Eurasian Program

Since 1997, the ICNL Alliance has worked to foster an enabling legal and fiscal environment for civil society throughout Eurasia.

Country-specific activities are tailored to meet the needs of civil society in every country we work in: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan. Our activities include providing technical assistance to civil society and government representatives, increasing the capacity of local partners, and bolstering the legal literacy of civil society organizations. We also support cross-border activities that give local civil society representatives and lawyers the opportunity to exchange perspectives with colleagues from other countries.

Be sure to browse our Key Resources and Country Resources.


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Requirements for Recipients of Foreign Funds in the Republic of Kazakhstan

This analysis reviews the key provisions of Kazakhstan’s 2016 Law on Payments that have affected non-commercial organizations (NCOs), including the introduction of reporting requirements for foreign funds and liabilities for violating these requirements. The analysis compares the Law on Payments with international law and international best practices, followed with recommendations on how to improve such provisions. Download the full report in in English or Russian. 

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Comparative Overview of Online Consultation Regulation in Central Asia

This comparative overview is dedicated to legislation and implementation practices relating to online consultations on legislation between governments and civil society. The overview is especially important in the times of COVID-19 pandemic, when such online consultations are the only mechanism which allows for civil society’s engagement in legislative process.  The overview includes information on existing relevant legislation in select countries (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan), identifies issues and best practices,  and contains recommendations on how to improve existing legislation and procedures, per country. Download the report here (Russian).

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E-fundraising in Tajikistan

This legal analysis examines regulations relating to electronic fundraising tools available to Tajik Civil Society Organizations. It also provides recommendations on how to use existing tools in compliance with legislation, as well as further develop new fundraising methods. Download the report here (Russian).


Assorted coins (photo credit: Steve Johnson/Unsplash)
Digital Fundraising in Kyrgyzstan

In Kyrgyzstan, foreign funding is a major source of support for civil society organizations. However, in recent years it’s become harder to secure this funding. Kyrgyz organizations are trying to address this by reaching out to communities to develop new, local sources of fundraising. Experiences in many other countries have demonstrated that digital fundraising may be a new opportunity to reach potential local donors. This ICNL report explains what methods are available, how they work, and how they are regulated. Download the report here (available in Russian and English).

Hands holding money with a seedling growing - symbolizes a new investment (Photo: 401(K) 2012/Wikipedia)
Digital Fundraising in Kazakhstan

In Kazakhstan, 84.2% of the population uses 3G/4G internet. For CSOs engaged in online fundraising, it means they potentially have access to 15 million potential donors. But through what means can they access such potential donors? As presented in this research, the most popular ways to carry out online fundraising are through websites, SMS, crowdfunding platforms, e-wallets, and electronic payment kiosks. The research explains how each of these methods works, how they are regulated in Kazakhstan, and offers recommendations for improving the regulation of various fundraising methods for CSOs. Download the report here (Russian only).

People in a meeting - right to association
The Right of Association in Central Asian Countries

This report provides a detailed overview of the legal framework for association in Central Asia, focusing on Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Tajikistan. It examines how freedom of association is exercised, the legal status of non-commercial organizations (NCOs), structure and internal governance, NCO activities, financial sustainability, state monitoring, and transparency in each country. The report is available in English and Russian.

Key Resources

Civic Engagement and Lawmaking in the Kyrgyz Republic

These guidelines are an information resource for civil society organizations and citizens of the Kyrgyz Republic who want to participate in the legislative reforms and help the government adopt better laws and regulations.

Good Governance and Civic Space

This sourcebook is for civil society representatives that seek to better inform citizens about the practical value of human rights and their impact on the quality of people’s lives.

Legal Regulation of CSOs in Central Asia

This report details the regulation of civil society organizations in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan, with comparisons of legislation across the region.

The Right of Association in Central Asian Countries

This report provides a detailed overview of the legal framework for association in Central Asia, focusing on Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Tajikistan.

Legal Basis for the Financial Sustainability of CSOs in Central Asia

This overview examines the legal and regulatory environment of various sources of income for non-commercial organizations in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan.

Civil Society Sustainability in Eurasia

The CSO Sustainability Index informs and impacts the role of civil society organizations in six global regions, including Eurasia. ICNL and FHI 360, along with local partners produce the index annually.

Explore our full global resource collection, which includes reports, legal analyses, and curated collections of materials on an array of issues shaping civic space around the world.

Country Resources

ICNL has an array of country-specific resources in both English and Russian: