ain s. — IC Cs/IP s o ccu pyin g a d uly
c erti� ed a ncestra l d om ain s h all h ave t h e f o llo w in g r e sp onsib ilit ie s:
a )              M ain ta in E co lo gic a l B ala nce. — T o p re serv e, r e sto re , a nd m ain ta in a b ala nced e co lo gy in t h e
ancestra l d om ain b y p ro te ctin g t h e � ora a nd f a una, w ate rs h ed a re a s, a nd o th er r e serv es;
b )               R esto re D en uded A re a s. — T o a ctiv ely in it ia te , u nderta ke a nd p artic ip ate in t h e r e fo re sta tio n
of d en uded a re a s a nd o th er d evelo pm en t p ro gra m s a nd p ro je cts su bje ct to ju st a nd re a so nable
r e m unera tio n; a nd
c)              Ob serv e L aw s. — T o o bserv e a nd c o m ply w it h th e p ro vis io ns o f th is A ct a nd th e ru le s a nd
re g ula tio ns f o r it s e ffe ctiv e im ple m en ta tio n.
S EC TION 1 0.         U nauth oriz ed a nd U nla w fu l In tru sio n. — U nauth oriz ed a nd u nla w fu l in tru sio n u pon, o r
use o f a ny p ortio n o f t h e a ncestra l d om ain , o r a ny v io la tio n o f t h e r ig hts h ere in befo re e n um era te d , s h all
b e p u nis h able u nder th is la w . F urth erm ore , th e G overn m en t sh all ta ke m ea su re s to p re ven t n on-
IC Cs/IP s f ro m ta kin g a dva nta ge o f th e IC Cs/IP s c u sto m s o r la ck o f u nders ta ndin g o f la w s to s ecu re
o w ners h ip , p ossessio n o f la nd b elo ngin g t o s a id IC Cs/IP s.
S EC TION 1 1.          R eco gnit io n o f A ncestra l D om ain R ig hts . — T he r ig hts o f IC Cs/IP s t o t h eir a ncestra l
dom ain s b y v ir tu e o f N ativ e T it le s h all b e r e co gniz ed a nd r e sp ecte d . F orm al r e co gnit io n, w hen s o lic it e d
b y IC Cs/IP s c o ncern ed , s h all b e e m bodie d in a C erti� ca te o f A ncestra l D om ain T it le ( C AD T), w hic h s h all
r e co gniz e t h e t it le o f t h e c o ncern ed IC Cs/IP s o ver t h e t e rrit o rie s id en ti� ed a nd d elin ea te d .
S EC TION 1 2.          Op tio n t o S ecu re C erti� ca te o f T it le U nder C om monw ea lt h A ct 1 41, a s a m en ded , o r
th e L and R eg is tra tio n A ct 4 96. — In div id ual m em bers o f c u lt u ra l c o m munit ie s, w it h re sp ect to th eir
in div id ually -o w ned a ncestra l la nds w ho, b y th em selv es o r th ro ugh th eir p re d ecesso rs -in -in te re st, h ave
b een in co ntin uous p ossessio n a nd o ccu patio n o f th e sa m e in th e co ncep t o f o w ner sin ce tim e
im mem oria l o r f o r a p erio d o f n ot le ss t h an t h ir ty ( 3 0) y ea rs im med ia te ly p re ced in g t h e a ppro va l o f t h is
A ct a nd u nco nte ste d b y t h e m em bers o f t h e s a m e IC Cs/IP s s h all h ave t h e o ptio n t o s ecu re t it le t o t h eir
a ncestra l la nds u nder t h e p ro vis io ns o f C om monw ea lt h A ct 1 41, a s a m en ded , o r t h e L and R eg is tra tio n
A ct 4 96.
For th is p urp ose, sa id in div id ually -o w ned a ncestra l la nds, w hic h a re a gric u lt u ra l in ch ara cte r a nd
actu ally u sed fo r a gric u lt u ra l, re sid en tia l, p astu re , a nd tre e fa rm in g p urp oses, in clu din g th ose w it h a
s lo pe o f e ig hte en p erc en t ( 1 8% ) o r m ore , a re h ere b y c la ssi� ed a s a lie n able a nd d is p osa ble a gric u lt u ra l
la nds.
T he o ptio n g ra nte d u nder t h is s ectio n s h all b e e xerc is ed w it h in t w en ty ( 2 0) y ea rs f ro m t h e a ppro va l o f
th is A ct.

 CH APTER I V
R ig ht t o S elf -G ove rn ance a nd Em pow erm ent
S EC TION 1 3.          S elf -G overn ance. — T he S ta te re co gniz es th e in here n t rig ht o f IC Cs/IP s to s elf –
g overn ance a nd s elf -d ete rm in atio n a nd r e sp ects t h e in te g rit y o f t h eir v a lu es, p ra ctic es a nd in stit u tio ns.
C onseq uen tly , t h e S ta te s h all g uara nte e t h e r ig ht o f IC Cs/IP s t o f re ely p urs u e t h eir e co nom ic , s o cia l a nd
cu lt u ra l d evelo pm en t.
S EC TION 1 4.          S upport f o r A uto nom ous R eg io ns. — T he S ta te s h all c o ntin ue to s tre n gth en a nd
su pport t h e a uto nom ous r e g io ns c re a te d u nder t h e C onstit u tio n a s t h ey m ay r e q uir e o r n eed . T he S ta te
s h all lik ew is e e n co ura ge o th er IC Cs/IP s n ot in clu ded o r o uts id e M uslim M in danao a nd th e C ord ille ra s
to u se th e f o rm a nd c o nte n t o f th eir w ays o f lif e a s m ay b e c o m patib le w it h th e f u ndam en ta l rig hts
d e� ned in th e C onstit u tio n o f th e R ep ublic o f th e P hilip pin es a nd o th er in te rn atio nally re co gniz ed
h um an r ig hts .
S EC TION 1 5.          J ustic e S yste m , C on�ic t R eso lu tio n In stit u tio ns, a nd P ea ce B uild in g P ro cesses. —
T he IC Cs/IP s sh all h ave th e rig ht to u se th eir o w n co m monly a ccep te d ju stic e syste m s, co n�ic t
re so lu tio n in stit u tio ns, pea ce build in g pro cesses or m ech anis m s and oth er cu sto m ary la w s and
pra ctic es w it h in t h eir r e sp ectiv e c o m munit ie s a nd a s m ay b e c o m patib le w it h t h e n atio nal le g al s yste m
a nd w it h in te rn atio nally r e co gniz ed h um an r ig hts .
S EC TION 1 6.          R ig ht t o P artic ip ate in D ecis io n-M akin g. — IC Cs/IP s h ave t h e r ig ht t o p artic ip ate f u lly ,
if th ey s o c h oose, a t a ll le vels o f d ecis io n-m akin g in m atte rs w hic h m ay a ffe ct th eir rig hts , liv es a nd
destin ie s th ro ugh p ro ced ure s d ete rm in ed b y th em a s w ell a s to m ain ta in a nd d evelo p th eir o w n
in dig en ous p olit ic a l s tru ctu re s. C onseq uen tly , th e S ta te s h all e n su re th at th e IC Cs/IP s s h all b e g iv en
m andato ry r e p re sen ta tio n in p olic y-m akin g b odie s a nd o th er lo ca l le g is la tiv e c o uncils .
S EC TION 1 7.          R ig ht t o D ete rm in e a nd D ecid e P rio rit ie s f o r D evelo pm en t. — T he IC Cs/IP s s h all h ave
th e rig ht to d ete rm in e a nd d ecid e th eir o w n p rio rit ie s fo r d evelo pm en t a ffe ctin g th eir liv es, b elie fs ,
in stit u tio ns, s p ir it u al w ell-b ein g, a nd th e la nds th ey o w n, o ccu py o r u se. T hey s h all p artic ip ate in th e
fo rm ula tio n, im ple m en ta tio n a nd e va lu atio n o f p olic ie s, p la ns a nd p ro gra m s f o r n atio nal, r e g io nal a nd
lo ca l d evelo pm en t w hic h m ay d ir e ctly a ffe ct t h em .
SEC TION 1 8.          T rib al B ara ngays. — T he IC Cs/IP s liv in g in c o ntig uous a re a s o r c o m munit ie s w here
th ey f o rm t h e p re d om in ant p opula tio n b ut w hic h a re lo ca te d in m unic ip alit ie s, p ro vin ces o r c it ie s w here
th ey d o n ot c o nstit u te th e m ajo rit y o f th e p opula tio n, m ay f o rm o r c o nstit u te a s ep ara te b ara ngay in
a cco rd ance w it h t h e L oca l G overn m en t C ode o n t h e c re a tio n o f t rib al b ara ngays.

SEC TION 1 9.          R ole o f P eo ple s O rg aniz a tio ns. — T he S ta te s h all re co gniz e a nd re sp ect th e ro le o f
in dep en den t IC Cs/IP s o rg aniz a tio ns to e n able th e IC Cs/IP s to p urs u e a nd p ro te ct th eir le g it im ate a nd
co lle ctiv e in te re sts a nd a sp ir a tio ns t h ro ugh p ea cefu l a nd la w fu l m ea ns.
S EC TION 2 0.          M ea ns fo r D evelo pm en t/ E m pow erm en t o f IC Cs/IP s. — T he G overn m en t s h all
e sta blis h th e m ea ns fo r th e fu ll d ev elo pm en t/ e m pow erm en t o f th e IC Cs/IP s o w n in stit u tio ns a nd
in it ia tiv es a nd, w here n ecessa ry , p ro vid e t h e r e so urc es n eed ed t h ere fo r.
C H APTER V
S ocia l J ustic e a nd H um an R ig hts
S EC TION 2 1.          E qual P ro te ctio n a nd N on-d is crim in atio n o f IC Cs/IP s. — C onsis te n t w it h th e e q ual
pro te ctio n c la use o f th e C onstit u tio n o f th e R ep ublic o f th e P hilip pin es, th e C harte r o f th e U nit e d
N atio ns, th e U niv ers a l D ecla ra tio n o f H um an R ig hts in clu din g th e C onven tio n o n th e E lim in atio n o f
D is crim in atio n A ga in st W om en and In te rn atio nal H um an R ig hts Law , th e S ta te sh all, w it h due
re co gnit io n o f th eir d is tin ct c h ara cte ris tic s a nd id en tit y , a cco rd to th e m em bers o f th e IC Cs/IP s th e
rig hts , p ro te ctio ns a nd p riv ile g es e n jo yed b y th e re st o f th e c it iz en ry . It s h all e xte n d to th em th e s a m e
em plo ym en t rig hts , o pportu nit ie s, b asic s erv ic es, e d uca tio nal a nd o th er rig hts a nd p riv ile g es a va ila ble
t o e very m em ber o f t h e s o cie ty . A cco rd in gly , t h e S ta te s h all lik ew is e e n su re t h at t h e e m plo ym en t o f a ny
fo rm o f f o rc e o r c o erc io n a gain st IC Cs/IP s s h all b e d ea lt w it h b y la w .
The S ta te sh all en su re th at th e fu ndam en ta l hum an rig hts and fre ed om s as en sh rin ed in th e
C onstit u tio n a nd r e le va nt in te rn atio nal in stru m en ts a re g uara nte ed a ls o t o in dig en ous w om en . T ow ard s
th is e n d, n o p ro vis io n in th is A ct s h all b e in te rp re te d s o a s to re su lt in th e d im in utio n o f rig hts a nd
priv ile g es a lr e a dy r e co gniz ed a nd a cco rd ed t o w om en u nder e xis tin g la w s o f g en era l a pplic a tio n.
S EC TION 2 2.          R ig hts D urin g A rm ed C on�ic t. — IC Cs/IP s h ave th e rig ht to s p ecia l p ro te ctio n a nd
secu rit y in p erio ds o f a rm ed c o n�ic t. T he S ta te s h all o bserv e in te rn atio n al s ta ndard s, in p artic u la r, th e
Fourth G en eva C on ven tio n o f 1 949, fo r th e p ro te ctio n o f c iv ilia n p opula tio ns in c ir c u m sta nces o f
em erg en cy a nd a rm ed c o n�ic t, a nd s h all n ot r e cru it m em bers o f t h e IC Cs/IP s a gain st t h eir w ill in to t h e
arm ed f o rc es, a nd in p artic u la r, f o r u se a gain st o th er IC Cs/IP s; n or re cru it c h ild re n o f IC Cs/IP s in to th e
arm ed fo rc es under any cir c u m sta nce; nor fo rc e in dig en ous in div id uals to abandon th eir la nds,
te rrit o rie s a nd m ea ns o f s u bsis te n ce, o r r e lo ca te t h em in s p ecia l c en te rs f o r m ilit a ry p urp oses u nder a ny
dis crim in ato ry c o ndit io n.
S EC TION 2 3.          F re ed om f ro m D is crim in atio n a nd R ig ht to E qual Op portu nit y a nd T re a tm en t. — It
s h all b e t h e r ig ht o f t h e IC Cs/IP s t o b e f re e f ro m a ny f o rm o f d is crim in atio n, w it h r e sp ect t o r e cru it m en t
and co ndit io ns of em plo ym en t, su ch th at th ey m ay en jo y eq ual op portu nit ie s fo r adm is sio n to
e m plo ym en t, m ed ic a l a nd s o cia l a ssis ta nce, s a fe ty a s w ell a s o th er o ccu patio nally -r e la te d b en e� ts ,

in fo rm ed o f t h eir r ig hts u nder e xis tin g la bor le g is la tio n a nd o f m ea ns a va ila ble t o t h em f o r r e d re ss, n ot
su bje ct t o a ny c o erc iv e r e cru it m en t s y ste m s, in clu din g b onded la bor a nd o th er f o rm s o f d eb t s erv it u de;
a nd eq ual tre a tm en t in em plo ym en t fo r m en and w om en , in clu din g th e pro te ctio n fro m sexu al
hara ssm en t.
T ow ard s th is e n d, th e S ta te s h all, w it h in th e fra m ew ork o f n atio nal la w s a nd re g ula tio ns, a nd in
c o opera tio n w it h th e IC Cs/IP s c o nce rn ed , a dopt s p ecia l m ea su re s to e n su re th e e ffe ctiv e p ro te ctio n
w it h re g ard to th e re cru it m en t an d co ndit io ns of em plo ym en t of pers o ns belo ngin g to th ese
co m munit ie s, to th e e xte n t th at th ey a re n ot e ffe ctiv ely p ro te cte d b y la w s a pplic a ble to w ork ers in
g en era l.
IC Cs/IP s s h all h ave th e rig ht to a sso cia tio n a nd f re ed om f o r a ll tra de u nio n a ctiv it ie s a nd th e rig ht to
c o nclu de c o lle ctiv e b arg ain in g a gre em en ts w it h e m plo yers ’ o rg aniz a tio ns. T hey s h all lik ew is e h ave t h e
rig ht n ot t o b e s u bje ct t o w ork in g c o n dit io ns h aza rd ous t o t h eir h ea lt h , p artic u la rly t h ro ugh e xp osu re t o
p estic id es a nd o th er t o xic s u bsta nces.
S EC TION 2 4.         U nla w fu l A cts P erta in in g t o E m plo ym en t. — It s h all b e u nla w fu l f o r a ny p ers o n:
a)              T o d is crim in ate a gain st a ny IC C/IP w it h r e sp ect t o t h e t e rm s a n d c o ndit io ns o f e m plo ym en t
on a cco unt o f th eir d escen t. E qual re m unera tio n s h all b e p aid to IC C/IP a nd n on-IC C/IP fo r w ork o f
eq ual v a lu e; a nd
b)              T o d en y a ny IC C/IP e m plo yee a ny r ig ht o r b en e� t h ere in p ro vid ed f o r o r t o d is ch arg e t h em f o r
th e p urp ose o f p re ven tin g t h em f ro m e n jo yin g a ny o f t h e r ig hts o r b en e� ts p ro vid ed u nder t h is A ct.
S EC TION 2 5.          B asic S erv ic es. — T he IC Cs/IP s h ave t h e r ig ht t o s p ecia l m ea su re s f o r t h e im med ia te ,
effe ctiv e a nd c o ntin uin g im pro vem en t o f t h eir e co nom ic a nd s o cia l c o ndit io ns, in clu din g in t h e a re a s o f
em plo ym en t, vo ca tio nal tra in in g and re tra in in g, housin g, sa nit a tio n, hea lt h and so cia l secu rit y .
P artic u la r a tte n tio n s h all b e p aid to th e rig hts a nd s p ecia l n eed s o f in dig en ous w om en , e ld erly , y o uth ,
ch ild re n a nd d if fe re n tly -a ble d p ers o ns. A cco rd in gly , th e S ta te s h all g uara nte e th e rig ht o f IC Cs/IP s to
g overn m en t’s b asic serv ic es w hic h sh all in clu de, b ut n ot lim it e d to , w ate r a nd ele ctric a l fa cilit ie s,
ed uca tio n, h ea lt h , a nd in fra stru ctu re .
S EC TION 2 6.          W om en . — IC C/IP w om en s h all e n jo y e q ual rig hts a nd o pportu nit ie s w it h m en , a s
re g ard s th e s o cia l, e co nom ic , p olit ic a l a nd c u lt u ra l s p here s o f lif e . T he p artic ip atio n o f in dig en ous
w om en in th e d ecis io n-m akin g p ro ces s in a ll le vels , a s w ell a s in th e d evelo pm en t o f s o cie ty , s h all b e
giv en d ue r e sp ect a nd r e co gnit io n.
T he S ta te s h all p ro vid e fu ll a ccess to e d uca tio n, m ate rn al a nd c h ild c a re , h ea lt h a nd n utrit io n, a nd
housin g s erv ic es t o in dig en ous w om en . V oca tio nal, t e ch nic a l, p ro fe ssio nal a nd o th er f o rm s o f t ra in in g
sh all b e p ro vid ed to e n able th ese w om en to fu lly p artic ip ate in a ll a sp ects o f s o cia l lif e . A s fa r a s

possib le , th e S ta te sh all en su re th at in dig en ous w om en h ave a ccess to a ll serv ic es in th eir o w n
la nguages.
S EC TION 2 7.          C hild re n a nd Y outh . — T he S ta te s h all re co gniz e th e v it a l ro le o f th e c h ild re n a nd
yo uth o f IC Cs/IP s in n atio n-b uild in g a nd s h all p ro m ote a nd p ro te ct th eir p hysic a l, m ora l, s p ir it u al,
in te lle ctu al a nd s o cia l w ell-b ein g. T ow ard s th is e n d, th e S ta te s h all s u pport a ll g overn m en t p ro gra m s
in te n ded f o r t h e d evelo pm en t a nd r e a rin g o f t h e c h ild re n a nd y o uth o f IC Cs/IP s f o r c iv ic e � cie n cy a nd
esta blis h s u ch m ech anis m s a s m ay b e n ecessa ry fo r th e p ro te ctio n o f th e rig hts o f th e in dig en ous
ch ild re n a nd y o uth .
S EC TION 2 8.          In te g ra te d S yste m o f E duca tio n. — T he S ta te s h all, th ro ugh th e N CIP , p ro vid e a
c o m ple te , a deq uate a nd in te g ra te d s yste m o f e d uca tio n, re le va nt to th e n eed s o f th e c h ild re n a nd
yo ung p eo ple o f IC Cs/IP s.
C H APTER V I
Cult u ra l I n te grit y
S EC TION 2 9.          P ro te ctio n o f In dig en ous C ult u re , T ra dit io ns a nd In stit u tio ns. — T he S ta te s h all
r e sp ect, r e co gniz e a nd p ro te ct t h e r ig ht o f IC Cs/IP s t o p re serv e a nd p ro te ct t h eir c u lt u re , t ra dit io ns a nd
in stit u tio ns. It s h all c o nsid er th ese rig hts in th e fo rm ula tio n a nd a ppli c a tio n o f n atio nal p la ns a nd
polic ie s.
S EC TION 3 0.          E duca tio nal S ys te m s. — T he S ta te s h all p ro vid e e q ual a ccess to v a rio us c u lt u ra l
opportu nit ie s to th e IC Cs/IP s th ro ugh th e ed uca tio nal syste m , public or priv a te cu lt u ra l en tit ie s,
sch ola rs h ip s, g ra nts a nd o th er in cen tiv es w it h out p re ju dic e to th eir rig ht to e sta blis h a nd c o ntro l th eir
e d uca tio nal syste m s a nd in stit u tio ns b y p ro vid in g ed uca tio n in th eir o w n la nguage, in a m anner
a ppro pria te to th eir c u lt u ra l m eth ods o f te a ch in g a nd le a rn in g. In dig en ou s c h ild re n /y o uth s h all h ave
th e r ig ht t o a ll le vels a nd f o rm s o f e d uca tio n o f t h e S ta te .
S EC TION 3 1.          R eco gnit io n o f C ult u ra l D iv ers it y . — T he S ta te s h all e n dea vo r t o h ave t h e d ig nit y a nd
div ers it y o f th e c u lt u re s, tra dit io ns, h is to rie s a nd a sp ir a tio ns o f th e IC Cs/IP s a ppro pria te ly re � ecte d in
a ll f o rm s o f e d uca tio n, p ublic in fo rm atio n a nd c u lt u ra l-e d uca tio nal e xch ange. C onseq uen tly , th e S ta te
s h all ta ke e ffe ctiv e m ea su re s, in c o nsu lt a tio n w it h IC Cs/IP s c o ncern ed , to e lim in ate p re ju dic e a nd
dis crim in atio n a nd to p ro m ote to le ra nce, u nders ta ndin g a nd g ood re la tio ns a m ong IC Cs/IP s a nd a ll
s eg m en ts o f s o cie ty . F urth erm ore , th e G overn m en t s h all ta ke e ffe ctiv e m ea su re s to e n su re th at th e
S ta te -o w ned m ed ia d uly re � ect in dig en ous cu lt u ra l d iv ers it y . T he S ta te sh all lik ew is e en su re th e
partic ip atio n o f a ppro pria te in dig en ou s le a ders in s ch ools , c o m munit ie s a nd in te rn atio nal c o opera tiv e
u nderta kin gs lik e fe stiv a ls , co nfe re n ces, sem in ars and w ork sh ops to pro m ote and en hance th eir
d is tin ctiv e h erit a ge a nd v a lu es.

SEC TION 3 2.          C om munit y In te lle ctu al R ig hts . — IC Cs/IP s h ave th e rig ht to p ra ctic e a nd re vit a liz e
th eir o w n c u lt u ra l tra dit io ns a nd c u sto m s. T he S ta te s h all p re serv e, p ro te ct a nd d evelo p th e p ast,
p re sen t a nd fu tu re m anif e sta tio ns o f th eir c u lt u re s a s w ell a s th e rig ht to th e re stit u tio n o f c u lt u ra l,
in te lle ctu al, re lig io u s, a nd s p ir it u al p ro perty ta ken w it h out th eir fre e a nd p rio r in fo rm ed c o nsen t o r in
v io la tio n o f t h eir la w s, t ra dit io ns a nd c u sto m s.
S EC TION 3 3.          R ig hts t o R elig io us, C ult u ra l S it e s a nd C ere m onie s. — IC Cs/IP s s h all h ave t h e r ig ht t o
m anif e st, p ra ctic e, d evelo p, a nd te a ch th eir s p ir it u al a nd re lig io us tra dit io n s, c u sto m s a nd c ere m onie s;
th e rig ht to m ain ta in , p ro te ct a nd h ave a ccess to th eir re lig io us a nd c u lt u ra l s it e s; th e rig ht to u se a nd
co ntro l o f c ere m onia l o bje cts ; a nd, t h e r ig ht t o t h e r e p atria tio n o f h um an r e m ain s. A cco rd in gly , t h e S ta te
s h all ta ke e ffe ctiv e m ea su re s, in c o opera tio n w it h th e IC Cs/IP s c o ncern ed , to e n su re th at in dig en ous
sa cre d p la ces, in clu din g b uria l s it e s, b e p re serv ed , re sp ecte d a nd p ro te cte d . T o a ch ie ve th is p urp ose, it
s h all b e u nla w fu l t o :
a)              E xp lo re , e xca va te o r m ake d ig gin gs o n a rc h eo lo gic a l s it e s o f t h e IC Cs/IP s f o r t h e p urp ose o f
obta in in g m ate ria ls o f c u lt u ra l v a lu es w it h out th e f re e a nd p rio r in fo rm ed c o nsen t o f th e c o m munit y
c o ncern ed ; a nd
b)              D efa ce , r e m ove o r o th erw is e d estro y a rtif a cts w hic h a re o f g re a t im porta nce t o t h e IC Cs/IP s
fo r t h e p re serv a tio n o f t h eir c u lt u ra l h erit a ge.
S EC TION 3 4.          R ig ht t o In dig en ous K now le d ge S yste m s a nd P ra ctic es a nd t o D evelo p o w n S cie n ces
a nd T ech nolo gie s. — IC Cs/IP s a re e n tit le d to th e re co gnit io n o f th e fu ll o w ners h ip a nd c o ntro l a nd
pro te ctio n o f th eir c u lt u ra l a nd in te lle ctu al rig hts . T hey s h all h ave th e rig ht to s p ecia l m ea su re s to
c o ntro l, d evelo p a nd p ro te ct t h eir s cie n ces, t e ch nolo gie s a nd c u lt u ra l m an if e sta tio ns, in clu din g h um an
and o th er g en etic re so urc es, s eed s, in clu din g d eriv a tiv es o f th ese re so urc es, tra dit io nal m ed ic in es a nd
hea lt h p ra ctic es, v it a l m ed ic in al p la nts , a nim als a nd m in era ls , in dig en ous k n ow le d ge s yste m s a nd
pra ctic es, k n ow le d ge o f t h e p ro pertie s o f f a una a nd � ora , o ra l t ra dit io ns, lit e ra tu re , d esig ns, a nd v is u al
and p erf o rm in g a rts .
S EC TION 3 5.          A ccess to B io lo gic a l a nd G en etic R eso urc es. — A ccess to b io lo gic a l a nd g en etic
r e so urc es a nd to in dig en ous k n ow le d ge re la te d to th e c o nserv a tio n, u tiliz a tio n a nd e n hancem en t o f
th ese re so urc es, s h all b e a llo w ed w it h in a ncestra l la nds a nd d om ain s o f th e IC Cs/IP s o nly w it h a f re e
a nd p rio r in fo rm ed c o nsen t o f s u ch c o m munit ie s, o bta in ed in a cco rd ance w it h c u sto m ary la w s o f th e
co ncern ed c o m munit y .
S EC TION 3 6.          S usta in able A gro -T ech nic a l D evelo pm en t. — T he S ta te s h all re co gniz e th e rig ht o f
IC Cs/IP s to a su sta in able agro -t e ch nolo gic a l develo pm en t and sh all fo rm ula te and im ple m en t
pro gra m s o f a ctio n f o r it s e ffe ctiv e im ple m en ta tio n. T he S ta te s h all lik ew is e p ro m ote th e b io -g en etic

and re so urc e m anagem en t s yste m s a m ong th e IC Cs/IP s a nd s h all e n co ura ge c o opera tio n a m ong
govern m en t a gen cie s t o e n su re t h e s u ccessfu l s u sta in able d evelo pm en t o f IC Cs/IP s.
S EC TION 3 7.          F unds f o r A rc h eo lo gic a l a nd H is to ric a l S it e s. — T he IC Cs/IP s s h all h ave t h e r ig ht t o
re ceiv e f ro m t h e n atio nal g overn m en t a ll f u nds e sp ecia lly e a rm ark ed o r a llo ca te d f o r t h e m anagem en t
and p re serv a tio n o f t h eir a rc h eo lo gic a l a nd h is to ric a l s it e s a nd a rtif a cts w it h t h e � nancia l a nd t e ch nic a l
su pport o f t h e n atio nal g overn m en t a gen cie s.
C H APTER V II
N atio nal C om mis sio n o n I n dig enous P eople s ( N CIP )
SEC TION 3 8.          N atio nal C om mis sio n o n In dig en ous C ult u ra l C om munit ie s/In dig en ous P eo ple s
(N CIP ). — T o c a rry o ut th e p olic ie s h ere in s et f o rth , th ere s h all b e c re a te d th e N atio nal C om mis sio n o n
IC Cs/IP s (N CIP ), w hic h s h all b e th e p rim ary g overn m en t a gen cy re sp onsib le fo r th e fo rm ula tio n a nd
im ple m en ta tio n o f p olic ie s, p la ns a nd p ro gra m s t o p ro m ote a nd p ro te ct t h e r ig hts a nd w ell-b ein g o f t h e
IC Cs/IP s a nd t h e r e co gnit io n o f t h eir a ncestra l d om ain s a s w ell a s t h e r ig hts t h ere to .
S EC TION 3 9.          M andate . — T he N CIP s h all p ro te ct a nd p ro m ote th e in te re st a nd w ell-b ein g o f th e
IC Cs/IP s w it h d ue r e g ard t o t h eir b elie fs , c u sto m s, t ra dit io ns a nd in stit u tio ns.
S EC TION 4 0.          C om posit io n. — T he N CIP s h all b e a n in dep en den t a gen cy u nder th e O� ce o f th e
P re sid en t a nd s h all b e c o m posed o f s even ( 7 ) C om mis sio ners b elo ngin g t o IC Cs/IP s, o ne ( 1 ) o f w hom
sh all b e th e C hair p ers o n. T he C om m is sio ners s h all b e a ppoin te d b y th e P re sid en t o f th e P hilip pin es
fro m a lis t of re co m men dees su bm it te d by auth en tic IC Cs/IP s: Pro vid ed , That th e seven (7 )
C om mis sio ners s h all b e a ppoin te d s p eci� ca lly f ro m e a ch o f t h e f o llo w in g e th nogra phic a re a s: R eg io n I
a nd th e C ord ille ra s; R eg io n II; th e re st o f L uzo n; Is la nd G ro ups in clu din g M in doro , P ala w an, R om blo n,
P anay a nd th e re st o f th e V is a ya s; N orth ern a nd W este rn M in danao; S outh ern a nd E aste rn M in danao;
and C en tra l M in danao: P ro vid ed , T hat a t le a st t w o ( 2 ) o f t h e s even ( 7 ) C om mis sio ners s h all b e w om en .
S EC TION 4 1.          Qu ali� ca tio ns, T en ure , C om pen sa tio n. — T he C hair p ers o n a nd th e six (6 )
C om mis sio ners m ust b e n atu ra l b orn F ilip in o c it iz en s, b ona � de m em bers o f th e IC Cs/IP s a s c erti� ed
b y h is /h er trib e, e xp erie n ced in e th nic a ffa ir s a nd w ho h ave w ork ed f o r a t le a st te n (1 0) y ea rs w it h a n
IC C/IP c o m munit y a nd/o r a ny g overn m en t a gen cy in vo lv ed in IC C/IP , a t le a st 3 5 y ea rs o f a ge a t th e
tim e o f a ppoin tm en t, a nd m ust b e o f p ro ven h onesty a nd in te g rit y : P ro vid ed , T hat a t le a st t w o ( 2 ) o f t h e
seven ( 7 ) C om mis sio ners s h all b e m em bers o f t h e P hilip pin e B ar: P ro vid ed , f u rth er, T hat t h e m em bers
o f th e N CIP s h all h old o � ce f o r a p erio d o f th re e (3 ) y ea rs , a nd m ay b e s u bje ct to re -a ppoin tm en t f o r
anoth er te rm : P ro vid ed , fu rth erm ore , T hat no pers o n sh all serv e fo r m ore th an tw o (2 ) te rm s.
A ppoin tm en t to a ny v a ca ncy s h all o nly b e f o r th e u nexp ir e d te rm o f th e p re d ecesso r a nd in n o c a se

sh all a m em ber b e a ppoin te d o r d esig nate d in a t e m pora ry o r a ctin g c a pacit y : P ro vid ed , � nally , T hat t h e
C hair p ers o n a nd th e C om mis sio ners s h all b e e n tit le d to c o m pen sa tio n in a cco rd ance w it h th e S ala ry
S ta ndard iz a tio n L aw .
SEC TION 4 2.          R em ova l f ro m O� ce. — A ny m em ber o f t h e N CIP m ay b e r e m oved f ro m o � ce b y t h e
P re sid en t, o n h is o w n in it ia tiv e o r u pon re co m men datio n b y a ny in dig en ous c o m munit y , b efo re th e
exp ir a tio n o f h is t e rm f o r c a use a nd a fte r c o m ply in g w it h d ue p ro cess r e q uir e m en t o f la w .
SEC TION 4 3.          A ppoin tm en t o f C om mis sio ners . — T he P re sid en t s h all a ppoin t th e s even (7 )
C om mis sio ners o f t h e N CIP w it h in n in ety ( 9 0) d ays f ro m t h e e ffe ctiv it y o f t h is A ct.
S EC TION 4 4.          P ow ers a nd F unctio ns. — T o a cco m plis h it s m an date , th e N CIP s h all h ave th e
fo llo w in g p ow ers , ju ris d ic tio n a nd f u nctio n:
a)               T o s erv e a s t h e p rim ary g overn m en t a gen cy t h ro ugh w hic h IC Cs/IP s c a n s eek g overn m en t
assis ta nce a nd a s t h e m ed iu m , t h ro ugh w hic h s u ch a ssis ta nce m ay b e e xte n ded ;
b)                T o re vie w a nd a ssess th e c o ndit io ns o f IC Cs/IP s in clu din g e xis tin g la w s a nd p olic ie s
p ertin en t th ere to and to pro pose re le va nt la w s and polic ie s to addre ss th eir ro le in natio nal
develo pm en t;
c )              T o f o rm ula te a nd im ple m en t p olic ie s, p la ns, p ro gra m s a nd p ro je cts f o r t h e e co nom ic , s o cia l
and c u lt u ra l d evelo pm en t o f t h e IC Cs/IP s a nd t o m onit o r t h e im ple m en ta tio n t h ere o f;
d )               T o re q uest a nd e n gage th e s erv ic es a nd s u pport o f e xp erts fro m o th er a gen cie s o f
govern m en t o r em plo y p riv a te exp erts a nd co nsu lt a nts a s m ay b e re q uir e d in th e p urs u it o f it s
o bje ctiv es;
e)              T o is su e c erti� ca te o f a ncestra l la nd/d om ain t it le ;
f)                 S ubje ct to e xis tin g la w s, to e n te r in to c o ntra cts , a gre e m en ts , o r a rra ngem en t, w it h
g overn m en t o r p riv a te a gen cie s o r e n tit ie s a s m ay b e n ecessa ry t o a tta in t h e o bje ctiv es o f t h is A ct, a nd
su bje ct t o t h e a ppro va l o f t h e P re sid en t, t o o bta in lo ans f ro m g overn m en t le n din g in stit u tio ns a nd o th er
le n din g in stit u tio ns t o � nance it s p ro gra m s;
g )              T o n eg otia te f o r f u nds a n d t o a ccep t g ra nts , d onatio ns, g if ts a nd/o r p ro pertie s in w hate ver
fo rm a nd f ro m w hate ver s o urc e, lo ca l a nd in te rn atio nal, s u bje ct t o t h e a ppro va l o f t h e P re sid en t o f t h e
P hilip pin es, f o r th e b en e� t o f IC Cs/IP s a nd a dm in is te r th e s a m e in a cco rd ance w it h th e te rm s th ere o f;
o r in th e a bsen ce o f a ny c o ndit io n, in s u ch m anner c o nsis te n t w it h th e in te re st o f IC Cs/IP s a s w ell a s
exis tin g la w s;

h)               T o c o ord in ate d evelo pm en t p ro gra m s a nd p ro je cts f o r t h e a dva ncem en t o f t h e IC Cs/IP s a nd
to o vers ee t h e p ro per im ple m en ta tio n t h ere o f;
i)                T o c o nven e p erio dic c o nven tio ns o r a ssem blie s o f IP s t o r e vie w , a ssess a s w ell a s p ro pose
p olic ie s o r p la ns;
j)                 T o a dvis e th e P re sid en t o f th e P hilip pin es o n a ll m atte rs re la tin g to th e IC Cs/IP s a nd to
s u bm it w it h in s ix ty (6 0) d ays a fte r th e c lo se o f e a ch c a le n dar y ea r, a re p ort o f it s o pera tio ns a nd
ach ie vem en ts ;
k)              T o s u bm it to C ongre ss a ppro pria te le g is la tiv e p ro posa ls in te n ded to c a rry o ut th e p olic ie s
u nder t h is A ct;
l)                T o p re p are a nd s u bm it t h e a ppro pria te b udget t o t h e O� ce o f t h e P re sid en t;
m )            T o is su e a ppro pria te c erti� ca tio n a s a p re -c o ndit io n t o t h e g ra n t o f p erm it , le a se, g ra nt, o r a ny
oth er s im ila r a uth orit y fo r th e d is p o sit io n, u tiliz a tio n, m anagem en t a nd a ppro pria tio n b y a ny p riv a te
in div id ual, c o rp ora te e n tit y o r a ny g overn m en t a gen cy, c o rp ora tio n o r s u bdiv is io n t h ere o f o n a ny p art o r
portio n o f th e a ncestra l d om ain ta kin g in to c o nsid era tio n th e c o nsen su s a ppro va l o f th e IC Cs/IP s
co ncern ed ;
n)                T o d ecid e a ll a ppea ls fro m th e d ecis io ns a nd a cts o f a ll th e v a rio us o � ces w it h in th e
C om mis sio n;
o)              T o p ro m ulg ate t h e n ecessa ry r u le s a nd r e g ula tio ns f o r t h e im ple m en ta tio n o f t h is A ct;
p )              T o e xerc is e s u ch o th er p ow ers a nd f u nctio ns a s m ay b e d ir e cte d b y th e P re sid en t o f th e
R ep ublic o f t h e P hilip pin es; a nd
q)              T o r e p re sen t t h e P hilip pin e IC Cs/IP s in a ll in te rn atio nal c o nfe re n ces a nd c o nven tio ns d ea lin g
w it h in dig en ous p eo ple s a nd o th er r e la te d c o ncern s.
S EC TION 4 5.          A ccessib ilit y a nd T ra nsp are n cy. — S ubje ct t o s u ch lim it a tio ns a s m ay b e p ro vid ed b y
la w o r b y ru le s a nd re g ula tio ns p ro m ulg ate d p urs u ant th ere to , a ll o � cia l re co rd s, d ocu m en ts a nd
papers p erta in in g t o o � cia l a cts , t ra nsa ctio ns o r d ecis io ns, a s w ell a s r e sea rc h d ata u sed a s b asis f o r
polic y d evelo pm en t o f t h e C om mis sio n s h all b e m ade a ccessib le t o t h e p ublic .
S EC TION 4 6.          O� ces w it h in th e N CIP . — T he N CIP s h all h ave th e f o llo w in g o � ces w hic h s h all b e
re sp onsib le f o r t h e im ple m en ta tio n o f t h e p olic ie s h ere in afte r p ro vid ed :

a)               A ncestra l D om ain s O � ce — T he A ncestra l D om ain O� ce s h all b e re sp onsib le fo r th e
id en ti� ca tio n, d elin ea tio n a nd re co gnit io n o f a ncestra l la nds/d om ain s. It s h all a ls o b e re sp onsib le f o r
th e m anagem en t o f a ncestra l la nds/d om ain s in a cco rd ance w it h a m aste r p la n a s w ell a s th e
im ple m en ta tio n o f th e a ncestra l d om ain rig hts o f th e IC Cs/IP s a s p ro vid ed in C hapte r III o f th is A ct. It
s h all a ls o is su e, u pon t h e f re e a nd p rio r in fo rm ed c o nsen t o f t h e IC Cs/IP s c o ncern ed , c erti� ca tio n p rio r
to th e g ra nt o f a ny lic en se, le a se o r p erm it fo r th e e xp lo it a tio n o f n atu ra l re so urc es a ffe ctin g th e
in te re sts o f IC Cs/IP s o r th eir a ncestr a l d om ain s a nd to a ssis t th e IC Cs/IP s in p ro te ctin g th e te rrit o ria l
in te g rit y o f a ll a nce stra l d om ain s. It s h all lik ew is e p erf o rm s u ch o th er fu nctio ns a s th e C om mis sio n
m ay d eem a ppro pria te a nd n ecessa ry ;
b )               O� ce o n P olic y, P la nnin g a nd R esea rc h — T he O� ce o n P olic y, P la nnin g a nd R esea rc h s h all
b e re sp onsib le f o r th e f o rm ula tio n o f a ppro pria te p olic ie s a nd p ro gra m s f o r IC Cs/IP s s u ch a s, b ut n ot
lim it e d to , th e d evelo pm en t o f a F iv e-Y ea r M aste r P la n fo r th e IC Cs/IP s. S uch p la n s h all u nderg o a
p ro cess s u ch th at e very � ve y ea rs , th e C om mis sio n s h all e n dea vo r to a ssess th e p la n a nd m ake
ra m i� ca tio ns in acco rd ance w it h th e ch angin g sit u atio ns. The O� ce sh all als o underta ke th e
docu m en ta tio n o f c u sto m ary la w a nd s h all e sta blis h a nd m ain ta in a R esea rc h C en te r t h at w ould s erv e
a s a d ep osit o ry o f e th nogra phic in fo rm atio n f o r m onit o rin g, e va lu atio n a nd p olic y f o rm ula tio n. It s h all
a ssis t th e le g is la tiv e b ra nch o f th e n atio nal g overn m en t in th e f o rm ula tio n o f a ppro pria te le g is la tio n
ben e� tin g IC Cs/IP s;
c)               O� ce o f E duca tio n, C ult u re a nd H ea lt h — T he O� ce o n C ult u re , E duca tio n a nd H ea lt h s h all
b e r e sp onsib le f o r t h e e ffe ctiv e im ple m en ta tio n o f t h e e d uca tio n, c u lt u ra l a nd r e la te d r ig hts a s p ro vid ed
in t h is A ct. It s h all a ssis t, p ro m ote a nd s u pport c o m munit y s ch ools , b oth f o rm al a nd n on-f o rm al, f o r t h e
ben e� t o f t h e lo ca l in dig en ous c o m m unit y , e sp ecia lly in a re a s w here e xis tin g e d uca tio nal f a cilit ie s a re
n ot a ccessib le to m em bers o f th e in dig en ous g ro up. It s h all a dm in is te r a ll s ch ola rs h ip p ro gra m s a nd
oth er ed uca tio nal rig hts in te n ded fo r IC C/IP b en e� cia rie s in co ord in atio n w it h th e D ep artm en t o f
Educa tio n, C ult u re a nd S ports a nd th e C om mis sio n o n H ig her E duca tio n. It s h all u nderta ke, w it h in th e
lim it s o f a va ila ble a ppro pria tio n, a s p ecia l p ro gra m w hic h in clu des la nguage a nd v o ca tio nal tra in in g,
public h ea lt h a nd f a m ily a ssis ta nce p ro gra m a nd r e la te d s u bje cts .
It s h all a ls o id en tif y IC Cs/IP s w it h p ote n tia l t ra in in g in t h e h ea lt h p ro fe ssio n a nd e n co ura ge a nd a ssis t
th em to e n ro ll in s ch ools o f m ed ic in e, n urs in g, p hysic a l th era py a nd o th er a llie d c o urs es p erta in in g to
th e h ea lt h p ro fe ssio n.
Tow ard s th is en d, th e N CIP sh all d ep lo y a re p re sen ta tiv e in ea ch o f th e sa id o � ces w ho sh all
p ers o nally p erf o rm t h e f o re g oin g t a sk a nd w ho s h all r e ceiv e c o m pla in ts f ro m t h e IC Cs/IP s a nd c o m pel
a ctio n f ro m a ppro pria te a gen cy. It s h all a ls o m onit o r th e a ctiv it ie s o f th e N atio nal M useu m a nd o th er

sim ila r g o vern m en t a gen cie s g en era lly in te n ded to m anage a nd p re serv e h is to ric a l a nd a rc h eo lo gic a l
artif a cts o f t h e IC Cs/IP s a nd s h all b e r e sp onsib le f o r t h e im ple m en ta tio n o f s u ch o th er f u nctio ns a s t h e
N CIP m ay d eem a ppro pria te a nd n ecessa ry ;
d )              O� ce o n S ocio -E co nom ic S erv ic es a nd S pecia l C oncern s — T he O� ce o n S ocio -E co nom ic
S erv ic es a nd S pecia l C oncern s s h all s erv e a s th e O� ce th ro ugh w hic h th e N CIP s h all c o ord in ate w it h
p ertin en t g overn m en t a gen cie s sp ecia lly ch arg ed w it h th e im ple m en ta tio n o f va rio us b asic so cio –
eco nom ic s erv ic es, p olic ie s, p la ns a nd p ro gra m s a ffe ctin g th e IC Cs/IP s to e n su re th at th e s a m e a re
p ro perly a nd d ir e ctly e n jo yed b y t h em . It s h all a ls o b e r e sp onsib le f o r s u ch o th er f u nctio ns a s t h e N CIP
m ay d eem a ppro pria te a nd n ecessa ry ;
e)              O� ce o f E m pow erm en t a nd H um an R ig hts — T he O� ce o f E m po w erm en t a nd H um an R ig hts
s h all e n su re t h at in dig en ous s o cio -p olit ic a l, c u lt u ra l a nd e co nom ic r ig hts a re r e sp ecte d a nd r e co gniz ed .
It sh all en su re th at ca pacit y b uild in g m ech anis m s a re in stit u te d a nd IC Cs/IP s a re a ffo rd ed every
o pportu nit y , if t h ey s o c h oose, t o p artic ip ate in a ll le vels o f d ecis io n-m akin g. It s h all lik ew is e e n su re t h at
th e b asic h um an r ig hts , a nd s u ch o th er r ig hts a s t h e N CIP m ay d ete rm in e, s u bje ct t o e xis tin g la w s, r u le s
a nd r e g ula tio ns, a re p ro te cte d a nd p ro m ote d ;
f)                A dm in is tra tiv e O� ce — T he A dm in is tra tiv e O� ce s h all p ro vid e th e N CIP w it h e co nom ic a l,
e � cie n t a n d e ffe ctiv e s erv ic es p erta in in g to p ers o nnel, � nance, re co rd s, e q uip m en t, s ecu rit y , s u pplie s
a nd r e la te d s erv ic es. It s h all a ls o a dm in is te r t h e A ncestra l D om ain s F und; a nd
g)               L eg al A ffa ir s O� ce — T here s h all b e a L eg al A ffa ir s O� ce w hic h s h all a dvic e t h e N CIP o n a ll
le g al m att e rs c o nce rn in g IC Cs/IP s a nd w hic h s h all b e re sp onsib le fo r p ro vid in g IC Cs/IP s w it h le g al
assis ta nce in lit ig atio n in vo lv in g c o m munit y in te re st. It s h all c o nduct p re lim in ary in vestig atio n o n th e
basis o f c o m pla in ts � le d b y t h e IC Cs/IP s a gain st a n atu ra l o r ju rid ic a l p ers o n b elie ved t o h ave v io la te d
IC Cs/IP s rig hts . On th e basis of it s �ndin gs, it sh all in it ia te th e �lin g of appro pria te le g al or
adm in is tra tiv e a ctio n t o t h e N CIP .
S EC TION 4 7.          Ot her O� ces. — T he N CIP s h all h ave t h e p ow er t o c re a te a ddit io nal o � ces a s it m ay
deem n ecessa ry s u bje ct t o e xis tin g r u le s a nd r e g ula tio ns.
S EC TION 4 8.          R eg io nal a nd F ie ld O� ces. — E xis tin g re g io nal a nd � eld o � ces s h all re m ain to
f u nctio n u nder t h e s tre n gth en ed o rg an iz a tio nal s tru ctu re o f t h e N CIP . Ot her � eld o � ces s h all b e c re a te d
w here ver a ppro pria te a nd t h e s ta � ng p atte rn t h ere o f s h all b e d ete rm in ed b y t h e N CIP : P ro vid ed , T hat in
p ro vin ces w here t h ere a re IC Cs/IP s b ut w it h out � eld o � ces, t h e N CIP s h all e sta blis h � eld o � ces in s a id
p ro vin ces.

SEC TION 4 9.          O� ce o f t h e E xecu tiv e D ir e cto r. — T he N CIP s h all c re a te t h e O� ce o f t h e E xecu tiv e
D ir e cto r w hic h s h all s erv e a s it s s ecre ta ria t. T he O� ce s h all b e h ea ded b y a n E xecu tiv e D ir e cto r w ho
sh all b e a ppoin te d b y th e P re sid en t o f th e R ep ublic o f th e P hilip pin es u pon re co m men datio n o f th e
N CIP o n a p erm anen t b asis . T he s ta � ng p atte rn o f th e o � ce s h all b e d ete rm in ed b y th e N CIP s u bje ct
to t h e e xis tin g r u le s a nd r e g ula tio ns.
S EC TION 5 0.          C onsu lt a tiv e B ody. — A b ody c o nsis tin g o f th e tra dit io nal le a ders , e ld ers a nd
re p re sen ta tiv es f ro m t h e w om en a nd y o uth s ecto rs o f t h e d if fe re n t IC Cs/IP s s h all b e c o nstit u te d b y t h e
N CIP f ro m t im e t o t im e t o a dvis e it o n m atte rs r e la tin g t o t h e p ro ble m s, a sp ir a tio ns a nd in te re sts o f t h e
IC Cs/IP s.
C H APTER V III
D elin eatio n a nd R eco gnit io n o f A nce str a l D om ain s
S EC TION 5 1.          D elin ea tio n a nd R eco gnit io n o f A ncestra l D om ain s. — S elf -d elin ea tio n s h all b e th e
guid in g p rin cip le in th e id en ti� ca tio n a nd d elin ea tio n o f a ncestra l d om ain s. A s s u ch , th e IC Cs/IP s
co ncern ed s h all h ave a d ecis iv e ro le in a ll th e a ctiv it ie s p ertin en t th ere to . T he S w orn S ta te m en t o f th e
Eld ers a s t o t h e s co pe o f t h e t e rrit o rie s a nd a gre em en ts /p acts m ade w it h n eig hborin g IC Cs/IP s, if a ny,
w ill b e e ssen tia l to th e d ete rm in atio n o f th ese tra dit io nal te rrit o rie s. T he G overn m en t s h all ta ke th e
necessa ry s te p s to id en tif y la nds w hic h th e IC Cs/IP s c o ncern ed tra dit io nally o ccu py a nd g uara nte e
effe ctiv e p ro te ctio n o f th eir rig hts o f o w ners h ip a nd p ossessio n th ere to . M ea su re s s h all b e ta ken in
a ppro pria te c a ses to s a fe g uard th e rig ht o f th e IC Cs/IP s c o ncern ed to la nd w hic h m ay n o lo nger b e
exclu siv ely o ccu pie d b y t h em , b ut t o w hic h t h ey h ave t ra dit io nally h ad a ccess f o r t h eir s u bsis te n ce a nd
tra dit io nal a ctiv it ie s, p artic u la rly o f IC Cs/IP s w ho a re s till n om adic a nd/o r s h if tin g c u lt iv a to rs .
S EC TION 5 2.          D elin ea tio n P ro ces s. — T he id en ti� ca tio n a nd d elin ea tio n o f a ncestra l d om ain s s h all
b e d one in a cco rd ance w it h t h e f o llo w in g p ro ced ure s:
a )              A ncestra l D om ain s D elin ea te d P rio r t o t h is A ct. — T he p ro vis io n s h ere u nder s h all n ot a pply t o
a ncestra l d om ain s/la nds a lr e a dy d elin ea te d a cco rd in g to D EN R A dm in is tra tiv e Or der N o. 2 , s erie s o f
1993, n or to a ncestra l la nds a nd d om ain s d elin ea te d u nder a ny o th er c o m munit y /a ncestra l d om ain
p ro gra m p rio r to th e e n actm en t o f th is la w . IC Cs/IP s w hose a ncestra l la nds/d om ain s w ere o � cia lly
d elin ea te d p rio r to th e e n actm en t o f th is la w s h all h ave th e rig ht to a pply fo r th e is su ance o f a
C erti� ca te o f A ncestra l D om ain T it le (C AD T) o ver th e a re a w it h out g oin g th ro ugh th e p ro cess o utlin ed
h ere u nder;
b )              P etit io n f o r D elin ea tio n. — T he p ro cess o f d elin ea tin g a s p eci� c p erim ete r m ay b e in it ia te d b y
th e N CIP w it h th e c o nsen t o f th e IC C/IP c o ncern ed , o r th ro ugh a P etit io n f o r D elin ea tio n � le d w it h th e
N CIP , b y a m ajo rit y o f t h e m em bers o f t h e IC Cs/IP s;

c)              D elin ea tio n P ro per. — T he o � cia l d elin ea tio n o f a ncestra l d om ain b oundarie s in clu din g
cen su s o f a ll c o m munit y m em bers t h ere in , s h all b e im med ia te ly u nderta ken b y t h e A ncestra l D om ain s
O� ce u pon � lin g o f t h e a pplic a tio n b y t h e IC Cs/IP s c o ncern ed . D elin ea tio n w ill b e d one in c o ord in atio n
w it h t h e c o m munit y c o ncern ed a nd s h all a t a ll t im es in clu de g en uin e in vo lv em en t a nd p artic ip atio n b y
th e m em bers o f t h e c o m munit ie s c o ncern ed ;
d)              P ro of R eq uir e d . — P ro of o f A ncestra l D om ain C la im s s h all in clu de t h e t e stim ony o f e ld ers o r
co m munit y u nder o ath , a nd o th er d ocu m en ts d ir e ctly o r in dir e ctly a tte stin g to th e p ossessio n o r
occu patio n o f th e a re a s in ce tim e im mem oria l b y s u ch IC Cs/IP s in th e c o ncep t o f o w ners w hic h s h all
b e a ny o ne ( 1 ) o f t h e f o llo w in g a uth en tic d ocu m en ts :
1 )              W rit te n a cco unts o f t h e IC Cs/IP s c u sto m s a nd t ra dit io ns;
2 )              W rit te n a cco unts o f t h e IC Cs/IP s p olit ic a l s tru ctu re a nd in stit u tio n;
3)              P ic tu re s s h ow in g lo ng t e rm o ccu patio n s u ch a s t h ose o f o ld im pro vem en ts , b uria l g ro unds,
sa cre d p la ces a nd o ld v illa ges;
4 )               H is to ric a l a cco unts , in clu d in g p acts a nd a gre em en ts c o ncern in g b oundarie s e n te re d in to b y
th e IC Cs/IP s c o ncern ed w it h o th er IC Cs/IP s;
5 )              S urv ey p la ns a nd s ketc h m aps;
6 )              A nth ro polo gic a l d ata ;
7)              G en ea lo gic a l s u rv eys;
8 )              P ic tu re s a nd d escrip tiv e h is to rie s o f t ra dit io nal c o m munal f o re sts a nd h untin g g ro unds;
9 )              P ic tu re s a nd d escrip tiv e h is to rie s o f t ra dit io nal la ndm ark s s u ch a s m ounta in s, r iv ers , c re eks,
rid ges, h ills , t e rra ces a nd t h e lik e; a nd
10)           W rit e -u ps o f n am es a nd p la ces d eriv ed f ro m t h e n ativ e d ia le ct o f t h e c o m munit y .
e )              P re p ara tio n o f M aps. — On th e b asis o f s u ch in vestig atio n a n d th e � ndin gs o f f a ct b ased
th ere o n, th e A ncestra l D om ain s O� ce o f th e N CIP sh all p re p are a p erim ete r m ap, co m ple te w it h
te ch nic a l d escrip tio ns, a nd a d escrip tio n o f t h e n atu ra l f e a tu re s a nd la ndm ark s e m bra ced t h ere in ;
f)               R ep ort o f In vestig atio n a nd Ot her D ocu m en ts . — A c o m ple te c o py o f t h e p re lim in ary c en su s
and a r e p ort o f in vestig atio n, s h all b e p re p are d b y t h e A ncestra l D om ain s O� ce o f t h e N CIP ;

g)              N otic e a nd P ublic a tio n. — A c o py o f e a ch d ocu m en t, in clu d in g a tra nsla tio n in th e n ativ e
la nguage o f t h e IC Cs/IP s c o ncern ed s h all b e p oste d in a p ro m in en t p la ce t h ere in f o r a t le a st � fte en ( 1 5)
days. A c o py o f th e d ocu m en t s h all a ls o b e p oste d a t th e lo ca l, p ro vin cia l a nd re g io nal o � ces o f th e
N CIP , a nd s h all b e p ublis h ed in a n ew sp aper o f g en era l c ir c u la tio n o nce a w eek f o r t w o ( 2 ) c o nsecu tiv e
w eeks to a llo w o th er c la im ants to � le o pposit io n th ere to w it h in � fte en (1 5) d ays fro m d ate o f s u ch
p ublic a tio n: P ro vid ed , T hat in a re a s w here n o s u ch n ew sp aper e xis ts , b ro adca stin g in a ra dio s ta tio n
w ill b e a va lid su bstit u te : P ro vid ed , fu rth er, T hat m ere p ostin g sh all b e d eem ed su � cie n t if b oth
n ew sp aper a nd r a dio s ta tio n a re n ot a va ila ble ;
h )               E ndo rs em en t to N CIP . — W it h in � fte en (1 5) d ays f ro m p ub lic a tio n, a nd o f th e in sp ectio n
pro cess, th e A ncestra l D om ain s O� ce s h all p re p are a re p ort to th e N CIP e n dors in g a f a vo ra ble a ctio n
upon a c la im th at is d eem ed to h ave s u � cie n t p ro of. H ow ever, if th e p ro of is d eem ed in su � cie n t, th e
A ncestra l D om ain s O� ce sh all re q uir e th e su bm is sio n o f a ddit io nal evid en ce: P ro vid ed , T hat th e
A ncestra l D om ain s O� ce s h all re je ct a ny c la im th at is d eem ed p ate n tly fa ls e o r fra udule n t a fte r
in sp ectio n a nd v eri� ca tio n: P ro vid ed , fu rth er, T hat in c a se o f re je ctio n, th e A ncestra l D om ain s O� ce
sh all g iv e t h e a pplic a nt d ue n otic e, c o py f u rn is h ed a ll c o ncern ed , c o nta in in g t h e g ro unds f o r d en ia l. T he
den ia l s h all b e a ppea la ble t o t h e N CIP : P ro vid ed , f u rth erm ore , T hat in c a ses w here t h ere a re c o n�ic tin g
cla im s a m ong IC Cs/IP s o n th e b oundarie s o f a ncestra l d om ain c la im s, th e A ncestra l D om ain s O� ce
sh all c a use t h e c o nte n din g p artie s t o m eet a nd a ssis t t h em in c o m in g u p w it h a p re lim in ary r e so lu tio n
of t h e c o n�ic t, w it h out p re ju dic e t o it s f u ll a dju dic a tio n a cco rd in g t o t h e s ectio n b elo w .
i)                T urn ove r o f A re a s W it h in A ncestra l D om ain s M anaged b y Ot her G overn m en t A gen cie s. — T he
C hair p ers o n o f th e N CIP s h all c ertif y th at th e a re a c o vere d is a n a ncestra l d om ain . T he s ecre ta rie s o f
th e D ep artm en t o f A gra ria n R efo rm , D ep artm en t o f E nvir o nm en t a nd N atu ra l R eso urc es, D ep artm en t o f
th e In te rio r a nd L oca l G overn m en t, a nd D ep artm en t o f J ustic e, th e C om mis sio ner o f th e N atio nal
D evelo pm en t C orp o ra tio n, a nd a ny o th er g overn m en t a gen cy c la im in g ju ris d ic tio n o ver th e a re a s h all
b e n o ti� ed th ere o f. S uch n oti� ca tio n s h all te rm in ate a ny le g al b asis fo r th e ju ris d ic tio n p re vio usly
c la im ed ;
j)                  Is su ance o f C AD T . — IC Cs/IP s w hose a ncestra l d om ain s h ave b een o � cia lly d elin ea te d a nd
dete rm in ed b y t h e N CIP s h all b e is su ed a C AD T in t h e n am e o f t h e c o m munit y c o ncern ed , c o nta in in g a
lis t o f a ll t h ose id en ti� ed in t h e c en su s; a nd
k)              R eg is tra tio n o f C AD Ts. — T he N CIP s h all r e g is te r is su ed c erti� ca te s o f a ncestra l d om ain t it le s
a nd c erti� ca te s o f a ncestra l la nds t it le s b efo re t h e R eg is te r o f D eed s in t h e p la ce w here t h e p ro perty is
s it u ate d .
S EC TION 5 3.         Id en ti� ca tio n, D elin ea tio n a nd C erti� ca tio n o f A ncestra l L ands. —

a)              T he a llo ca tio n o f la nds w it h in a ny a ncestra l d om ain to in div id ual o r in dig en ous c o rp ora te
(f a m ily o r c la n) c la im ants s h all b e le ft t o t h e IC Cs/IP s c o ncern ed t o d ecid e in a cco rd ance w it h c u sto m s
and t ra dit io ns;
b )                In div id ual a nd in dig en ous c o rp ora te c la im ants o f a ncestra l la nds w hic h a re n ot w it h in
a ncestra l dom ain s, m ay have th eir cla im s o� cia lly esta blis h ed by �lin g applic a tio ns fo r th e
id en ti� ca tio n a nd d elin ea tio n o f th eir cla im s w it h th e A ncestra l D om ain s O� ce. A n in div id ual o r
re co gniz ed h ea d o f a f a m ily o r c la n m ay � le s u ch a pplic a tio n in h is b eh alf o r in b eh alf o f h is f a m ily o r
cla n, r e sp ectiv ely ;
c)               P ro ofs o f s u ch c la im s s h all a cco m pany th e a pplic a tio n fo rm w hic h s h all in clu de th e
te stim ony u nder o ath o f e ld ers o f t h e c o m munit y a nd o th er d ocu m en ts d ir e ctly o r in dir e ctly a tte stin g t o
th e p osse ssio n o r o ccu patio n o f th e a re a s sin ce tim e im mem oria l b y th e in div id ual o r co rp ora te
c la im ants in th e c o ncep t o f o w ners w hic h s h all b e a ny o f th e a uth en tic d ocu m en ts e n um era te d u nder
S ec. 5 2 ( d ) o f t h is A ct, in clu din g t a x d ecla ra tio ns a nd p ro ofs o f p aym en t o f t a xes;
d )              T he A ncestra l D om ain s O� ce m ay r e q uir e f ro m e a ch a ncestra l c la im ant t h e s u bm is sio n o f
su ch o th er d ocu m en ts , S w orn S ta te m en ts a nd th e lik e, w hic h in it s o pin io n, m ay s h ed lig ht o n th e
vera cit y o f t h e c o nte n ts o f t h e a pplic a tio n/c la im ;
e)              U pon r e ceip t o f t h e a pplic a tio ns f o r d elin ea tio n a nd r e co gnit io n o f a ncestra l la nd c la im s, t h e
A ncestra l D om ain s O� ce s h all c a use t h e p ublic a tio n o f t h e a pplic a tio n a nd a c o py o f e a ch d ocu m en t
su bm it te d in clu din g a tra nsla tio n in th e n ativ e la nguage o f th e IC Cs/IP s c o ncern ed in a p ro m in en t
pla ce th ere in f o r a t le a st � fte en (1 5) d ays. A c o py o f th e d ocu m en t s h all a ls o b e p oste d a t th e lo ca l,
p ro vin cia l, a nd r e g io nal o � ces o f t h e N CIP a nd s h all b e p ublis h ed in a n ew sp aper o f g en era l c ir c u la tio n
once a w eek f o r tw o (2 ) c o nsecu tiv e w eeks to a llo w o th er c la im ants to � le o pposit io n th ere to w it h in
� fte en ( 1 5) d ays f ro m t h e d ate o f s u ch p ublic a tio n: P ro vid ed , T hat in a re a s w here n o s u ch n ew sp aper
exis ts , b ro adca stin g in a ra dio s ta tio n w ill b e a v a lid s u bstit u te : P ro vid ed , fu rth er, T hat m ere p ostin g
sh all b e d eem ed s u � cie n t if b oth n ew sp apers a nd r a dio s ta tio n a re n ot a va ila ble ;
f)                F if te en ( 1 5) d ays a fte r s u ch p ublic a tio n, t h e A ncestra l D om ain s O� ce s h all in vestig ate a nd
in sp ect e a ch a pplic a tio n, a nd if fo und to b e m erit o rio us, s h all c a use a p arc ella ry s u rv ey o f th e a re a
b ein g c la im ed . T he A ncestra l D om ain s O� ce s h all re je ct a ny c la im th at is d eem ed p ate n tly fa ls e o r
fra udule n t a fte r in sp ectio n a nd v eri� ca tio n. In c a se o f r e je ctio n, t h e A ncestra l D om ain s O� ce s h all g iv e
th e a pplic a nt d ue n otic e, c o py f u rn is h ed a ll c o ncern ed , c o nta in in g th e g ro unds f o r d en ia l. T he d en ia l
sh all b e a ppea la ble to th e N CIP . In ca se o f co n�ic tin g cla im s a m ong in div id uals o r in dig en ous
co rp ora te c la im ants , th e A ncestra l D om ain s O� ce s h all c a use th e c o n te n din g p artie s to m eet a nd
assis t th em in c o m in g u p w it h a p re lim in ary re so lu tio n o f th e c o n�ic t, w it h out p re ju dic e to it s fu ll

adju dic a tio n a cco rd in g to S ec. 6 2 o f th is A ct. In a ll p ro ceed in gs f o r th e id en ti� ca tio n o r d elin ea tio n o f
th e a ncestra l d om ain s a s h ere in p ro vid ed , th e D ir e cto r o f L ands s h all re p re sen t th e in te re st o f th e
R ep ublic o f t h e P hilip pin es; a nd
g)               T he A ncestra l D om ain s O� ce s h all p re p are a nd s u bm it a re p ort o n e a ch a nd e very
a pplic a tio n s u rv eye d a nd d elin ea te d to th e N CIP , w hic h s h all, in tu rn , e va lu ate th e re p ort s u bm it te d . If
t h e N CIP � nds s u ch c la im m erit o rio us, it s h all is su e a c erti� ca te o f a ncestra l la nd, d ecla rin g a nd
certif y in g t h e c la im o f e a ch in div id ual o r c o rp ora te ( f a m ily o r c la n) c la im ant o ver a ncestra l la nds.
S EC TION 5 4.          F ra udule n t C la im s. — T he A ncestra l D om ain s O� ce m ay, u pon w rit te n r e q uest f ro m
th e IC Cs/IP s, re vie w exis tin g cla im s w hic h have been fra udule n tly acq uir e d by any pers o n or
co m munit y . A ny c la im f o und to b e f ra udule n tly a cq uir e d b y, a nd is su ed to , a ny p ers o n o r c o m munit y
m ay b e c a ncelle d b y t h e N CIP a fte r d ue n otic e a nd h ea rin g o f a ll p artie s c o ncern ed .
S EC TION 5 5.          C om munal R ig h ts . — S ubje ct to S ectio n 5 6 h ere o f, a re a s w it h in th e a ncestra l
dom ain s, w heth er delin ea te d or not, sh all be pre su m ed to be co m munally held : P ro vid ed , T hat
co m munal r ig hts u nder t h is A ct s h all n ot b e c o nstru ed a s c o -o w ners h ip a s p ro vid ed in R ep ublic A ct N o.
386, o th erw is e k n ow n a s t h e N ew C iv il C ode.
S EC TION 5 6.          E xis tin g P ro perty R ig hts R eg im es. — P ro perty rig hts w it h in th e a ncestra l d om ain s
alr e a dy e xis tin g a nd/o r v este d u pon e ffe ctiv it y o f t h is A ct, s h all b e r e co gniz ed a nd r e sp ecte d .
S EC TION 5 7.          N atu ra l R eso urc es w it h in A ncestra l D om ain s. — T he IC Cs/IP s s h all h ave p rio rit y
rig hts in th e h arv estin g, e xtra ctio n, d evelo pm en t o r e xp lo it a tio n o f a ny n atu ra l re so urc es w it h in th e
ancestra l d om ain s. A n on-m em ber o f th e IC Cs/IP s c o ncern ed m ay b e a llo w ed to ta ke p art in th e
develo pm en t a nd u tiliz a tio n o f th e n atu ra l re so urc es fo r a p erio d o f n ot e xceed in g tw en ty -� ve (2 5)
yea rs re n ew able fo r not m ore th an tw en ty -� ve (2 5) yea rs : P ro vid ed , T hat a fo rm al and w rit te n
a gre em en t is e n te re d in to w it h th e IC Cs/IP s c o ncern ed o r th at th e c o m munit y , p urs u ant to it s o w n
decis io n m akin g p ro cess, h as a gre e d to a llo w s u ch o pera tio n: P ro vid ed , � nally , T hat th e N CIP m ay
exerc is e v is it o ria l p ow ers a nd t a ke a p pro pria te a ctio n t o s a fe g uard t h e r ig hts o f t h e IC Cs/IP s u nder t h e
sa m e c o ntra ct.
S EC TION 5 8.          E nvir o nm en ta l C onsid era tio ns. — A ncestra l d om ain s o r p ortio ns th ere o f, w hic h a re
f o und to b e n ecessa ry fo r c rit ic a l w ate rs h ed s, m angro ves, w ild lif e s a nctu arie s, w ild ern ess, p ro te cte d
a re a s, f o re st c o ver, o r r e fo re sta tio n a s d ete rm in ed b y a ppro pria te a gen cie s w it h t h e f u ll p artic ip atio n o f
th e IC Cs/IP s c o ncern ed s h all b e m ain ta in ed , m anaged a nd d evelo ped f o r s u ch p urp oses. T he IC Cs/IP s
co ncern ed s h all b e g iv en t h e r e sp on sib ilit y t o m ain ta in , d evelo p, p ro te ct a nd c o nserv e s u ch a re a s w it h
th e f u ll a nd e ffe ctiv e a ssis ta nce o f g overn m en t a gen cie s. S hould th e IC C s/IP s d ecid e to tra nsfe r th e
re sp onsib ilit y o ver th e a re a s, s a id d ecis io n m ust b e m ade in w rit in g. T he c o nsen t o f th e IC Cs/IP s
sh ould b e a rriv ed a t in a cco rd ance w it h it s c u sto m ary la w s w it h out p re ju dic e t o t h e b asic r e q uir e m en ts

of e xis tin g la w s o n f re e a nd p rio r in fo rm ed c o nsen t: P ro vid ed , T hat t h e t ra nsfe r s h all b e t e m pora ry a nd
w ill u lt im ate ly re vert to th e IC Cs/IP s in a cco rd ance w it h a p ro gra m f o r te ch nolo gy tra nsfe r: P ro vid ed ,
fu rth er, T hat n o IC C s/IP s s h all b e d is p la ced o r r e lo ca te d f o r t h e p urp ose e n um era te d u nder t h is s ectio n
w it h out t h e w rit te n c o nsen t o f t h e s p eci� c p ers o ns a uth oriz ed t o g iv e c o nsen t.
S EC TION 5 9.          C erti� ca tio n P re co ndit io n. — A ll d ep artm en ts a nd o th er g overn m en ta l a gen cie s s h all
h en cefo rth b e s tric tly e n jo in ed f ro m is su in g, re n ew in g, o r g ra ntin g a ny c o ncessio n, lic en se o r le a se, o r
en te rin g in to a ny p ro ductio n-s h arin g a gre em en t, w it h out p rio r c erti� ca tio n f ro m th e N CIP th at th e a re a
a ffe cte d d oes n ot o verla p w it h a ny a ncestra l d om ain . S uch c erti� ca tio n s h all o nly b e is su ed a fte r a
� eld -b ased in vestig atio n is c o nducte d b y t h e A ncestra l D om ain s O� ce o f t h e a re a c o ncern ed : P ro vid ed ,
T hat n o c erti� ca tio n s h all b e is su ed b y th e N CIP w it h out th e fre e a nd p rio r in fo rm ed a nd w rit te n
co nsen t of IC Cs/IP s co ncern ed : Pro vid ed , fu rth er, That no dep artm en t, govern m en t agen cy or
govern m en t-o w ned o r -c o ntro lle d c o rp ora tio n m ay is su e n ew c o ncessio n, lic en se, le a se, o r p ro ductio n
sh arin g a gre em en t w hile t h ere is a p en din g a pplic a tio n f o r a C AD T: P ro vid ed , � nally , T hat t h e IC Cs/IP s
sh all h ave th e rig h t to s to p o r s u sp en d, in a cco rd ance w it h th is A ct, a ny p ro je ct th at h as n ot s a tis � ed
th e r e q uir e m en t o f t h is c o nsu lt a tio n p ro cess.
S EC TION 6 0.          E xem ptio n f ro m T axes. — A ll la nds c erti� ed t o b e a nce stra l d om ain s s h all b e e xem pt
fro m re a l p ro perty ta xes, sp ecia l le vie s, a nd o th er fo rm s o f exa ctio n excep t su ch p ortio n o f th e
ancestra l d om ain s a s a re a ctu ally u sed fo r la rg e-s ca le a gric u lt u re , c o m merc ia l fo re st p la nta tio n a nd
re sid en tia l p urp oses o r u pon tit lin g b y p riv a te p ers o ns: P ro vid ed , T hat a ll e xa ctio ns s h all b e u sed to
f a cilit a te t h e d evelo pm en t a nd im pro vem en t o f t h e a ncestra l d om ain s.
S EC TION 6 1.          T em pora ry R eq uis it io n P ow ers . — P rio r to th e e sta blis h m en t o f a n in stit u tio nal
su rv eyin g c a pacit y w here b y it c a n e ffe ctiv ely f u l� ll it s m andate , b ut in n o c a se b eyo nd th re e (3 ) y ea rs
a fte r it s c re a tio n, t h e N CIP is h ere b y a uth oriz ed t o r e q uest t h e D ep artm en t o f E nvir o nm en t a nd N atu ra l
R eso urc es (D EN R) s u rv ey te a m s a s w ell a s o th er e q ually c a pable p riv a te s u rv ey te a m s, th ro ugh a
M em ora ndum o f A gre em en t (M OA ), to d elin ea te a ncestra l d om ain p erim ete rs . T he D EN R S ecre ta ry
s h all a cco m modate a ny su ch re q uest w it h in o ne (1 ) m onth o f it s is su ance: P ro vid ed , T hat th e
M em ora ndum o f A gre em en t s h all s tip ula te , a m ong o th ers , a p ro vis io n fo r te ch nolo gy tra nsfe r to th e
N CIP .
S EC TION 6 2.          R eso lu tio n o f C on�ic ts . — In c a ses o f c o n�ic tin g in te re st, w here th ere a re a dvers e
cla im s w it h in th e a ncestra l d om ain s a s d elin ea te d in th e s u rv ey p la n, a nd w hic h c a n n ot b e re so lv ed ,
th e N CIP sh all h ea r a nd d ecid e, a fte r n otic e to th e p ro per p artie s, th e d is p ute s a ris in g fro m th e
delin ea tio n o f s u ch a ncestra l d om ain s: P ro vid ed , T hat if t h e d is p ute is b etw een a nd/o r a m ong IC Cs/IP s
re g ard in g t h e t ra dit io nal b oundarie s o f t h eir r e sp ectiv e a ncestra l d om ain s, c u sto m ary p ro cess s h all b e
fo llo w ed . T he N CIP s h all p ro m ulg ate th e n ecessa ry ru le s a nd re g ula tio n s to c a rry o ut it s a dju dic a to ry
f u nctio ns: P ro vid ed , fu rth er, T hat a ny d ecis io n, o rd er, a w ard o r ru lin g o f th e N CIP o n a ny a ncestra l

dom ain d is p ute o r o n a ny m atte r p erta in in g to th e a pplic a tio n, im ple m en ta tio n, en fo rc em en t a nd
in te rp re ta tio n o f th is A ct m ay b e b ro ught f o r P etit io n f o r R evie w to th e C ourt o f A ppea ls w it h in � fte en
(1 5) d ays f ro m r e ceip t o f a c o py t h ere o f.
S EC TION 6 3.          A pplic a ble L aw s. — C usto m ary la w s, t ra dit io ns a nd p ra ctic es o f t h e IC Cs/IP s o f t h e
la nd w here th e co n�ic t aris es sh a ll be applie d �rs t w it h re sp ect to pro perty rig hts , cla im s and
ow ners h ip s, h ere d it a ry s u ccessio n a nd s ettle m en t o f la nd d is p ute s. A ny d oubt o r a m big uit y in th e
applic a tio n a nd in te rp re ta tio n o f la w s s h all b e r e so lv ed in f a vo r o f t h e IC Cs/IP s.
S EC TION 6 4.          R em ed ia l M ea su re s. — E xp ro pria tio n m ay b e r e so rte d t o in t h e r e so lu tio n o f c o n�ic ts
o f in te re st f o llo w in g th e p rin cip le o f th e “ c o m mon g ood”. T he N CIP s h all ta ke a ppro pria te le g al a ctio n
fo r th e c a ncella tio n o f o � cia lly d ocu m en te d tit le s w hic h w ere a cq uir e d ille g ally : P ro vid ed , T hat s u ch
p ro ced ure s h all e n su re t h at t h e r ig hts o f p ossesso rs in g ood f a it h s h all b e r e sp ecte d : P ro vid ed , f u rth er,
T hat th e a ctio n f o r c a ncella tio n s h all b e in it ia te d w it h in tw o (2 ) y ea rs f ro m th e e ffe ctiv it y o f th is A ct:
P ro vid ed , � nally , T hat th e a ctio n fo r re co nveya nce sh all b e w it h in a p erio d o f te n (1 0) yea rs in
a cco rd ance w it h e xis tin g la w s.
C H APTER I X
J uris d ic tio n a nd P ro ce dure s f o r En fo rc e m ent o f R ig hts
S EC TION 6 5.          P rim acy o f C usto m ary L aw s a nd P ra ctic es. — W hen d is p ute s in vo lv e IC Cs/IP s,
cu sto m ary la w s a nd p ra ctic es s h all b e u sed t o r e so lv e t h e d is p ute .
S EC TION 6 6.          J uris d ic tio n o f th e N CIP . — T he N CIP , th ro ugh it s re g io nal o � ces, s h all h ave
ju ris d ic tio n o ver a ll c la im s a nd d is p ute s in vo lv in g rig hts o f IC Cs/IP s: P ro vid ed , h ow ever, T hat n o s u ch
d is p ute s h all b e b ro ught to th e N CIP u nle ss th e p artie s h ave e xh auste d a ll re m ed ie s p ro vid ed u nder
th eir c u sto m ary la w s. F or t h is p urp ose, a c erti� ca tio n s h all b e is su ed b y t h e C ouncil o f E ld ers /L ea ders
w ho p artic ip ate d in th e a tte m pt to s ettle th e d is p ute th at th e s a m e h as n ot b een re so lv ed , w hic h
certi� ca tio n s h all b e a c o ndit io n p re ced en t t o t h e � lin g o f a p etit io n w it h t h e N CIP .
S EC TION 6 7.          A ppea ls t o t h e C ourt o f A ppea ls . — D ecis io ns o f t h e N CIP s h all b e a ppea la ble t o t h e
C ourt o f A ppea ls b y w ay o f a p etit io n f o r r e vie w .
SEC TION 6 8.          E xecu tio n o f D ecis io ns, A w ard s, Or ders . — U pon e x p ir a tio n o f th e p erio d h ere in
p ro vid ed a nd n o a ppea l is p erf e cte d b y a ny o f t h e c o nte n din g p artie s, t h e H ea rin g O� cer o f t h e N CIP , o n
it s o w n in it ia tiv e o r u pon m otio n b y th e p re va ilin g p arty , s h all is su e a w rit o f e xecu tio n re q uir in g th e
sh erif f o r t h e p ro per o � cer t o e xecu te � nal d ecis io ns, o rd ers o r a w ard s o f t h e R eg io nal H ea rin g O� cer
o f t h e N CIP .
S EC TION 6 9.         Qu asi-J udic ia l P ow ers o f t h e N CIP . — T he N CIP s h all h ave t h e p ow er a nd a uth orit y :

a)               T o p ro m ulg ate ru le s a nd re g ula tio ns g overn in g th e h ea rin g a nd d is p osit io n o f c a ses � le d
b efo re it a s w ell a s t h ose p erta in in g t o it s in te rn al f u nctio ns a nd s u ch r u le s a nd r e g ula tio ns a s m ay b e
necessa ry t o c a rry o ut t h e p urp oses o f t h is A ct;
b )               T o a dm in is te r o ath s, s u m mon th e p artie s to a c o ntro vers y, is su e s u bpoen as re q uir in g th e
atte n dance a nd te stim ony o f w it n ess es o r th e p ro ductio n o f s u ch b ooks, p apers , c o ntra cts , re co rd s,
a gre em en ts a nd o th er d ocu m en t o f s im ila r n atu re a s m ay b e m ate ria l to a ju st d ete rm in atio n o f th e
m atte r u nder in vestig atio n o r h ea rin g c o nducte d in p urs u ance o f t h is A ct;
c )              T o h o ld a ny p ers o n in c o nte m pt, d ir e ctly o r in dir e ctly , a nd im pose a ppro pria te p en alt ie s
th ere fo r; a nd
d)              T o e n jo in a ny o r a ll a cts in vo lv in g o r a ris in g f ro m a ny c a se p en din g b efo re it w hic h , if n ot
re stra in ed fo rth w it h , m ay c a use g ra ve o r ir re p ara ble d am age to a ny o f th e p artie s to th e c a se o r
serio usly a ffe ct s o cia l o r e co nom ic a ctiv it y .
S EC TION 7 0.          N o R estra in in g Or der o r P re lim in ary In ju nctio n. — N o in fe rio r c o urt o f t h e P hilip pin es
sh all h ave ju ris d ic tio n t o is su e a ny r e stra in in g o rd er o r w rit o f p re lim in ary in ju nctio n a gain st t h e N CIP o r
any o f it s d uly a uth oriz ed o r d esig nate d o � ces in a ny c a se, d is p ute o r c o ntro vers y a ris in g fro m ,
necessa ry to , o r in te rp re ta tio n o f th is A ct a nd o th er p ertin en t la w s re la tin g to IC Cs/IP s a nd a ncestra l
dom ain s.
C H APTER X
A nce str a l D om ain s F und
S EC TION 7 1.          A ncestra l D om ain s F und. — T here is h ere b y c re a te d a s p ecia l f u nd, t o b e k n ow n a s
th e A nces tra l D om ain s F und, a n in it ia l a m ount o f On e h undre d th ir ty m illio n p eso s (P 130,0 00,0 00) to
c o ver c o m pen sa tio n fo r e xp ro pria te d la nds, d elin ea tio n a nd d evelo pm en t o f a ncestra l d om ain s. A n
am ount o f F if ty m illio n p eso s (P 50,0 00,0 00) s h all b e s o urc ed f ro m th e g ro ss in co m e o f th e P hilip pin e
C harit y S w eep sta ke s O� ce (P CSO) f ro m it s lo tto o pera tio n, T en m illio n p eso s (P 10,0 00,0 00) f ro m th e
gro ss r e c eip ts o f t h e t ra vel t a x o f t h e p re ced in g y ea r, t h e f u nd o f t h e S ocia l R efo rm C ouncil in te n ded f o r
su rv ey a nd d elin ea tio n o f a ncestra l la nds/d om ain s, a nd s u ch o th er s o urc e a s th e g overn m en t m ay
deem a ppro pria te . T here a fte r, s u ch a m ount s h all b e in clu ded in t h e a nnual G en era l A ppro pria tio ns A ct.
F ore ig n a s w ell a s lo ca l f u nds w hic h a re m ade a va ila ble f o r t h e IC Cs/IP s t h ro ugh t h e g overn m en t o f t h e
P hilip pin es sh all b e co urs ed th ro ugh th e N CIP . T he N CIP m ay a ls o so lic it a nd re ceiv e d onatio ns,
en dow m en ts a nd g ra nts in th e f o rm o f c o ntrib utio ns, a nd s u ch e n dow m en ts s h all b e e xem pte d f ro m
in co m e o r g if t ta xes a nd a ll o th er ta xes, c h arg es o r f e es im posed b y th e g overn m en t o r a ny p olit ic a l
su bdiv is io n o r in stru m en ta lit y t h ere o f.
C H APTER X I

Penalt ie s
S EC TION 7 2.          P unis h able A cts a nd A pplic a ble P en alt ie s. — A ny p ers o n w ho c o m mit s v io la tio n o f
any o f th e p ro vis io ns o f th is A ct, s u ch a s, b ut n ot lim it e d to , u nauth oriz ed a nd/o r u nla w fu l in tru sio n
upon a ny a ncestra l la nds o r d om ain s a s s ta te d in S ec. 1 0, C hapte r III, o r s h all c o m mit a ny o f th e
pro hib it e d a cts m en tio ned in S ectio ns 2 1 a nd 2 4, C hapte r V , S ectio n 3 3, C hapte r V I h ere o f, s h all b e
punis h ed in a cco rd ance w it h th e c u sto m ary la w s o f th e IC Cs/IP s c o ncern ed : P ro vid ed , T hat n o s u ch
p en alt y s h all b e c ru el, d eg ra din g o r in h um an p unis h m en t: P ro vid ed , f u rth er, T hat n eit h er s h all t h e d ea th
p en alt y o r e xcessiv e � nes b e im posed . T his p ro vis io n s h all b e w it h out p re ju dic e to th e rig ht o f a ny
IC Cs/IP s to a va il o f th e p ro te ctio n o f e xis tin g la w s. In w hic h c a se, a ny p ers o n w ho v io la te s a ny
pro vis io n o f th is A ct s h all, u pon c o nvic tio n, b e p unis h ed b y im pris o nm en t o f n ot le ss th an n in e (9 )
m onth s b u t n ot m ore th an tw elv e (1 2) y ea rs o r a � ne o f n ot le ss th an On e h undre d th ousa nd p eso s
(P 100,0 00) nor m ore th an Fiv e hundre d th ousa nd peso s (P 500,0 00) or both su ch �ne and
im pris o nm en t u po n th e d is cre tio n o f th e c o urt. In a ddit io n, h e s h all b e o blig ed to p ay to th e IC Cs/IP s
co ncern ed w hate ve r d am age m ay h ave b een s u ffe re d b y th e la tte r a s a c o nseq uen ce o f th e u nla w fu l
act.
S EC TION 7 3.          P ers o ns S ubje ct to P unis h m en t. — If th e o ffe n der is a ju rid ic a l p ers o n, a ll o � cers
s u ch a s, b ut n ot lim it e d to , it s p re sid en t, m anager, o r h ea d o f o � ce re sp o nsib le f o r th eir u nla w fu l a ct
sh all b e c rim in ally lia ble th ere fo r, in a ddit io n to th e c a ncella tio n o f c erti� ca te s o f th eir re g is tra tio n
and/o r lic en se: P ro vid ed , T hat if th e o ffe n der is a p ublic o � cia l, th e p en alt y s h all in clu de p erp etu al
dis q uali� ca tio n t o h old p ublic o � ce.
C H APTER X II
M erg er o f t h e O � ce f o r N orth ern C ult u ra l C om munit ie s ( O NCC) a nd t h e  O � ce f o r S outh ern C ult u ra l
C om munit ie s ( O SCC)
SEC TION 7 4.          M erg er o f ON CC/OS CC. — T he O� ce f o r N orth ern C ult u ra l C om munit ie s ( ON CC) a nd
th e O � ce o f S outh ern C ult u ra l C om munit ie s (OS CC), c re a te d u nder E xecu tiv e Or der N os. 1 22-B a nd
122-C re sp ectiv ely , a re h ere b y m erg ed a s o rg anic o � ces o f th e N CIP a nd s h all c o ntin ue to fu nctio n
under a r e vit a liz ed a nd s tre n gth en ed s tru ctu re s t o a ch ie ve t h e o bje ctiv es o f t h e N CIP : P ro vid ed , T hat t h e
posit io ns o f S ta ff D ir e cto rs , B ure a u D ir e cto rs , D ep uty E xecu tiv e D ir e cto rs a nd E xecu tiv e D ir e cto rs ,
excep t p osit io ns o f R eg io nal D ir e cto rs a nd b elo w , a re h ere b y p hased -o ut u pon t h e e ffe ctiv it y o f t h is A ct:
P ro vid ed , fu rth er, T hat o � cia ls a nd e m plo yees o f th e p hased -o ut o � ces w ho m ay b e q uali� ed m ay
apply fo r re a ppoin tm en t w it h th e N CIP a nd m ay b e g iv en p rio r rig hts in th e � llin g u p o f th e n ew ly
c re a te d p o sit io ns o f N CIP , s u bje ct to th e q uali� ca tio ns s et b y th e P la cem en t C om mit te e: P ro vid ed ,
fu rth erm ore , T hat in th e c a se w here a n in dig en ous p ers o n a nd a n on-in dig en ous p ers o n w it h s im ila r
quali� ca tio ns a pply f o r t h e s a m e p osit io n, p rio rit y s h all b e g iv en t o t h e f o rm er. O� cers a nd e m plo yees
w ho a re to b e p hased -o ut a s a re su lt o f th e m erg er o f th eir o � ces s h all b e e n tit le d to g ra tu it y a ra te

eq uiv a le n t t o o ne a nd a h alf ( 1 ½ ) m onth s s a la ry f o r e very y ea r o f c o ntin uous a nd s a tis fa cto ry s erv ic e
re n dere d o r t h e e q uiv a le n t n ea re st f ra ctio n t h ere o f f a vo ra ble t o t h em o n t h e b asis o f t h e h ig hest s a la ry
re ceiv ed . If th ey a re a lr e a dy e n tit le d to re tir e m en t o r g ra tu it y , th ey s h all h ave th e o ptio n to s ele ct e it h er
su ch r e tir e m en t b en e� ts o r t h e g ra tu it y h ere in p ro vid ed . O� cers a nd e m plo yees w ho m ay b e r e in sta te d
sh all re fu nd s u ch re tir e m en t b en e� ts o r g ra tu it y re ceiv ed : P ro vid ed , � nally , T hat a bso rb ed p ers o nnel
m ust s till m eet t h e q uali� ca tio ns a nd s ta ndard s s et b y t h e C iv il S erv ic e a nd t h e P la cem en t C om mit te e
h ere in c re a te d .
S EC TION 7 5.          T ra nsit io n P erio d. — T he ON CC/OS CC s h all h ave a p erio d o f s ix ( 6 ) m onth s f ro m t h e
effe ctiv it y o f t h is A ct w it h in w hic h t o w in d u p it s a ffa ir s a nd t o c o nduct a udit o f it s � nances.
S EC TION 7 6.          T ra nsfe r o f A ssets /P ro pertie s. — A ll r e a l a nd p ers o nal p ro pertie s w hic h a re v este d in ,
or b elo ngin g t o , t h e m erg ed o � ces a s a fo re sta te d s h all b e t ra nsfe rre d t o t h e N CIP w it h out f u rth er n eed
o f c o nveya nce, t ra nsfe r o r a ssig nm en t a nd s h all b e h eld f o r t h e s a m e p urp ose a s t h ey w ere h eld b y t h e
fo rm er o � ces: P ro vid ed , T hat a ll c o ntra cts , re co rd s a nd d ocu m en ts re la tin g to th e o pera tio ns o f th e
m erg ed o � ces s h all b e tra nsfe rre d to th e N CIP . A ll a gre em en ts a nd c o ntra cts e n te re d in to b y th e
m erg ed o � ces s h all r e m ain in f u ll f o rc e a nd e ffe ct u nle ss o th erw is e t e rm in ate d , m odi� ed o r a m en ded
b y t h e N CIP .
S EC TION 7 7.         P la cem en t C om mit te e. — S ubje ct t o r u le s o n g overn m en t r e o rg aniz a tio n, a P la cem en t
C om mit te e s h all b e c re a te d b y t h e N CIP , in c o ord in atio n w it h t h e C iv il S erv ic e C om mis sio n, w hic h s h all
a ssis t in th e ju dic io us s ele ctio n a nd p la cem en t o f p ers o nnel in o rd er th at th e b est q uali� ed a nd m ost
d eserv in g p ers o ns s h all b e a ppoin te d in th e re o rg aniz ed a gen cy. T he P la cem en t C om mit te e s h all b e
co m posed o f s even (7 ) c o m mis sio ners a nd a n IC Cs’/ IP s’ re p re sen ta tiv e fro m e a ch o f th e � rs t a nd
seco nd le vel e m plo yees a sso cia tio n in th e O� ces fo r N orth ern a nd S outh ern C ult u ra l C om munit ie s
(ON CC/OS CC), n on govern m en t o rg a niz a tio ns ( N GOs ) w ho h ave s erv ed t h e c o m munit y f o r a t le a st � ve
(5 ) y e a rs a nd p eo ple s o rg aniz a tio ns ( P Os ) w it h a t le a st � ve ( 5 ) y ea rs o f e xis te n ce. T hey s h all b e g uid ed
b y th e c rit e ria o f re te n tio n a nd a ppoin tm en t to b e p re p are d b y th e c o nsu lt a tiv e b ody a nd b y th e
pertin en t p ro vis io ns o f t h e c iv il s erv ic e la w .
CH APTER X III
F in al P ro vis io ns
S EC TION 7 8.          S pecia l P ro vis io n. — T he C it y o f B aguio s h all re m ain to b e g overn ed b y it s C harte r
a nd a ll la nds p ro cla im ed a s p art o f it s to w nsit e re serv a tio n s h all re m ain a s s u ch u ntil o th erw is e
re cla ssi� ed b y a ppro pria te le g is la tio n: P ro vid ed , T hat p rio r la nd rig hts a nd tit le s re co gniz ed a nd/o r
acq uir e d th ro ugh a ny ju dic ia l, a dm in is tra tiv e o r o th er p ro cesses b efo re th e e ffe ctiv it y o f th is A ct s h all
r e m ain v a lid : P ro vid ed , f u rth er, T hat th is p ro vis io n s h all n ot a pply to a ny te rrit o ry w hic h b eco m es p art
o f t h e C it y o f B aguio a fte r t h e e ffe ctiv it y o f t h is A ct.

SEC TION 7 9.          A ppro pria tio ns. — T he a m ount n ecessa ry t o � nance t h e in it ia l im ple m en ta tio n o f t h is
A ct s h all b e c h arg ed a gain st th e c u rre n t y ea r’s a ppro pria tio n o f th e ON CC a nd th e OS CC. T here a fte r,
s u ch s u m s a s m ay b e n ecessa ry fo r it s c o ntin ued im ple m en ta tio n s h all b e in clu ded in th e a nnual
G en era l A ppro pria tio ns A ct.
S EC TION 8 0.          Im ple m en tin g R ule s a nd R eg ula tio ns. — W it h in s ix ty (6 0) d ays im med ia te ly a fte r
a ppoin tm en t, th e N CIP sh all is su e th e necessa ry ru le s and re g ula tio ns, in co nsu lt a tio n w it h th e
C om mit te es o n N atio nal C ult u ra l C om munit ie s o f t h e H ouse o f R ep re sen ta tiv es a nd t h e S en ate , f o r t h e
effe ctiv e im ple m en ta tio n o f t h is A ct.
S EC TION 8 1.          S avin g C la use. — T his A ct w ill n ot in a ny m anner a dvers ely a ffe ct th e rig hts a nd
ben e� ts o f th e IC Cs/IP s u nder o th er c o nven tio ns, re co m men datio ns, in te rn atio nal tre a tie s, n atio nal
la w s, a w ard s, c u sto m s a nd a gre em en ts .
S EC TION 8 2.          S ep ara bilit y C la u se. — In c a se a ny p ro vis io n o f th is A ct o r a ny p ortio n th ere o f is
d ecla re d u nco nstit u tio nal b y a c o m pete n t c o urt, o th er p ro vis io ns s h all n ot b e a ffe cte d t h ere b y.
S EC TION 8 3.          R ep ea lin g C la use. — P re sid en tia l D ecre e N o. 4 10, E xecu tiv e Or der N os. 1 22-B a nd
122-C , a nd a ll o th er la w s, d ecre es, o rd ers , ru le s a nd re g ula tio ns o r p arts th ere o f in co nsis te n t w it h th is
A ct a re h ere b y r e p ea le d o r m odi� ed a cco rd in gly .
S EC TION 8 4.          E ffe ctiv it y . — T his A ct s h all ta ke e ffe ct � fte en (1 5) d ays u pon it s p ublic a tio n in th e
O� cia l G azette o r in a ny t w o ( 2 ) n ew sp apers o f g en era l c ir c u la tio n.
A ppro ved : Oc to ber 2 9, 1 997
Sourc e:  C DA sia ( h ttp :/ / w ww.c dasia .c om /)
T his e ntry w as p oste d u nder L egis la tu re ( h ttp s:/ / w ww.o � cia lg aze tte .g ov.p h/s ectio n/le gis /) , R epublic A cts
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(h ttp s:/ / w ww.o � cia lg aze tte .g ov.p h/1 997/1 0/2 9/re public -a ct-n o-8 371/) .
R EPU BLIC O F T H E P H IL IP PIN ES

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Feedback F orm ( h ttp s:/ / w ww.o � cia lg aze tte .g ov.p h/fe edback-f o rm /)
A BO UT G OVPH
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O pen D ata P orta l ( h ttp s:/ / d ata .g ov.p h/)
G OVERN M EN T L IN KS
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O � ce o f t h e P re sid ent ( h ttp :/ / o p-p ro per.g ov.p h/)
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S enate o f t h e P hilip pin es ( h ttp :/ / s enate .g ov.p h/)
H ouse o f R epre senta tiv e s ( h ttp :/ / w ww.c ongre ss.g ov.p h/)
S upre m e C ourt ( h ttp :/ / s c.ju dic ia ry.g ov.p h/)
C ourt o f A ppeals ( h ttp :/ / c a.ju dic ia ry.g ov.p h/)
S andig anbaya n ( h ttp :/ / s b.ju dic ia ry.g ov.p h/)
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