Among Asian countries, Mongolia is considered to have relatively robust civic freedoms. The country has a generally enabling legal environment for civil society and civil society organizations (CSOs), including for freedom of expression, freedom of the press, and other civic rights.
As the Mongolian legal system follows civil law practice, the legal framework for civic freedoms is mainly based on the Civil Code and Law on NGOs, which are supported by other laws and policies. Recent amendments to the Civil Code and other related regulations, as well as the introduction of new laws addressing emerging issues, have changed the state of affairs for the not-for-profit sector in Mongolia. The Law on NGOs, however, remains unmodified. The conflict between these old and new laws has created confusion within the regulatory regime for NGOs, particularly with respect to laws regarding the classification and types of not-for-profit legal entities. Meanwhile, the number and diversity of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in Mongolia has expanded, emphasizing the need for a comprehensive, integrated policy to safeguard the sector.
The rapidly developing nature of civil society in Mongolia calls for the strengthening of NGO capacity in terms of self-governance, sectoral accountability, and financial and other resources, and the safeguarding of an enabling environment for civil society against restrictive regulations.