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Last updated 5 October 2014
Update: On January 12, 2014, pursuant to Article 70 of Algeria’s Law on Associations (Law 12-06 of 2012), all existing associations that had not already done so were required to re-register and align their governing statutes with the Law. Any association that did not successfully register by January 12 was deemed illegal, with their members subject to prosecution and possible imprisonment.
Civil society in Algeria operates in a politically complex environment, influenced by attempts at manipulation by different political forces. For over two decades, associations were governed by the highly restrictive Law on Associations (Law 90-31 of 1990) [English] [عربي] [French], which was adopted shortly before a military coup and a prolonged period of violence and terrorism in Algeria. Following the pro-reform uprisings in other Arab countries in early 2011, President Bouteflika pledged that he would enact major political and legislative reforms to address popular discontent, including a number of new laws to enhance individual rights and freedoms.
However, the new Law on Associations (Law 12-06 of 2012) [French] [عربي], adopted in 2012, created additional restrictions on the freedom of association, and generally fails to protect the right in line with Algeria's international obligations. The 2012 Law gives the government broad discretion to refuse to register associations, and fails to provide them with an adequate remedy to appeal a rejection of their registration request. The law also allows the government to suspend an association’s activities or dissolve it on vague grounds, places restrictions on associations’ founders, makes it difficult for associations to receive foreign funds, and imposes heavy fines and criminal penalties for members or leaders of informal associations. Since the Law’s adoption, a number of associations have faced new obstacles in carrying out their activities, with some organizations opting to close down voluntarily rather than confront administrative and legal hurdles.
In addition, in January 2012, Algeria’s government adopted a new Law on Information, which places substantial restrictions on associations’ ability to publish and disseminate information. The law requires all publications to have prior approval from a media regulatory authority. It also restricts expression and access to information that relates to certain subject areas, such as national identity, sovereignty, the economy, and national security. According to the Committee to Protect Journalists, at least 32 provisions of the information law can be used to repress free expression; many are broadly written and could serve as a pretext for unwarranted censorship. Violations under this law can result in fines of up to 500,000 dinars (about $6,700 US).
|Registration Body||The President of the People's Communal Assembly (for communal associations); the governor of the province in which the association is headquartered (for Wilaya, or provincial, associations); and the Ministry of the Interior for national or inter-Wilaya associations.|
|Approximate Number||1,027 National Associations; 92,627 Local Associations|
|Barriers to Entry||Mandatory registration, restrictions on founders, and excessive government discretion.|
|Barriers to Activities||No "organic or structural relations" with political parties. The law provides a limited number of areas in which associations can engage, including "professional, social, scientific, religious, educational, cultural, sports, environmental, charitable and humanitarian domains." The government can suspend an association if it believes the association’s activities interfere with the “internal affairs" or threaten the “national sovereignty” of the country.|
|Barriers to Speech and/or Advocacy||Associations must obtain prior approval from the government before receiving funds from foreign donors, and are required to have a pre-existing “cooperation agreement.”|
|Barriers to International Contact||Prior approval is required before anassociationcan enter into a “cooperation agreement” withany international association or foreign entity. The government has broad discretion to withdraw authorization for a foreign association to operate in Algeria.|
|Barriers to Resources||Associations are prohibited from receiving funds from foreign funders outside of "official cooperation relationships," a term that is undefined. The 2012 Law on Associations does not list "economic activities" as a potential resource for an association.|
|Barriers to Assembly||Three days advance notification requirement, vague provisions that allow the government to ban assemblies, lack of Constitutional protections for "everyone" to enjoy the right, and excessive criminal penalties and content restrictions.|
|Population||37,367,226 (2012 est.)|
|Type of Government||Republic|
|Life Expectancy at Birth||Male: 72.99 years
Female: 76.57 years (2012 est.)
|Literacy Rate||Male: 79.6%
Female: 60.1% (2002 est.)
|Religious Groups||Sunni Muslim (state religion): 99%; Christian and Jewish: 1%|
|Ethnic Groups||Arab-Berber: 99%; European: less than 1%|
|GDP Per Capita||$7,300 (2011 est.)|
Source: The World Factbook. Washington, DC: Central Intelligence Agency, 2013.
|Ranking Body||Rank||Ranking Scale
(best - worst possible)
|UN Human Development Index||96 (2013)||1 – 182|
|World Bank Rule of Law Index||24.9 (2012)||100 – 0|
|World Bank Voice & Accountability Index||18.3 (2012)||100 – 0|
|Transparency International||105 (2012)||1 – 180|
|Freedom House: Freedom in the World||Status: Not Free
Political Rights: 6
Civil Liberties: 5 (2014)
|Free/Partly Free/Not Free
1 – 7
1 – 7
|Foreign Policy: Fragile States Index||Rank: 71 (2014)||177 – 1|
International and Regional Human Rights Agreements
|Key International Agreements||Ratification*||Year|
|International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR)||Yes||1989|
|Optional Protocol to ICCPR (ICCPR-OP1)||Yes||1989|
|International Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights (ICESCR)||Yes||1989|
|Optional Protocol to ICESCR (OP-ICESCR)||No||--|
|International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination (ICERD)||Yes||1972|
|Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW)||Yes||1996|
|Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women||No||--|
|Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC)||Yes||1993|
|International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of their Families (ICRMW)||Yes||2005|
|Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD)||Yes||2009|
|Key Regional Agreements||Ratification*||Year|
|Arab Charter on Human Rights||Yes||2007|
|African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights||Yes||1987|
|African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child||Yes||2003|
|Treaty Establishing the African Economic Community||Yes||2001|
|Protocol to the African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights on the Rights of Women in Africa||Yes||2003|
|Protocol to the African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights on the Establishment of an African Court on Human and Peoples' Rights||Yes||2003|
* Category includes ratification, accession, or succession to the treaty
The first Algerian Constitution was passed in 1963 by referendum, following the end of the War of Independence with France. Algeria’s second constitution was passed in 1976 during the Boumédienne era, and recognized the freedom to associate and form organizations (albeit only briefly). After public uprisings in 1988, a third constitution was adopted, expanding on several individual freedoms, including by allowing citizens to elect representatives and form political parties. Parts of this constitution were suspended following the 1992 military coup, however, because the government declared a state of emergency (which was kept in place for 19 years, until 2011). The constitution was again modified in 1996, 2002, and 2008, though without substantial changes with regard to individual rights and freedoms.
The 2011 revolution in neighboring Tunisia and signs of growing discontent among Algerians led President Bouteflika to promise a raft of reforms that included constitutional revisions. A committee finished drafting recommended changes to the constitution in June 2011, but these proposals have not been presented to the public.
Relevant articles of the Constitution include:
- Article 33: Individual or associative defense of the fundamental human rights and individual and collective liberties is guaranteed.
- Article 41: Freedom of expression, association and assembly are guaranteed to the citizen.
- Article 43: The right to create associations is guaranteed. The State encourages the development of associative movement. The law defines the conditions and clauses of the creation of associations.
National Laws and Regulations Affecting Sector
Relevant national legislation includes the following:
- Law on Associations (Law 12-06 of 2012) [Français] [عربي]: The law replaces the highly restrictive Law on Associations (Law 90-31 of 1990) [English] [عربي] [Français], but still fails to adequately guarantee the right to freedom of association consistent with Algeria’s international obligations. The new law affords the government broad discretion to refuse to register an association and suspend the activities of an association, places restrictions on the founders of associations, limits associations’ ability to receive foreign funds, imposes heavy fines and criminal penalties for members or leaders of informal associations, and fails to provide associations with an adequate remedy to appeal the rejection of their registration.
- Law on Information (Law 12-05 of 2012): This law replaces the 1990 media law and can be used to circumscribe journalism and access to information in several major subject areas, including national identity, sovereignty, the economy, and security. The law requires all publications to have prior approval by a media regulatory authority. According to the Committee to Protect Journalists, at least thirty-two provisions can be used to repress free expression, and many are broadly written and could serve as a pretext for unwarranted censorship. Violations under this law can result in fines of up to 500,000 dinars (about $6,700 US).
- Law on Public Meetings and Gatherings (Law 19-91 of 1990): The law requires organizers of public marches and demonstrations in outdoor public spaces and thoroughfares to apply for prior authorization from interior ministry officials, eight days in advance of the event. Organizers of temporary public “gatherings” are required to notify officials three days in advance. The law allows those officials to deny authorization if the meeting or demonstration "opposes the national values (constants nationales) or ... undermines the symbols of the Revolution of November 1, the public order, or morality."
- Ordinance on the Conditions and Rules of Practice of Faiths other than Islam (Ordinance 06-03 of 2006) [Français]
Pending NGO Legislative / Regulatory Initiatives
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The most common organizational form for civil society entities under Algerian law is the association. The 2012 Law on Associations defines associations as “individuals or legal entities” that “form a group on a contractual basis for a specific or non-specific period of time and share in a common, voluntary, and non-profit purpose."
Religious associations, or awqaf, are governed by separate laws and are regulated by the Ministry of Religious Affairs and Awqaf. Non-Muslim Religious Associations are governed by Ordinance 06 of 2003 on the Conditions and Rules of Practice of Faiths other than Islam; the National Commission for Non-Muslim Religious Services is responsible for registering and regulating these groups.
Public Benefit Status
According to Article 34 of the 2012 Law on Associations, associations regarded as “being in the general interest and/or of public utility” can receive financial aid from the government. But the Law does not state how to determine the “public utility” of an association or define the “general interest,” which leaves much to the discretion of the government in deciding on an association’s eligibility. In practice, the Algerian government does not provide any direct or indirect financial benefits, such as tax exemptions or public utility discounts, to associations.
Barriers to Entry
Registration is mandatory for associations operating in Algeria, and requires the prior approval of government authorities. The 2012 Law on Associations provides for between three months and six months imprisonment or a fine of 100,000 dinars ($1,350) to 300,000 dinars ($4,040) for being part of an association that is “not yet registered.” The Law creates numerous obstacles to formation and registration, however. For example:
- The Law on Associations limits those who can create, administer, or run an association to persons who are of legal age, Algerian nationals, and those eligible to enjoy their civil and political rights. In addition, a person may only serve as an executive member if he or she has not been sentenced for a crime or flagrant offence “incompatible with the field of activity of the association,” unless he or she has been rehabilitated.
- The Law requires a high minimum number of founding members: ten for a local group, 15 if the group is regional, and 25 if it is national. In addition, extensive information on the founders is required with the association’s establishment documents, including the founders’ marital status, professions, residences, copies of their police records, and – in the case of a national group – proof that the founders of an association come from at least 12 different regions in Algeria.
- The Law gives very broad discretion to the government to refuse to register an association. For example, the law gives the government the right to refuse registration if the purposes and goals of the association’s activities are not “in the general interest” or are contrary Algeria’s “national principles and values, public order, morality, and the laws and regulations in force.” Associations have the right to appeal a denial of registration, but the government can bring additional proceedings to annul the creation of the association altogether and nullify a previous ruling in its favor. This final procedure has no appeal and, moreover, is not decided by an independent court.
- The Law requires authorities to issue a deposit receipt when an association submits its registration documents, as well as a final registration receipt once a specified amount of time (30-60 days, depending on the type of group) has lapsed without the government rejecting the registration. However, in practice, authorities often ignore these obligations and withhold the receipts, leaving associations without proof of their legal existence and unable to, e.g., open a bank account or rent property.
Barriers to Operational Activity
The 2012 Law on Associations provides that associations may engage in activities “especially in professional, social, scientific, religious, educational, cultural, sports, environmental, charitable and humanitarian” domains. However, the Law allows the government to dissolve any association that conducts activities outside of those explicitly provided for in its statutes. The Law also prohibits associations from having “any relationship… whether organic or structural” with political parties, or receiving gifts “in any form whatsoever from them.”
As mentioned above, Article 2 requires that the purpose and goals of an association be “in the general interest;” upon registration, the association must define this purpose or purposes “with precision.” Further, associations are allowed to spend money only on activities that are directly related to its purposes.
The Law permits the government to forcibly dissolve an association or suspend its activities for interfering with the “internal affairs of the country” or posing a “threat to national sovereignty.” Such vague grounds give the government excessive discretion to terminate an association, with no judicial oversight or arbitration. While the Law also requires that the authorities give an association warning to comply with the Law, in practice they often ignore this requirement. Further, most active and visible associations report interference by government authorities, including surveillance, monitoring of telephone calls, and difficulty in securing meeting spaces.
Barriers to Speech / Advocacy
There are multiple restrictions on the ability of associations to publicly express themselves. A new Law on Information of January 2012 requires all publications to have prior approval by a media regulatory authority, which among other things limits associations’ ability to conduct advocacy through written materials. Presidential decrees have also criminalized speech concerning certain topics, such as a 2006 presidential decree which makes it a crime to criticize the conduct of security forces during the internal conflict of the 1990s. Finally, in practice, the government restricts free expression through accusations of defamation and informal pressure on associations.
Barriers to International Contact
The Law on Associations requires associations to secure approval from the Ministry of the Interior before entering into a “cooperation agreement” with any international entities. (Under the previous law, associations needed prior approval only in order to join an international organization as a member, not to carry out “cooperation agreements.”) This requirement gives the government broad discretion to restrict different forms of cooperation between Algerian and international associations, and among other things, limits associations’ ability to receive foreign funding and coordinate projects with their peers in the international community. High-ranking government officials have publicly criticized international NGOs and warned civil society against holding meetings with foreign missions that "undermine the country's internal affairs.”
Foreign associations are allowed to operate in Algeria, but their authorization may be suspended or withdrawn if the Interior Ministry deems their activities “likely to affect the national sovereignty, the established institutional order, the national unity or integrity of the national territory, public morality and order, or the national values of the Algerian people.” They may likewise be de-authorized for carrying out activities outside those provided for in their statutes. An association is considered foreign if one director or board member is a foreign national. Foreign NGOs might also be prohibited from operating in Algeria if the foreign association’s host country has not concluded a bilateral agreement with Algeria.
Barriers to Resources
The Law allows associations to receive funding from limited sources: membership fees, income from associational activities and assets, donations, income derived from collections, and subsidies. The 2012 Law on Associations does not list “economic activities” as a potential resource for an association.
The Law further prohibits an association from receiving funds from foreign missions or non-governmental organizations except under a “duly established cooperation agreement,” a term that the Law does not define. As described above, however, the Law requires prior approval from the government before an Algerian association may enter into such an agreement. An organization that violates this provision may face dissolution.
Barriers to Assembly
Lack of Legal Protections
Algeria’s Constitution protects the freedom of assembly in Article 41, which states, “The freedom of expression, association, and assembly is guaranteed to the citizen.” However, in contravention of ICCPR, the right is not extended to “everyone,” as non-citizens are excluded.
Repressive assembly legislation, in combination with harsh decrees and an ongoing state of emergency from 1992 to 2011, have restricted Algerians’ ability to assemble. In 1991, Parliament amended and supplemented Law No. 89-28 of 1989 on Public Meetings and Demonstrations, narrowing the right to assemble and conduct meetings. The resulting law (Law No. 91-19) continues to regulate freedom of assembly in Algeria. A 2001 ban on all demonstrations in Algiers, enacted after a violent confrontation between protestors and police in the capital city, also remains in effect.
Additionally, a state of emergency was imposed by presidential decree in 1992, enabling a crackdown on demonstrations and anti-government protests which were becoming widespread and occasionally violent at that time. The state of emergency was continually extended pursuant to legislative orders, until February 23, 2011, when it was finally lifted. Nonetheless, authorities continue to prohibit and crush demonstrations pursuant to Law 91-19 and the 2001 decree.
Law 91-19 prohibits any meeting or demonstration that “opposes national fundamental principles” or that harms “the symbols of the revolution of November 1, the public order or public morals.” Such vague language allows the government excessive discretion in forbidding an assembly based on its objectives.
Law No. 91-19 requires that organizers of “public gatherings” notify the government at least three days prior to the gathering (Articles 5, 15). The Law defines “public gatherings” as “temporary rallies of people, agreed upon beforehand and organized outside public roads in a closed place that is easy for people to join. Its purpose is the exchange of ideas or the defense of joint interests.” Authorities may prohibit the gathering with no obligation to explain their decision.
The Law distinguishes “public demonstrations,” which it defines as “processions, parades, or gatherings of people in a public manner, and all demonstrations that go through public roads.” For public demonstrations, the law requires that organizers request approval from the governor eight days before the demonstration’s planned date. The governor must make a decision, accepting or refusing the request, at least five days before the date set for holding the demonstration.
Appeals against administrative decisions in general are subject to Articles 800 and 801 of the Civil and Administrative Procedure Code. Organizers of an assembly can thereby appeal a negative decision to an administrative court. However, groups have reported that, in practice, the authorities often wait until the last minute to notify assembly organizers of a refusal, giving them no time to appeal the decision to a court before the assembly’s start date.
Law No. 91-19 prohibits, “in any gathering or demonstration any prejudice towards national constants, or to the symbols of the November 1 Revolution, public order, or public morals.” The Law does not provide further definition for these terms.
Law No. 91-19 imposes possible imprisonment and fines for participation in an illegal assembly. Article 23 states that “[a]nyone found responsible for participating in the organization of an unauthorized demonstration will get either a prison sentence ranging from three months to a year, a fine between 3,000 and 15,000 Algerian Dinars, or both.”
|UN Universal Periodic Review Reports||Universal Periodic Review: Algeria (2008)|
|Reports of UN Special Rapporteurs||Algeria|
|USIG (United States International Grantmaking) Country Notes||Not available|
|U.S. State Department||2010 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Algeria
Advancing Freedom and Democracy Reports, 2010: Algeria
|Fragile States Index Reports||2014 Foreign Policy Failed States Index|
|IMF Country Reports||Algeria and the IMF|
|International Commission of Jurists||Algeria|
|International Center for Not-for-Profit Law Online Library||Algeria|
While we aim to maintain information that is as current as possible, we realize that situations can rapidly change. If you are aware of any additional information or inaccuracies on this page, please keep us informed; write to ICNL at email@example.com.
Algerian Civil Society Committed to Fight against Climate Change (October 2014)
More than 120 Heads of State and Government joined business and civil society leaders for the 2014 UN Climate Summit that aims to mobilize political will for a meaningful legal agreement on climate change in 2015 and deliver concrete new commitments. "Algeria is firmly committed to contributing to the global effort aimed at combating climate change," said Foreign Affairs Minister Ramtane Lamamra.
Algerian Churches, NGOs Wary as ‘Restrictive’ Law Comes into Force (January 2014)
Numerous organizations, including churches and foreign NGOs, are calling for the abolition of a new NGO law which comes into effect in January. Existing entities who fail to comply with the new law by January 12 will be liable to prosecution.
Protest Picnic Defends Ramadan Rights of Algerian Christians (September 2013)
About 200 people ate together at a public lunch in the town of Tizi Ouzou to protest against the "persecution of non-fasters and creeping Islamisation" in the Kabylie region in northern Algeria. Local law enforcement agencies looked on but did not act as sandwiches and soft drinks were shared during a picnic held just a short stroll from law enforcement headquarters. "This is Kabylie, and here we do what we want. We have to respect our culture, our traditions, our individual and religious freedoms. It doesn't matter if they're Jewish, Christian or Muslim," one protester told the BBC.
New Law On Associations Used to Stifle Civil Society (May 2013)
The conviction of an activist in Algeria after he distributed leaflets about unemployment in the country is a worrying sign that a new law regulating associations is being used to restrict civil society groups' activities, Amnesty International said. On May 6, Abdelkader Kherba, a member of the Algerian League for the Defence of Human Rights (LADDH) and the National Committee for the Defence of the Rights of the Unemployed (CNDDC) was sentenced to a two-month suspended prison term and a fine of 20,000 Algerian dinars (about USD 250) for distributing leaflets on unemployment in Algeria in June 2011.
EU-Algeria Association Council: Priority to Human Rights! (December 2012)
On the eve of the seventh EU-Algeria Association Council on December 6, 2012, the Euro-Mediterranean Human Rights Network (EMHRN), the International Federation for Human Rights (FIDH), the Coalition of Families of the Disappeared in Algeria (CFDA), the Algerian League for Human Rights Defense (LADDH), the National Independent Union of Public Servants (SNAPAP), the Network of Lawyers for the Human Rights (RADDH) and the Association for Change and Democracy in Algeria (ACDA) are urging the EU to give greater priority to human rights. In particular, these organizations call on the EU to make this issue, including gender equality and democratic reforms, a priority of the agenda of the Association Council, which is one of the stages of the negotiations on the adoption of an ENP Action Plan with Algeria in the framework of the European Neighborhood Policy (ENP).
Algerian Government reconciles with citizens (November 2012)
Prime Minister Abdelmalek Sellal saida new watchdog group will monitor the social atmosphere, trends and changes allowing the government to act in a timely manner and better understand its citizens. A new committee will be created "at the service of the citizens, not the other way around", Sellal promised.
Human rights activist arrested by Algerian police (October 2012)
A member of a leading human rights organization has been beaten and arrested in southern Algeria. The lawyer for Yacine Zaid said Tuesday that his client had been punched and beaten by police when they arrested him at a road block in Ouargla , 700 kilometers (435 miles) south of the capital. The lawyer, Sidhoum Mohamed Amine, said Zaid was arrested Monday on the grounds that he had shown a lack of respect for police.
UN Human Rights chief Navi Pillay calls for Algeria to reconsider restrictions on CSOs (September 2012)
The United Nations human rights chief Navi Pillay urged the Government of Algeria to reconsider restrictions and impediments being placed on civil society organizations. “While recognizing that the driving force behind this state of affairs is rooted in security concerns, I encourage the Government to review the laws and practices relating to civil society organizations and freedom of assembly, and also to order all security forces to refrain from violating internationally recognized instruments guaranteeing the right to freedom of association,” the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights said at the end of a three-day visit.
Algeria rights activist cleared of charges (September 2012)
An Algerian rights activist Abdelkader Kherba was acquitted by an Algerian court in Ksar el-Boukari, his hometown, in the southwestern Algeria. "The case was without foundation and any decision other than his release would have been surprising," his lawyer Amine Sidhoum said. The 32-year-old was arrested on August 21 at a demonstration against water cuts in Ksar el-Boukari. He later launched a hunger strike to protest his detention. Kherba had been preparing to film the demonstration when a policeman forcefully stopped him and an angry exchange between the two followed, resulting in his arrest.
ANHRI denounces detention of four activists in Algeria on assembly charges (June 2012)
The Arab Network for Human Rights Information (ANHRI) denounced the detention and trial of four human rights activists in Algeria on charges of violating assembly laws. The four activists were called to stand before Bab-elwad court for demanding in a peaceful manner the release of Abdel-kader Kharba, who is a member of the National Commission for the Rights of the Unemployed (CNDDC) and the Algerian League for the Defense of Human Rights (LADDH). Kharba was arrested on April 19 for his taking part in a peaceful sit-in in solidarity with court clerks demanding better working conditions. These violations come shortly after the issuance of legislative amendments which allowed the Algerian government to tighten its grip on civil society. In January 2012, the Algerian parliament approved amendments to the Law on Associations that include limitations on the right of assembly.
Upcoming elections must address civil society's legitimate demands on freedom of association (May 2012)
United Nations Special Rapporteur on freedom of peaceful assembly and of association, Mr. Maina Kiai, urged Algerian authorities to seize the unique opportunity offered by the upcoming legislative elections to ensure that the new regulations for civil society organizations, adopted at the end of last year, adequately meet the requirements of international human rights law. “The legislative elections, scheduled on Thursday, 10 May 2012, must address civil society’s legitimate demands and uphold freedom of association,” Mr. Kiai stressed. “While the Arab Spring paved the way for a more inclusive participation of civil society, it is highly regrettable that Algeria has now taken a step backwards in relation to freedom of association by placing more rigorous limits on the scope of associations’ activities or their access to funding.”
Harassment of union leaders and bans on demonstrations continue in Algeria despite the repeal of the state of emergency (March 2012)
Human rights defenders, in particular union activists, remain the targets of harassment by the authorities in Algeria. On February 26, 2012, 40 members of the National Workers' Committee on Pre-employment and the Social Net of the National Independent Union of Public Servants (Syndicat national autonome des personnels de l'administration publique, SNAPAP) were arrested during a sit-in demonstration staged in front of the Maison de la Presse in Algiers, where participants were calling for recognition of the rights of unemployed and casual workers. On the same day, 40 contract teachers, along with the president and the general secretary of the Contract Teachers' National Council (a SNAPAP affiliate), were also arrested at a sit-in held in front of the Presidency of the Republic in Algiers to call for the granting of tenure. These kinds of arrests have become commonplace against union activists who are the targets of constant harassment by police and by the judicial authorities.
New Media Law Stifles Free Expression, says CPJ (January 2012)
The Algerian government has touted the media law, which went into effect on January 12, as a major step in the advancement of press freedom in the country, but local journalists and civil society activists believe it is still restrictive and are calling for its revision.
New Algerian Association Law faces citicism (December 2011)
Algeria's Bouteflika to end State TV and radio control (September 2011)
Algerian women test the 'Arab Spring' winds (March 2011)
Change in Algeria fundamental for human rights and security (February 2011)
Rally for culture and democracy (January 2011)
U.S., Algeria sign first Legal Assistance Treaty (April 2010)
The foregoing information was collected by ICNL LLC Middle East / North Africa Regional office in Amman, Jordan.